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         Dag Falck
 Organic Program Manager
    Nature‘s Path Food

Who made this?
Human or The

electron gas (2DEG)
Dr Andreas Fuhrer
Nanophysics Group of
Prof. Ensslin at ETH
Zürich Zürich
  What is nano technology?
     What is so exciting?
    What products use it?
   What does it look like?
Who‘s driving nano technology?
     What is so exciting?
   What are the concerns?
Nano and health-people/planet
       Nano regulation
   Nano threats to Organic
     Options for organic.
      Personal options.
     What is nano technology?
A nanometer = one billionth of a meter.
Atoms are generally one-tenth to one-sixth of a nanometer
   in diameter.
A nanofiber might have a diameter of 1 or 2 nanometers
   and a length of several hundred thousand nanometers.
DNA has a diameter of about 2.5 nanometers.
Human hair averages 20,000 – 80,000 nanometers in
   diameter. (One micron or micrometer = 1000
Viruses tend to be about 100 nanometers in diameter.
Bacteria are generally 1,000 to 10,000 nm. in diameter.
E-coli is 1500 nm.
       What is nano technology?

   lRhinovirus 25 nm        10 nm particle   2 nm Nano-Silver particle

Our red blood cells, are about 5000 nanometers wide. Other
body cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nm in diameter. Thus nano-
scale particles or devices will fit inside bacteria as well as the
cells of multi-celled organisms including plants and animals.
One of the big issues is what impact they might have if they
enter the cells of living organisms.
          What is so exciting?
• When you reduce the size of the particles, the
  ratio of molecules on the outside of the particle
  as compared with those on the inside is greatly
• The enormous surface to volume ratio greatly
  increases reactivity and changes mechanical,
  electrical and optical properties.
• Nanomedicine often involves engineering
  entities for molecular recognition to serve some
  health purpose.
Rows of thymine
               What is so exciting?
Properties that may emerge only at the nano-scale level include:

•   Very attractive surface charge
•   Very repulsive surface charge
•   Agglomeration, reduced dispersion or solubility
•   Bonding with other substances some of which may be toxics in
    water, air, or soil.
•   Persistence; many nano-scale materials are not biodegradable even
    when their macroscale variants are.
•   Bio-accumulation.
•   Supermagnetism.
•   Superconductivity.
•   New optical properties.
•   High mobility - inhalation, dermal, ingestion, ability to cross cell
    walls, blood-brain barrier, placental-barrier, enter blood vessels from
    the lungs, etc.
•   Molecular recognition (binding or disruption) in mitochondria, DNA,
    hormonal systems etc.
           What products use nano
580 products such as :
Bandages and wound dressings and condoms, bed sheets and clothing
  made of nanotex fabrics, air fresheners, wet wipes, detergents,
  soaps, disinfectant sprays, shampoo, skin creams and lotions,
  cosmetics, fullerene eye creams and night creams, suntan lotions
  and mosquito repellent; anti-bacterial silverware, food containers,
  baby bottles, a baby bottle brush, socks, toothpaste, toothbrushes
  and pet products; a chocolate slim shake, a nanotea, canola oil,
  beverages and food additives; golf clubs, bowling balls, tennis
  rackets, baseball bats, skis, snowboards and hockey sticks; paints
  and sealants; lens, window, and windshield cleaners; anti-bacterial
  refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, air conditioners
  and mobile phones; nanowax sprays, cleaning products, hearing
  aids, a fabric softener, a home pregnancy test, the IPod Nano, anti-
  aging nutritional supplements, vitamin tablets & vitamin sprays,
  lithium-ion batteries, automotive engine oil, tires, rubber gloves,
  plastic wrap,computer memory and processors, self-cleaning glass,
  teddy bears.
What products use nano
What products use nano
What products use nano

    The Project on Emerging
    An inventory of nanotechnology-
    based consumer products currently
    on the market.

….. study and manipulation of materials at
 the nano-scale
         Definition: Methods
• One is top-down such as grinding a
  material into an ultrafine powder in which
  at least one diameter of the material is
  less than 100 nanometers wide

• In the "bottom-up" approach, materials
  and devices are built from molecular
  components which assemble themselves
  chemically by principles of molecular
         What does it look like?

Fullerene family   Nanocar with
Carbon structure   ―fullerene wheels‖

                                        Surface of copper
             What is it? US/FDA:
While many definitions for nanotechnology exist, the
    National Nanotechnology Initiative calls it
    "nanotechnology" only if it involves all of the following:

1.   Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular
     or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 -
     100 nanometer range.
2.   Creating and using structures, devices and systems that have
     novel properties and functions because of their small and/or
     intermediate size.

3.   Ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?

• Over the past five years, the U.S. has allocated
  roughly $773 million to nanomedicine research.
• EU approximately 235 million Euros.
• Canada about $32 million with another $15
  million to be spent in 2006-2007.
• The expectation is that this investment will
  deliver not only major medical breakthroughs in
  detection, diagnosis and treatment but also
  mega profits.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?
Nanotechnology in the Agrifood Industry:

Reported worldwide nanotechnology food market
  will be $20.4 billion by 2010 and five out of ten of
  the world‘s largest food and beverage
  companies are investing in nanotechnology
  research and development.
The big players include Kraft, Unilever, Nestle,
  Cargill, Heinz, General Mills, Pepsico, and
  Campbell‘s Soup.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?
Nano food packaging

The Alberta government's commitment of $130
  million over five years, $40 million of which is
  provided by the Alberta Ingenuity Fund, will
  include with investments such as:
$8 million to establish a nano-packaging/nano
  product development center.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?
With the use of nanoparticles, bottles and
 packaging can be made lighter and stronger,
 with better thermal performance and less gas
 absorption. These properties can extend the
 shelf life of products, as well as lower the
 transportation costs involved in shipping food.
With a different nanostructure, the gas and water
 vapor permeability of plastics can be engineered
 to preserve fruit, vegetables, beverages, wine
 and other food.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?

Kodak, best known for producing camera film, is
  using nanotech to develop antimicrobial
  packaging for food products that will be
  commercially available in 2005. Kodak is also
  developing other ‗active packaging,‘ which
  absorbs oxygen, thereby keeping food fresh.
  Who‘s driving nano technology?

Researchers in the Netherlands develop intelligent
  packaging that will release a preservative if the
  food within begins to spoil. This ―release on
  command‖ preservative packaging is operated
  by means of a bioswitch developed through
Some analysts predict nano food packaging could
  become a $30 billion industry.
   Who‘s driving nano technology?

Industrialization of farm-use nano materials and
  fertilizers develops well.
The Nano Fertilizer Key Technology has applied to the State
  Development and Reform Commission for the Demonstrative
  Program, ―Industrialization of Functional Amortizing/Controlling
  Material for Plant Nutrition‖. After approval, the program received 10
  million yuan funding, which has been allocated to the Tianjin
  Planning Commission. At the same time, the northern
  industrialization demonstration base of the ―Nano Material
  Cementation Enveloping Amortizing/Control Releasing Fertilizer‖
  jointly established with Tianjin Kanglong Agricultural and Biological
  Produce Ltd has established
   Who‘s driving nano technology?

What if doctors could search out and destroy the very first
  cancer cells that would otherwise have caused a tumor
  to develop in the body?
What if a broken part of a cell could be removed and
  replaced with a miniature biological machine?
What if pumps the size of molecules could be implanted to
  deliver life-saving medicines precisely when and where
  they are needed?
These scenarios may sound unbelievable, but they are the
  long-term goals of the NIH Roadmap's Nanomedicine
  initiative that we anticipate will yield medical benefits as
  early as 10 years from now. National Institutes of Health
Four respirocytes tumble through space at various orientations. Pumping
station geometry and polar barcodes are clearly visible.
In this scene, respirocytes — artificial red cells — have just been injected into the
bloodstream of a smoke inhalation victim who is suffering from carbon monoxide
poisoning. Here, the respirocytes are passing through an arterial branch on their
way to the capillary bed, where they will release their store of oxygen in the
patient's tissues and help keep the victim alive.
           What is so exciting?


….. It looks at the organelles and molecules found in living
 cells as nano-scale machines and motors. The
 engineering perspective transforms the dance of life into
 a manufacturing process. It seeks to harness,
 manipulate, and control these processes.
Red blood cells lie in respose on a glass plate, with respirocytes scattered
randomly about nearby. One nanorobot rests in the central cleft of a red cell. The
image is a simulated view of a blood sample that might be taken from some future
trauma patient who has received approximately seven therapeutic respirocyte
doses at an accident scene. Each single respirocyte in the scene can control nearly
the same amount of available oxygen as all eight red cells present in the scene,
           What is so exciting?
Nanoparticles and Nanostructures

There are two ways to produce nano-sized materials. One
  is top-down such as grinding a material into an ultrafine
  powder in which at least one diameter of the material is
  less than 100 nanometers wide.

In top-down processes, the particles are not uniform in
   size, but depending on the material, they take on
   different qualities compared with their normal bulk state.
   They are in a supramolecular state. They are neither
   single molecules nor the normal much larger aggregates
   of molecules of the material in its bulk form.
           What is so exciting?
Nanoparticles and Nanostructures

Nano-scale particles have different characteristics from
  macro-scale particles of the same material. They may
  be stronger or more flexible, harder or softer, more heat
  resistant or water soluble or able to conduct electricity.
  They may become catalysts one hundred times more
  reactive than in macro-scale bulk state. Aluminum, for
  e.g., becomes flammable at room temperature while gold
  becomes a liquid and turns red.
molecules network
absorbed on

Used to create
polymers and
metals for
           What is so exciting?
Nano-scale materials commonly used, sometimes in
  combination, include:

• Metals: gold, titanium, iron, copper, aluminum, silver
• Metal oxides: titanium dioxide, iron oxide, zinc oxide,
  aluminum oxide
• Polymers, i.e., chains of similar or identical molecules
  typically used in constructing nanocomposites
• Ceramics [nanocrystals, clays] talc, mica, asbestos,
• Carbon: fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibres, nanowires
• Silicon
• Modified biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes, DNA
  and RNA
  What are the concerns with nano
• The companies producing these
  products claim they have been
  tested but the data is confidential
  business information.
• Carbon fullerenes (buckyballs)
  are also being used in some
  hand and face creams despite
  the fact that research has shown
  that fullerenes in water are able
  to enter fish through their gills
  and to cause brain damage.
 Nano and health-people/planet

When considering many of these consumer products, it is
 important to consider where the waste products end up
 when they are washed off in the shower or dumped in
 the garbage.

Nanomaterials can enter the blood stream once they have
  been inhaled, ingested, or taken in through the skin.
 Nano and health-people/planet

Once they are in the bloodstream, nanoparticles can travel
    to tissues around and in major organs including the
    spleen, liver, kidneys, heart, bone marrow, nervous
    system and brain.
We still do not know how long they might remain there or
    what sort of damage they might cause.
There is also the issue of whether the immune system
    might be overloaded trying to deal with such foreign
If the particles are small enough, they appear to be able to
    elude macrophages and other immune system defenses
    and enter cells where they may latch onto or interfere
    with the workings of various organelles.
 Nano and health-people/planet
Friends of the Earth in Australia and the U.S. collaborated in 2006 to
   produce an excellent 32-page report entitled Nanomaterials in
   Sunscreens and Cosmetics:

                 Small Ingredients, Big Risks
                          available on the internet.

Important scientific studies that reveal that many types of
   nanoparticles used in cosmetics and sunscreens are “toxic to
   human tissues and cell cultures resulting in oxidative stress,
   inflammatory cytokine production, DNA mutation and even cell
Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, used in many
   cosmetics and sunscreens produce free radicals and damage
   DNA when exposed to UV light.
20 nm particles of titanium dioxide have been shown to be able to
   completely destroy supercoiled DNA even in low
   concentrations without the presence of UV light. And yet,
   sunscreens and cosmetics are virtually unregulated.
 Nano and health-people/planet
Mitochondrial DNA are susceptible to damage by some
  nanoparticles. The science of nanotoxicology is still in
  its infancy and utterly inadequately funded.
This has been heavily criticized by advisory scientific
  bodies such as the Royal Society and the Royal
  Academy of Engineers in the U.K., the German Federal
  Institute for Risk Assessment, and the Woodrow Wilson
  International Center for Scholars in the U.S.
Even the industry is asking for more testing and funding for
  toxicology research.
 Nano and health-people/planet
Without regulations and reassurances to consumers and
  investors that rigorous testing and risk assessments
  have been conducted, corporations fear that one
  instance of damage to health or the environment would
  be enough to cause a backlash against all things nano.
Even one of the scientists who shared the Nobel Prize for
  discovering fullerenes was quoted last year as saying
  that he himself would avoid using any cosmetic
  containing them until they had been fully tested to verify
  it was safe.
When a scientist at an international conference asked 200
  of her colleagues at a forum if they themselves would
  feel comfortable using a face cream containing
  fullerenes, less than ten raised their hands.
Coating materials
with hardness
comparable to, or
higher than,
This image shows
a 23.6 nm x 20.4
nm area of a (NaCl
structure) This
image suggests
that the structure
of the internal
SiNx/TiN interfaces
in nc-SiNx/TiN may
be much more
complicated than
previously thought.
 Nano and health-people/planet

In its December 5, 2006 issue, Scientific American ran an
   article entitled: ―Danger? Nanotube-infested Waters
   Created in the Lab‖ which reported that studies of multi-
   walled nanotubes suspended in waters taken from the
   Suwannee River in Georgia revealed that organic matter
   enabled the nanoparticles to remain in suspension for a
   full month instead of clumping and settling as expected.
   This would greatly increase their capacity to act as a
   potentially dangerous contaminant affecting
   microorganisms, plant, and animal life in streams, rivers,
  lakes, and the ocean.
 Nano and health-people/planet
Another area of concern is the potential of health hazards
   for workers either directly producing nanomaterials or
   working with nanomaterials in the fabrication of
   composites such as textiles, paints, cosmetics, plastic
   and rubber products, etc.
Research on the hazards of contracting black lung and
   silicosis from inhaling ultrafine particles of coal dust and
   silica, and of inhaling ultrafine fibers in asbestos mining
   have provided much relevant toxicological information for
   assessing the hazards of nanoparticles and nanofibers.
In fact, some of the earliest and most insistent arguments
   for more research into the hazards of nanomaterials
   have come from scientists who have studied these
   diseases of miners as well as the lung and coronary
   diseases associated with air pollution from the products
   of hydrocarbon combustion.
polymers are of
great significance
due to their
compared with
other kind of
materials, which
make them very
useful for
The image reflects
the growth of 2.5
um diameter
polypyrrole rings
 What are the concerns: Regulation
• Despite the growing evidence of reasons
  for concern about possible health and
  environmental hazards due to exposure to
  nanomaterials, no regulatory agency in the
  world yet regulates them even as they
  begin to appear in more and more
  consumer products.
(except the UK Soil Association Dec 16, 2008)
    What are the concerns: Regulation
•     Because FDA regulates products based on their
      statutory classification rather than the technology they
      employ, FDA‘s regulatory consideration of an
      application involving a nanotechnology product may
      not occur until well after the initial development of that
•     Because FDA has limited regulatory authority over
      certain categories of products, the Agency may have
      limited authority over the use of nanotechnology
      related to those products. For example, there is no
      premarket approval of cosmetic products or their
      ingredients, with the exception of color additives.
       Nano threats to Organic

•   Contamination of soil/biology/water
•   Contamination of product/packaging
•   Detect-ability
•   Do thresholds need to be developed?
•   Cost of keeping out of organic
   Nano/Organic, can it happen?
The Colloidal / Nano Silver example:
The secret to making silver useful was to create a solution whose molecules
were so tiny that they would simply pass through the cells and not become
lodged in the liver and other organs. To reach this goal, science has
continually been attempting to make the particles in colloidal silver smaller
and smaller.

A company, Advanced Nano Technologies, has found a way to decrease the
size of the silver cluster to such a degree that the silver in the colloidal
solution is at the atomic level (or that of very, very small molecules). In this
form, the silver goes beyond merely being colloidal into the area of modern
science known as nanotechnology.

Nano Silver is so small that it can even be absorbed directly through the skin
— a method of delivery that holds incredible possibilities.
     Nano/Organic, can it happen?

                          • Traditional Colloidal Silver is
                            produced via a constant current
                            reverse polarity process.
                          • Consists of both elemental and
                            ionic particles providing the
                            ultimate particle surface area.
                          • Particle size as small as 0.1
                            micron and 5 ppm -100 ppm
Nano Silver can have
2,000 parts per million   The USFDA has not evaluated, nor rendered approval for any statements or
and .001 micron           research cited herein, nor have they approved any representations or opinions
                          concerning colloidal silver, colloidal gold or any other dietary supplement products.
                          These products are not intended to diagnose, cure, prevent or treat any disease.
    Nano/Natural, it is happening!
Ingredients in Parfait Visage®
Exotic ingredients: Natural Cucumber Lotion Base, Whole Leaf Organic Aloe Vera,
Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Vitamin E-(Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta Tocopherols and
Tocotreinols), Organic Kukui Nut Oil, GH3, Iridodial, Micro-Colloidal Silver, Micro-
Crystalline MSM, New Zealand 10+ Manuka Honey, Organic Raw Apple Cider
Vinegar, Organic Hungarian Blue Chamomile, Somalian Frankincense, Tunisian
Neroli, Bulgarian Rose, French Lavender, Hungarian Carrot Seed, Indian Jasmine
               Options for organic

January 15, 2008

The Soil Association - one of the world's
  pioneers of organic agriculture - announced
  today that it is has banned human-made
  nanomaterials from the organic cosmetics, foods
  and textiles that it certifies.
    Soil Association Nano Standard
•   Nanotechnology Nanotechnology refers to the production and application of material and devices at the
    nano scale (0.1 nm to 100 nm). A nanometre (nm) is a billionth of a metre, approximately one 80,000th of
    the width of a human hair. Atoms and molecules are measured in nanometres.
    Nanotechnology can be applied to food, agriculture, medicines (for both humans and animals), cosmetics,
    textiles and packaging as well as many other things.
    Our standards ban products or ingredients produced using nanotechnology.
    Nanoparticles can be produced naturally. For example, some nano sized wheat particles will be end up
    being produced during the milling process. This standard does not apply to established manufacturing
    processes that produce nanoparticles incidentally.
    However, the standard does apply to engineered nanoparticles: it bans processes which specifically
    engineer particles to be nano sized. For example, the zinc and titanium particles at the nano scale are used
    in sunscreens because at this size they become transparent rather than white which is deemed to be more
    cosmetically acceptable.
    Our concern with nanoparticles lies in the fact that the properties of materials at this size can differ
    significantly from those at larger scales. Nanoparticles are so small they can sometimes bypass the body‘s
    natural protective boundaries such as skin. Is it safe to apply sunscreen with nanoparticles of titanium
    dioxide or zinc oxide? We don‘t know. Industry and government are belatedly conducting safety tests that
    will take several years to reach firm conclusions. Therefore we‘ve applied the precautionary principle and
    our standards now state that:
    Licensees must not use ingredients containing manufactured nanoparticles, where:
•   the mean particle size is 200nm or smaller, and
•   the minimum particle size is 125nm or smaller
             Personal options

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