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					       Chapter Seven : Device Management

• System Devices               Paper Storage Media
• Sequential Access Storage
  Media
                              Magnetic Tape Storage
• Direct Access Storage
  Devices
• Components of I/O           Magnetic Disk Storage
  Subsystem
• Communication Among
  Devices                      Optical Disc Storage
• Management of I/O
  Requests
 Understanding                                        1
 Operating Systems
             Device Management Functions

• Track status of each device (such as tape drives, disk
  drives, printers, plotters, and terminals).
• Use preset policies to determine which process will get a
  device and for how long.
• Allocate the devices.
• Deallocate the devices at 2 levels:
     – At process level when I/O command has been executed & device is
       temporarily released
     – At job level when job is finished & device is permanently
       released.


Understanding                                                        2
Operating Systems
                    System Devices

• Differences among system’s peripheral devices are a
  function of characteristics of devices, and how well they’re
  managed by the Device Manager.

• Most important differences among devices
  – Speeds
  – Degree of sharability.

• By minimizing variances among devices, a system’s
  overall efficiency can be dramatically improved.

Understanding                                                3
Operating Systems
                    Dedicated Devices

• Assigned to only one job at a time and serve that job for
  entire time it’s active.
   – E.g., tape drives, printers, and plotters, demand this
     kind of allocation scheme, because it would be
     awkward to share.

• Disadvantage -- must be allocated to a single user for
  duration of a job’s execution.
   – Can be quite inefficient, especially when device isn’t
     used 100 % of time.

Understanding                                                 4
Operating Systems
                    Shared Devices

• Assigned to several processes.
   – E.g., disk pack (or other direct access storage device)
     can be shared by several processes at same time by
     interleaving their requests.

• Interleaving must be carefully controlled by Device
  Manager.

• All conflicts must be resolved based on predetermined
  policies to decide which request will be handled first.

Understanding                                                  5
Operating Systems
                    Virtual Devices

• Combination of dedicated devices that have been
  transformed into shared devices.
   – E.g, printers are converted into sharable devices
      through a spooling program that reroutes all print
      requests to a disk.
   – Output sent to printer for printing only when all of a
      job’s output is complete and printer is ready to print out
      entire document.
   – Because disks are sharable devices, this technique can
      convert one printer into several ―virtual‖ printers, thus
      improving both its performance and use.
Understanding                                                  6
Operating Systems
           Sequential Access Storage Media

• Magnetic tape used for secondary storage on early
  computer systems; now used for routine archiving &
  storing back-up data.
• Records on magnetic tapes are stored serially, one after
  other.
• Each record can be of any length.
     – Length is usually determined by the application program.
• Each record can be identified by its position on the tape.
• To access a single record, tape is mounted & ―fast-
  forwarded‖ from its beginning until locate desired position.

Understanding                                                     7
Operating Systems
                     Magnetic Tapes

• Data is recorded on 8 parallel
  tracks that run length of tape.
• Ninth track holds parity bit used                      Parity
  for routine error checking.

• Number of characters that can be
                                                     •
                                                     •
  recorded per inch is determined               •    •
  by density of tape (e.g., 1600 or             •
                                                     •
  6250 bpi).                      Characters   •
                                                 •   •
                                               •     •
                                               •
 Understanding                                                8
 Operating Systems
        Storing Records on Magnetic Tapes

• Can store records individually or grouped into blocks.
     – If individually, each record is separated by a space to indicate its
       starting and ending places.
     – If blocks, then entire block is preceded by a space and followed by
       a space, but individual records are stored sequentially within block.


• Interrecord gap (IRG) is gap between records about 1/2
  inch long regardless of the sizes of the records it separates.

• Interblock gap (IBG) the gap between blocks of records;
  still 1/2 inch long.

Understanding                                                              9
Operating Systems
                    Pros & Cons of Blocking

• Fewer I/O operations are needed because a single READ
  command can move an entire block (physical record that
  includes several logical records) into main memory.
• Less tape is wasted because size of physical record
  exceeds size of gap.

• Overhead and software routines are needed for blocking,
  deblocking, and record keeping.
• Buffer space may be wasted if you need only one logical
  record but must read an entire block to get it.

Understanding                                               10
Operating Systems
                    Transfer Rates & Speeds

• Block size set to take advantage of transfer rate.

• Transfer rate -- density of the tape, multiplied by the tape
  transport speed (speed of the tape)
        transfer rate = density * transport speed

• If transport speed is 200 inches per second, at 1600 bpi, a
  total of 320,000 bytes can be transferred in one second,
     – Theoretically optimal size of a block is 320,000 bytes.
     – Buffer must be equivalent.

Understanding                                                    11
Operating Systems
 Magnetic Tape Access Times Vary Widely

Benchmarks           Access time
Maximum access       2.5 minutes
Average access       1.25 minutes
Sequential access    3 milliseconds

• Variability makes magnetic tape a poor medium for routine
  secondary storage except for files with very high
  sequential activity.



Understanding                                            12
Operating Systems
    Direct Access Storage Devices (Random
            Access Storage Devices)
• Direct access storage devices (DASDs)-- any devices that
  can directly read or write to a specific place on a disk.

• Two major categories:
• DASD with fixed read/write heads
• DASD with movable read/write heads.

• Although variance in DASD access times isn’t as wide as
  with magnetic tape, location of specific record still has a
  direct effect on amount of time required to access it.

Understanding                                                   13
Operating Systems
                    Fixed-Head Drums

                            • Magnetically recordable drums.

                            • Resembles a giant coffee can
                              covered with magnetic film and
                              formatted so the tracks run
                              around it.
                            • Data is recorded serially on
                              each track by the read/write
                              head positioned over it.
                            • Fixed-head drums were very
                              fast but also very expensive,
                              and they did not hold as much
                              data as other DASDs.

Understanding                                             14
Operating Systems
                    Fixed Head Disks

• Fixed-head disks -- each
  disk looks like a phonograph         Rotation
  album.
• Covered with magnetic film
  that has been formatted,
  usually on both sides, into
  concentric circles.
• Each circle is a track. Data
  is recorded serially on each
  track by the fixed read/write
  head positioned over it.
• One head for each track.


Understanding                                     15
Operating Systems
           Pros & Cons of Fixed Head Disks

• Very fast—faster than movable-head disks.

• High cost.

• Reduced storage space compared to a moveable-head disk
     – because tracks must be positioned farther apart to accommodate
       width of the read/write heads.




Understanding                                                           16
Operating Systems
           Movable-Head Drums and Disks

• Movable-head drums have only a few read/write heads that
  move from track to track to cover entire surface of drum.
     – Least expensive device has only 1 read/write head for entire drum
     – More conventional design has several read/write heads that move
       together.


• One read/write head that floats over the surface of the disk.

• Disks can be individual units (used with many PCs) or part
  of a disk pack (a stack of disks).


Understanding                                                          17
Operating Systems
                            Cylinders

• It’s slower to fill a disk pack surface-by-surface than to fill
  it up track-by-track.

• If fill Track 0 of all surfaces, got virtual cylinder of data.
    – Are as many cylinders as there are tracks.
    – Cylinders are as tall as the disk pack.


• To access any given record, system needs:
    – Cylinder number, so arm can move read/write heads to it.
    – Surface number, so proper read/write head is activated.
    – Record number, so read/write head know when to begin reading or
      writing.
                                                                   18
            Optical Disc Storage (CD-ROM)

• Optical disc drives uses a laser beam to read and write to
  multi-layered discs.

• Optical disc drives work in a manner similar to a magnetic
  disk drive.
     – Head on an arm that moves forward and backward across the disc.


• Uses a high-intensity laser beam to burn pits (indentations)
  and lands (flat areas) in disc to represent ones and zeros,
  respectively.

Understanding                                                        19
Operating Systems
    Concentric Tracks vs. Spiraling Tracks

• Magnetic disk consists of concentric tracks of sectors and
  it spins at a constant speed (constant angular velocity).
   – Because sectors at outside of disk spin faster past
      read/write head than inner sectors, outside sectors are
      much larger than sectors located near center of disk.

• An optical disc consists of a single spiraling track of same-
  sized sectors running from center to rim of disc.
   – Allows many more sectors & much more data to fit on
      optical disc compared to magnetic disk of same size.

Understanding                                                   20
Operating Systems
                    Measures of Performance
                     for Optical Disc Drives
• Sustained data-transfer rate -- speed at which massive
  amounts of data can be read from disc.
     – Measured in bytes per second (such as Mbps).
     – Crucial for applications requiring sequential access.
• Average access time -- average time required to move
  head to a specific place on disc.
     – Expressed in milliseconds (ms).
• Cache size -- hardware cache acts as a buffer by
  transferring blocks of data from the disc
     – Anticipates user may want to reread some recently retrieved info.
     – Act as read-ahead buffer, looking for next block of info on disc.

Understanding                                                              21
Operating Systems
                    CD-ROM Technology

• CD-ROM -- first commonly used optical storage DASD.

• Stores very large databases, reference works, complex
  games, large software packages, system documentation,
  and user training material.

• CD-ROM jukeboxes (autochangers or libraries) are
  capable of handling multiple discs and networked to
  distribute multimedia and reference works to distant user.



Understanding                                                  22
Operating Systems
        CD-Recordable Technology (CD-R)

• CD-R drives record data on optical discs using a write-
  once technique.

• WORM (write once, read many).

• Only a finite amount of data can be recorded on each disc
  and, once data is written, it can’t be erased or modified.

• It has an extremely long shelf life.


Understanding                                                  23
Operating Systems
      CD-Rewritable Technology (CD-RW)

• CD-RW drives can read a standard CD-ROM, CD-R and
  CD-RW discs.

• CD-RW discs can be written and rewritten many times by
  focusing a low-energy laser beam on surface, heating
  media just enough to erase pits that store data and restoring
  recordable media to its original state.

• Useful for storing large quantities of data and for sound,
  graphics, and multimedia applications.

Understanding                                                  24
Operating Systems
    Digital Video Disc (DVD) Techonolgy

• DVD uses infrared laser to read disc (holds equivalent of
  13 CD-ROM discs).
• By using compression technologies, has more than enough
  space to hold a 2-hour of movie with enhanced audio.
   – Single layered DVDs can hold 4.7 GB
   – Double-layered disc can hold 8.5 GB on each side of the disc.
     DVDs are used to store music, movies, and multimedia
     applications.


• DVD-RAM is a writable technology that uses a red laser
  to read, modify, and write data to DVD discs.
                                                                     25
         Three Factors Contribute To Time
            Required To Access a File
• Seek time -- time required to position the read/write head
  on the proper track. (Doesn’t apply to devices with fixed
  read/write heads.)
     – Slowest of the three factors


• Search time (rotational delay) -- time it takes to rotate
  DASD until requested record is under read/write head.

• Transfer time -- when data is actually transferred from
  secondary storage to main memory.
     – Fastest.
Understanding                                                 26
Operating Systems
       Access Time For Fixed-Head Devices

• Fixed-head devices can access a record by knowing its
  track number and record number.

• Total amount of time required to access data depends on:
     – Rotational speed is constant within each device (although it varies
       from device to device)
     – Position of record relative to position of the read/write head.

             search time (rotational delay)
           + transfer time (data transfer)
                   access time

Understanding                                                            27
Operating Systems
                Example of Access Time For
                   Fixed-Head Devices
• How long will it take to access a record?

• Typically, one complete revolution takes 16.8 ms, so
  average rotational delay is 8.4 ms.
• Data transfer time varies from device to device, but a
  typical value is 0.00094 ms per byte
     – size of record dictates this value.
• For example, it takes 0.094 ms (almost 0.1 ms) to transfer
  a record with 100 bytes.


Understanding                                                  28
Operating Systems
   Access Time For Movable-Head Devices

• Movable-head DASDs adds time required to move arm
  into position over the proper track (seek time).

             seek time (arm movement)
             search time (rotational delay)
           + transfer time (data transfer)
                    access time


• Seek time is the longest and several strategies have been
  developed to minimize it.


Understanding                                                 29
Operating Systems
            Components of the I/O Subsystem
                                               Disk 1
                              Control Unit 1
                  Channel 1                    Disk 2
                              Control Unit 2   Disk 3

                                               Tape 1
CPU
                                               Tape 2

                              Control Unit 3   Tape 3

                  Channel 2                    Tape 4
                              Control Unit 4
                                               Disk 4
                                               Disk 5
  Understanding                                         30
  Operating Systems
          I/O Subsystem : I/O Channel

• I/O Channel -- keeps up with I/O requests from CPU and
  pass them down the line to appropriate control unit.
   – Programmable units placed between CPU and control unit.
   – Synchronize fast speed of CPU with slow speed of the I/O device.
   – Make it possible to overlap I/O operations with processor
     operations so the CPU and I/O can process concurrently.
• Use channel programs that specifies action to be
  performed by devices & controls transmission of data
  between main memory & control units.
• Entire path must be available when an I/O command is
  initiated.

                                                                    31
           I/O Subsystem : I/O Control Unit

• I/O control unit interprets signal sent by channel.
     – One signal for each function.


• At start of I/O command, info passed from CPU to
  channel:
     – I/O command (READ, WRITE, REWIND, etc.)
     – Channel number
     – Address of physical record to be transferred (from or to secondary
       storage)
     – Starting address of a memory buffer from which or into which
       record is to be transferred

Understanding                                                           32
Operating Systems
                      Device Manager Must

                          • Know which components are busy
                            and which are free.
Solved by structuring
 interaction between
         units            • Be able to accommodate requests
                            that come in during heavy I/O traffic.

                          • Accommodate disparity of speeds
                            between CPU and I/O devices.
 Handled by ―buffering‖
  records & queueing
       requests

  Understanding                                                 33
  Operating Systems
            Communication Among Devices

• Each unit in I/O subsystem can finish its operation
  independently from others.

• CPU is free to process data while I/O is being performed,
  which allows for concurrent processing and I/O.

• Success of operation depends on system’s ability to know
  when device has completed operation.
     – Uses a hardware flag that must be tested by CPU.



Understanding                                                 34
Operating Systems
  Hardware Flag Used To Communicate When A
      Device Has Completed An Operation

• Composed made up of three bits.
   – Each bit represents a component of I/O subsystem.
   – One each for channel, control unit, and device.

• Resides in the Channel Status Word (CSW)
   – In a predefined location in main memory and contains
     info indicating status of channel.

• Each bit is changed from zero to one to indicate that unit
  has changed from free to busy.
Understanding                                                  35
Operating Systems
     Testing the Flag : Polling or Interrupts

• Polling uses a special machine instruction to test flag.
   – CPU periodically tests the channel status bit (in CSW).

• Major disadvantage with this scheme is determining how
  often the flag should be polled.
   – If polling is done too frequently, CPU wastes time
      testing flag just to find out that channel is still busy.
   – If polling is done too seldom, channel could sit idle for
      long periods of time.


Understanding                                                 36
Operating Systems
                       Interrupts

• Use of interrupts is a more efficient way to test flag.
• Hardware mechanism does test as part of every machine
  instruction executed by CPU.
• If channel is busy flag is set so that execution of current
  sequence of instructions is automatically interrupted.
• Control is transferred to interrupt handler, which resides
  in a predefined location in memory.
• Some sophisticated systems are equipped with hardware
  that can distinguish between several types of interrupts.


Understanding                                               37
Operating Systems
              Direct Memory Access (DMA)

• I/O technique that allows a control unit to access main
  memory directly.
• Once reading or writing begins, remainder of data can be
  transferred to and from memory without CPU intervention.
• To activate this process CPU sends enough info to control
  unit to initiate transfer of data
• Then CPU goes to another task while control unit
  completes transfer independently.
• This mode of data transfer is used for high-speed devices
  such as disks.

Understanding                                             38
Operating Systems
                              Buffers

• Buffers are temporary storage areas residing in convenient
  locations throughout system: main memory, channels, and
  control units.

• Used extensively to better synchronize movement of data
  between relatively slow I/O devices & very fast CPU.

• Double buffering --2 buffers are present in main memory,
  channels, and control units.
     – While one record is being processed by CPU another can be read
       or written by channel
Understanding                                                           39
Operating Systems
               Management of I/O Requests

• Device Manager divides task into 3 parts, with each
  handled by specific software component of I/O subsystem.

• I/O traffic controller watches status of all devices, control
  units, and channels.
• I/O scheduler implements policies that determine
  allocation of, and access to, devices, control units, and
  channels.
• I/O device handler performs actual transfer of data and
  processes the device interrupts.

Understanding                                                40
Operating Systems
                    I/O Traffic Controller

• Monitors status of every device, control unit, and channel.
     – Becomes more complex as number of units in I/O subsystem
       increases and as number of paths between these units increases.
• Three main tasks: (1) it must determine if there’s at least 1
  path available; (2) if there’s more than 1 path available, it
  must determine which to select; and (3) if paths are all
  busy, it must determine when one will become available.
• Maintains a database containing status and connections for
  each unit in I/O subsystem, grouped into Channel Control
  Blocks, Control Unit Control Blocks, and Device Control
  Blocks.

Understanding                                                            41
Operating Systems
Traffic Controller Maintains Database For
        Each Unit In I/O Subsystem




Understanding                           42
Operating Systems
                         I/O Scheduler

• I/O scheduler performs same job as Process Scheduler-- it
  allocates the devices, control units, and channels.

• Under heavy loads, when # requests > # available paths,
  I/O scheduler must decide which request satisfied first.

• I/O requests are not preempted: once channel program has
  started, it’s allowed to continue to completion even though
  I/O requests with higher priorities may have entered queue.
     – Feasible because programs are relatively short (50 to 100 ms).


Understanding                                                           43
Operating Systems
                    I/O Scheduler - 2

• Some systems allow I/O scheduler to give preferential
  treatment to I/O requests from ―high-priority‖ programs.
   – If a process has high priority then its I/O requests also
      has high priority and is satisfied before other I/O
      requests with lower priorities.

• I/O scheduler must synchronize its work with traffic
  controller to make sure that a path is available to satisfy
  selected I/O requests.



Understanding                                                    44
Operating Systems
                    I/O Device Handler

• I/O device handler processes the I/O interrupts, handles
  error conditions, and provides detailed scheduling
  algorithms, which are extremely device dependent.
• Each type of I/O device has own device handler algorithm.
     – first come first served (FCFS)
     – shortest seek time first (SSTF)
     – SCAN (including LOOK, N-Step SCAN, C-SCAN, and C-LOOK)
• Every scheduling algorithm should :
     – Minimize arm movement
     – Minimize mean response time
     – Minimize variance in response time

Understanding                                              45
Operating Systems
    First Come First Served (FCFS) Device
            Scheduling Algorithm
• Simplest device-scheduling algorithm:

• Easy to program and essentially fair to users.

• On average, it doesn’t meet any of the three goals of a seek
  strategy.

• Remember, seek time is most time-consuming of functions
  performed here, so any algorithm that can minimize it is
  preferable to FCFS.

Understanding                                                46
Operating Systems
    Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF) Device
             Scheduling Algorithm
• Uses same underlying philosophy as shortest job next
  where shortest jobs are processed first & longer jobs wait.

• Request with track closest to one being served (that is, one
  with shortest distance to travel) is next to be satisfied.

• Minimizes overall seek time.

• Favors easy-to-reach requests and postpones traveling to
  those that are out of way.

Understanding                                                47
Operating Systems
       SCAN Device Scheduling Algorithm

• SCAN uses a directional bit to indicate whether the arm is
  moving toward the center of the disk or away from it.

• Algorithm moves arm methodically from outer to inner
  track servicing every request in its path.

• When it reaches innermost track it reverses direction and
  moves toward outer tracks, again servicing every request
  in its path.


Understanding                                                 48
Operating Systems
 LOOK (Elevator Algorithm) : A Variation
               of SCAN
• Arm doesn’t necessarily go all the way to either edge
  unless there are requests there.

• ―Looks‖ ahead for a request before going to service it.

• Eliminates possibility of indefinite postponement of
  requests in out-of-the-way places—at either edge of disk.

• As requests arrive each is incorporated in its proper place
  in queue and serviced when the arm reaches that track.

Understanding                                                   49
Operating Systems
             Other Variations of SCAN

• N-Step SCAN -- holds all requests until arm starts on way
  back. New requests are grouped together for next sweep.
• C-SCAN (Circular SCAN) -- arm picks up requests on its
  path during inward sweep.
   – When innermost track has been reached returns to outermost track
     and starts servicing requests that arrived during last inward sweep.
   – Provides a more uniform wait time.
• C-LOOK (optimization of C-SCAN) --sweep inward stops
  at last high-numbered track request, so arm doesn’t move
  all the way to last track unless it’s required to do so.
   – Arm doesn’t necessarily return to the lowest-numbered track; it
     returns only to the lowest-numbered track that’s requested.
                                                                        50
      Which Device Scheduling Algorithm?

• FCFS works well with light loads, but as soon as load
  grows, service time becomes unacceptably long.
• SSTF is quite popular and intuitively appealing. It works
  well with moderate loads but has problem of localization
  under heavy loads.
• SCAN works well with light to moderate loads and
  eliminates problem of indefinite postponement. SCAN is
  similar to SSTF in throughput and mean service times.
• C-SCAN works well with moderate to heavy loads and has
  a very small variance in service times.

Understanding                                             51
Operating Systems
    Search Strategies: Rotational Ordering

• Rotational ordering -- optimizes search times by ordering
  requests once read/write heads have been positioned.
   – Nothing can be done to improve time spent moving
     read/write head because it’s dependent on hardware.

• Amount of time wasted due to rotational delay can be
  reduced.
   – If requests are ordered within each track so that first
     sector requested on second track is next number higher
     than one just served, rotational delay is minimized.

Understanding                                                  52
Operating Systems
     Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
                  (RAID)
• RAID is a set of physical disk drives that is viewed as a
  single logical unit by OS.

• RAID assumes several smaller-capacity disk drives
  preferable to few large-capacity disk drives because, by
  distributing data among several smaller disks, system can
  simultaneously access requested data from multiple drives.

• System shows improved I/O performance and improved
  data recovery in event of disk failure.

Understanding                                                 53
Operating Systems
                       RAID -2

• RAID introduces much-needed concept of redundancy to
  help systems recover from hardware failure.

• Also requires more disk drives which increase hardware
  costs.




Understanding                                              54
Operating Systems
  Six standard levels of RAID fall into 4 categories. Each
         offers a unique combination of advantages.




Understanding                                                55
Operating Systems
                          Terminology

•   access time                      •   I/O device handler
•   blocking                         •   I/O scheduler
•   buffers                          •   I/O subsystem
•   Channel Status Word (CSW)        •   I/O traffic controller
•   cylinder                         •   interblock gap (IBG)
•   dedicated device                 •   interrecord gap (IRG)
•   direct access storage devices    •   interrupts
    (DASDs)                          •   LOOK
•   direct memory access (DMA)       •   magnetic tape
•   first come first served (FCFS)   •   optical disc drive
•   I/O channel                      •   polling
•   I/O control unit                 •   RAID
Understanding                                                     56
Operating Systems
                        Terminology - 2

•   rotational ordering               • transport speed
•   SCAN                              • virtual device
•   search strategy
•   search time
•   seek strategy
•   seek time
•   sequential access media
•   shared device
•   shortest seek time first (SSTF)
•   transfer rate
•   transfer time

Understanding                                             57
Operating Systems

				
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