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					                                  International Studies Minor

International Studies Minor

Executive Summary

       The International Studies Minor is intended to provide students with the basic

international knowledge, skills, and experience to function effectively in an increasingly

international economy. It is an interdisciplinary minor that will provide a broad overview of

international and global issues and complement Stockton’s Study Abroad Program and Study

Tours. In addition, Stockton could use this minor as a featured element in its recruitment of

prospective students. Moreover, this minor will be consistent with the goals of the Global

Education pillar of Stockton’s 2020 vision.

       Stockton has many international course offerings, study abroad possibilities, and foreign

language courses. This 20 credit minor, therefore, will be built largely on existing courses across

the schools and could be combined with a variety of majors. With the assistance of the

International Studies Coordinator, students will be able to create their own flexible plan of study

based on their individual interests or career goals. Students completing this minor will be

prepared to participate effectively in our global community.

Need for an International Studies Minor

       The consultant in his report dated June 27, 2007, recommended the creation of an

International Studies Minor that “should identify relevant curriculum already in place, as well as

faculty with interests appropriate to an international concentration.” He also emphasized that a

foreign language component should be an integral part of the International Studies Minor.
                                                                                                   2


Taskforce on Internationalizing the Curriculum

         Since its inception, the Taskforce on Internationalizing the Curriculum (Taskforce) has

been developing an International Studies Minor. The Taskforce has discussed various options

for the International Studies Minor including area studies and thematic concentrations. It has

also discussed the number of credits, required courses, language requirement, and study

abroad/study tour experiences. This Taskforce made the recommendation in its 2007 report

(report is attached) that Stockton should create an International Studies Minor. The Taskforce

strongly believed that “with the simple addition of a cross-disciplinary gateway course, a

capstone course, and international internships, as well as satisfactory completion of a required

foreign language fluency track” Stockton could create a high quality International Studies Minor.

Survey

         In keeping with its commitment to the process of consultation and building a

critical mass of supporters at Stockton, the Taskforce conducted surveys on international

education with students (159). The purpose of the surveys was to raise awareness and

obtain feedback from students on some of the issues related to the internationalization of

the curriculum at Stockton. The results of student surveys indicate that only 13% of the

respondents were currently taking courses that focus on another country/region/culture

but 95% of students surveyed stated that it is important for Stockton to have an

International Studies Minor. One respondent remarked: “Let’s do it!!” (referring to the

International Studies Minor).
                                                                                                    3


Most of the New Jersey State institutions offer some form of International Studies (See

Table below).


Institutions        County                            Yes                  No

Montclair State     Essex               International Studies Minor
University
Monmouth            Monmouth            The Major in International
University                              Studies with a French
                                        Specialization
Rowan               Gloucester          International Studies
University                              Concentration - pursued in
                                        conjunction with major and
                                        minor programs, or as
                                        General Education
The Richard         Atlantic                                              x
Stockton College
of New Jersey
William Paterson    Wayne               Numerous interdisciplinary
University of                           and international studies
New Jersey                              classes
Kean University     Union               Center for International
                                        Studies (CIS) coordinates the
                                        activities of Kean University
                                        faculty, staff, and students in
                                        order to integrate
                                        international education into
                                        the university
The College of      Mercer              International Studies is an
New Jersey                              interdisciplinary major -
                                        International Graduate Study
                                        at The College of New Jersey
Ramapo College      Bergen              International Studies B.A. A
of New Jersey                           minor is not available
New Jersey City     Hudson              Minor in International Studies
University


       An International Studies Major is long overdue at the Stockton. The impressive list of

international studies courses that we currently offer, listed below, is proof enough that we have

sufficient expertise for the minor.
                                                                                                   4


        The goal of the program is to provide students with a coherent set of interdisciplinary

courses that will give them a broad competence in international issues combined with a deep

knowledge of a specific discipline (major). Presently, there is no minor at the Stockton that

provides this level of interdisciplinary breadth, depth, and language expertise as this one.

Development of the Proposal for the International Studies Minor

        This proposal is the culmination of several years of planning and collaboration between

faculty members from all the academic schools at Stockton. Starting in Fall 2002, the new

Director of the Study Abroad Program and Directors of Study Tours started examining the

possibility of such a minor. In 2005, the Taskforce was created by Dr. David Carr. In 2006, the

Taskforce was commissioned by the Faculty Assembly to research and recommend to the faculty

“changes to the curriculum that would represent improved and effective efforts, that are in

keeping with the mission of the College, and that bring issues of global significance and

interconnectedness to the attention of our students.” One of the significant tasks that the

Taskforce undertook was the creation of this Minor. The Taskforce held several planning

meetings to discuss the proposed Minor and to ensure that the program’s design is workable and

realistic.

Overview of the Proposed International Studies Minor

        The International Studies Minor will provide a program with a strong foundation in

international knowledge, foreign languages, and intercultural experience for Stockton students.

Virtually all of the curricular elements for the proposed Minor are already in place. Because it

will utilize existing resources the cost will be minimal. The courses that count toward the Minor

will be drawn from a great number of departments across the college.
                                                                                                    5


       In this proposed minor, students are expected to complete a minimum of 20 credits of

coursework with substantial international content. They are required to complete an introductory

course, an International Studies Capstone Seminar, and general electives will be selected from an

approved list of courses with strong international content. All students taking the International

Studies Minor will have to demonstrate proficiency in such a foreign language.

Introductory Course

       Students must complete at least 20 credits, including a 4-credit Introduction to

International Studies course. The introductory course is a required course and the gateway

course for the program. The course uses insights from disciplines across the humanities and

social sciences to give students the theoretical and methodological skills and the knowledge base

necessary to understand this complex and rapidly changing world. It offers an overview of the

major disciplines represented in the program, introduces the main regions covered in the

program, and discusses important global issues. It basically exposes students to the various

academic approaches essential to international studies and to the various thematic concentrations

that comprise the minor.

       Students are expected to complete this course as one of the first two courses taken in the

program. However, if a student completes two or more program courses before completing the

introductory course, then the student will have to get the coordinator’s permission to continue in

the program.

Foreign Language

       All students must complete the first semester of the second year of a foreign language or

demonstrate equivalent proficiency. Although many students coming to Stockton may have

completed at least first year foreign language courses in high school, some students will need to
                                                                                                     6


complete first year language courses as prerequisites for the language component required for the

Minor. The Coordinator of this Minor will work closely with the Department of Language and

Culture on a case-by-case basis to determine if students have achieved sufficient proficiency in a

foreign language. International students, who enroll in the Minor and whose native language is

not English, will be deemed as having fulfilled the foreign language requirement.

Elective Courses

       There is an array of courses available at Stockton that has substantial international or

multicultural content. Students will, therefore, select elective courses from an approved list of

courses. These courses are divided into three major thematic concentrations. These thematic

concentrations are constructed around a common theme, thus providing students with a wide

choice of topical courses. The three thematic categories will expose students to a combination of

different disciplinary approaches, such as history, anthropology, literature, economics, political

science, and environmental science.

       The global issues/area studies concentration allows students to focus their attention on

issues from a global or a particular geopolitical perspective (for example, Asia, Africa). It also

provides students with a global frame of reference from which to examine various social,

economic, and political issues.

       The history and culture concentration explores the history and culture of various

countries or regions of the world. This includes courses on world civilizations, the World wars,

Holocaust and other genocides, and modern world history. It also focuses on cultural elements

within a globalized context and with emphasis on specific countries or regions. It allows the

students to explore various aspects of a particular culture as well as the similarities and

differences between cultures.
                                                                                                        7


       The political economy and contemporary concentration focuses on the global economy,

money, the environment, business, international trade, and a comparative study of economic and

political systems. This concentration focuses on various theoretical, empirical, and policy issues

in political economy. It also provides students with the opportunity to study current issues, such

as immigration, global environmental problems, and the Middle East and other present conflicts

in various regions of the world. The objective is for students to develop critical skills through the

analysis of current international issues.

       The present list of courses, which has been approved by the members of the Taskforce on

Internationalizing the Curriculum, will be offered in the proposed minor with the permission of

the individual instructors of those courses. As the program develops, more courses will be added

to the present list of courses. For a new course to be added to the list, the instructor will have to

submit the course description to the coordinator of the program. New courses will be approved

by faculty members in the program. Before a new course is offered in the program, it has to be

evaluated on the quality of their proposed learning outcomes, its compatibility with the content

of the existing curriculum, and its perceived potential to enhance the program. A tentative list of

elective course options is included below.

Capstone

       The International Studies Capstone Seminar will be a senior level, one semester, four-

credit, multidisciplinary course that could be taught by one faculty member or several faculty

members with one faculty member serving as the seminar coordinator. If team taught, each

faculty member will lead the seminar for several weeks, exploring a different topic. At least 8

credits required for the Minor must be at the upper division (i.e. 3000 or above). The capstone

will be taught on a regular basis (every semester).
                                                                                                        8


Education Abroad (Option)

       Students could complete at least 6 credits on an approved education abroad program,

including short-or long-term study programs, as well as options for internship abroad. These

credits could be accepted as fulfilling specific requirements for the Minor. Study tours are not

included in this option because it is likely that the study tour courses will be included in the list

of courses offered at Stockton for this Minor.

Administration of the Minor

       The Minor would be housed in the School of General Studies and a coordinator will be

appointed or elected to handle all administrative aspects of the Minor including maintaining files,

liaison with campus departments and offices, publicity, and outreach to students.

       An International Education Programs Committee should be created to play a vital role in

the administration of the Minor. Its most important tasks will be to: 1) review and recommend

what Stockton courses should be included on the list of courses which will satisfy the

requirements of the Minor and 2) review and recommend what education abroad programs

should satisfy the Minor’s requirements.

       The Taskforce should be made a permanent (standing) committee so that it will provide

an important and ongoing communication link between the administration and faculty members

who are interested in international education issues, such as the Minor, Study Tours, etc. This

was also recommended by the Consultant in 2007.

Language Requirement

       To fulfill the language proficiency, students must demonstrate listening, reading, writing

and oral competency at the Intermediate-low level as stipulated by the American Council on the
                                                                                                  9


Teaching of Foreign Languagesi. This language requirement may be satisfied in a student's

native language if it is not English.

       Since language proficiency is a requirement for this minor, it is anticipated that the minor

will encourage enrollment in language courses, and this can highlight the importance of foreign

languages at Stockton. However, students will have broad options for the language experience.

They will be able to fulfill their language requirement for the minor through an approved study

abroad (language) program, supervised foreign language training, the transfer of appropriate

courses in any language other than English from other countries or universities, and any other

options that the faculty members of the Languages and Culture Studies Program consider

acceptable. The faculty members of the Languages and Culture Studies Program will evaluate

language courses not taught at Stockton to determine if they fulfill the language requirement.

The language requirement is a prerequisite for the capstone course. In other words, the language

requirement must be completed before students can enroll in the capstone course.

Resources/Budget

       Since most of the courses (introductory and the capstone are new courses) offered in the

International Studies Minor are drawn from currently available courses at Stockton, no new

faculty, staff, or library resources are necessary for the program. A coordinator is, however,

needed to manage the program. The program will be housed in the School of General Studies

and the Dean of that school will take the necessary steps to hire a coordinator (see timeline

below). The role of the coordinator of the program is to administer the program, advise students,

and improve the capacity of the program. Coordination of this program will require

compensation as negotiated by the Union. The Coordinator will be hired from any of the seven
                                                                                                    10


schools at Stockton. Advertisement for the coordinator’s position will be posted no later than

Spring, 2011.

Assessment

       Apart from regular meetings, the faculty members in International Studies Minor will

meet, at the end of each Spring semester, to assess the programmatic success in that year.

Adjustments to the program will be undertaken, if necessary, to ensure that the program is

meeting its goals. In addition, at the end of the first five years, an overall program assessment

will be carried out in conjunction with the College of General Studies, which is responsible for

this program.



Timeline:

September/October, 2010-              Present proposal to Faculty Senate for approval

November/December, 2010               Present proposal to the Deans’ Council for Approval

January, 2011                         Necessary steps will be taken by the Dean to advertise for a

                                      Coordinator

                                      Preparation and distribution of brochures with information

                                      about the program. (It cannot go into the Bulletin until

                                      2012)

                                      Schedule GSS 1229: Introduction to International Studies

                                      (introductory course which has been approved) to be taught

                                      Spring or Fall 2011.

March/April, 2011                     Hire new Coordinator who will start in September, 2011

September 2011                        Start of Program
                                                                                                  11


List of Courses for Proposed International Studies Minor

Required Courses (20 credits required, 2 courses must be at the 3000 level, including the
Capstone course)

A:     GSS 1229: Introduction to International Studies

B:     Language Requirement (Mandatory as described in proposal. It is also a
       prerequisite for the capstone course

Electives
Students must choose at least one course from each of the following categories - C, D, and E :
C:     Global Issues/Areas Studies Courses
The global issues/area studies concentration allows students to focus their attention on issues
from a global or a particular geopolitical perspective.

GAH 3119       Multicultural Latin America
GEN 1302       Introduction to Latin America and the Caribbean
GAH 2346       Modern Europe
GIS 3635       Discover Africa
GNM 2116       Cities of the World
GNM 2475       Global Environmental Issues
GSS 2134       Global Issues
GSS 2234       Human Rights in a Global Perspective
GSS 2319       Global Justice (every semester)
GSS 2635       The UN in a New Global Era

D:      History and Culture
This concentration explores the history and culture in various countries or regions from an
interdisciplinary perspective.

ANTH 1100      Introduction to Anthropology
ANTH 2238      Anthropological Fieldwork in South Africa
ANTH 2152      Language and Culture
ANTH 2357      Anthropology, Life History and Autobiography
ANTH 3253      Caribbean Cultures
GAH 2363       Puerto Rico, Society, and Culture
GAH 2364:      Understanding Iraq
GAH 3224       Latin America and World Literature
GIS 3342       Mexican Culture (once a year – Fall/Spring)
GIS 3640       Culture of Islam (every spring)
GIS 4606       Costa Rica Cultural Study Tour
GSS 2451       South Africa Now (once a year – Fall/Spring)
GSS 2626       International Culture
GSS 3104       Language and Power
HIST 2140      History of India
HIST 2146:     Indian Ocean History
                                                                                            12


HIST 2149:    Conflict and Change in India
HIST 3100:    The Vietnam War
LITT 2306:    Cultures of Colonialism
PHIL 2109:    Ancient Greek Philosophy

E:      Political Economy and Contemporary Issues
This concentration focuses on the economy, money, the environment, business, and current
issues using a multidisciplinary and international approach.
ANTH 2136 World Perspectives on Health
ANTH 2316 Anthropology/Social Change
ECON 3655 International Trade
ECON 3670 International Economic Development
ENVL 2300 Environmental Issues
GAH 2207        Environmental Histories
GIS 3639        Immigration and Immigrants
GNM 2475 Global Environmental Issues
GSS 2635        The UN in a New Global Era (every fall)
GSS 3234        Human Rights in a Global Perspective
INTL 3112 International Business Management
INTL 4100: Manager in the World Economy
POLS 2170 Introduction to International Politics
POLS 3313 International Order
POLS 3660 Comparative Politics

Students must take the following course (Mandatory)
F:    GIS : International Studies Capstone/Senior Seminar
      An advanced level research and discussion course focusing on common themes in
      modern international affairs. This will include an advanced level research project.
                                                               13


List of Faculty Members
Ronald Caro, Education
Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, Languages and Culture Studies Program
Nancy Davis, Nursing
Tait Chirenje, Environmental Science
Sonia Gonsalves, Psychology
Reza Ghorashi, Economics
Michael Hayse, Historical Studies
Patrick Hossay, Political Science
Janice Joseph, Criminal Justice
Adeline Koh, Assistant Professor of Literature
Melaku Lakew, Economics
Gorica Majstorovic, Languages and Culture Studies Program
Margaret McCann, Art
Linda Nelson, Anthropology and Africana Studies
Robert Nichols, Professor of History
Nora Palugod, Business Studies
Lucio Privitello, Philosophy and Religion
Harry Rhea, Criminal Justice
Michael Rodriguez, Political Science
Joseph Rubenstein, Sociology and Anthropology
Javier Sanchez, Languages and Culture Studies Program
Lois Spitzer, Education
Clifford Whithem, Hospitality and Tourism Management Studies
Ai Zhang, Communication
                                                                                                 14


             REPORT OF TASKFORCE ON INTERNATIONALIZING THE
                          CURRICULUM/CAMPUS*

                                            Members
               Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, Languages and Culture Studies Program
                                  Sonia Gonsalves, Psychology
                                   Reza Ghorashi, Economics
           Elaine Grant, Interim Director of Summer Conferences and Special Events
              Dee McNeely-Greene, Associate Vice President for Student Affairs
                                Michael Hayse, Historical Studies
                                Patrick Hossay, Political Science
                                 Janice Joseph, Criminal Justice
                                   Melaku Lakew, Economics
                                    Paul Lyons, Social Work
                           Linda Nelson, Sociology and Anthropology
                               Giancarlo Panagia, Criminal Justice
                                Nora Palugod, Business Studies
                            Lucio Privitello, Philosophy and Religion
                        Joseph Rubenstein, Sociology and Anthropology
                                  James Shen, Communications
                Clifford Whithem, Hospitality and Tourism Management Studies
______
*Special thanks to William Albert, Assistant to the Director of Faculty Institute for analyzing the
data from the students’ surveys.


                                       NOVEMBER 2007
                                                                                                      15


Introduction

        The universality of knowledge in the information age, the competitive nature of world
trade, and the increasing rate of cultural exchange dictate that the international dimension of
higher education must keep pace with changes that are occurring globally. Internationalization is,
therefore, essential for a college or university to fulfill its mandate to create and share
knowledge, and provide a learning environment that prepares students, faculty, and staff to
function effectively in an increasingly integrated, global environment. An educational system
that prepares students to live and work in an international and multicultural society is essential to
our future. Therefore, as the world becomes more connected, it is vital that colleges and
universities prepare graduates who are proficient in foreign languages, aware of different peoples
and cultures, and literate in issues of common global concern.
        On April 19 2000, President Clinton signed the first-ever Executive Memorandum on
international education. In 2001, the Senate unanimously passed a resolution calling for an
international education policy. It recommended that educators encourage international students
to study in the United States; promote study abroad by U.S. students; support exchanges for
faculty, students, and citizens; enhance programs at U.S. institutions that build international
partnerships and expertise; expand foreign-language learning and knowledge of other cultures;
support the preparation of teachers who can interpret other countries and cultures; and use
technology to aid the spread of knowledge. The list is complete and admirable but, without any
accompanying funding, its impact was limited (Clinton, 2000). Nevertheless, colleges and
universities in the United States began to embrace the concept of internationalization. Today,
internationalization of higher education in United States is no longer theory, but rather a reality
and a necessity. Research indicates that internationalization has become an increasingly
prevalent trend in American higher education (Knight, 1994, 1999).

Definition of Internationalization
         Internationalization has been defined by some authors as the process of making more
campuses internationally-oriented (Hanson & Meyerson, l995). Others discuss it as the process
of integrating international education into the curriculum (Lambert, l989; Groennings & Wiley,
1990). Others view it as an on-going and dynamic process. Knight (1997), for example,
defines internationalization of higher education "as the process of integrating an international
dimension into the teaching/training, research, and service functions of a university or college
or technical institute" (p. 29). He views it as a process of integration, not just a set of activities.
         It is clear that there is a growing debate about how the term “internationalization”
should be defined. However, for the purpose of developing a strategy for the
internationalization of Stockton, the definition which emphasizes the incorporation of an
international dimension into the academic and organizational systems and structures of the
institution is most appropriate. Therefore, internationalization is the process of integrating an
international/intercultural dimension into the teaching, research and service functions of an
institution. It is an ongoing, future-oriented, interdisciplinary, and leadership-driven process in
which the institution adapts to an ever-changing, international environment.

Rationale for Internationalization
        Over the years, much enthusiasm has been generated for internationalization on the basis
of national economic competitiveness. Calls for internationalization have resulted from political
                                                                                               16


and educational concerns that the United States was losing its position as a world economic
leader, and that American education would have to prepare future generations for functioning in
a more competitive and more international marketplace. Internationalization of the curriculum
will ensure that the education Stockton provides for its students remains relevant and responsive
to today's issues and trends of an increasingly globalized economy, a growing interdependence
among nations, and a more mobile workforce due to free trade agreements.
Goals and Benefits of Internationalization
The goals of Internationalization are to:
     create a systematic approach to ensure that students are provided with the knowledge
        and skills to be able to function culturally, politically, and economically in a global
        society through a systematic infusion of international/global content into the
        curriculum.
     increase the opportunities for students to study a second language by offering more
        foreign language courses. There is a need for foreign language preparation in this
        global environment.
     connect students with real life experiences beyond our national borders by increasing
        the opportunities for students to participate in study tours, student exchanges, study
        abroad programs, and internships abroad.
     broaden students’ knowledge of the cultures of the world, international events, and
        provide them with a multidimensional perspective of the world in which they live.
     enhance faculty expertise in international and comparative areas through pre-service
        education, professional development and opportunities for faculty exchanges.
     create partnerships and collaborations with institutions abroad which are mutually
        beneficial, academic components of international education.
     increase the number of international students on campus by providing a full array of
        student support services for international students.
     provide support for all facets of international education such as curriculum
        development, faculty development, student and faculty exchange programs, student
        services tailored for international students, study abroad, and recruitment and
        admission of international students.

Internationalized education will:
     offer students the opportunity to develop a cross-cultural perspective and an
        awareness of the essentials of cross-cultural relations;
     prepare students to be internationally knowledgeable and inter-culturally sensitive;
     allow students to participate in a learning environment that values international
        experiences and will create an international and global perspective;
     prepare students to become aware of the new and changing global phenomena that
        affect political, economic, and social developments within and between nations.

Key Components of an Internationalized Campus
       There are a variety of components or strands that comprise an internationalized campus.
These vary in scope, depth of commitment, range and breadth but include (Ellingboe, l996):
    a commitment by campus leadership, including the president, vice presidents,
       provosts, directors, deans, and board of trustees;
                                                                                               17


      the presence of international majors and minors within colleges and professional
       schools;
      promotion of languages and culture studies;
      co-curricular international conferences/events/involvement activities on-campus;
      international diversity among students, faculty, and scholars and intentional
       involvement of these stakeholders in internationalizing aspects of campus life;
      international study, work, research programs and internship service opportunities for
       students (including scholarships);
      international teaching, research, and consulting opportunities for faculty (including
       travel grants and fellowships);
      partnerships and networks with universities across the globe.

Taskforce on Internationalizing the Curriculum/Campus
       On April 21, 2004, the Provost of Richard Stockton College (Stockton), Dr. David Carr,
gave the Taskforce its charge but, because it was almost the end of Spring 2005 semester, the
committee did not meet until Fall, 2005.
    The charge includes the following:
     To ascertain faculty interest in and support for expanded international programming
       (including the willingness to establish a foreign language requirement).
     To review similar efforts in other institutions that are similar to Stockton (in size,
       mission, etc.)
     To define what this concept would mean for Stockton students and develop a
       rationale for such an effort to be undertaken at Stockton
     To determine both broad goals and a preliminary set of objectives that would be
       expected
     To assess the ways in which such an effort could be integrated into both the
       curriculum and the co-curriculum of the College
     To collaborate with the Division of Student Affairs, including Admissions, regarding
       the recruitment of international students and the services that will be provided once
       these students enroll at Stockton
     To determine what internal resources (human, fiscal, and physical) would be required
       to implement each of the components that seem to be feasible at Stockton, both in the
       short-term (2-3 years) and the long term
     To determine what external resources might be needed and/or available to support
       and supplement the program
     To determine what assessment strategies would be used to judge the success of such
       an effort.
Taskforce Membership
       Chaired by Janice Joseph, the Taskforce initially consisted of a core of faculty and staff
members which included Reza Ghorashi, Melaku Lakew, Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, Michael
Hayse, Patrick Hossay, Sonia Gonsalves, Yingyi Situ, Robert Gregg, Elaine Grant, Dee
McNeely-Greene, Clifford Whithem, Tom Papademetriou, and James Shen. Six sub-committees
task were established, with each group focusing on one of two of the issues identified in the
Provost’s charge. A preliminary report was submitted to the Provost, December 25, 2005.
                                                                                                18


        On October 31, 2006, the Faculty Assembly charged the Taskforce with researching and
recommending to the faculty changes to the curriculum that would represent improved and
effective efforts, and that are in keeping with the mission of the College.
        The following new members were added to the Taskforce: Joseph Rubenstein, Paul
Lyons, Nora Palugod, Giancarlo Panagia, Lucio Privitello, and Linda Nelson. The final list of
members consisted of the following: Reza Ghorashi, Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, Melaku Lakew,
Michael Hayse, Patrick Hossay, Sonia Gonsalves, Elaine Grant, Dee McNeely-Greene, Clifford
Whithem, James Shen, Lucio Privitello, Joseph Rubenstein, Paul Lyons, Nora Palugod,
Giancarlo Panagia, Janice Joseph, and Linda Nelson.
        With the new charge from the Faculty Assembly, the Task Force established eight
subcommittees to assess the following issues: curriculum innovation, international academic
agreements, study abroad/study tours, faculty/staff exchanges or mobility programs, international
students, foreign language study, faculty/staff involvement and development, and an
International Studies Minor. This report is the result of the deliberations of the Taskforce as a
whole whose work was enriched by the sub-committees.

       The Subcommittee members were as follows:

       Curriculum Innovation – Michael Hayse and Joseph Rubenstein
       International Academic Agreements - Janice Joseph
       Study Abroad and Study Tours - Janice Joseph and Melaku Lakew
       Faculty/Staff Exchanges or Mobility Programs - Nora Palugod and James Shen
       International Students - Cliff Whithem, Dee McNeely-Greene, Elaine Grant, and
       Giancarlo Panagia
       Foreign Languages - Arnaldo Cordero-Roman and Lucio Privitello,
       Faculty/Staff Involvement and Development - Sonia Gonsalves and Reza Ghorashi
       International Studies Minor – Melaku Lakew, Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, and Reza
       Ghorashi

Curriculum Innovation
        At Stockton there are several courses, particularly in the humanities, social sciences, and
business that are internationally-focused. The degree of the international content in these courses
often depends on the interest and commitment of individual faculty members. A cursory
examination of the general studies courses in the 2006-2008 Bulletin indicates that GAH offers
12 courses with international content, GEN 4 courses, GIS 19 courses, GNM 4 courses, and GSS
17 courses. However, the extent of this content needs to be analyzed.
        Internationalization can be accomplished through an ongoing process of faculty support
rather than through a single or piecemeal infusion of international content or a single
international educational experience. In order for internationalization to be more deliberately
and broadly integrated into the curriculum, efforts must be made to develop an interdisciplinary,
intercultural, and international focus within the academic planning process at Stockton.
Therefore, it is recommended that Stockton should:

      conduct in-depth assessment to determine to what extent international, intercultural,
       and comparative perspectives are currently incorporated into the curriculum. Such an
       analysis should identify the challenges and opportunities for internationalization
                                                                                                19


       within each program's curriculum. This would provide a cross-college perspective on
       the current status of internationalized courses.
      compile a list of resource faculty members (handbook) with international expertise on
       campus. These faculty members can assist faculty who want to incorporate
       international or comparative perspectives into their courses.
      organize sessions and workshops for faculty who want to include an international
       perspective in their courses.
      encourage faculty members to infuse existing programs and course offerings with
       international content.
      disseminate information about external opportunities for faculty development abroad
       including grant information.
      provide faculty members with incentives to internationalize existing curricula,
       including released time and credit for international enhancement of teaching skills.

International Academic Agreements
        Formal agreements between any institution and foreign higher education institutions are
important tools for internationalization and provide the opportunities to expose students to other
culture through student exchange programs. These programs provide students with the
opportunity to increase their understanding and appreciation of other cultures as well as
improving their language skills. Exchanges of faculty and staff within the university, with
outside agencies, and with institutions abroad are effective methods to broaden the perspective of
individuals and often contribute to enhanced performance in the classroom.
Stockton has an agreement with only one international academic institution. In 2005, Richard
Stockton College, with the assistance of Professor Arnaldo Cordero-Roman, signed an exchange
agreement with the Universidad Del Sagrado Corazón in Puerto Rico. Since that agreement has
been signed, three students have attended the Universidad Del Sagrado Corazón in Puerto Rico
and have shared their invaluable experience with the student community. During 2006-2007,
Stockton received an exchange student from Puerto Rico and that student spent two semesters at
Stockton. Arnaldo Cordero-Roman and Lucio Privitello are presently exploring the possibility
of developing an exchange between Stockton and Classical Lyceum B. Secusio in Sicily, Italy.

        To increase the opportunity for students and faculty, it is imperative that Stockton
develops institutional student agreements with more institutions abroad. Stockton should,
therefore:
     form strategic partnerships with foreign universities and other governmental and non-
        governmental international organizations that further the college’s academic mission.
     examine the feasibility of establishing additional international agreements,
        establishing branch campuses overseas, and articulation agreements with foreign
        institutions.

Student Mobility Programs
Study Abroad Program
        Study abroad programs are inherently part of the fabric of building a successful
university international program. NAFSA (the association of international educators) confirms
that strong study abroad programs are a key component of successful internationalization.
                                                                                                       20


        Richard Stockton College of New Jersey is a member of The New Jersey State
Consortium for International Studies (NJSCIS). It provides students with the opportunity to
study in more than 50 countries and in a variety of languages in Europe, Asia, Australia, and
Central and South America for one or two semesters. Students can also study through Stockton’s
exchange program with an institution in Puerto Rico; through another American
college/university program or consortium; and at a foreign institution selected by the student and
approved in advance by the College.
        Study Abroad programs vary in cost. Some international programs are less expensive or
equal to a semester on campus at Stockton while others are substantially more expensive and
costs may vary each semester. Most programs in Australia, for example, are often more
expensive than those at Stockton while some programs in Europe are comparable to those at
Stockton. Students can use their financial aid at Stockton towards their study abroad program,
provided that students are a) enrolled full-time in the foreign institution while studying abroad,
and b) participate in a Stockton-sponsored study abroad program. In addition, there are some
scholarships, grants, and loans available from a number of organizations and institutions in the
United States for student who want to study abroad.
        The number of participants in the program has fluctuated over the past six years. The
chart below shows that the number of students studying abroad dropped significantly between
Fall 2001 and Summer 2003 (right after the 911 incident) but steadily increased between Fall
2003 and Summer 2007.
                                          Chart 1: Number of Students Studied Abroad, 2000-2007

                                  45
                                  40
                                  35
          number of students




                                  30
                                  25
                                  20
                                  15
                                  10
                                    5
                                    0
                                         2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007
                               Series1      24        16         9         21         21          29    40
                                                                          year


        Despite the increase in the number of students studying abroad, the enrollment remains
low. For example, based on the 2006-2007 enrollment numbers at Stockton, only 4% of the
student population studied abroad during Fall 2006 and Summer 2007. There are several
possible reasons for such low involvement in the program. Students at Stockton appear to be
reluctant to leave the United States to study abroad. Consequently, studying abroad is simply not
part of their focus, or they may not view it as an integral part of their college experience.
                                                                                                  21


Another possible major obstacle for students participating in the program is funding, especially
for minority and non-traditional students. In most cases, going abroad means additional
expenses, and some students may have the desire to study abroad but cannot afford do so,
especially if they have to work to support themselves while at Stockton.
        Robert Gregg has established links with a Chinese university in an attempt to develop a
Masters in American Studies at Stockton. Through his efforts, a Chinese student will be
attending Stockton in Spring 2008 to take courses in American Studies.
        This Taskforce recognizes the paramount role that studying abroad plays in providing a
student with a global perspective of the world. To this end, the Taskforce recommends that
Stockton make the Study Abroad Program a high priority by:

      providing information on the Study Abroad Program during new student recruitment
       visits. This will encourage students to think about the possibility of studying abroad
       early in their careers and begin the planning that facilitates studying abroad.
      developing protocols for use during student orientation to ensure the topics of study
       abroad/international education are covered in both student and parent sessions.
      developing protocols with the Admissions Office in order to encourage students
       admitted to Stockton to seek a global education by studying abroad.
      including information on Study Abroad Program with the advising documents for
       preceptors to advise their preceptees. Those students who are considering studying
       abroad during their junior year should be encouraged to take this into account when
       selecting their courses during preceptorial meetings.
      increasing the opportunity for Stockton students to study abroad by offering grants
       and scholarships for students to study abroad.
      addressing the need for diversification by encouraging the coordinators of African-
       African Studies, Holocaust Studies, Latin-American and Caribbean Studies etc. to
       seek linkages with universities abroad for student exchange programs. In conjunction
       with these efforts, the coordinators should be encouraged to send students abroad to
       study as part of the minor. These initiatives can result in increased diversity and
       participation on a number of levels.

Study Tours
        While the Taskforce acknowledges the paramount value of the traditional semester or
year-long opportunities for study abroad, it fully appreciates that many student prefer,
particularly for a first international sojourn, to travel and study with other Stockton students on a
generally shorter faculty-led international study tour.
        A study tour is a short-term travel program with specific learning objectives and goals. It
offers students the opportunity to travel to an area to study pre-determined topics as a component
of a college course. Study tours emphasize experiential learning and offer both group and self-
directed activities that enable students to explore new cultures. It provides first-hand experiences
of a country. Students usually enroll in the course at their home institution and travel to the
country of study for a few weeks. A study tour program is less costly than studying abroad
because the students pay only for their travel and accommodation for a shorter period of time in
comparison to studying abroad. There are several study tour programs at Stockton.
                                                                                                22


South Africa Now by Professor Melaku Lakew
        The South Africa Now study tour has been in operation for over 10 years and involves a
two and a half week visit to South Africa. Students are required to keep a reflective journal for
the duration of the tour and for two weeks after the trip is over. The students are expected to
organize a panel discussion based on their experience for the college wide community. Students
taking the course for credit have daily projects, many of these to be done at the University of
Cape Town Campus.
        While in South Africa, the students must attend lectures, keep a daily journal, and
complete assignments on their return to the United States. Over the last five years, over 90
students have participated in the South African study tour program. Ninety percent of the
students who have participated in the course are traveling for the first time out of the United
States and many of them work and go to school during the academic year.

Social Work Study Tours by Social Work Professors
        To provide social workers with a global perspective on their profession, several Social
Work professors have exposed their students to the world around them. In May, 1998, Professor
Diane Falk and a colleague from Sweden, who was born in Hungary, led a Stockton-sponsored
study tour to Hungary and Croatia. There were eight participants in this tour. In June 1999,
Professor Diane Falk led another study tour to London and Northern Ireland. That tour included
comparative social problems, social policy, social service delivery systems, and the role of the
social work profession. Twenty people, including Professor Diane Falk and her assistant, visited
Australia in June 2000. During that study tour, the focus was on the role of the social work
profession in bringing about social inclusion of indigenous peoples and other minority groups in
Australia.
        In May 2003 and in December-January 2004-2005, Professor Lisa Cox and Professor
Diane Falk led study tours to Costa Rica. In May 2007, Professor Lisa Cox, Professor Diane
Falk, and Professor Michael Cronin led another study tour to Costa Rica. The three weeks of
immersion in a Spanish-speaking country helps students at all levels of proficiency in Spanish to
develop the ability to comprehend spoken Spanish and to speak it with some confidence.

Study Tours by the Holocaust Resource Center led by Gail Rosenthal
       Several study tours have been led by Gail Rosenthal, Supervisor of the Holocaust
Resource Center, and Professor Michael Hayse. All of these tours focus largely on the history
and legacies of the Holocaust. The group leaders always try to take at least one Holocaust
survivor on the trip and match the itinerary, where possible, with the survivor’s experiences.
Beginning in 2004, all trips were linked to coursework in the context of GAH 2119, “History and
Memory of the Nazi Era.” The group has taken students to Poland (2006 and 2005), Germany
(2004), and Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium (2001). There were no study tours for 2002
and 2003 due to post-9/11 security concerns.

Study Tour to Mexico by Professor Nancy Taggart Davis
       For the past five years, Professor Nancy Taggart Davis has taken groups of students to
Mexico. They travel either in Winter or Spring and there have been as many as 25 students and
as few as two. She has also allowed students to take this trip as an independent study, which
enables them to focus on an area of interest such as art or history. While in Mexico, the students
study Spanish every morning from 8 AM until 1 PM at IDEAL Language School in Cuernavaca
                                                                                                 23


which offers a language immersion program. Spanish is the only language that is spoken in the
school and classes are never larger than five. Students also live with middle class Mexican
families so that they can become more proficient in Spanish. Dr. Davis plans to add a service-
learning component to the program, which would involve working for two afternoons a week in
a hospital, school or woman’s center.

Experience in Global Development: Belize
        This study tour to Belize, which is directed by Professor Patrick Hossay, is a two-week
service-learning experience. Participants generally spend a week in two different communities,
working on community development or conservation projects and work closely with member of
the local community during the day, and take trips to nearby ecological or cultural sites. Several
scheduled sessions take place to allow for group reflection and discussion of Belize culture,
economics, politics, and history. Students are also required to write a report upon return. Over
eighty Stockton students have traveled to Belize and they have refurbished a school library, a
community library, and a natural science museum; built a school cafeteria, a wildlife visitors and
education center, a restaurant for a Mayan women’s group, and a campground; installed five
computer centers in impoverished rural communities; developed three fair trade projects; and
operated two environmental summer schools for over seventy impoverished Belizean children.

Study Tour to Madrid, Spain
        Professor Gorica Majstorovic led a study tour during the 2007 spring break to Madrid,
Spain. Six students from the Languages and Culture Studies Program traveled to Europe for the
very first time. It was also the first time that a LANG faculty has taken the initiative to lead a
travel tour to Spain. It is of utmost importance that our students be exposed to the different
models of the Spanish language, especially the rich cultural history, topography, and diversity of
the Iberian Peninsula. While in Spain, Professor Majstorovic met with Dr. Jaime de Salas, who
directs the Fundación Xavier de Salas, to determine the possibility of a collaboration between
Stockton and La Fundación, located in Trujillo, two hours from Madrid.
        Many of the study tour leaders have expressed dissatisfaction with the complex process
involved in organizing study tours at Stockton. There is no central office which coordinates the
study tours and individual faculty members have to organize the tours on their own. These study
tours have served as a "gateway" to international experiences for some of our students who come
to Stockton with little travel experience. It is, therefore, important that Stockton:
     creates a centralized and coordinated system to deal with study tours so that the entire
        responsibility is not left to the tour leaders.
     provides travel funds for faculty members who organize study tours.

Faculty/Staff Exchanges or Mobility Programs
        Faculty and staff are the catalysts for internationalization. When faculty and staff have
had an opportunity to be directly involved in international work, there is a likelihood that they
will want to introduce international perspectives into the curriculum and into students’ activities.
Similarly, faculty and staff exchanges can bring foreign scholars into the Stockton community.
Consequently, faculty/staff exchange programs would be invaluable to Stockton, especially since
visiting exchange faculty could provide expertise in curricular development and innovation. In
addition, Stockton faculty returning from an exchange can share their experiences and expertise
with the wider Stockton community.
                                                                                                 24


         At Stockton, faculty and staff participation in exchange or mobility activities programs
has been based on individual initiatives since Stockton has no faculty exchange program. Past
and current data indicate that Stockton received only one visiting faculty under a sabbatical
program for the year 2006-2007. Several years ago, two faculty members were granted Fulbright
awards. In 2003, a faculty member from Social and Behavioral Sciences was a visiting professor
for a semester at a university in England.
         The major challenge facing Stockton is the need to balance the benefits of faculty and
staff participation in international activities with the ongoing financial and staffing difficulties
encountered in the college as a result of ongoing cutbacks. However, faculty members play a
key role in the design and delivery of an internationalized curriculum so it is, therefore,
imperative that the college invests in its faculty.
         Since faculty exchanges and mobility programs can help faculty members to develop
their international and comparative areas of expertise, enrich the academic discourse within
programs, and help to facilitate overseas contacts, Stockton should:
     compile an inventory of recent and current faculty and staff members who have
         participated in faculty mobility programs. This can eventually form part of a resource
         inventory of faculty, staff, and students whose expertise and experiences can be
         beneficial to the Stockton community.
     establish a committee to assess the cost/benefits/feasibility of faculty and staff exchanges
         as part of institutional agreements and increased participation in international
         development projects and collaborative research.
     encourage departments to consider hosting conferences or seminars with an international
         focus or international participation.

        International scholars, speakers, and performers enhance the student experience by
providing alternative perspectives and understanding of the world and its opportunities and
challenges. The Taskforce recognizes the importance of enriching the campus community with a
broad range of international academic expertise and wide array of international experiences. It,
therefore recommends that Stockton:

      acknowledges international visiting teacher-scholars as potential sources of campus
       enrichment and supports faculty efforts to invite such scholars to the college to make
       presentations to faculty and students.
      solicits regular visiting international scholars through the competitive application
       process available through the Fulbright Visiting Scholar in Residence Program, the
       Fulbright Visiting Specialists Program, and the Fulbright Occasional Lecturer
       Program to share their knowledge with the Stockton faculty and students.
      provides adequate inexpensive or free housing on campus for visiting international
       professors. There is currently no housing available for such scholars.

International Students
        International students are an important resource for internationalization and can benefit
Stockton in a number of ways. Their presence and participation in curricular, extra-curricular,
and Stockton’s activities can encourage an awareness of cultural differences, challenge
stereotypes and enhance student, staff, and faculty understanding of global issues. The presence
of international students in the classroom will likewise serve to broaden the classroom discourse
                                                                                                  25


as part of the academic experience. International students will also add a more global dimension
to social interaction of all of Stockton students and can be potential ambassadors for Stockton.
         The events of September 11 created substantial changes in the visa application and
approval processes. Consequently, the number of international students coming to the U.S. has
dropped significantly over the last few years. In recent years, it has become extremely difficult
for many students to obtain F-1 (student visa) status for the United States, and so fewer students
are granted visas at the U.S. Embassy in their home country. As a result, fewer students are also
applying to institutions in the U.S. because of the perceived difficulty in obtaining an F-1 visa. It
is also almost impossible now to “change status” here in the U.S. For example, it is very
difficult, if not impossible, for people on B-1 Visitor’s Visas to convert to an F-1 Student Visa,
and so a significant source of international students no longer exists.
         Stockton does not have an active recruitment mechanism to encourage international to
study at Stockton. International students arrive at Stockton from a variety of sources. While
they are extremely resourceful in how they identify appropriate colleges and universities to apply
to in the United States, the majority who “find” Stockton do so through three primary methods:

   1. Web Search: International students are adept at using certain search engines to locate
      institutions they feel will best serve them in terms of geographical location,
      availability of desired majors, reputation, and cost. Stockton’s desire to enroll
      international students is obvious in the language we use on the website and the ease
      with which international students can apply. Stockton also participates in an online
      international student brochure that is accessed by both the students themselves and
      secondary/university school counselors throughout the world. The brochure can be
      viewed at http://www.i-studentadvisor.com/Stockton/.
   2. Institutional Referral: The majority of Stockton’s international students find us by
      word of mouth. For example, we have a substantial Bulgarian population, in part,
      because Stockton has an excellent reputation in some of the most prestigious high
      schools and universities in Bulgaria. The burgeoning Bulgarian population in the
      Atlantic City-Ocean City area also contributes to our popularity. The same can be
      said for other populations, as well.
   3. Counselor Referral: Many international students begin their U.S. academic careers at
      community colleges and ESL schools. Stockton Admissions maintains contacts with
      numerous International Student Advisors at these institutions in order to coordinate
      and streamline what could be a somewhat cumbersome application/verification
      process. An admissions representative attends twice-yearly meetings of the South
      Jersey International Student Counselors (which also includes representatives from
      North Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania) to share updates and ensure that we remain in
      compliance with the Students and Exchange Visa Information System (SEVIS)
      regulations. It is vital that consistent practices and contacts are in place to avoid
      running afoul of Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS, formerly
      INS) rules.

       As of September 2007, there were 28 international students enrolled at Stockton who are
on F-1 Student Visas. There also several others who are enrolled under other types of visas
which allow the holders to take classes. The students came from:
Bulgaria              9
                                                                                                 26


Canada                 1
Egypt                  1
Ethiopia               1
Greece                 1
Kenya                  1
Nigeria                2
Pakistan               4
Peru                   1
Romania                3
South Africa           1
South Korea            1
Venezuela              1
Zimbabwe               1

International Student Services at Stockton
        Stockton provides a variety of services for international student prior to and after arrival
at Stockton. These services are provided by one of two persons in the Records Office. When an
international student contacts Stockton, the student is sent an International Student Application
Packet, with detailed instructions regarding SEVIS and BCIS requirements. Email and phone
contacts with Stockton staff enable international students to complete the application process and
apply for their student visa. These employees also assist transfer students to get their
international credits evaluated by an agency such as World Education Services. They also assist
international students with opening a bank account in the U.S. and obtaining a driver’s license in
New Jersey. They also pick students up at the airport if they are unable to arrange for
transportation to the College and assist with a number of other services.
        Once the students arrive at Stockton, the support services for international students are
extremely limited. There is no specific office available for international students and they are,
therefore, served by various offices in the college. Some of these students have expressed a
strong desire for more social activities and for an International Students Office as a focal point
for assistance/advice or where they could meet other international students and interact more
with Stockton students.
        Few financial resources are available for international studies since many are ineligible
for scholarships and awards which are designated specifically for U.S. students. Furthermore,
employment opportunities are limited for international students who are permitted to work only
on campus in accordance with immigration regulations.
        The subcommittee on international students had a long discussion of all the problems of
bringing students and the resources available at Stockton. The subcommittee, with the
membership of Giancarlo Panagia, identified someone of national stature, Dr Susan Sutton, the
Dean of International Affairs at IUPUI (the university from where our president came) as a
resource person who can provide invaluable guidance to the Taskforce. The subcommittee
decided to invite Dr. Sutton to campus to provide some advice assisting with developing our
International program here at Stockton. Since Professor Giancarlo, President Saatkamp, and Dr
Sutton knew each other, Dr. Sutton agreed to meet with the subcommittee this past summer
(Summer 2007). As a result, the subcommittee met with President Saatkamp in April, 2007 to
discuss the feasibility of inviting her to meet with them this past summer (2007). President
                                                                                                  27


Saatkamp agreed to set up an initial meeting with Dean Sutton. That meeting has not taken place
as yet.
        Because Stockton does not have an organized mechanism to attract international students,
along with the difficulties involved in obtaining a student visa for the United States, the number
of international students at Stockton has decreased drastically over the years. However, given
the importance of international students to internationalization, Stockton should make
international students a high priority by:

      improving the orientation services, academic and non-academic counseling, peer
       support programs and other supportive initiatives by making them more accessible to
       international students.
      creating an office of International Studies that would coordinate all international
       programs. This would include the Study Abroad Program, international student
       enrollment and support, and study tours. The situation is very fragmented at the
       present time, and this is creating a great deal of confusion and frustration for
       international students.
      designating a position to concentrate solely on international admissions efforts. In
       order for this position to achieve maximum productivity, it should be housed in an
       international programs office. This will allow the position to interface closely with
       international programs and activities and to utilize the resources available.
      establishing a scholarship fund be set up for international students. This will enable
       Stockton to attract increased numbers of international students and remain
       competitive with other institutions which are able to provide funding incentives to
       potential international students.
      providing additional housing for international students. Presently, there is no specific
       housing for international students.
      providing cross-cultural training for faculty and staff to help sensitize them to the
       needs and resources of international students.

Foreign Language Requirement
         The learning of other languages provides students with functional skills and deeper
cultural awareness of a particular country. Some would argue that it is impossible to understand
and function in another culture without basic competency in the language used. Several students
at Stockton avail themselves of the opportunity to study another language, and there is a
language department at Stockton. However, Stockton has no foreign language requirement. It is
important that Stockton’s students are able to acquire more language skills while they are at the
institution. All program departments should consider the importance of students acquiring
foreign language skills during their academic study.
         Stockton’s mission statement states “At Stockton we seek to help our students develop
the capacity for continuous learning and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances in a
multicultural and interdependent world by insisting on breadth, as well as depth, in our
curriculum,” yet Stockton does not offer enough foreign languages courses to students. The
acquisition of foreign language skills is important to a global economy and so the Taskforce
recommends that:
                                                                                                  28


          priorities for language study be examined in terms of curricular issues, expertise
           and capacity on campus in preparing graduates for the global economy. Ideally,
           language instruction should focus not just on grammar and syntax but also on
           related cultural dimensions.
          programs should consider including a foreign language requirement in their
           curriculum.
          consideration be given to the substitution of a G-category requirement if a student
           takes more than one GEN or GAH of a foreign language.
          new ways of “delivering” foreign languages be explored, especially the less
           commonly taught languages, through the use of technology, innovative
           scheduling, use of native informants, etc.

International Studies Minor
        The Minor in International Studies is an interdisciplinary minor meant to complement
any discipline either by adding an international component to that major or by strengthening an
existing international emphasis. The minor provides a broad overview of international issues for
students.
        Since it inception, the Taskforce has been working on an International Studies Minor.
The Taskforce has discussed various options for the International Studies Minor including area
studies and thematic concentrations. It has also discussed the number of credits, required
courses, language requirement, and study abroad/study tour experiences.
        Stockton already has many international course offerings, study abroad possibilities, as
well as foreign language courses. With the simple addition of a cross-disciplinary gateway
course, a capstone course, and international internships, as well as satisfactory completion of a
required foreign language fluency track, a high quality International Studies Minor can be
created.

International Studies Office
         A major obstacle to the internationalization process at Stockton is the absence of any
established administrator, office, or mechanism to act as a common point of contact for our
international students, study abroad program, study tours, and the variety of individual faculty
members who are interested international research or teaching. The coordination of international
efforts through a single office is essential to the process of internationalization. Such an office
will need to be sufficiently empowered so as to have the authority necessary to work in a
collaborative manner with all members of the Stockton community, including Academic Affairs,
Deans’ Council, the faculty, and Student Affairs.
         The Taskforce recommends the creation of an International Programs Office. This office
would coordinate several international activities across the campus. It would:

      administer the Study Abroad Program and coordinate the study tours.
      support and enhance the development of strong thematic and area studies programs
       that would enable the college to bring a considerable level of diversity and flexibility
       to these courses offered at Stockton.
      be the principal agency for encouraging and coordinating programs and research
       related to international studies at Stockton.
      provide opportunities for scholarly international pursuits on campus and abroad.
                                                                                                  29


       facilitate international training and education of professional teaching staff, sponsor
       lectures, conferences, and workshops.
      invite faculty to become affiliated with the Center when their coursework or research is
       relevant to the international mission of the university.
      encourage collaborations between students and faculty and sponsor international
       opportunities for graduate students.


Surveys
         In keeping with the committee's commitment to the process of consultation and building
a critical mass of supporters at Stockton, the Taskforce conducted surveys on international
education with students. The purpose of the surveys was to raise awareness and obtain feedback
from students on some of the issues related to the internationalization of the curriculum at
Stockton. The Taskforce is presently working on a survey for the faculty as well. The results of
student surveys are presented below:

                      RESULTS OF STUDENTS’ SURVEYS (N=159)

             Table 1: Respondents Past and Current International Experiences
                                                       Yes       No      Missing
        Traveled to another country with family        52%      48%
        Traveled to another country with school group   8%      92%
        Lived in another country                        4%      96%
        Moved to the United States from another         4%      96%
        country
        Immediate family member has moved to United    26%      74%
        States
        Speaks a language other than English at home   11%      89%
        Hosted an international student                 4%      95%         1%
        Have friends or family members in another      45%      55%
        country
        Participated in international exchange program  2%      98%
        Attended summer program in another country       3      96%         1%
        Studied a foreign language in high school      94%       6%
        Studying a foreign language at Stockton         6%      94%
        Currently taking courses that focus on another 13%      87%
        country/region/culture



                     Table 2: Future International Experiences at Stockton

                                                  Yes     No      Don’t Know Missing
        Plan to study a foreign language at       33%    62%           6
        Stockton
        Plan on taking courses that focus on       33     62%          5%
                                                                                             30


        another country/region/culture
        Plan to study Abroad while at            26%       18%        54%           2%
        Stockton
        Important for Stockton to offer          95%        1%         3%           1%
        International Studies Minor
        Would be interested in the               34%       27%        38%           1%
        International Minor


              Table 3: Demographics of Respondents

        Gender
         Male                                        38%
         Female                                      58%
         Missing                                      4
        Age
         18-21 years                                 87%
         22-25 years                                  7%
         Over 25 years                                3%
         Missing                                      3%
        Race/Ethnicity
         White/Caucasian                              70%
         Black/African American                       10%
         Hispanic                                      6%
         Others                                       14%
        Year in college
         Freshmen                                     54%
         Sophomore                                    18%
         Junior                                       22%
         Senior                                        1%
         Missing                                       5%

Comments from respondents include the following:

      Excellent idea to increase the amount of international events available to students.
      I’ve been to Okinawa, Japan.
      I think that this program fabulous idea and wish I had enough time to participate.
      It seems interesting and I would want to do it but don’t know about the money
      and it might be hard to keep up the grades.
      Let’s do it!! (this refers to the International Studies Minor)
      Thanks for the information.
      Would love to study abroad but am an employee of Stockton. I’m not sure how
      they would feel about me taking an entire semester off.
                                                                                                  31


        It is clear from the results that although the majority of respondents reported that they had
taken a foreign language in high school, they have not continued to improve their foreign
language skills at Stockton. In addition, only 13% of the respondents are currently taking
courses that focus on another country/region/culture.
        The results from a survey conducted by American Council on Education (2000) indicated
that over 70 percent of the sample of 1,000 Americans over the age of 18 said that students
should be required to study a foreign language in college if they did not already know one. More
than three out of four respondents supported requiring students to take international courses.
Over 70 percent of them agreed that students should have a study, work, or internship experience
abroad sometime during their postsecondary studies. In a similar survey of 500 high school
seniors intending to enroll at a four-year college or university, over 80 percent of those
responding stated that it was important that colleges and universities offer opportunities for them
to interact with international students; 75 percent felt that it was important for colleges to offer
courses on international topics; and over 70 percent said it was important that their institution
offer study abroad programs.
        Given the results from our student surveys and the American Council on Education
American Council survey, the arguments for mandatory foreign language course and an
International Studies Minor at Stockton are strong ones.

Role of Administration
         Institutional barriers are often challenges to the process of internationalizing an
institution (see Bond, 2003; Green & Olson, 2003). One of the major obstacles is the lack of
financial resources which prevents the development of incentives for faculty to engage in
international activities (Bond, 2003; Engberg & Green, 2002; Green & Olson, 2003). In
particular, financial constraints may preclude faculty from participating in teaching, research,
and consulting projects overseas due to the significant costs involved in traveling and working
overseas. Therefore, without financial resources, faculty lack the support necessary to promote
their involvement in international teaching, research, and service activities. Another major
barrier is restrictive tenure and promotion policies. Research indicates that many U.S. higher
education institutions do not explicitly include international teaching, research, and service in
their tenure and promotion policies (Ellingboe, 1998; Siaya & Hayward,, 2003). Consequently,
it appears that most institutions do not recognize and reward international activities during the
tenure and promotion process. As such, these restrictive tenure and promotion policies create a
lack of incentives for faculty to engage in international efforts.
         For the internationalization process to be successful at Stockton, it requires the expressed
support and ongoing involvement of the all senior administrators, and in particular the Provost of
Academic Affairs. Since Stockton places a high value on, and is supportive of, faculty and staff
participation in local, regional, national and international levels, whether disseminating
information through presentations, learning by attendance at relevant sessions, or assisting in
organizing meetings and other group activities, it is important that the administration of Stockton
make an ardent commitment to internationalization. Specifically, the administration should:

      incorporate the international perspective into its aims, and its mission should
       acknowledge and legitimize the internationalization process.
                                                                                                  32


      recognize the international accomplishments of all faculty and staff as part of the tenure
       and promotion policies. Currently, recognition for various international activities by
       individuals appears to be ad hoc and inconsistent.
      adopt a hiring policy that includes criteria which address international participation and
       experience.
      establish an ongoing working group of staff and faculty (with open membership) to
       stimulate the involvement of staff and faculty in the internationalization of the college.

       The successful implementation of the recommendations in this report requires leadership
and direction at the senior administrative level. This leadership must be based on a sound and
thorough assessment of Stockton’s current assets and liabilities, as well as on clearly articulated
expectations for what might be achieved through college-wide strategies of internationalization.

Conclusion
        In the past several years, there has been some progress in the internationalization effort at
Stockton. The number of students studying abroad and the number of study tours have
increased. The foreign language program has increased its academic offerings to students, a
number of faculty members are involved in international research, and the college has an active
international exchange student program. On the other hand, the number of international students
has decreased, student tour directors have experienced a great deal of frustration organizing their
study tours, and there is no single office to coordinate all of the international activities.
        The Taskforce has proposed strategies for an internationalized Stockton. This report
describes how to strengthen the international dimensions of student and faculty work at Stockton,
as well as how to improve the number and quality of international faculty and students brought to
Stockton. Internationalization is an unalterable reality of the American higher education in the
21st century. Some of the developments described in this report will occur whether or not its
recommendations are accepted. The administration of Stockton must decide how we as an
academic community will respond to the forces of globalization. Stockton already possesses a
national reputation. Similar success within the international arena will be highly dependent on
the college’s ability to establish a unique international identity through increased expertise,
resources, and commitment to the goals and ideals of internationalization. A coherent
internationalization vision is a breathtaking goal but, with sufficient dedication and resources, it
is a goal within our grasp.
                                                                                                33


References
American Council on Education. (2000). Internationalization of U.S. Higher Education:
Preliminary Status Report 2000. Washington, DC: Author.
Bond, S. (2003). Untapped resources: Internationalization of the curriculum and classroom
     experience. Canadian Bureau for International Education Research, 7, 1-15.
Ellingboe, B. J. (1998). Divisional strategies to internationalize a campus portrait. In J. A.
     Mestenhauser & B. A. Ellingboe (Eds.), Reforming the higher education curriculum:
     Internationalizing the campus (pp. 198-228). Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press.
Engberg, D., & Green, M. F. (2002). Promising practices: Spotlighting excellence in
     Comprehensive internationalization. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Green, M. F., & Olson, C. L. (2003). Internationalizing the campus: A user's guide.
     Washington, DC: American Council on Education
Groennings, S. & Wiley, J. (l990). Group Portrait: Internationalizing the disciplines. New
     York: The American Forum for Global Education.
Hanson, K.H. and Meyerson, J. (eds.) (l995). International challenges to American Colleges
     and Universities: Looking Ahead. Phoenix, AZ: American Council on Education and The
     Oryx Press.
Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: Definitions, approaches and rationales.
     Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31.
Knight, J. (l997, Spring). A Shared Vision? Stakeholders’ Perspectives on the
     Internationalization of Higher Education in Canada. Journal of Studies in International
     Education. 1 (1), 27-44.
Knight, J. (1994). Internationalization:: Elements and checkpoints. Canadian Bureau for
     International Education Research, 7, 1-15.
Lambert, R.D. (l989). International Studies and the undergraduate. Washington, DC: American
     Council on Education.
Siaya, L., & Hayward, F. M. (2003). Mapping internationalization on U.S. campuses.
     Washington, DC: American Council on Education




i
    According to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language:

         “Writers at the Intermediate-Low level are able to meet some limited practical
         writing needs. They can create statements and formulate questions based on
         familiar material. Most sentences are recombinations of learned vocabulary and
         structures. These are short and simple conversational-style sentences with basic
         subject-verb-object word order. They are written mostly in present time with
         occasional and often incorrect use of past or future time. Writing tends to be a few
         simple sentences, often with repetitive structure. Vocabulary is limited to
         common objects and routine activities, adequate to express elementary needs.
         Writing is somewhat mechanistic and topics are limited to highly predictable
         content areas and personal information tied to limited language experience. There
                                                                                    34



may be basic errors in grammar, word choice, punctuation, spelling, and in the
formation and use of non-alphabetic symbols. When Intermediate-Low writers
attempt to perform writing tasks at the Advanced level. their writing will
deteriorate significantly and their message may be left incomplete. Their writing
is understood by natives used to the writing of non-natives, although additional
effort may be required.”

				
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