EXAM_RG_5_6_Sensation_and_Perception by nuhman10


									Tripken                              5 / 6 Study Guide Questions

Early Perception ideals

The overall peception of an object should be broken down into each separate component, and you should work backwards
to see the individual components.

Believes that our brain follows a set of rules when trying to perceive, and individual elements of the subject being viewed
can affect those rules. In the end, the unified whole is more important than the individual parts. These studies are what led
to the organizational rules above.

I. Some Definitions to get us started

Perception: The process of putting sensations together into a usable mental representation of the world. Involves
organizing, ignoring, and interpreting sensations.
Contrast with sensation.

Gestalt: whole, figure, form, pattern, meaning, configuration

I. The Gestalt Laws of Grouping (see above)

II. We tend to see the world as not changing.
     1. Brightness/color constancy
     2. Size constancy
     3. Shape constancy

III. Attention is selective - only 1 thing is figure at a time. Examples:
      1. Stroop effect
      2. Dichotic listening experiments (we did in class already)

IV. Perception of motion:

    1. Apparent motion (Second link)
    2. Motion Parallax (Click this link)
    3. Phi Phenomenon (Click this link)
V. Stimuli with certain characteristics are more likely to be processed or missed.

a. Habituation – to become accustomed to a stimulus and notice it less over time

b. Dishabituation – when just a small change in the stimulus makes us remember it again.

VI. Two types of thresholds – detection thresholds and discrimination thresholds

1. Absolute threshold – The point where we can detect sensation. It is the lowest NOT the highest point. (Can be

Incorporates the Signal Detection Theory which says there are four possible outcomes when a stimulus is present:

a. Hit – the stimulus was detected and processed
b. Miss – the stimulus was present, but not detected
c. False alarm – stimulus not present, but subject reports sensing it anyway

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d. Correct rejection – stimulus not present, no report of sensation

This is the basis of most sensory tests at the Dr.’s office

2. Just Noticeable Difference (JND) – The minimum amount of change in two stimuli that can be detected.

        Based on Weber’s Law – DI = KI (the greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the greater the difference must be to
        be noted.

             Example: If you’re squatting 20 pounds, and you add 10 pounds, you’ll definitely feel a difference. If you’re
             squatting 200 pounds, and you add 10 pounds, you won’t feel that as much)

VII. Your current perceptions depend on (are interpreted relative to) your past perceptions: Helson's adaptation level. --
The frame of reference you use to decide what is large, what is small, etc.

Example: City folk think that cow poop is nasty but don’t notice smog while in the city and visa-versa.

                                                    MOST IMPORTANTLY!!!!

Perceptual Set
How we see/perceive things are based on our own social, personal and cultural experiences or expectations. Eating a grub
worm may seem nasty to you, as might a huge plate in someone's mouth, but it probably is normal in other parts of the
world. This is probably the most important concept to come out of this section.
Sensation: The process by which sensory receptors (in eye, ear, etc.) receive and are stimulated by stimulus energies from
the environment.
Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects
and events.
Bottom-up-processing: Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's processing of the
Top-down-processing: Information processing guided by higher-level processes, such as our expectations.
Absolute Threshold: The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Signal Detection Theory: Predicts how and when we detect faint stimuli (dependent on experience, expectations,
motivation & fatigue.
Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation below one's threshold of conscious awareness. Research reveals a subtle, fleeting
effect on thinking, but no effect on behavior.
Difference Threshold: The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. It is also called
the just noticeable difference or JND. It is based on Weber's Law: The difference threshold is in proportion to the
strength of the original stimulus.
Sensory Adaptation: Our diminishing sensitivity to unchanging stimuli.
Selective Attention: The focusing of attention on specific stimuli, while ignoring other stimuli (e.g., the cocktail party effect).
Transduction: The transforming of stimulus energies (i.e., light waves, sound waves) into neural impulses.

Wavelength: Distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the next. Wavelength determines HUE or color in
vision and Pitch in audition.
Shorter wavelengths are bluish in color, while longer wavelengths are reddish.
Amplitude: The height of a light or sound wave. It determines brightness in vision and loudness in hearing.


                                                                   Pupil: Adjustable opening in the center of the eye
                                                                   through which light passes.
                                                                   Iris: A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored part
                                                                   of the eye. It controls the size of the pupil
                                                                   Lens: The transparent structure behind the pupil that
                                                                   changes shape (called accommodation) to help focus
                                                                   images on the retina.
                                                                   Visual Acuity: The sharpness of vision.
                                                                          Nearsightedness: Can see nearby objects more
                                                                   clearly because distant object focus in front of the retina
                                                                   (eyeball may be too long).
                                                                          Farsightedness: Can see distant objects more
                                                                   clearly because nearby objects focus behind the retina
                                                                   (eyeball may be too short).
                                                                   Rods & Cones: The receptor cells for vision.
                                                                   Receptor cells are specialized neurons designed, in this
                                                                   case, to transduce light energy into neural impulses.
                                                                   Rods: detect black, white, & grey. Found mainly in the
periphery of the retina. More than one rod connects to each bipolar cell. Thus, less light energy is necessary for them to
cause the bipolar cells to fire. Necessary for NIGHT VISION & PERIPHERAL VISION.

Cones: Found mainly in the center (fovea) of the retina. Necessary for COLOR VISION and VISUAL ACUITY.
Light waves stimulate rods & cones which synapse to bipolar cells, which synapse to ganglion cells. The axons of the
ganglion cells come together to form the Optic nerves which transmit visual information to the brain.

Blindspot: The area in the retina where the optic nerve leaves the back of eye. No rods or cones are located there, so no
vision is possible at that location.
Feature Detectors: Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a visual stimulus, such as shape, angle, or
                                          Parallel Processing: The ability of the brain to process several aspect of a
                                          situation simultaneously.

Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory: The theory that the retina contains three different types of cones--one most
sensitive to red, one to blue, and one to green--which when stimulated in combination can produce any color. RED,
Opponent Process Theory: Theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, & black-white) enable color
vision. For example some cells are stimulated by red while inhibited by green; others are stimulated by yellow, while
inhibited by blue. This helps explain afterimages.
Color constancy: Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelength
reflected by the object.

Audition: The sense of hearing.
Frequency: The number of complete wavelengths in a given period of time. Frequency determines pitch.
Amplitude: Height of each wavelength--determines loudness.

Sound Localization: Sound waves strike one ear sooner and with more intensity than the other ear. With this
information, the brain can determine the location of the sound.
Middle Ear: Chamber between the eardrum and the oval window which contains the ossicles (three tiny bones--hammer,
                                                         anvil, & stirrup) which concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum.
                                                         Inner Ear: Contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular
                                                            Cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube through which sound
                                                         waves trigger nerve impulses.
                                                            Basilar Membrane: Membrane along the center of the cochlea
                                                         that contains hair cells (the receptor cells for sound). Axons from
                                                         the hair cells for the Auditory Nerves, which transmit neural
                                                         impulses to the brain.

                                                       PITCH PERCEPTION
                                                       Place Theory: Theory that the pitch we hear is associated with the
                                                       place where the basilar membrane is stimulated. Best for explaining
high-pitched tones.
Frequency Theory: Theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the
tone we are hearing. Best for explaining low-pitched tones.
Volley Principle: Helps explain in frequency theory how we can hear sounds with a frequency greater than 1000 cycles per
second. While some neurons are "recharging" during the refractory period, others are firing.
Conduction Deafness: Caused by damage to the structures that conduct soundwaves through the ear (eardrum, ossicles).
Nerve Deafness: Caused by damage to the cochlea's hair cells or the auditory nerve.

Touch or tactile sense involves a mixture of at least 4 distinct skin senses--pressure, warmth, cold, and pain. Only
pressure has identifiable sense receptors.

Gate-Control-Theory: Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to
pass. The gate is opened by stimulation of small nerve fibers and closed by stimulation of larger fiber or by information
coming from the brain.

Taste is the Gustatory Sense.
Taste is a CHEMICAL SENSE and consists of the four basic tastes of sweet, sour, bitter, & salty. There may also be a 5th
sense called "umami" or a meaty taste.
Each bump on the tongue contains over 200 taste buds. Each bud contains a pore that captures food molecules. The
molecules cause hair-like neurons within the pores to fire.
Taste Buds reproduce themselves every 2-3 weeks.
Sensory Interaction: The principle that one sense may be influenced by another, as when the smell of food influences its


                                                                       Smell is the Olfactory Sense.
                                                                       Smell is also a CHEMICAL SENSE.

                                                                      Very little is known about the olfactory sense.
                                                                      However, we are able to detect about 10,000
                                                                      different odors.
                                                                      Smells are processed in the temporal lobes of the
                                                                      brain and in the LIMBIC SYSTEM, which may
                                                                      explain why certain smells seem to have an
                                                                      emotional component and can trigger memories.
                                                                                Molecules in the air reach millions of
                                                                      receptor cells in each nasal cavity. These cells send
                                                                      messages to the olfactory bulb and the olfactory
                                                                      nerve which transmits the messages to the brain.
                                                                      BODY POSITION & MOVEMENT
Kinesthesis: The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. The receptor cells for
kinesthesis are found in our muscles, tendons, & joints.
Vestibular Sense: The system that monitors the head's (and thus the body's) position and movement. It is our sense of
The semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear contain receptors that tell us about our head's position.
Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects
and events.
Perceptual Organization
Figure-ground Relationship: Our ability to perceive any object (the figure) as distinct from its surroundings (the ground).

                           Visual Capture: The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses when conflicting
                           information is being received.
                           Gestalt Organizational Principles: Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate
                           individual pieces of information into a meaningful whole. To bring order and form to basic visual
                           sensations, our brains follow certain rules for grouping stimuli together.
                               1. Proximity: We group nearby objects and belonging together.
                               2. Similarity: Figures similar to each other (i.e., as in shape or color) are groups together.
                               3. Continuity: We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.
                               4. Connectedness: When the are uniform and linked, we perceive spots, lines, or areas as
                                                                          single units.
                                                                              5. Closure: We fill in gaps to create complete,
                                                                          whole objects.

Depth Perception                                                        Visual Cliff: A laboratory device for testing depth
perception in                                                           infants. Even when coaxed, infants are reluctant to
venture onto the                                                        glass over the cliff.

Binocular Cues:                                                         Depth cues that depend on the use of both of our
eyes.                                                                      1. Retinal Disparity: By comparing the two
slightly different                                                      images received on each retina, the brain computes
the distance of what                                                    we are looking at. The greater the disparity
(difference) between                                                    the two images, the closer the object.
    2. Convergence:                                                     The extent to which the eyes converge inward when
looking at an object. The greater the convergence, the closer the object.

Monocular Cues: Distance cues that require the use of one eye only.

    1. Relative Size: If we assume two objects are about the same size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is
perceived as being farther away.
    2. Interposition (Overlap): If one object partially blocks another, the one that is partially blocked is perceived to be
farther away.
    3. Relative Clarity: Because light from distant objects must pass through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy object as
being farther away than clear, distinct objects.
    4. Texture Gradient: A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing
    5. Relative Height: We perceive objects higher in our visual field as being further away.
    6. Linear Perspective: Parallel lines (such as railroad tracks) appear further away as they converge in the distance.
    7. Light & Shadow (relative brightness): Nearby objects reflect more light. Thus, given two identical objects, the
dimmer one seems further away.
    8. Relative Motion (motion parallax): If while riding in a train you fix your gaze on some object (the fixation point),
objects closer than the fixation point appear to be moving backward. The nearer an object is the faster it seems to move.
Objects behind the fixation point appear to be moving with you: The farther away the object is from the fixation point, the
more slowly it appears to move.

Motion Perception
One way we perceive motion is by knowing that if an object keeps getting bigger, it is probably moving towards us. If an
object is shrinking, it is moving away from us.

Phi Phenomenon: When two or more adjacent stationary lights blink on and off in quick succession, we perceive a single
light moving. (Lighted signs use this phenomenon).

Stroboscopic Movement: The brain will interpret a rapid series of slightly varying images as continuous movement. By
flashing 24 still pictures each second, a motion picture creates perceived movement.

Perceptual Constancies

Perceiving objects as unchanging (having constant lightness, color, shape, and size) even when our retinal images of them

For example:
Shape Constancy: We perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even when our retinal images of them change.
Size Constancy: We perceive familiar objects to maintain a constant size even when their distance from us changes.
Lightness Constancy: We perceive an object as having a constant lightness even when its illumination varies.

Some Visual Illusions

The Ponzo Illusion

**Please see your textbook for explanations of these illusions.
Sensory Deprivation - People blind from birth, who later have their vision restored, can distinguish figure-ground
relationships, can sense colors, but have great difficulty recognizing objects that they were familiar with by touch.

Similarly, Blakemore & Cooper found that kittens whose vision was restricted to only seeing vertical lines during a critical
period of development, later could not see horizontal lines.

Perceptual Adaptation: In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.

Perceptual Set: A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another (e.g., seeing the Lock Ness Monster instead
of a piece of driftwood because of your beliefs).

Context Effects: Any given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions depending on the surrounding environment or
circumstances. Culture may have a great impact on context and perception.

Human Factors Psychology: A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines
and physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors.

Extrasensory Perception (ESP)The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.

                                                                 Telepathy: Mind to mind communication
        Clairvoyance: The sensing of remote events that are presently occuring.
        Precognition: The sensing of future events.
        Telekinesis (psychokinesis): Ability to affect objects with the power of the mind.
        Parapsychologists: Psychologists who study paranormal occurrences, including claims of ESP.

                                                            More Notes

                                               SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
Sensation -Experience of sensory stimulation, the activation or our senses
Perception -Process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information
Vision is the dominant sense in human beings. Sighted people use vision to gather information about their
environment more than any other sense. The process of vision involves several steps.
Step 1: Gathering light
 Step 2: Within the eye
Cornea -The transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye                                Pupil -
small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye.                                            Iris -
colored part of the eye.                                                                                 Lens -
transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina                          Retina -
lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light
Step 3: Transduction
Transduction –process by which sensory signals are transformed into neural                               impulses

Receptor cell -Specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy.
Rods -Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness.
Cones -Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision
Fovea -Area of the retina that is the center of the visual field
Optic nerve - The bundle of axons of ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain.
Blind spot - Place on the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells leave the eye and where there are no receptors
Optic chiasm -Point near the base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side
of the brain
 Step 4: In the Brain
 Theories or color vision-
Trichromatic theory -Theory of color vision that holds that all color perception derives from three different color receptors
in the retina
Opponent-process theory - Theory of color vision that holds that three sets of color receptors respond in an either/or
fashion to determine the color you experience
Colorblindness -Partial or total inability to perceive hues.
Trichromats -People who have normal color vision
Monochromats -People who are totally color blind
Dichromats - People who are blind to either red-green or yellow-blue

                                               The ears contain structures for both the sense of hearing and the sense of
                                               balance. The eighth cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve made up of the
                                               auditory and vestibular nerves) carries nerve impulses for both hearing and
                                               balance from the ear to the brain.

Amplitude – the height of the wave , determines the loudness of the sound, measured in decibels
Frequency - The number of cycles per second in a wave; in sound, the primary determinant of pitch
Hertz (Hz) - Cycles per second; unit of measurement for the frequency of waves
Pitch - Auditory experience corresponding primarily to frequency of sound vibrations, resulting in a higher or lower tone
Decibel -The magnitude of a wave; in sound the primary determinant of loudness of sounds

Parts of the ear-
Ear canal – also called the auditory canal
Hammer, anvil, stirrup - The three small bones in the middle ear that relay vibrations of the eardrum to the inner ear
Oval window - Membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea

Round window - Membrane between the middle ear and inner ear that equalizes pressure in the inner ear.
Cochlea - Part of the inner ear containing fluid that vibrates which in turn causes the basilar membrane to vibrate.
Basilar membrane -Vibrating membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; it contains sense receptors for sound
Auditory nerve -The bundle of neurons that carries signals from each ear to the brain
PITCH THEORIES- As with color vision, two different theories describe the two processes involved in hearing pitch: place
theory and frequency theory.
Place theory -Theory that pitch is determined by the location of greatest vibration of the basilar membrane Frequency
theory -Theory that pitch is determined by the frequency wigh which hair cells in the cochlea fire
DEAFNESS - Hearing Loss
People can lose all or some of their ability to hear because of loud noises, infections, head injuries, brain damage and
genetic diseases. Hearing loss is common in older people. There are several types of hearing loss:
        Because of changes in the inner ear. This is a very common type of hearing loss Conductive Hearing Loss: occurs
when sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear are blocked. This may be caused by ear wax in the
auditory canal, fluid buildup in the middle ear, ear infections or abnormal bone growth.
        Sensorineural Hearing Loss: occurs when there is damage to the vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerve. This type of
hearing loss may be caused by head injury, birth defects, high blood pressure or stroke.
        Presbycusis: occurs that happens gradually in older age.
        Tinnitus: people with tinnitus hear a constant ringing or roaring sound. The cause of this ringing cannot always be
found. Some cases of tinnitus are caused by ear wax, ear infections or a reaction to antibiotics, but there are many other
possible causes of this disorder.
When our skin is indented, pierced, or experiences a change in temperature, our sense of touch is activated by this energy.
Gate control theory - Theory that a ‘neurological gate in the spinal cord controls the transmission of pain messages to the
Taste buds
Humans sense four different tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter
All other tastes come from a combination of these four basic tastes. Actually, a fifth basic taste called "Umami" has recently
been discovered. Umami is a taste that occurs when foods with glutamate (like MSG) are eaten. Different parts of the
tongue can detect all types of tastes.
The actual organ of taste is called the "taste bud". Each taste bud (and there about about 10,000 taste buds in humans) is
made up of many (between 50-150) receptor cells. Receptor cells live for only 1 to 2 weeks and then are replaced by new
receptor cells. Each receptor in a taste bud responds best to one of the basic tastes. A receptor can respond to the other
tastes, but it responds strongest to a particular taste.

The Nose Knows
The smells of a rose, perfume, freshly baked bread and cookies...these smells are all made possible because of your nose
and brain. The sense of smell, called olfaction, involves the detection and perception of chemicals floating in the air.
Chemical molecules enter the nose and dissolve in mucous within a membrane called the olfactory epithelium. In humans,
the olfactory epithelium is located about 7 cm up and into the nose from the nostrils.
Olfactory epithelium - Nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors
Pheromone - Chemical that communicates information to other organisms through smell
VESTIBULAR SENSE – tells us about how our body is oriented in space / BALANCE
Semicircular canals - Structure in the inner ear particularly sensitive to body roataion.
Vestibular sacs - Sacs in the inner ear that are responsible for sensing gravitation and forward, backward, and vertical
Absolute threshold -The least amount of energy that can be detected as a stimulation 50 percent of the time
Subliminal- stimuli below our absolute threshold
Difference threshold -The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time
just-noticeable difference – the smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change
Weber’s Law -The principle that the just noticeable difference for any given sense is a constant proportion of the stimulation
being judged.
Visual cliff experiment-
Monocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of one eye
Interposition - Monocular distance cue in which one object, by partly blocking a second object, is perceived as being
Linear perspective - Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two parallel lines seem to come together
at the horizon
Relative size-
Texture gradient-
Binocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of both eyes
Retinal disparity - Binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images
Convergence- cast on the two retinas when both eyes are focused on the same object
Stereoscopic vision - Combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptual experience.

Question 1-60 are sensation based questions

___ 1.     Superman's eyes used ________, while his brain used ________.
           A) perception; sensation                             C) bottom-up processing; top-down
           B) top-down processing; bottom-up processingD) sensory adaptation; subliminal
     ___ 2. Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.
           A recognizing a stimulus; interpreting a             C) interpreting a stimulus; detecting a
           )   stimulus                                              stimulus
           B) detecting a stimulus; recognizing a               D seeing; hearing
               stimulus                                         )

     ___ 3. Given normal sensory ability, a person standing atop a mountain on a dark, clear night
           can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. This is a description of vision's:
           A) difference threshold.     B) jnd.    C) absolute threshold.   D) signal detection.
     ___ 4. Which of the following is true?
           A The absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant.
           B) The absolute threshold for any stimulus varies somewhat.
           C) The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary
               for a stimulus to be detected 75 percent of the time.
           D The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary
           )   for a stimulus to be detected 60 percent of the time.
     ___ 5. Concerning the evidence for subliminal stimulation, which of the following is the best
           A The brain processes some information without our awareness.
           B) Stimuli too weak to cross our thresholds for awareness may trigger a response in our
               sense receptors.
           C) Because the “absolute” threshold is a statistical average, we are able to detect weaker
               stimuli some of the time.
           D All of the above are true.
     ___ 6. If you can just notice the difference between 10- and 11-pound weights, which of the
           following weights could you differentiate from a 100-pound weight?
           A) 101-pound weight         B) 105-pound weight      C) 110-pound weight       D) There is
           no basis for prediction.
     ___ 7. In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the
           sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your:
           A) absolute threshold.      B) signal detection.   C) receptor threshold.   D) difference
     ___ 8. Weber's law states that:
           A the absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant.
           B) the jnd for any stimulus is a constant.
           C) the absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant proportion.
           D the jnd for any stimulus is a constant proportion.
     ___ 9. A decrease in sensory responsiveness accompanying an unchanging stimulus is called:
           A) sensory fatigue.    B) accommodation.       C) sensory adaptation.   D) sensory
 ___ 10. Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation?
           A finding the cold water of a swimming pool warmer after you have been in it for a
           )   while
           B) developing an increased sensitivity to salt the more you use it in foods
           C) becoming very irritated at the continuing sound of a dripping faucet
           D all of the above are examples

 ___ 11. When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over
         the cloth's surface. He does this because:
         A if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur.
         B) the sense of touch does not adapt.
         C) a relatively small amount of brain tissue is devoted to processing touch from the
         D of all of the above reasons.
 ___ 12. The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is:
         A) sensory adaptation.        B) feature detection.        C) signal detection.     D) transduction.
 ___ 13. Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness.
         A) hue; intensity        B) intensity; hue    C) frequency; amplitude             D) brightness; hue
 ___ 14. One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in:
         A) wavelength.      B) amplitude.        C) opponent processes.       D) brightness.
 ___ 15. The size of the pupil is controlled by the:
         A) lens.    B) retina.      C) cornea.     D) iris.
 ___ 16. Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes
         after entering the eye?
         A lens, pupil, cornea, retina                         C) pupil, lens, cornea, retina
         B) pupil, cornea, lens, retina                        D cornea, pupil, lens, retina
 ___ 17. The process by which the lens changes its curvature is:
         A) accommodation.          B) sensory adaptation.         C) feature detection.     D) transduction.

 ___ 18. Nearsightedness is a condition in which the:
         A lens has become inflexible.                         C) image falls behind the retina.
         B) lens is too thin.                                  D image falls in front of the retina.

 ___ 19. In comparing the human eye to a camera, the film would be analogous to the eye's:
         A) pupil.     B) lens.     C) cornea.     D) retina.

 ___ 20. The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the:
         A) iris.    B) retina.     C) lens.     D) optic nerve.

 ___ 21. One reason that your ability to detect fine visual details is greatest when scenes are
        focused on the fovea of your retina is that:
        A there are more feature detectors in the fovea than in the peripheral regions of the
        )   retina.
        B) cones in the fovea are nearer to the optic nerve than those in peripheral regions of the
        C) many rods, which are clustered in the fovea, have individual bipolar cells to relay
            their information to the cortex.
        D many cones, which are clustered in the fovea, have individual bipolar cells to relay
        )   their information to the cortex.

 ___ 22. Which of the following is not true of cones?
        A Cones enable color vision.
        B) Cones are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina.
        C) Cones have a higher absolute threshold for brightness than rods.
        D All of the above are true.

 ___ 23. In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should:
        A stare off to one side of the object you are attempting to see.
        B) close one eye.
        C) decrease the intensity of the light falling upon the object.
        D stare directly at the object.

 ___ 24. Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you
        would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would
        A mostly cones.
        B) mostly rods.
        C) an equal number of rods and cones.
        D more bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day.

 ___ 25. As the football game continued into the night, LeVar noticed that he was having
        difficulty distinguishing the colors of the players' uniforms. This is because the ________,
        which enable color vision, have a ________ absolute threshold for brightness than the
        available light intensity.
        A) rods; higher     B) cones; higher    C) rods; lower    D) cones; lower

 ___ 26. The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is the:
        A) fovea.     B) cone.   C) bipolar cell.     D) rod.

 ___ 27. Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the visual:
        A) fovea.     B) optic nerve.   C) iris.    D) cortex.

 ___ 28. The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color, depth, movement, and
        form, and works on each aspect simultaneously. This is called:
        A) feature detection.    B) parallel processing.    C) accommodation.     D) opponent

 ___ 29. Which of the following is the most accurate description of how we process color?
        A Throughout the visual system, color processing is divided into separate red, green, and
        )   blue systems.
        B) Red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white opponent processes operate throughout the
            visual system.
        C) Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) a three-color system in the retina and (2)
            opponent-process cells en route to the visual cortex.
        D Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) an opponent-process system in the retina and
        )   (2) a three-color system en route to the visual cortex.

 ___ 30. Most color-deficient people will probably:
        A lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones.
        B) see the world in only black and white.
        C) also suffer from poor vision.
        D have above-average vision to compensate for the deficit.

 ___ 31. The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that:
        A there are three different types of color-sensitive cones.
        B) retinal cells are excited by one color and inhibited by its complementary color.
        C) there are four different types of cones.
        D rod, not cone, vision accounts for our ability to detect fine visual detail.

 ___ 32. According to the opponent-process theory:
         A there are three types of color-sensitive cones.
         B) the process of color vision begins in the cortex.
         C) neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and
             inhibited by another's.
         D all of the above are true.

 ___ 33. In the opponent-process theory, the three pairs of processes are:
         A red-green, blue-yellow, black-white.              C) red-yellow, blue-green, black-white.
         B) red-blue, green-yellow, black-white.             D dependent upon the individual's
                                                             )   experience.

 ___ 34. After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a
         beige wall and “saw” the color ________. Carrie's experience provides support for the ________
         A) green; trichromatic       B) blue; opponent-process          C) green; opponent-process        D)
         blue; trichromatic

 ___ 35. I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. I am a(n):
         A) feature detector.      B) cone.    C) bipolar cell.     D) opponent-process cell.

 ___ 36. Which of the following explains why a rose appears equally red in bright and dim light?
         A) the Young-Helmholtz theory           B) the opponent-process theory        C) feature detection
         D) color constancy

 ___ 37. Frequency is to pitch as ________ is to ________.
         A) wavelength; loudness        B) amplitude; loudness        C) wavelength; intensity        D)
         amplitude; intensity

 ___ 38. Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the
         monster cannot transduce sound. Dr. Frankenstein omitted the:
         A) eardrum.       B) middle ear.      C) semicircular canals.         D) basilar membrane.

 ___ 39. Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which sound travels
         after entering the ear?
         A auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear,              C) eardrum, middle ear, cochlea, auditory
         )   cochlea                                             canal
         B) eardrum, auditory canal, middle ear,             D cochlea, eardrum, middle ear, auditory
             cochlea                                         )   canal

 ___ 40. The inner ear contains receptors for:
        A audition and kinesthesis.                     C) audition and the vestibular sense.
        B) kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.        D audition, kinesthesis, and the vestibular
                                                        )    sense.

 ___ 41. The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear:
        A low-pitched sounds.                           C) high-pitched sounds.
        B) middle-pitched sounds.                       D chords (three or more pitches
                                                        )    simultaneously).

 ___ 42. Which of the following is the most accurate explanation of how we discriminate pitch?
        A For all audible frequencies, pitch is coded according to the place of maximum
        )     vibration on the cochlea's basilar membrane.
        B) For all audible frequencies, the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches
              the frequency of the sound wave.
        C) For very high frequencies, pitch is coded according to place of vibration on the basilar
              membrane; for lower pitches, the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches
              the sound's frequency.
        D For very high frequencies, the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches
        )     the frequency of the sound wave; for lower frequencies, pitch is coded according to the
              place of vibration on the basilar membrane.

 ___ 43. The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation
        A) the lowest pitches.     B) pitches of intermediate range.      C) the highest pitches.    D)
        all of the above.

 ___ 44. Seventy-five-year-old Claude has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. Most likely his
        hearing problem involves:
        A) his eardrum.       B) his auditory canal.    C) the bones of his middle ear.      D) the
        hair cells of his inner ear.

 ___ 45. The hearing losses that occur with age are especially pronounced for:
        A) low-pitched sounds.         B) middle-pitched sounds.      C) high-pitched sounds.       D)

 ___ 46. Nerve deafness is caused by:
        A wax buildup in the outer ear.                 C) blockage in the middle ear because of
        )                                                    infection.
        B) damage to the eardrum.                       D damage to the cochlea.

 ___ 47. Of the four distinct skin senses, the only one that has definable receptors is:
        A) warmth.      B) cold.    C) pressure.     D) pain.

 ___ 48. Our experience of pain when we are injured depends on:
        A our biological make-up and the type of injury we have sustained.
        B) how well medical personnel deal with our injury.
        C) our physiology, experiences and attention, and our surrounding culture.
        D what our culture allows us to express in terms of feelings of pain.

 ___ 49. How does pain differ from other senses?
        A It has no special receptors.
        B) It has no single stimulus.
        C) It is influenced by both physical and psychological phenomena.
        D All of the above are true.

 ___ 50. According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to
        stimulate the ________ nerve fibers that ________ the spinal gate.
        A) small; open     B) small; close     C) large; open     D) large; close

 ___ 51. The phantom limb sensation indicates that:
        A pain is a purely sensory phenomenon.
        B) the central nervous system plays only a minor role in the experience of pain.
        C) pain involves the brain's interpretation of neural activity.
        D all of the above are true.

 ___ 52. While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O'Brien suffered a stress
        fracture in her left leg. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was
        over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race:
        A the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain.
        B) her body's production of endorphins decreased.
        C) an increase in the activity of small pain fibers closed the pain gate.
        D a decrease in the activity of large pain fibers closed the pain gate.

 ___ 53. Which of the following is not one of the basic tastes?
        A) sweet    B) salty     C) umami       D) bland

 ___ 54. Elderly Mrs. Martinez finds that she must spice her food heavily or she cannot taste it.
        Unfortunately, her son often finds her cooking inedible because it is so spicy. What is the
        likely explanation for their taste differences?
        A Women have higher taste thresholds than men.
        B) Men have higher taste thresholds than women.
        C) Being elderly, Mrs. Martinez probably has fewer taste buds than her son.
        D All of the above are likely explanations.

 ___ 55. The receptors for taste are located in the:
        A) taste buds.     B) cochlea.    C) fovea.    D) cortex.

 ___ 56. Tamiko hates the bitter taste of her cough syrup. Which of the following would she find
        most helpful in minimizing the syrup's bad taste?
        A tasting something very sweet before taking the cough syrup
        B) keeping the syrup in her mouth for several seconds before swallowing it
        C) holding her nose while taking the cough syrup
        D gulping the cough syrup so that it misses her tongue

 ___ 57. The principle that one sense may influence another is:
        A) transduction.      B) sensory adaptation.       C) Weber's law.     D) sensory interaction.

 ___ 58. Which of the following is an example of sensory interaction?
        A finding that despite its delicious aroma, a weird-looking meal tastes awful
        B) finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold
        C) finding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infection
        D All of the above are examples.

 ___ 59. Kinesthesis involves:
        A the bones of the middle ear.                     C) membranes within the cochlea.
        B) information from the muscles, tendons,          D the body's sense of balance.
            and joints.                                    )

 ___ 60. What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed?
        A) vestibular sense      B) sense of kinesthesis       C) the skin senses   D) sensory

Questions 60 on are Perception

 ___ 61. The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we:
        A detect sights, sounds, and other stimuli.     C) develop sensitivity to illusions.
        B) sense environmental stimuli.                 D interpret sensory stimuli.

 ___ 62. ________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their
        A) Top-down         B) Bottom-up     C) Parapsychological     D) Human factors

 ___ 63. ________ processing refers to how our knowledge and expectations influence perception.
        A) Top-down         B) Bottom-up     C) Parapsychological     D) Human factors

 ___ 64. The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed
        elsewhere is:
        A) visual capture.      B) inattentional blindness.     C) perceptual adaptation.      D)

 ___ 65. The illusion that the St. Louis Gateway arch appears taller than it is wide (even though
        its height and width are equal) is based on our sensitivity to which monocular depth
        A) relative size     B) interposition    C) relative height   D) retinal disparity

 ___ 66. Which of the following illustrates the principle of visual capture?
        A We tend to form first impressions of other people on the basis of appearance.
        B) Because visual processing is automatic, we can pay attention to a visual image and
            any other sensation at the same time.
        C) We cannot simultaneously attend to a visual image and another sensation.
        D When there is a conflict between visual information and that from another sense,
        )   vision tends to dominate.

 ___ 67. The term gestalt means:
        A) grouping.       B) sensation.   C) perception.     D) whole.

 ___ 68. When the traffic light changed from red to green, the drivers on both sides of Leon's
        vehicle pulled quickly forward, giving Leon the disorienting feeling that his car was
        rolling backward. Which principle explains Leon's misperception?
        A) relative motion       B) continuity   C) visual capture        D) proximity

 ___ 69. The historical movement associated with the statement “The whole may exceed the sum of
         its parts” is:
         A) parapsychology.        B) behavioral psychology.      C) functional psychology.   D)
         Gestalt psychology.

 ___ 70. Which of the following statements is consistent with the Gestalt theory of perception?
         A Perception develops largely through learning.
         B) Perception is the product of heredity.
         C) The mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions.
         D Perception results directly from sensation.

 ___ 71. Concluding her presentation on sensation and perception, Kelly notes that:
         A sensation is bottom-up processing.
         B) perception is top-down processing.
         C) a. and b. are both true.
         D sensation and perception blend into one continuous process.

 ___ 72. The figure-ground relationship has demonstrated that:
         A perception is largely innate.
         B) perception is simply a point-for-point representation of sensation.
         C) the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception.
         D different people see different things when viewing a scene.

 ___ 73. Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.
         A) night; day      B) top; bottom      C) cloud; sky     D) sensation; perception

 ___ 74. The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called:
         A) closure.      B) continuity.     C) similarity.     D) proximity.

 ___ 75. All of the following are laws of perceptual organization except:
         A) proximity.      B) closure.     C) continuity.      D) convergence.

 ___ 76. Studying the road map before her trip, Colleen had no trouble following the route of the
         highway she planned to travel. Colleen's ability illustrates the principle of:
         A) closure.      B) similarity.     C) continuity.     D) proximity.

 ___ 77. Figures tend to be perceived as whole, complete objects, even if spaces or gaps exist in the
        representation, thus demonstrating the principle of:
        A) connectedness.      B) similarity.    C) continuity.    D) closure.

 ___ 78. Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is:
        A innate.                                         C) innate in lower animals, learned in
        )                                                     humans.
        B) learned.                                       D innate in humans, learned in lower
                                                          )   animals.

 ___ 79. The visual cliff tests an infant's perceptual sensitivity to which depth cue?
        A) interposition    B) relative height       C) linear perspective     D) texture gradient

 ___ 80. When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth
        cue known as:
        A) convergence.     B) linear perspective.     C) relative motion.     D) retinal disparity.

 ___ 81. Which of the following is not a monocular depth cue?
        A) texture gradient     B) relative height      C) retinal disparity     D) interposition

 ___ 82. When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts
        the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being:
        A closer than the other object.                   C) larger than the other object.
        B) more distant than the other object.            D smaller than the other object.

 ___ 83. If you slowly bring your finger toward your face until it eventually touches your nose,
        eye-muscle cues called ________ convey depth information to your brain.
        A) retinal disparity     B) interposition      C) continuity     D) convergence

 ___ 84. How do we perceive a pole that partially covers a wall?
        A as farther away
        B) as nearer
        C) as larger
        D There is not enough information to determine the object's size or distance

 ___ 85. The tendency to perceive hazy objects as being at a distance is known as ________. This is a
        ________ depth cue.
        A linear perspective; binocular                    C) relative clarity; binocular
        B) linear perspective; monocular                   D relative clarity; monocular

 ___ 86. Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________.
        A nearer; relative height                          C) farther away; relative height
        B) nearer; linear perspective                      D farther away; linear perspective

 ___ 87. Because the flowers in the foreground appeared coarse and grainy, the photographer
        decided that the picture was taken too near the subject. This conclusion was based on
        which depth cue?
        A) relative size      B) interposition      C) retinal disparity    D) texture gradient

 ___ 88. The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are
        moving is:
        A) convergence.       B) interposition.     C) relative clarity.    D) relative motion.

 ___ 89. Which of the following is a monocular depth cue?
        A) light and shadow        B) convergence       C) retinal disparity     D) all of the above are
        monocular depth cues

 ___ 90. According to the principle of light and shadow, if one of two identical objects reflects
        more light to your eyes it will be perceived as:
        A) larger.    B) smaller.     C) farther away.         D) nearer.

 ___ 91. An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the
        canvas. Which cue has the artist used to convey distance?
        A) interposition      B) relative clarity     C) linear perspective     D) texture gradient

 ___ 92. As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not
        perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of:
        A) perceptual constancy.       B) relative motion.       C) linear perspective.     D) continuity.

 ___ 93. Each time you see your car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet
        you do not perceive it as changing. This is because of:
        A) perceptual set.      B) retinal disparity.     C) perceptual constancy.        D) convergence.

 ___ 94. The phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection between an object's
          perceived ________ and its perceived ________.
          A) size; shape         B) size; distance   C) size; brightness   D) shape; distance

 ___ 95. In the absence of perceptual constancy:
          A objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed.
          B) depth perception would be based exclusively on monocular cues.
          C) depth perception would be based exclusively on binocular cues.
          D depth perception would be impossible.

 ___ 96. Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that it is getting closer instead of larger because
          A) shape constancy.         B) relative motion.    C) size constancy.   D) all of the above.

 ___ 97. As her friend Milo walks toward her, Noriko perceives his size as remaining constant
          because his perceived distance ________ at the same time that her retinal image of him
          A) increases; decreases        B) increases; increases   C) decreases; decreases   D) decreases;

 ___ 98. The Moon illusion occurs in part because distance cues at the horizon make the Moon
          A farther away and therefore larger.               C) farther away and therefore smaller.
          B) closer and therefore larger.                    D closer and therefore smaller.

 ___ 99. Which explanation of the Müller-Lyer illusion is offered by the text?
          A The corners in our carpentered world teach us to interpret outward- or inward-
          )     pointing arrowheads at the end of a line as a cue to the line's distance from us and so
                to its length.
          B) The drawing's violation of linear perspective makes one line seem longer.
          C) Top-down processing of the illusion is prevented because of the stimuli's ambiguity.
          D All of the above were offered as explanations.

       ___ The insensitivity of many rural Africans to the Müller-Lyer illusion proves that
     100. perception:
          A is largely a “bottom-up” phenomenon.             C) is influenced by cultural experience.
          B) is unpredictable.                               D is characterized by all of the above.

       ___ The fact that a white object under dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object
     101. under bright illumination is called:
            A) relative luminance.        B) perceptual adaptation.    C) color contrast.   D) lightness

       ___ Which philosopher maintained that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing
     102. our sensory experiences?
            A) Locke       B) Kant     C) Gibson     D) Walk

       ___ According to the philosopher ________, we learn to perceive the world.
            A) Locke       B) Kant     C) Gibson     D) Walk

       ___ Which of the following influences perception?
            A) biological maturation        B) the context in which stimuli are perceived     C)
            expectations       D) all of the above

       ___ Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored:
            A are almost immediately able to recognize familiar objects.
            B) typically fail to recognize familiar objects.
            C) are unable to follow moving objects with their eyes.
            D have excellent eye-hand coordination.

       ___ Kittens and monkey reared seeing only diffuse, unpatterned light:
            A later had difficulty distinguishing color and brightness.
            B) later had difficulty perceiving color and brightness, but eventually regained normal
            C) later had difficulty perceiving the shape of objects.
            D showed no impairment in perception, indicating that neural feature detectors develop
            )   even in the absence of normal sensory experiences.

       ___ Which of the following statements best describes the effects of sensory restriction?
            A It produces functional blindness when experienced for any length of time at any age.
            B) It has greater effects on humans than on animals.
            C) It has more damaging effects when experienced during infancy.
            D It has greater effects on adults than on children.

       ___ Experiments with distorted visual environments demonstrate that:
            A adaptation rarely takes place.
            B) animals adapt readily, but humans do not.
            C) humans adapt readily, while lower animals typically do not.
            D adaptation is possible during a critical period in infancy but not thereafter.

       ___ Although carpenter Smith perceived a briefly viewed object as a screwdriver, police officer
     109. Wesson perceived the same object as a knife. This illustrates that perception is guided by:
            A) linear perspective.       B) shape constancy.    C) retinal disparity.   D) perceptual set.

       ___ The phenomenon that refers to the ways in which an individual's expectations influence
     110. perception is called:
            A) perceptual set.       B) retinal disparity.   C) convergence.   D) visual capture.

       ___ Thanks to ______, TiVo has solved the TV recording problem caused by the complexity of
     111. VCRs.
            A) parapsychologists.       B) human factors psychologists.    C) psychokineticists.    D)
            Gestalt psychologists.

       ___ Dr. Martin is using natural mapping to redesign the instrument gauges of automobiles to
     112. be more “user friendly.” Dr. Martin is evidently a(n):
            A) psychophysicist.       B) cognitive psychologist.   C) human factors psychologist.    D)
            experimental psychologist.

       ___ Psychologists who study ESP are called:
            A) clairvoyants.     B) telepaths.     C) parapsychologists.   D) levitators.

       ___ Jack claims that he often has dreams that predict future events. He claims to have the
     114. power of:
            A) telepathy.    B) clairvoyance.       C) precognition.   D) psychokinesis.

       ___ A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability
     115. of:
            A) psychokinesis.     B) precognition.    C) clairvoyance.   D) telepathy.

       ___ Regina claims that she can bend spoons, levitate furniture, and perform many other
     116. “mind over matter” feats. Regina apparently believes she has the power of:
            A) telepathy.   B) clairvoyance.     C) precognition.   D) psychokinesis.

       ___ The predictions of leading psychics are:
            A often ambiguous prophecies later interpreted to match actual events.
            B) no more accurate than guesses made by others.
            C) nearly always inaccurate.
            D all of the above.

       ___ Which of the following statements concerning ESP is true?
            A Most ESP researchers are quacks.
            B) There have been a large number of reliable demonstrations of ESP.
            C) Most research psychologists are skeptical of the claims of defenders of ESP.
            D There have been reliable laboratory demonstrations of ESP, but the results are no
            )   different from those that would occur by chance.

       ___ Researchers who investigated telepathy found that:
            A when external distractions are reduced, both the “sender” and the “receiver” become
            )   much more accurate in demonstrating ESP.
            B) only “senders” become much more accurate.
            C) only “receivers” become much more accurate.
            D over many studies, none of the above occur.

Answer Key

                1. C
                2. B
                3. C
                4. B
                5. D
                6. C
                7. D
                8. D

        SG Sensation ONLY
 9. C
10. A
11. A
12. D
13. A
14. A
15. D
16. D
17. A
18. D
19. D
20. B
21. D
22. D
23. D
24. B
25. B
26. D
27. D
28. B
29. C
30. A
31. A
32. C
33. A
34. C
35. D
36. D
37. B
38. D
39. A
40. C
41. A
42. C
43. A
44. D
45. C
46. D
47. C
48. C
49. D
50. D
51. C
52. A
53. D

             Page 2
        SG Sensation ONLY
54. C
55. A
56. C
57. D
58. D
59. B
60. B
61. D
62. B
63. A
64. B
65. C
66. D
67. D
68. C
69. D
70. C
71. D
72. C
73. C
74. B
75. D
76. C
77. D
78. A
79. D
80. D
81. C
82. B
83. D
84. B
85. D
86. C
87. D
88. D
89. A
90. D
91. C
92. A
93. C
94. B
95. A
96. C
97. D
98. A

             Page 3
         SG Sensation ONLY
 99. A
100. C
101. D
102. B
103. A
104. D
105. B
106. C
107. C
108. C
109. D
110. A
111. B
112. C
113. C
114. C

              Page 4

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