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        ASTRONOMY BENCHMARK STUDYGUIDE
                   Answer Key
  1. Day and night are caused by               earth’s rotation on its axis
  2. Earth’s rotation takes about 24 hours                  .
  3. One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about one
      year or 365 days.
  4. Earth has seasons because earth’s axis is tilted as it revolves around
      the sun.
  5. When the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun, North
      America will experience more direct rays and longer days - summer.
  6. You never see the far side of the moon because the moon rotates
      once for each revolution around the earth.
  7. The phase of the moon you see depends on how much of the lit side
      of the moon is facing earth.
  8. From new moon phase to full moon phase you see an increasing
      amount of the lit side of the moon.
  9. The amount of the lighted side of the moon you can see is the same
      during the                 1st quarter and 3rd quarter
  10. For a solar eclipse to occur      the moon must be directly between
      earth and the sun.
  11. During what phase can a lunar eclipse occur           full moon
  12. You are less likely to see a solar eclipse than a lunar eclipse because
             you must be in the moons shadow to see a solar eclipse. The
      moons shadow is very small.
  13. Tides are caused mainly by        differences in how much the moon
      pulls on different parts of earth – gravity.

  14. How large is the moon compared to Earth? ¼ the diameter or size
      of earth.
  15. Much of what scientists know about the moon has come from
             Studying moon rocks that astronauts brought back.
  16. Photographs of the far side of the moon show that
             The far side is much rougher than the near side. Lots of
      craters
17. The model in which Earth is at the center of the system of planets is
    called the geocentric system, earth centered
18. Copernicus explained that        the sun is at the center of the
    planets, heliocentric
19. The two factors combine to keep the planets in orbit are
            gravity and inertia
20. The tendency of a moving object to continue moving in a straight
    line or a stationary object to remain in place is called inertia.
21. What do all inner planets have in common?              Rocky surfaces,
    terrestrial, small
22.Earth is unique among the planets because of its water/oceans
23. Venus and Earth are much alike in terms of their Size and density
24. What do the four outer planets have in common? Gas giants, larger,
no solid surfaces.
25.Saturn’s rings are made up mostly of             rock and ice
26. Uranus is different from most other planets because it rotates on
its side.
27. Some astronomers think Pluto should not be called a planet because
    it is so small.
28. What shape are the orbits of most comets? Long, narrow, ellipses
29. The asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter
30. Meteoroids usually come from comets or asteroids.
31. When a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere, it produces a streak
    of light called a meteor
32. Conditions required for life on Earth include liquid water
33. A light year is      the distance light travels in a year.
34. Parallax is a method used to determine a star’s distance from the
    earth.
35. The force that tends to pull together the matter in stars is gravity
36. How are elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different? Elliptical
    galaxies have almost no gas or dust, older galaxies.
37. The Milky Way Galaxy is a        spiral                 galaxy.
38. The theory that astronomers have developed to describe the
    formation of the universe is called the Big Bang Theory
39. The solar system formed from a giant cloud of gas and dust.
40. Draw and label an example of a lunar eclipse and solar eclipse below
    showing the position of the Sun, Moon, and Earth:

				
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