6Chapter-20---Part-3 by ashrafp


									                                                                             Heather Gayle
                                                                              Phillip Pierce
                                                                                    Period 6

           Chapter 20 Section 7: Air Pollution Solutions and Laws/Regulations

Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution
 Key Concept: Clean Air Acts in the United States have greatly reduced outdoor air
     Clean Air Acts of 1970, 1977, & 1990- Government established regulations for
       key pollutants that each state must follow.
     National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)- Six criteria pollutants that the
       EPA regulates. These include: Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulfur
       Dioxide, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Ozone, and Lead.
     The EPA has also set standards for more than 188 hazardous air pollutants
       (HAPs) that are known to cause serious health and ecological effects.
            o You can become informed about the potential HAPs in your area by
              obtaining the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The government must
              release this document by a law passed by Congress in 1986. Requires
              23,000 refineries, power plants, hard rock mines, chemical manufacturers,
              and factories to report their toxin releases and waste management methods
     These acts have decreased the emission of air pollutants by 48% between 1970
       and 2002 according to a 2003 EPA report.

How Can U.S. Air Pollution Laws Be Improved?
Key Concept: Environmentalists suggest that we put forth more effort in reducing air
     There a two reasons why the level of air pollution has reduced dramatically: 1)
        U.S. citizens have insisted that laws be passed to improve the quality of air and 2)
        the country was affluent enough to afford such controls and improvements.
     Environmentalists have found several flaws in the Clean Air Act:
            o Continuing to rely mostly on pollution cleanup rather than prevention
            o The failure of Congress to increase fuel-efficiency standards for cars, sport
                utility vehicles, and light trucks.
            o Inadequate regulation of emissions from inefficient two-cycle gasoline
                engines. Examples: Lawn Mowers, Leaf blowers, chain saws, and jet skis.
            o There is little or no regulation of air pollution from oceangoing ships in
                American ports. Example: A single ship emits more air pollution than
                2,000 diesel trucks.
            o Failed to do much about reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other
                greenhouse gases and failed to deal seriously with indoor air pollution.
            o There is a major need for better enforcement of the Clean Air Acts.
                      This would save about 6,000 lives each year and prevent 140,000
                         asthma attacks in the U.S.

Case Study: Using the Marketplace to Reduce Pollution-Emissions Trading
      The Clean Air Act of 1990 has permitted an emissions trading policy, which
       allows power plant companies to purchase and sell sulfur dioxide pollution rights.
      Negative Points: Environmentalists think that this method allows utilities with
       older, dirtier power plants to buy their way out and keep emitting high levels of
       sulfur dioxide.
      But between 1980 and 2002, the emissions trading system reduced 40% of sulfur
       dioxide emissions in the United States.

Reducing Outdoor Air Pollution from Coal-Burning Facilities
    Pollution can be reduced at the input stage by using clean coal technologies.
          o Fluidized-bed combustion: reduces pollutant emissions while also burning
             coal more efficiently by blowing a stream of hot air into a boiler to burn a
             mixture of powdered coal and crushed limestone.
          o Coal gasification: Has a mixture of advantages and serious disadvantages.
    Environmentalists are gravely concerned with the level of coal pollution that is
      reaching the troposphere and want to create more ways to prevent this from

Case Study: Air Pollution from Older Coal-Burning Facilities
    There is a problem in the United States of whether older coal-burning plants
       should have to meet the same air pollution standards as new plants.
    A rule established in the Clean Air Act called the New Source Review now
       requires these older facilities to upgrade pollution control equipment when they
       expand or modernize their facilities.
          o Many facilities have gone against this rule by expanding the plants and
              calling it maintenance and lobbying elected officials to have this rule

How Can We Reduce Outdoor Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles? Emphasize
    Motor Vehicles are the main culprits in the production of photochemical
    One way to reduce vehicular pollution is to get old vehicles which have
      higher pollution off our roads
    The EPA estimates: 10% of the vehicles on the road in the U.S. emit 50-70%
      vehicular air pollutants
    One solution would be to pay people to take older cars off the road and
      purchase a newer more environmentally friendly car
    A team of engineers working with funds received from the National Science
      Foundation found a new way for oil companies, power plants, and cars to
      remove sulfur impurities from diesel, jet fuel, and gasoline using chemicals
      called zeolites
    The absorption process also works at room temperature and pressure and
      does not require a catalytic converter, making the process more economical
      In the next 10-20 years it is said that air pollution from vehicles should
       decrease from use of partial zero-emission vehicles
      However more developing countries are beginning to use and still are using
       older vehicles in urban areas

What Should We Do About Ultrafine Particles? Another Controversy
  The Argument has to due with the removing of these ultrafine particles or
    reducing of emissions because their affect on human health.
     Invisible particles especially fine particles with diameters less than 10
         microns and ultrafine particles with less than 2.5 microns have health
     They can not be captured by many air pollution control devices and can even
         penetrate the reparatory systems natural defenses against air pollution,
         and also can carry toxic cancer causing chemicals
     These particles once in the lungs can cause lung irritation, asthma attacks,
         and lung cancer. These issues than hinder the bloods uptake of oxygen and
         release of CO2 which can cause the heart to become strained and also death
         from heart disease
     It is said that these particles prematurely kill 65,000-200,000 people in U.S.
     If solved the World Bank estimates that it would prevent 300,000-700,000
         deaths per year world wide
     In 1997 the EPA put stricter standards on the emissions of these ultrafine
         particles which cost about 120 billion dollars a year to maintain including
         health issues and other benefits associated that must be paid for
     However many believe it is all based on flimsy evidence and are trying to
         post pone its implementation or have it overturned because of its 200
         billion dollar implementation cost

How Can We Reduce Indoor Air Pollution? Emphasize Prevention
  It has a greater impact on human health than does outdoor air pollution
        One possibility is the building of greenhouses on the rooftops of
           buildings through which building air can be circulated
        Another possibility is the implementing of better stoves in developing
           countries which are more efficient and remove wastes from the home
        However no standards can be set and not every building can be
           monitored there are many easy ways to prevent indoor air pollution

What Is The Next Step? Individuals Matter
  One of our main emphasis is to reduce indoor air pollution in developing
         Since 1970 many developed countries have enacted laws and
           regulations that have reduced outdoor air pollution
   Strong political pressure from individuals and groups helped to enact,
    fund, and implement these laws and regulations
   The current laws are the output approach to control pollution, but
    many believe the next step would be preventing air pollution all
   The only way to get these ideas and plans implemented for preventing
    pollution is once again pressure our elected officials whether it be
    individually or as a group, so that we can get the funding and support

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