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zigbee based forest monitoring system

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Forest monitoring is the investigation of processes and patterns that explain the relationships between living organisms and their environment. To understand this relationship, the effect of various changes in environment on organisms is observed. Most of these observations are made over a period of months. The main problems faced are forest fire, animal poaching, illegal wood cutting and mining. Also there is problem of naxalism in remote forest areas of India. To overcome this problem we use wireless device to monitor the parameters so that we can take certain steps in worst cases or emergency The main scope of this project: Sensor network based on Zigbee. GUI for monitoring and controlling the WSN. Use this project for medium-scale or Large-scale forest monitoring

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									                             ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




                              CHAPTER 1
                          INTRODUCTION


The value and importance of forest not only shows providing the material
basis for human life, but also plays an irreplaceable role in improving and
regulating the temperature of the atmospheric environment. It is not only an
important task to promote the construction of modern forestry to strengthen
monitoring of forest protection and minimize forest losses caused by disasters,
but also the necessary requirement to protect forest ecological environment
and ensure fast and good development of economy and society. Therefore, the
establishment of the real-time forest environment monitoring system has very
important value and is meaningful. It means a lot of difficulties in monitoring
because of the specificity and differences of forest environment, such as high
mountains, deep valley and wide range. Currently, there are mainly two
monitoring ways: one is manual sampling with portable monitoring
equipment, and the other is integrated monitoring with satellite remote sensing
technology. The former way cannot be used on long-range real-time
monitoring of environmental parameter, in particular in the dangerous areas
where human being cannot reach with the problems of limited monitoring
range, long-term period, labour-intensive, poor pertinence, and slow data
collection. The latter way is able to be used to solve the problems above, but it
only can offer profile information of appearance due to the requirements of
distance and resolution, and the shortcoming of the data not precise enough
and deficiency of parameter. Therefore, the two methods mentioned above
cannot meet the requirements of conducting full range of remote monitoring in
the forest environment where the situation is severe and condition is
complicated. The forest environment monitoring system based on wireless
sensor networks is the specific application of wireless sensor networks in the
area of remote environmental monitoring. Compared with the existing




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                             ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




monitoring system, it has the advantage of low labour costs, wide monitoring
distribution, data accuracy, and little impact on forest ecology and so on.
Environmental monitoring in the forest has broad application prospects.


1.1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Forest monitoring is the investigation of processes and patterns that explain
the relationships between living organisms and their environment. To
understand this relationship, the effect of various changes in environment on
organisms is observed. Most of these observations are made over a period of
months. The main problems faced are forest fire, animal poaching, illegal
wood cutting and mining. Also there is problem of naxalism in remote forest
areas of India. To overcome this problem we use wireless device to monitor
the parameters so that we can take certain steps in worst cases or emergency.


1.2. SCOPE OF PROJECT
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) comprises of numerous tiny sensors that are
deployed in spatially distributed terrain. These sensors are endowed with small
amount of computing and communication capability and can be deployed in
ways that wired sensor systems could not be deployed. WSN capability to
provide coordinated and multi-scale observations greatly extend the ability to
monitor the various environmental conditions and the effect this has on the
organisms under observation. Such networks make it possible to collect data
over a period of time. The accuracy of data collected is also greatly improved.
The ability of wireless sensor networks to collect temporally intensive and
spatially distributed data facilitates ecologists to collect data which was
previously thought impossible to collect. The intimate connection which the
sensor nodes have with its immediate physical environment allows each these
nodes to provide localized measurements and detailed information that is hard
to obtain through traditional instrumentation.




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                               ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




                                CHAPTER 2
                    REVIEW OF LITERATURE


2.1 ZIGBEE AND IEEE 802.15.4
  The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is a simple packet data protocol for lightweight
  wireless networks and specifies the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access
  Control (MAC) layers for Multiple Radio Frequency (RF) bands, including
  868 MHz, 915 MHz, and 2.4 GHz.The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed to
  provide reliable data transmission of modest amounts of data up to 100 meters
  or more while consuming very little power. IEEE 802.15.4 is typically less
  than 32 kb in size, featuring a 64-bit address space, source and destination
  addressing, error detection, and advanced power management. Zigbee
  technology takes full advantage of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and extends the
  capabilities of this new radio standard by defining a flexible and secure
  network layer that supports a variety of architectures to provide highly reliable
  wireless communications in harsh or dynamic RF environments.             Zigbee
  technology also offers simplicity and a cost-effective approach to building,
  construction and remodeling with wireless technology. Zigbee is all set to
  provide the consumers with ultimate flexibility, mobility, and ease of use by
  building wireless intelligence and capabilities into every day devices. Zigbee
  is expected to provide low cost and low power connectivity for equipment that
  needs battery life as long as several months to several years but does not
  require data transfer rates as high as those enabled by Bluetooth. This kind of
  network eliminates use of physical Ethernet cables. The devices could include
  telephones, hand-held digital assistants, sensors and controls located within a
  few meters of each other.




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                                 ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




   Applications areas:
    Enterprise systems: health care and patient monitoring, environmental, Monitoring
   and hazard detection.
 Industrial systems: remote controlled machines such as in tracking wind
   turbines.
 Military and government systems: asset tracking, personnel monitoring and
   surveillance.
 Transportation systems: audio control and automation, security and access
   control.
 Consumer products: cellular handsets, computer peripherals, remote controls
   and other portable devices.
 Climate control: customize the temperatures of ac machines or thermostats as
   differently needed.
 Home automation: turn on or off ovens, air conditioners, geysers, lights
   without any hassles only when needed. Also sprinkle water to plants in garden
   monitoring moisture content in soil.


   2.2. IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN
   2.2.1. General description
   A LR-WPAN is a simple, low-cost communication network that allows
   wireless connectivity in applications with limited power and relaxed
   throughput requirements. The main objectives of an LR-WPAN are ease of
   installation, reliable data transfer, short-range operation, extremely low cost,
   and a reasonable battery life, while maintaining a simple and flexible protocol.
   Network routing schemes are designed to ensure power conservation, and low
   latency through guaranteed time slots. A unique feature of Zigbee network
   layer is communication redundancy eliminating ―single point of failure‖ in
   mesh networks.
   IEEE and Zigbee Alliance have been working closely to specify the entire
   protocol stack. IEEE 802.15.4 focuses on the specification of the lower two




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                               ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




   layers of the protocol (physical and data link layer). On the other hand, Zigbee
   Alliance aims to provide the upper layers of the protocol stack (from network
   to the application layer) for interoperable data networking, security services
   and a range of wireless home and building control solutions.
   2.2.2. Zigbee characteristics
 2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz dual PHY modes.
 This represents three license-free bands: 2.4-2.4835 GHz, 868-870 MHz and
   902-928 MHz The number of channels allotted to each frequency band is fixed
   at 16 channels in the 2.45 GHz band, 10 channels in the 915 MHz band, and 1
   channel in the 868 MHz band
 Maximum data rates allowed for each of these frequency bands are fixed as
   250 kbps @2.4 GHz, 40 kbps @ 915 MHz, and 20 kbps @868 MHz
 Allocated 16 bit short or 64 bit extended addresses.
 Allocation of guaranteed time slots (GTSs)
 Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) channel
   access Yields high throughput and low latency for low duty cycle devices like
   sensors and controls.
 Fully ―hand-shake‖ acknowledged protocol for transfer reliability.
 Low power consumption with battery life ranging from months to years.
 Energy detection (ED).
 Link quality indication (LQI).
 Multiple topologies: star, peer-to-peer, mesh topologies.
   2.3. DEVICE TYPES
   Zigbee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 Low-Rate
   Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard. Zigbee wireless devices
   are expected to transmit 10-75 meters, depending on the RF environment and
   the power output consumption required for a given application, and will
   operate in the unlicensed RF worldwide (2.4GHz global, 915MHz Americas
   or 868 MHz Europe). The data rate is 250kbps at 2.4GHz, 40kbps at 915MHz
   and 20kbps at 868MHz.




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                                   ZIGBEE BASED FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM




   There are three different Zigbee device types that operate on these layers in
   any self-organizing application network. These devices have 64-bit IEEE
   addresses, with option to enable shorter addresses to reduce packet size, and
   work in either of two addressing modes – star and peer-to-peer.
 The Zigbee (PAN) coordinator node: The most capable device, the coordinator
   forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. It is
   able to store information about the network.There is one, and only one, Zigbee
   coordinator in each network to act as the router to other network. It also acts as
   the repository for security keys.
 The Full Function Device (FFD): The FFD is an intermediary router
   transmitting data from other devices. It needs lesser memory than the Zigbee
   coordinator node, and entails lesser manufacturing costs. It can operate in all
   topologies and can act as a coordinator.
 The Reduced Function Device (RFD): This device is just capable of talking in
   the network; it cannot relay data from other devices. This device talks only to
   a network coordinator and can be implemented very simply in star topology.
   An FFD can talk to RFDs or other FFDs, while an RFD can talk only to an
   FFD. An RFD is intended for applications that are extremely simple, such as a
   light switch or a passive infrared sensor; they do not have the need to send
   large amounts of data and may only associate with a single FFD at a time.
   Consequently, the RFD can be implemented using minimal resources and
   memory capacity


   2.4. IEEE 802.15.4 / ZIGBEE ARCHITECTURE
   The LR-WPAN architecture is defined in terms of a number of blocks in order
   to simplify the standard. These blocks are called layers. Each layer is
   responsible for one part of th
								
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