Ploughing of land
 The ploughing of land separate the top layer of the soil into furrow
slices. The furrow are turned sideways and inverted to a varying degree,
depending upon the type of plough being used. It is a primary tillage
operation, which is performed to shatter soil uniformly with partial or
complete soil inversion.
In general tillage is considered to accomplish the following:
a- To obtain a seedbed of good tilth
b-To add humus and fertility to the soil by covering vegetation and
c-To destroy the weeds and to prevent their growth
d-To leave the soil in such a condition that air will circulate freely
e-To leave the soil in a condition to retain moisture from the rain
f-To destroy insects and their eggs, leave and their breeding places
g- To leave the surface in a condition to prevent erosion by wind
h- Precision leveling of land for irrigation and other operations

Tractor drawn implements may be:
a- Trailed type     b- Semi-mounted type       c- Mounted type
 Different types of plough are used at different places. They may be
classified as:
a- Indigenous plough
b- Disc plough
 c- Sub soiler
  d- Mould board plough
  e- Chisel plough
  f- Rotary plough
A mould board plough is very common implement used for primary
tillage operations .This plough performs several functions at a time.
  A- Cutting the furrow slice
  B- Lifting the soil
 C- Turning the furrow slice
 D- Pulverising the soil
Mould board plough consists of:
a- Share b- Land side c- Tail piece d- moldboard e- Frog
It is that part of the plough bottom which penetrates into the soil and
makes a horizontal cut below the surface.
It is the curved part which lifts and turns furrow slice.
It is the flat plate which bears against and transmits the rear side lateral
thrust of the plough bottom to the furrow wall.
 It is the part to which other components of the plough bottom are
It is an adjustable extension, which can be fastened to the rear of a mould
board to help in turning a furrow slice.
There are a few accessories necessary for ploughs such as:
For proper penetration and efficient work by the mould board plough,
some clearance is provided in the plough. This clearance is called Suction
of the plough. Suction in mould board plough is of two:
A-Vertical suction
B- Horizontal suction
  It is the perpendicular distance between point share and lower position
of the beam of the plough
                              DISC PLOUGH

It is a plough which cuts, turns and in some cases breaks furrow slices by
means of separately mounted large steel discs. A disc plough is designed
with a view to reduce friction by making a rolling plough bottom instead
of sliding plough bottom. A disc plough works well in the conditions
where mouldboard plough does not work satisfactorily.
Advantages of disc plough:
1- A disc plough can be forced to penetrate into the soil which is too hard
and dry for working with a mouldboard plough.
2- It works well in sticky soil in which a mouldboard plough does not
3-It is more useful for deep ploughing
4- A disc plough works well even after a considerable part of the disc is
worn off in abrasive soil.
5- It can used safely in stony and stumpy soil without much danger of
6-It works in loose soil also (such as peat) without much clogging.
Disadvantages of disc plough:
1- It is not suitable for covering surface trash and weeds as effectively as
mouldboard plough dose.
2- Comparatively, the disc plough leaves the soil in rough and more
cloddy condition than that of mouldboard plough .
3- Disc plough is much heavier than mouldboard plough for equal
capacities because penetration of this plough is affected largely by its
weight rather than suction .There is one significant difference between
mouldboard plough and disc plough.
     Disc ploughs are of two types:
1- Standard disc plough
2- Vertical disc plough
Disc angle:
It is the angle at which the plane of the cutting edge of the disc is inclined
to the direction of travel. Usually the disc angle of good plough varies
between 42 to 45º.
Tilt angle:
  It is the angle at which the plane of the cutting edge of the disc is
inclined to a vertical line. The tilt angle varies from 15º to 25º for a good
Scraper :
It is a device to remove soil that tend to stick to the working surface of
  It is the depth measured at the center of the disc by placing its concave
side on a flat surface.

                             Vertical disc plough
It is a plough which combines the principle of the regular disc plough and
the disc harrow and is used for shallow working in the soil. This type of
plough is also called Harrow plough or one way disc plough. Its action is
intermediate between regular disc plough and disc harrow .It has a frame,
wheel arrangement, depth adjusting devices same as regular disc plough,
but the disc are fitted on a single shaft and turn as one unite like a gang of
the discs harrow .The spacing between the disc may be 20 to 25 cm for
regular tractor drawn harrow plough. The size of the disc varies from 50
to 65 cm, and the disc angle varies from 40ºto 45º.Usually a seed box is
also mounted as an attachment of the harrow plough which permits
seeding of small grain. Since operating depths of these ploughs are
shallow (8 to10cms)
Energy requirement per hectare is much less than standard disc ploughs.
                              CHISEL PLOUGH
It is a plough used to cut through hard soils by means of a number of
narrow tines. It is used before using the regular plough. It is useful for
breaking hard layers of soil just below the regular ploughing depth. This
layer of soil which is called hard pan or plough sol is very tough and
Most important areas of the use of chisel ploughs
1 - In the territories that fertility is concentrated in the surface layer.
2 - in the saline and alkaline soil to avoid the arrival of the salt of the
lower layers.
3 - In the land subject to erosion, water and air for the previous crop
residues on the surface of the field without a burial.
   Advantages of chisel ploughs:
1 - needs to be less power.
2 - Easy online and calibration with the tractor, compared with other
3 - The roof of the field after ploughing more evenly than if you uses the
other ploughs.
4 - Ease of installation, maintenance and cleaning
The main disadvantages of the chisel ploughs:
1 - leave the places didn’t ploughing between the weapons, which
requires ploughing the soil in two directions perpendicular
2 – penetrate into the soil without that turns them.
HARD LEG                   FLEXIBLE LEG                        COME BACK

                     Safety springs in the chisel plough
                            ROTARY PLOUGH
It is a plough used to cut and pulverize soil by impact forces by means of
a number of rotary tines or knives which are mounted on a horizontal
      Rotary plough is also called as Rotary tiller. It is suitable for shallow
cultivation and weed control . The rotary tiller consist of a power driven
shaft on which knives or tines are mounted to cut the soil and the trash.
Rotor has got several types of tines, fitted on shaft having a speed of 200
to 300 rev/ min. One of the main problems with this tiller is that tines are
bent or broken in hard ground. For this reason , various shock resisting
devices are used on rotary tillers.
The knives are spaced along the periphery. As the rotor revolves, the
knives cut the soil from the ground .The rotary tiller stirs the soil more
than other implements. It is useful for distributing and mixing organic
matter and other materials throughout the fields.

                               Kinds of tines

                 3-solid tine 2- flexible tine 1- free tine

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