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					                                   Sweeteners . . . 22
                                      National Honey
                                       Show . . . 33
                              Organic Honey . . . 42

   Bee Culture
                                               SEP 2003

  Catch The Buzz
  September 2003     BEE CULTURE                       1
The Not So Sweet Story Of
Start A Counter-Revolution. Know The Enemy.
James Fischer

The Honey Counter-Revolution              not like to be misled, especially       those cup holders in newer vehicles
     A counter-revolution? Don’t          about food. You need not make ex-       should be clear – will the minivan
worry; no one needs to worry about        travagant claims about honey, you       replace the dining room? No one is
buying camouflage fatigues or tar-        only need to debunk the mislead-        saying, but the 2000 Ford Excursion
get practice at the rifle range. It’s a   ing propaganda about the alterna-       SUV came with seating for nine and
kitchen-counter revolution. The           tives.                                  10 cup holders. The current Volvo
goal is to liberate the slaves to sugar       Honey was the original sweet-       V70 seats five, but has nine cup
and artificial sweeteners, by replac-     ener. Every other sweetener was         holders. You do the math.
ing sugar bowls with honey jars.          created in an attempt to replace             While we can all understand
Ambitious? Yes. Difficult? Yes. But       honey with something cheaper.           that life can get hectic for people
without a strategy that promotes          Most people will agree that life is     who have not discovered “life in the
your honey as a healthy and natu-         too short to tolerate cheap peanut      slow lane” as a beekeeper, it seems
ral alternative to the sugar bowl it-     butter, so honey should be an “easy     clear that cooking (with or without
self, national trends appear to in-       sell” to anyone who cares at all        honey) is slowly becoming as ob-
dicate that honey sales will shrink.      about what they eat. (To quote my       scure and arcane a skill as beekeep-
                                          father, “Sure, you could use the        ing.
Let me explain                            cheaper stuff, but people will notice        To make matters seem even
    My father was a salesman until        and remember.”)                         worse, the same surveys found that
he retired and started keeping bees.                                              77 cents of every dollar spent on
He sold lighting fixtures, and devel-     The Decline Of Cooking                  “dining out” in 2002 was spent at a
oped an encyclopedic knowledge of             The NPD Group, a market re-         fast-food chain restaurant.
not just the products he sold, but        search firm, found that in 1993, 99%
more importantly, the competition’s       of U.S. households had a skillet. In    What Happens After What
products. He was able to discuss          2002, the number dropped to 93%.        Comes Next
the advantages of one light versus        That’s a net decrease of over one            The combined impact of these
another in great detail, so his way       million skillets per year. (If one      trends means that we can’t expect
of “selling” was more “applications       does not even own a skillet, one can    to increase our honey sales to con-
consulting” to builders and archi-        be assumed to have abandoned            sumers or expect demand to keep
tects than a “sales pitch.” It            cooking for mere “reheating” of pack-   the prices up unless we can get
worked.                                   aged food.) In 1993, 21% of U.S. din-   them to think about replacing the
    What does this have to do with        ners eaten at home had ready-to-        sugar bowls on their kitchen tables
honey? Well, if you want to sell          eat main entrees, in 2002, it was       with honey pots, and consider aban-
honey, it helps to know “the com-         up to 36%. Over the same time pe-       doning artificial sweeteners for
petition.” Consumption data indi-         riod, meals served with homemade        honey. Taking on the competition
cate that honey is one of the more        desserts decreased from 7% to 3.5%.     head-on means that you need to
rarely-used sweeteners available,             Your grocery store may have al-     know more about the competition
so even a small change in consumer        ready expanded their “deli” and         than the customer does.
habits for a tiny percentage of con-      “bakery” into a “ready-to-eat meals”         Price alone can’t be the prob-
sumers would have a significant           department, complete with a salad       lem, given what people will pay for
impact on the demand for honey.           bar. These “meal solution centers”      Ghirardelli     chocolates.    The
    The good news for us is that the      are cropping up everywhere. Conve-      Starbucks and Dunkin’ Donuts cof-
competition makes claims that are         nience stores, gas stations, air-       fee shop chains have clearly shown
most charitably described as “bla-        ports, and shopping malls all offer     that marketing alone will convince
tantly misleading.” Consumers do          “take out.” Now the reason for all      people to pay them more than triple
2                                                    BEE CULTURE                                      September 2003
the going price for a cup of coffee.
Honey has a fine “premium product”
reputation, proven by the large num-
ber of packaged food products that
feature the word “Honey” in large
letters on the label. Honey even
has a very valuable cachet of “natu-
ral” that sugar and artificial sweet-
eners can never gain. “Natural”
sells, if for no other reason than it
makes Mom feel less guilty about
owning a stainless-steel Sub-Zero
fridge filled with heat-and-serve
packaged foods and using the mi-
crowave more often than her $4,500
Aga range.
     The only hurdle appears to be
that beekeepers are unwilling to ask    food product is to increase the          opposed to naturally occurring sug-
people what else they currently keep    amount of sweeteners they add.           ars in fruit and other foods, are a
on the kitchen table, and discuss                                                little more than 15 percent of Ameri-
the merits of that sweetener as com-    Fat-Free and Fact-Free                   cans’ daily caloric intake.
pared to honey. So read on, and              For at least a decade, “reduced           While doctors, health experts
think about how easy it would be to     fat” and “fat-free” food has been pro-   and regulatory officials now realize
convince people to try using honey      moted as “more healthy.” Makers of       that their emphasis on “fat free”
instead of sugar or chemical sweet-     packaged foods have responded to         has resulted in a problem worse
eners.                                  demand, and in some cases, helped        than the one they hoped to solve,
                                        to create concern about fat. This        their attempts to educate consum-
A Brief History Of Sweeteners           meant more demand for “fat-free”         ers about “added sugars” have been
     It is likely that humans sought    food. The problem was that in re-        frustrated by sophisticated market-
out honey even before they were         moving fat, the packaged food prod-      ing of high-profit products like soft
recognizable as human. Food was         ucts were left bland and tasteless.      drinks and packaged foods.
likely in sporadic supply for early     The “answer” was to add sweeten-
man, energy requirements were           ers, most often corn syrup. But          Big     Profits    Versus     World
high, and honey would have been a       when you add sweeteners, the calo-       Health
rare treat. Man was predisposed by      ries go up. As a result, many people          This Spring, the World Health
instinct to favor sweet things, since   buying “low-fat” foods are actually      Organization published a report
most everything that tasted sweet       consuming more calories than be-         suggesting that all forms of “added
was not poisonous.                      fore due to added sweeteners. “Low-      sugars” (over and above the natural
     Most present-day humans have       fat food” did not result in people       sugars found in foods) should make
easy access to abundant food, and       becoming less fat. It made many of       up no more than 10% of the daily
are not required to physically exert    them even fatter.                        diet. While 10% is a very high num-
themselves very much, but we are                                                 ber, the sugar lobby in the United
still influenced by the same drives     Added Sweeteners And Health              States reacted by demanding that
as our primitive ancestors. We still        The expanding waistlines of the      Congress cut off the World Health
crave sweet stuff.                      population of the industrialized         Organization’s funding. Since the
     Despite the near total lack of     world has resulted in a new and          U.S. funds roughly a quarter of the
situations where modern humans          unique health problem. The rich and      WHO’s operations, this would could
might need a high blood sugar level     middle classes are thin and healthy,     put the WHO out of business.
to help them escape from large          while the poorer among us suffer              The sugar industry was not at
toothy predators, sugar or sweeten-     from obesity. Traditionally in human     all happy with anyone suggesting
ers are added to nearly every pack-     history, the poor have been thin,        that added sugars should be re-
aged food product sold. These hid-      while the rich have been fat. Ongo-      stricted to a mere 10% of our total
den added sweeteners are the            ing obesity in most cases leads di-      diet. They want us all to buy more
dreaded “empty calories” that your      rectly to diabetes, and not surpris-     of the packaged food products that
mother warned you about, devoid of      ingly, medications to help diabetes      contain added sugars. The sugar
any food value other than the sug-      patients are suddenly one of the         industry is a significant special-in-
ars themselves. Sweeteners are          largest growth markets for drug          terest group in U.S. lobbying and
added for two reasons. First, they      makers.                                  politics, handing out over $3 million
are cheap.                                  The USDA says that Americans’        in donations in last year’s federal
     Second, there is a direct con-     consumption of sweeteners has            elections, according to the Center
nection between sweetness and           risen significantly over the last 40     for Responsive Politics. It repre-
sales. Food conglomerates are well      years. Somehow, we went from 113         sents both sugar cane and corn
aware that all they need do to in-      pounds per person in 1966 to 147         farmers who grow corn for corn
crease flagging sales of a packaged     pounds in 2001. Added sugars, as         syrup.
                                                                                                Continued on Next Page
September 2003                                     BEE CULTURE                                                      3
                                         is made of six carbon atoms             crystallize more easily than others.
                                         (carbo...) and hydrogen and oxygen      The crystals of sucrose act as
                                         equal to six water molecules (...hy-    “seeds” to encourage crystallization
                                         drate), so glucose is the simplest      in the honey.
                                         form of a carbohydrate.
                                              Fructose, also called “levulose”   Starches Are Sugar Too!
                                         or “fruit sugar,” is found in many           When you link more than two
                                         fruits. Honey contains about 40%        simple sugars together, the result
                                         fructose.                               is called a “polysaccharide,” or, in
                                              Galactose exists almost exclu-     plain English, a “starch.” There are
                                         sively in the bodies of mammals.        two major types of starch – Amylose
                                         Mammals can change glucose to           and Amylopectin.
                                         galactose, and female mammal                 An amylose is a linear, un-
                                         mammary glands convert galactose        branched chain of several hundred
                                         to lactose, which is “milk sugar.”      glucose molecules. Amylopectin
                                              Although these three simple        does not have a “linear” structure,
                                         sugars share the same molecular         but is “branched” like a tree.
                                         formula (C6H12O6),                           Plants convert excess glucose
                                         the arrangement of their atoms are      into starch for storage in the form
                                         different. Chemicals with identical     of roots (tubers) and seeds. Pota-
                                         molecular formulas but different        toes, rice, wheat, and corn are ma-
All Sweeteners Are Not Created           structural arrangements are called      jor sources of starch in the modern
Equal ®                                  “structural isomers” by chemists.       human diet.
     While artificial sweeteners like         Glucose can be converted into           Before starches can be used by
Equal® are clearly artificial manu-      the other two simple sugars (and        animals, they must be digested. This
factured products, most all so-called    other sugar molecules) via minor        is accomplished by chemicals called
“natural” sweeteners also come           chemical changes like reorienting       “amylases.” With the aid of an amy-
from factories. Most natural sweet-      the location of hydroxyl groups,        lase (such as pancreatic amylase
eners are no sweeter in their natu-      such as when it is converted into       from your pancreas), water mol-
ral state than nectar. They must be      galactose, or by oxidizing one car-     ecules break the bonds between
refined to concentrate them, and         bon and reducing another by shift-      glucose molecules and eventually
make them taste sweet. In the pro-       ing the locations of the hydrogen       produce a mixture of glucose and
cess of refining, any part that is not   atoms, such as when it is converted     maltose. Your body can’t tell the
a sugar is removed, including any        into fructose.                          difference between glucose from
nutrients.                                    All more complex sugars are        starches, from sugar, or from honey.
     Honey also comes from a “fac-       made by bonding these three simple      Glucose is glucose, no matter how
tory refinery” of a sort – a beehive.    sugars together in various ways.        your body gets it.
Nectar is evaporated, and in the
process, becomes more concen-            I’m Dying For Some                      Cellulose – How Plants
trated. Unlike other sweeteners, all     Disaccharides                           Store Sugars
that is removed in the process is            Disaccharides are nothing more           Cellulose is likely the single
water, so honey has a small amount       than pairs of simple sugars. Their      most abundant organic molecule on
of protein and some nutrients. If not    names are sucrose, lactose, and         the planet. It is the major structural
heated or filtered to extreme, honey     maltose. Sucrose is common table        material in plants. Wood is mostly
has the clear advantage of being         sugar. It is made from glucose and      cellulose, while cotton and paper are
“exactly as nature intended.”            fructose, which form a crystal when     almost pure cellulose. Like starch,
     But what exactly did nature in-     combined. Lactose is the major          cellulose is a polysaccharide made
tend? Nature uses multiple forms         sugar in milk. It is made of glucose    from glucose.
of sugar in nearly every creature and    and galactose. Maltose is a product          However, cellulose is very dif-
plant, so we have to get into some       of starch digestion, such as when       ferent from starch. Because of the
basic biochemistry before we talk        beer is brewed. It is made of pairs     orientation of the bonds between
about specific products.                 of glucose molecules.                   the glucose molecules, the end re-
     There are three simple sugars,                                              sult is a long, rigid molecule. These
or “monosaccharides.” These are          Is Honey a Disaccharide?                linear molecules can lie close to-
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.            Honey contains glucose and          gether, and form hydrogen bonds
     Glucose, also called “dextrose,”    fructose, but it is not a disaccha-     between adjacent molecules. The
is found in vegetables, fruit, and       ride. The bulk of the glucose and       result is a series of stiff, long fi-
honey. When it is in the human           fructose exist as separate simple       bers that make up the cell walls of
body, it is called “blood sugar.” In     sugars. A tiny amount of the glu-       plants.
plants, glucose is synthesized from      cose and fructose in honey is bound
water and carbon dioxide by photo-       together to form sucrose, but this      Glycogen – How Animals
synthesis. In animals, glucose can       varies with different nectar sources,   Store Sugars
be synthesized from fats, carboxy-       explaining why some types of honey,         Animals store excess glucose by
lic acids, and amino acids. Glucose      such as orange blossom honey,           polymerizing it to form glycogen. The

4                                                   BEE CULTURE                                        September 2003
structure of glycogen is similar to      our history books was based on
that of the starch amylopectin, al-      sugar. American-made rum was sold
though the branches in glycogen are      for African slaves, who then were
shorter and more frequent. (A            sold in the Caribbean for molasses
“bush” as compared to the “tree” of      and sugar that were, in turn sold to
amylopectin.)                            rum distillers in the U.S., with large
    Glycogen is broken back down         profits made at every step. (Wow,
into glucose when energy is              sugar was responsible for slavery!)
needed, in a process called glyco-            Whatever harvested cane does
genolysis. In glycogenolysis, phos-      not fall off the trucks to punch holes
phate groups – not water – break the     through unsuspecting drivers’ oil
linkages so that glucose can leave       pans and radiators (yes, this really
or enter a cell. Your liver and skel-    happens) goes through a mill.
etal muscles are major storage de-            The milling process starts by
pots of glycogen.                        shredding and crushing the canes
                                         between rollers to extract the juice.
Sugars In Food                           The juice is clarified with lime, and
    Now that you have digested the       allowed to settle. Then it is boiled
chemistry refresher course, we can       in vacuum chambers, until it thick-
look at specific sweeteners, com-        ens into a brownish syrup. As the
pare them, and consider how they         water evaporates, the sugars be-
compete with honey for a place on        come concentrated enough to form
the kitchen counter.                     crystals. The wet crystals are then       legitimate brown sugar, most all
                                         spun in perforated drums to spin off      other brands are nothing but fully-
Raising Cane                             the liquid, leaving the semi-refined      refined table sugar “spray-painted”
     Cane sugar comes in many dif-       sugar. This is the actual “raw            with some molasses.
ferent forms, but it is all nothing      sugar.”
but sucrose. It is all processed in           It contains all sorts of molds,      Raw Sugar – A Raw Deal
factories that produce significant air   yeasts, dirt, plant fiber, bacteria,           The brownish packets of “Sugar
and water pollution, but are slowly      and a not insignificant quantity of       In The Raw®” one can find in many
being forced by environmental laws       insect parts and their debris. The        coffee shops are not “raw sugar.”
to clean up. The sugar that one can      FDA won’t allow this sugar to be          They are nothing but “Turbinado
buy is not “natural” in the least, but   sold as food – true raw sugar is “un-     Sugar,” which will be described later.
the sugar makers use the word            fit for human consumption” under          The folks that make “Sugar In The
“natural” so often, one might get the    U.S. law.                                 Raw” claim that their sugar is from
impression that their products were           The liquid that was thrown off       the “initial pressing of the cane, al-
some sort of health food.                by the spinning drums is what be-         lowing the natural molasses to remain
     All forms of cane sugar start       comes molasses. It also needs quite       in the crystals,” a phrase that is ap-
with a sugar cane field in a subtropi-   a bit of “cleaning up” before it can      parently intended to conjure up im-
cal location. The canes have leaves,     be sold for human consumption.            ages of winemaking, where “initial
and the universal practice is to burn         The cleaning up is done at a         pressing” implies “best quality.”
the field to eliminate the leaves and    refinery. The refinery washes, then       With sugar, the reverse is true.
any undergrowth from the roughly         dissolves the crystals, boils it again,   Sugar from the actual “initial press-
10-foot tall canes to be harvested.      then recrystallizes and spins it at       ing” is an inedible substance that
The smoke from the fall burning is       least twice more, removing more           could not be sold as food for hu-
enough of a hazard that the state        molasses and “solids” at each step.       mans. Even more amazing is the
police in both Florida and Hawaii are    Molasses is where the non-sucrose         total disdain shown in the assump-
forced to close roads when the wind      components of sugar cane go, in-          tion that their customers are un-
shifts in an attempt to reduce traf-     cluding any vitamins and minerals.        educated enough to think that mo-
fic accidents caused by the smoke.                                                 lasses (a collection of various im-
(That’s right, sugar is “white death”    Brown Sugar                               purities) can somehow be “in” crys-
even before it is even white. Ask             Sugar pulled out before one of       tals of sucrose. The impurities are
anyone who lives in Palm Beach           the final washing and recrystalliza-      “on” the crystals, not “in” them. This
County or Hendry County, Florida         tion cycles is “brown sugar.” It has      much more expensive sugar needs
about the “fall smoke.”)                 been refined enough to remove all         to be exposed as “100% plain old
     The harvesting of sugar is slowly   but a tiny fraction of the molasses,      sugar with lots of added hype.”
being mechanized, but about half of      which gives it a brown appearance
U.S. production is still harvested by    and stronger flavor.                      Brown Versus White
hand with machetes. This is a la-             But most brown sugar is noth-            There are a large number of
bor-intensive process, so much so        ing more than fully-refined white         people who think that brown (or
that sugar plantations in the Car-       sugar that has been sprayed with          brownish) sugar is more “healthy”
ibbean were among the first cus-         some molasses after the complete          than white sugar. This mistaken
tomers of the slave trade. The infa-     refining process. Domino and C&H          belief is openly encouraged by the
mous “slave triangle” described in       are among the few brands that sell        promotional efforts of sugar compa-
                                                                                                  Continued on Next Page
September 2003                                      BEE CULTURE                                                        5
 A Summary Of “The Competition”            ing to it. “Very extensive quality        Brown Stuff
Name                  What It Is           control testing.”)                             With all the different types of
White Sugar           Sucrose                                                        white sugar, you did not think that
Evaporated Cane Juice Sucrose              Size Does Matter                          the sugar-marketing geniuses would
Sucanat               Sucrose                   A bewildering array of different     pass up the opportunity to sell mul-
Beet Sugar            Sucrose              types of granulated white cane sugar      tiple types of sugar/molasses mixes
Brown Sugar           Sucrose & Molasses   are available, and all are sold for       at ever-higher prices, would you?
Turbinado Sugar       Sucrose & Molasses   much higher prices than the usual               Turbinado Sugar”
                                                                                          “Turbinado Sugar is sugar
(Real) Maple Syrup    Boiled Tree Sap      5-lb bag of “table sugar.” The only       with a slightly larger crystal size
Date Sugar            Dried Dates
                                           difference between them is crystal        than table sugar, and has not been
Stevia                Dried Leaves
                                           size.                                     washed to remove all the molasses,
  ARTIFICIAL TABLE SWEETENERS                   “Bakers Special Sugar
                                                 Bakers              Sugar,” or      making it appear brownish. As with
Sweet ‘N Low®     Saccharin                “Castor Sugar in the UK, is the
                                            Castor Sugar”                            brown sugar, most all products
Equal®            Aspartame                smallest crystal size. This is the        called “Turbinado Sugar” are pro-
NutraSweet®       Aspartame                sugar you most often find on dough-       duced by simply spraying crystallized
Sunett®           Acesulfame               nuts.                                     fully-refined white sugar with mo-
                  Potassium                      Superfine,” “ Ultrafine
                                                 Superfine        Ultrafine,” or     lasses.
Sweet & Safe®     Acesulfame                Bar Sugar”
                                           “Bar Sugar has only slightly larger             Muscovado”
                                                                                          “Muscovado or “ Barbados
                  Potassium                crystals than Baker’s Sugar. It is        Sugar”
                                                                                     Sugar is a British product. It is very
Sweet One®        Acesulfame
                                           used in meringues, as well as for         dark brown and has a very strong
Splenda®          Sucralose                sweetening fruits and iced drinks         molasses flavor that can only be an
                                           since the smaller crystals dissolve       “acquired taste.” The crystals are
  SWEETENERS FOUND MOSTLY IN               more easily than larger crystals.         coarser and stickier than “normal”
        HEALTH-FOOD STORES                 (There are some bartenders that will      brown sugar.
Invert Sugar                               call this “Fruit Sugar” but actual             “Free-Flowing Brown Sugar
                                                                                           Free-Flowing               Sugar”
Brown Rice Syrup                           “Fruit Sugar” is fructose which           is a technical innovation that avoids
Barley Malt                                comes, not surprisingly, from fruit.)     the “clumping” of brown sugar into
Fruit Sugar                                 Confectioners,” or “Powdered
                                            Confectioners                            hard lumps. A “cocrystallization”
                                           Sugar” is granulated sugar that has       process is used to make brown sugar
                                           been ground to a smooth powder and        that is more of a powder than a
High Frutose Corn Syrup                    then sifted. It contains about 3%         crystal, and is less moist than
D-tagatose                                 cornstarch to prevent caking.             brown sugar. Since it is less moist
Sugar Alcohols                             Confectioner’s sugar comes in three       to begin with, it does not clump and
Polydextrose                               grades ground to different degrees        is free-flowing like granulated white
Saccharin/Sweet ‘N Low(R)                  of fineness.                              sugar. (Save your money, and put a
Aspartame/Equal(R)/NutraSweet(R)                 Table Sugar”
                                                “Table Sugar is the common           small chunk of terra-cotta tile that
Neotame                                    sugar that one most often sees.           you have soaked in water into your
Sucralose/Splenda(R)                       Note the subtle use of the term           canister of brown sugar. This will
Acesulfame Potassium                       “table,” implying that it belongs on      “humidify” the canister, and keep
                                           the dinner table, rather than locked      the brown sugar from clumping.)
nies about the “vitamins and min-          up with the guns, cigarettes, booze,            Demerara Sugar”
                                                                                          “Demerara Sugar is another
erals” in brown sugar that white           explosives, and other dangerous           British product, essentially a very
sugar lacks. While it is true that         items. Does anyone label their            sticky large-crystal brown sugar. It
white sugar contains nothing but           honey “table honey”? I thought not.       is put in tea, coffee and on hot ce-
sucrose crystals, the amount of “vi-       No wonder the sugar bowl never            reals.
tamins and minerals” in brown              leaves the kitchen table, while the            “Evaporated Cane Juice
                                                                                           Evaporated                 Juice”
sugar are best described as “trace         honey is hidden in a cabinet, be-                    Sucanat”
                                                                                     and/or “Sucanat is one of the
levels.” You’d have to eat a massive       hind several other bottles. You have      most cynical of the sugar industry’s
and unhealthy amount of brown              to admire sophisticated marketing.        marketing forays, which like
sugar to get any actual benefit from       You can learn something from it.          Turbinado Sugar, chatters on about
any of those vitamins and miner-                “Coarse Sugar” has larger
                                                 Coarse Sugar                        being “a ‘first crystallization’, mini-
als. In comparison, the National           crystals than “Table Sugar.” Coarse       mally-processed sweetener made from
Honey Board says that you’d have           sugar is made from the most highly-       fresh evaporated cane juice... har-
to eat only about 100 tablespoons          refined sugar. This makes it more         vested, extracted, clarified, evaporated
of honey to get your Recommended           resistant to color changes or break-      and crystallized all within twenty-four
Daily Allowance of a number of im-         down to fructose and glucose at high      hours...” in hopes of making people
portant minerals from that source.         temperatures. This matters in cook-       think that it is something, anything
While some might consider this ex-         ing when making fondants, confec-         other than pure sucrose with trace
cessive consumption of honey, it is        tions, and liquors.                       amounts of junk of an unspecified
not only possible, but a certainty               Sanding Sugar”
                                                “Sanding Sugar is another            nature. Note that the word “sugar”
when we extract honey here at              large crystal sugar, used to sprinkle     will never appear on a package of
Farmageddon. (We have strict,              on top of baked goods. The larger         “evaporated cane juice,” since this
ummm, “quality control standards.”         crystals reflect light and look pretty.   form of sugar is sold to people who
Yep, that’s my story, and I’m stick-                                                 associate “sugar” with “bad nutri-

6                                                     BEE CULTURE                                           September 2003
tion.” You have to admit that the        health and nutrition standpoint           or hidden completely if the product
sugar people know how to package         with no fear of being even slightly       is cheaper than cane sugar.
and market a product.                    wrong, but you should also stop and             Beet Sugar”
                                                                                        “Beet Sugar is what you get
                                         marvel and the sophisticated mar-         if you buy a bag of sugar at the store
A Brief Word From The Salt               keting used to make even experi-          than does not say “Pure Cane Sugar”
Mines                                    enced cooks think that they must          on the label. I’ll bet your local store
     Sugar promotional efforts have      buy more than sugar and molasses          brand and generic brand sugar bags
apparently taught the people who         for their pantry. There has to be         don’t say “Pure Cane Sugar.” In
sell salt something about market-        something that we can all learn           1744, a German chemist realized
ing. You may have noticed the sud-       from this about application-specific      that the sucrose he could extract
den appearance of “Sea Salt” on gro-     packaging and pricing for honey.          from sugar beets was the same su-
cery shelves, with crystals larger                                                 crose as sugar from sugar cane. (He
than usual. This one really makes                                                  broke the starches down into sug-
me laugh, since it is strictly true                                                ars with nothing more than hot wa-
that the package contains “sea salt.”                                              ter.) Napoleon supported the sugar
ALL salt came from seas, but all                                                   beet growers when war with En-
except a tiny fraction of what is sold                                             gland resulted in blockades, halt-
happen to come from seas that dried                                                ing sugar shipments from the Car-
up millions of years ago, and have                                                 ibbean.
been covered up by layers of rock                                                       While crystals of sucrose from
since then. Real “sea salt” is                                                     sugar beets should be no different
evaporated from seawater, is very                                                  than crystals of sugar from cane, ex-
expensive, and is a snobbish affec-                                                perienced cooks avoid beet sugar
tation for social-climbing cooks who                                               when making frostings, jellies, and
never took any chemistry, and want                                                 many cakes. I’ve yet to hear anyone
to impress people with the fact that                                               explain the exact difference, but
they use salt from places where                                                    scanning electron micrographs re-
most people would like to vacation.                                                veal that cane sugar crystals are
As usual, vague hints that anything                                                “cleaner-looking” than beet sugar
“more natural” or “less processed”       Even skilled bakers, who should           crystals. Since pure sucrose would
is somehow different, better, and        know better, buy brown sugar rather       form similar “clean” crystal shapes
more healthy surround these “sea         than simply add molasses and white        regardless of source, it seems clear
salt” products. The lesson should        sugar to a recipe that calls for          that refined beet contains a larger
be clear to someone with a product       “brown sugar.”                            percentage of impurities than re-
that truly is natural.                                                             fined cane sugar.
                                         The Cane Mutiny                                 Invert Sugar”
                                                                                        “Invert Sugar starts as re-
Light Brown Versus Dark Brown                There are nearly as many non-         fined sugar. Acid and heat break
    By now, you likely have figured      cane sugars as there are types of         down sucrose molecules to a mix-
out that “Light Brown Sugar” con-        cane sugar. While these products          ture of glucose and fructose. Candy
tains less molasses than “Dark           are nothing more than one or more         manufacturers use invert sugar to
Brown Sugar,” and likewise,              of the same three simple sugars           control “graining.” This is not a
“Blackstrap Molasses” is simply          described at the start of this article,   “consumer sweetener,” but is used
darker than regular molasses.            these products exist simply be-           by advanced home confectioners.
    You can dismiss all forms of         cause they are not made from sugar                               Syrup”
                                                                                        “Brown Rice Syrup is ex-
sugar as “exactly the same” from         cane, a point that is either stressed     tracted from rice with enzymes that
not only a chemical, but also a          in an attempt to seem more healthy,       partly break down the starches into
                                                                                                   Continued on Next Page
September 2003                                      BEE CULTURE                                                         7
their component sugars, and is then       lines suggest. “Dark Corn Syrup” is       it does set up. It is easier to liquefy
strained and cooked. The final prod-      nothing more than Light Corn Syrup        than honey.”
uct is 50% “soluble complex carbo-        to which coloring and flavoring have
hydrates,” which means molecules          been added.                                    HFCS is most often diluted by
of starch that were not completely                                                  beekeepers with an additional 10%
broken down into sugars, 45% mal-         High Fructose Corn Syrup In               water by volume to form a final HFCS
tose, and 3% glucose. You won’t find      Both Food And Beekeeping                  concentration of between 60% and
this much outside of health-food               To make HFCS, processors first       70%.
stores.                                   extract dextrose from corn. En-                While adding water slows the
      Barley Malt,”
     “Barley Malt like brown rice         zymes are then used to convert the        crystallization process, untreated
syrup, comes from grain, specifically     dextrose to fructose. The result is       water can contain bacteria that can
barley. It consists of about 40%          42% fructose corn syrup, or “42-          cause the syrup to ferment or be-
“complex carbohydrates,” 42% mal-         HFCS,” which consists of: 42% fruc-       come rancid. The good news is that
tose, 6% glucose, and about 1%            tose, 52% dextrose, 6% disaccha-          chlorine or chloramine in munici-
fructose. This is another health-         rides – often supplied in a “70% sol-     pal water will kill the bacteria, but
food store product.                       ids” mixture, which means 30%             the bad news is that fluoride in
      Fruit Sugar”
     “Fruit Sugar is pure fructose.       water.                                    municipal water is said to be toxic
Fruit sugar is claimed to have a               By filtering this mixture, most      to bees over time. Water filters can
more uniform crystal size than            of the molecules larger than fruc-        block most of the fluoride and the
Bartender’s Sugar from cane, but I        tose can be removed, yielding 90%         chlorine or chloramine. (Yes, even
keep forgetting to bring a microscope     fructose corn syrup. This can then        water requires considerable thought
when I go to a bar, so I have not         be mixed with 42-HFCS to make “55-        in beekeeping.)
verified this. True fruit sugar will be   HFCS,” which contains: 55% fruc-               HFCS is available to the hobby-
clearly labeled as being made from        tose, 41% dextrose, 4% disaccha-          ist beekeeper in five-gallon pails and
fruit. If it does not say so, it should   rides – often supplied in a “77% sol-     55-gallon drums from B&B Honey,
be assumed to have been made from         ids” mixture.                             Mid-Con, and Betterbee. Some lo-
corn syrup.                                    These syrups are considered          cal beekeeping associations also get
      Corn Syrup”
     “Corn Syrup and “High Fruc-
                           High           equal to cane sugar as bee feed,          together and split a large order.
tose Corn Syrup” should be fa-
               Syrup                      and, when purchased in quantity,
miliar to beekeepers as a food            are considerably cheaper than sugar       Higher Than “High”
source for colonies in danger of          purchased in bulk.                             If “High Fructose” is not enough
early Spring starvation. This stuff            Bill Bernacchi of B&B Honey          for your sweet tooth, you can buy
is cheap to make, so it is ubiqui-        Farm, near La Crosse, WI supplies         100% fructose made from corn syrup.
tous in processed foods and bever-        significant quantities of HFCS to         A company named Estee in Garden
ages, even food found in “natural         commercial beekeepers, and says           City, NY sells crystallized fructose
food stores.” Despite the name, the       that while both 42-HFCS and 55-           that they admit is “made from corn.”
fructose is not from fruit but comes      HFCS are adequate bee feeds,              Their marketing is much more primi-
from breaking down cornstarch with             “Type 42 tends to crystallize eas-   tive than their chemistry, as their
enzymes, acids, and heat. Corn            ily, and when it does it is very hard     product is named “Fructose Natu-
syrup is the primary source of the        and difficult to liquefy. It is used by   ral Sweetener,” and their “pitch” is
“added sugars” in the diets of most       very few commercial beekeepers.           limited to “sweeter than sugar,” “a
of the industrialized world at            Those that use it are feeding when the    sodium free food” and “no bitter af-
present, so people who even go so         weather is warm both day and night.       tertaste” in big letters on the side
far as to stop using sugar still get           Type 55 is the choice of commer-     of the box. Perhaps they are simply
more sugars from corn syrup alone         cial beekeepers. It crystallizes very     being honest about their product.
in their diet than nutrition guide-       slowly, and can be liquefied readily if

8                                                    BEE CULTURE                                          September 2003
Much       Less    “Manufactured”                                       What’s Really In Honey
Sweeteners                                 (Lifted from
     There are a small number of
                                          The National Honey Board says that overall, honey contains the following
sweeteners that cannot be dis-            items, in the following amounts:
missed as products of smoke belch-
ing factories owned by massive cor-                                    Average                                           Average
porations. In a fair evaluation,          Fructose/Glucose Ratio         1.23               Moisture, %                    17.2
these should be given nearly equal        Fructose,%                    38.38               Reducing Sugars, %            76.75
respect with honey.                       Glucose,%                     30.31               Sucrose, %                     1.31
     Pure Maple Syrup and Maple           Minerals (Ash),%              00.169              Total Acidity, meq/kg.        29.12
                                                                                            True Protein, mg/100g.        168.6
Sugar come from the sap of hard
maple, rock maple, and black maple        The Major Enzymes Present In Honey
trees. Anything that does not say         Enzyme           Function
“Pure Maple Syrup” likely has no          Invertase        Converts sucrose to glucose and fructose
actual maple syrup in it at all. I’m      Amylase          Hydrolyzes starch to dextrins and/or sugars (diastase)
going to go easy on maple syrup,          Glucose Oxidase  Converts glucose to gluconolactone, which in turn yields gluconic acid and
since there are a number of maple                          hydrogen peroxide
syrup producers who also keep bees,       Catalase         Converts peroxide to water and oxygen
maple syrup is not a general-pur-         Acid Phosphatase Removes inorganic phosphate from organic phosphates
pose sweetener that “competes”
with honey, and I like maple syrup.                   Values
                                          Nutrient Values
(I’m still working on my long-term        Nutrient Average amount Average per 1 Tbsp. serving amount (21g) per 100g
research project to officially settle     Water 3.6g
                                          Total Carbohydrates 17.3g                           Information For Nutritional Labeling*
the long-standing dispute over
                                          Fructose 8.1g                                       Total Calories 64 (kilocalories)
whether New Hampshire maple
                                          Glucose 6.5g                                        Total Calories from Fat 0 (kilocalories)
syrup is better than Vermont maple
                                          Maltose 1.5g                                        Total Fat 0
syrup or visa-versa, so producers         Sucrose 0.3g                                        Saturated Fat 0
from each state are encouraged to
                                                                                              Cholesterol 0
send samples for, ummm, “exten-               TA
                                          V I TA M I N S                                      Sodium 0.6 mg
sive testing” to me in care of this       Thiamin < 0.002 mg                                  Total Carbohydrates 17g
magazine. Please use plain, un-           Riboflavin < 0.06 mg                                Sugars 16 g 76 g
marked boxes, or the editor will grab     Niacin < 0.06 mg                                    Dietary Fiber 0 0
it all.)                                  Biotin Not available                                Protein 0.15 mg 0.7 mg
     In late Winter, trees are tapped     Pantothenic Acid < 0.05 mg
by boring a small hole to obtain the      Vitamin B-6 < 0.005 mg                              MINERALS
dilute juice or sap. This sap is          Folate < 0.002 mg                                   Calcium 1.0 mg
strained and excess water is evapo-       Vitamin B-12 Not available                          Iron 0.05 mg
rated off, resulting in syrup. This       Vitamin C 0.1 mg                                    Zinc 0.03 mg
used to be done in open kettles over      Vitamin A 0                                         Potassium 11.0 mg
a fire. Modern operations use mul-        Vitamin D 0                                         Phosphorous 1.0 mg
tiple evaporators, and syrup produc-      Vitamin E 0                                         Magnesium 0.4 mg
ers love stainless steel as much as                                                           Selenium 0.002 mg
beekeepers. It takes approximately                                                            Copper 0.01 mg
34 gallons of sap to make one gal-        *Contains less than 2% of the Daily Value for       Manganese 0.03 mg
                                          vitamin A, vitamin C, iron and calcium              Ash 0.04 g
lon of syrup. If this maple syrup is
heated to about 230°F and cooled
quickly without stirring, it will crys-   done that prove that it is safe, it               Semi-Artificial Sweeteners
tallize and form maple sugar.             could become the first bonda-fide                     There are three sweeteners that
      Date Sugar” is another
     “Date Sugar                          natural “diet sweetener.” The leaves              can be made from “natural” sources,
sweetener that deserves respect. It       contain several chemicals called gly-             but require quite a bit of fancy chem-
is made from dehydrated dates that        cosides, which taste sweet, but                   istry to create. None of these are
are ground into a powder. It has          have no calories. Stevia has taken                consumer products; all are special-
roughly the same nutrient value as        over 40% of the Japanese sweetener                purpose chemicals for highly-pro-
dried dates, which makes it the only      market, so it may become a major                  cessed food.
sweetener that can be truthfully          sweetener worldwide.                                    D-tagatose”
                                                                                                “D-tagatose is about 92% as
said to contain significant food               Sorghum Molasses”
                                              “Sorghum Molasses is still                    sweet as sucrose, but it is poorly
value beyond the sugars.                  available, and it was the first form              metabolized, has a net impact of
     An obscure product, “Stevia
                              Stevia      of molasses made in the U.S. Sor-                 only 1.5 calories per gram instead
is nothing but the leaves of a South      ghum stalks are ground up or                      of the four calories per gram one
American shrub. Though it is sweet,       pressed, and the juices drained. The              gets from all forms of carbohydrates.
the FDA has not yet approved it as        exact final product depends upon                  Structurally, it is close to fructose.
a food additive, so it is sold as an      the degree of evaporation.                        Tagatose can be made from whey, a
“herb” or “dietary supplement” with                                                         byproduct of cheese making.
a wink and a nod. If studies are                                                                  Sugar Alcohols,” such as
                                                                                                “Sugar Alcohols
                                                                                                               Continued on Next Page
September 2003                                          BEE CULTURE                                                                      9
                                               Saccharin (Sweet ‘N Low ® ) is    showed that side effects included
                                         a synthetic compound derived from       shrunken thymus glands, enlarged
                                         coal tar. (Yum! Pass the COAL TAR!)     livers, and enlarged kidneys, but the
                                         It is claimed to be 300 times sweeter   maker argued that this was only at
                                         than sugar. Saccharin is forced to      very high doses, convincing the FDA
                                         carry a warning label, since U.S.       to approve it.
                                         studies in 1972 and 1973 of rats fed         Splenda has been the subject
                                         saccharin resulted in bladder can-      of a recent and massive advertising
                                         cer, and a 1977 Canadian study con-     blitz claiming that “Splenda is made
                                         firmed the U.S. studies. The FDA        from sugar, so it is as safe as
                                         proposed to ban saccharin for all       sugar.” But is it? There have not
                                         uses except as an over-the-counter      been any long-term studies on the
                                         drug, but since it was the only sugar   effect of this chemical on humans,
                                         substitute available at the time, it    not even a 12-month or 24-month
                                         was not banned. More recently, the      study, and in the tiny number of
                                         FDA considered removing it from the     studies done on this chemical, the
                                         list of known carcinogens. Expect       lab rats did not fare well at all.
                                         another name-change for this                 The “chlorinating” process used
Sorbitol, Xylitol, Lactitol, Mannitol,   chemical, since it has nearly as bad    prompts concern on the part of
and Maltitol are used mainly to          a reputation as Cyclamate.              some health experts. The process
sweeten sugar-free candies, cook-              Aspartame is sold under the       chemically changes the structure of
ies, and chewing gums. These forms       brand       names     Equal ®    and    the sugar molecules by substitut-
of sugar are so poorly metabolized       NutraSweet . The beverage indus-
                                                                                 ing three chlorine atoms for three
by the human body that the term          try, the biggest user of artificial     hydroxyl groups. But are the result-
“sugar free” is fairly accurate for      sweeteners, likes aspartame be-         ing chlorine atoms “safe” like in salt,
products that include these chemi-       cause it has no aftertaste and re-      or a potential health problem, like
cals.                                    quires no warning label. Indepen-       in “Chlorinated Pesticides” such as
     “Polydextrose is synthesized
      Polydextrose                       dent studies have suggested that it     DDT? Only time will tell, but the
from glucose, plus roughly 10 per-       contributes to the “formation of        actual chemical name for what
cent sorbitol and 1 percent citric       formaldehyde adducts,” and the ap-      comes out of the “chlorinating” pro-
acid. It is used as a replacement for    proval of this chemical was the sub-    cess is “1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-
sugar, starch, and fat in low-priced,    ject of a great deal of controversy     BETA-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-
low-quality commercial cakes, can-       even within the FDA. In essence,        deoxy-alpha-D-galact opyranoside,”
dies, dessert mixes, gelatins, fro-      formaldehyde is a scary thing as it     so it should be clear that this stuff
zen desserts, puddings, and salad        damages to the neurological system      bears no resemblance to sugar at
dressings.                               even at very low levels. The only       all, and is a much more complicated
                                         warning label on products contain-      structure than the simple bonding
Sweeteners Not Found In                  ing Aspartame says “Phenylketonu-       of sodium and chlorine to form salt.
Nature                                   ric” or “Contains phenylalanine.”            The manufacturer claims that
     All artificial sweeteners face a    Phenylketonuria is a rare genetic       sucralose passes through the body
serious and basic problem. No one        disease in which the body cannot        rather than being metabolized, but
knows one from another, and most         use the chemical phenylalanine.         the FDA disagreed, finding that 11%
of them have caused cancer and                 Neotame is a new chemical         to 27% of sucralose is absorbed in
other severe health problems in          approved by the FDA in 2002. It is      humans. The bottom line here is
white lab mice. Never mind that          very similar to Aspartame and is        that we have a very complex chlori-
mice are a lousy stand-in for hu-        claimed to be 30 times more power-      nated molecule, one metabolized by
mans in many ways, and don’t even        ful a sweetener than aspartame.         the human body, and one where no
bother to mention that most “white       There is also a great deal of contro-   one has even bothered to looked at
lab mice” are actually rats of a breed   versy surrounding this chemical, as     health effects on humans for a
called “Norwegian Gray.” Bottom          it is hard for anyone to ignore repu-   single year.
line, artificial sweeteners scare        table scientists doing independent           Another problem with sucralose
people. They have every right to be      studies and using terms like “neu-      is purity. The FDA says that
scared.                                  rotoxin” in their reports. Since the    sucralose “is produced at an ap-
     Cyclamate was marketed in           same company makes both aspar-          proximate purity of 98%.” The other
the 60s as a “miracle product,” but      tame and neotame, expect to see         2% varies, but includes contami-
FDA banned it in 1970 after evidence     neotame in packaged food products,      nants like heavy metals (such as
emerged linking it to bladder can-       but not as a sweetener packaged for     Lead), Arsenic, Triphenilphosphine
cer. Subsequent studies have failed      sale to consumers.                      Oxide, Methanol, Chlorinated Dis-
to verify that link, so the FDA is             Sucralose is sold under the       accharides, and Chlorinated
considering a petition to re-approve     brand name Splenda®. It is a chlo-      Monosaccharides.
cyclamate. This product will likely      rinated form of sucrose, so it is de-        In contrast, if such contami-
undergo a significant name change        rived from sugar, but is non-caloric,   nants were found in honey at even
if the FDA re-approves it, as the        and contains less than one gram of      parts-per-billion levels, entire ship-
story of cyclamate is too well known.    carbohydrates. Pre-approval testing     ments of honey would be seized,

10                                                  BEE CULTURE                                        September 2003
product recalls would be issued,        ses, use exactly the same amount.        plex sucrose. Since honey contains
and a great deal of negative public-    The resulting flavor and color will      more fructose than sucrose, there
ity would result. Somehow, chemi-       be “lighter.”                            are very similar odds that your taste
cal sweeteners can be sold even             To substitute honey for corn         buds will encounter the sweeter
though they are contaminated at         syrup, use exactly the same              fructose, and consistently experi-
rates as high as 2%.                    amount, but consider reducing            ence a “sweeter” sensation with
     Acesulfame Potassium is sold       other sweet ingredients, as a honey      honey as opposed to sugar.
under the names Sunett®, Sweet &        is sweeter than consumer-packaged
Safe®, and Sweet One®. It is FDA-       corn syrup.                              Sweetener Sweetness Relative
approved for baked goods, frozen                                                 To Sucrose
desserts, candies, and beverages.       Dealing With The “Honey Is               Sucrose    1.0
The Center for Science In The Pub-      Messy” Objection                         Glucose    0.6
lic Interest urged the FDA to ban           Clearly, people who cook and         Fructose   1.73
this chemical based upon both in-       care about what they eat are the         Lactose    0.16
adequate testing, and cancer in test    prime targets for the suggestion         Mannitol   0.6
animals resulting from what little      that honey can replace other sweet-      Sorbitol   0.5
testing was done.                       eners, but cooks must measure            Xylitol    1.0
     In summary, artificial sweeten-    their ingredients, and honey can be      Maltose    1.0
ers are easy to sell against, by sim-   a problem, as more seems to stick
ply learning what they really are,      to the measuring cup than go into             Gee, that’s neat Mr. Science,
and cutting through the marketing       the mixing bowl. The answer is a         but what about people over 10?
hype to expose the chemistry set of     “Wonder Cup,” a measuring cup in              Easy – offer a taste test. If you
substances found in every package.      the form of a cylinder with a bottom     are like most beekeepers who sell
                                        that can be pushed up to the top         to the public, you lay out dispos-
But What Goes On The Table?             edge, so that not a drop of honey is     able spoons or straws and a “taster”
     Don’t make the mistake of          wasted. These sell at retail for about   jar front and center. Keep a hand-
thinking that plastic squeeze bears     $5.00, and they really do work as        ful of packets of each of the
are the only packaging required to      claimed. Other techniques work as        competition’s products in your
get honey a place on the dining room    well including using a measuring         pocket, and do the obvious. Even
table. Take a look at sugar bowls –     cup for the oil component first.         honey of marginal quality will “win,”
they match the china. While every                                                since all the other stuff tastes like
beekeeper meeting silent auction        Is Honey Sweeter Than Sugar?             “nothing.”
includes decorative honey pots and          Beekeepers get asked this ques-
dippers, using dippers can be a         tion all the time, and it makes a        Invasion of the Space Sugars!
messy experience for those unfa-        great “science experiment” that re-           Scientists found extraterres-
miliar with them.                       quires no special equipment. School      trial sugar compounds in the
     A better alternative is a “syrup   teacher’s lounges are sure to have       “Murchison” and “Murray” meteor-
dispenser” of the type found at din-    a microwave and/or a water cooler        ites. This discovery gives solid sup-
ers. These have a sliding metal tab     with a (red) hot water spigot, so you    port to the view that meteorites
that opens when a trigger is pulled     can even add this to a school bee-       could have delivered compounds
or a lever is pushed, and closes        keeper presentation.                     that contributed to the development
when released. This metal tab cuts          Fill two cups with the same          of life on Earth.
off the flow of honey cleanly with-     amount of boiling or hot water. In            The meteorites have a higher
out drips, and does a good job of       one cup, immediately add two table-      concentration of simple sugars than
keeping the honey sealed away from      spoons of sugar, measured with           of the large, complex sugars that are
air, dust, and moisture.                care. Once both cups have cooled,        abundant on Earth. Also, the ratio
     Restaurant supply houses sell      add two tablespoons of sugar to the      of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in the
these for as little as $2 each. Fancy   unsweetened cup.                         meteorites’ sugar compounds
versions exist, but you need to have        Once the sugar has dissolved,        matches that expected from extra-
these available for sale, or at least   taste each. The cup you sweetened        terrestrial sources.
to show the customer a dispenser        while it was hot will be noticeably           Some of these compounds might
that works without looking tacky.       sweeter.                                 even predate the solar system,
                                            The initial conclusion might be      originating in the interstellar cloud
How Do You Use Honey Where              that more sugar dissolves in hot         of gas and dust that gave birth to
A Recipe Calls For Something            water than in cold water. But you        the sun. Last year, scientists re-
Else?                                   added the same exact amount of           ported that they had found a simple
    This is another common ques-        sugar to each cup, and you can see       sugar in a star-forming cloud 26,000
tion, and is easy to answer. Honey      that all the sugar is completely dis-    light-years from Earth using spec-
can easily replace sugar in most any    solved in both cups.                     troscopy. B C
recipe. 3/4 cup of honey replaces           Then why is one sweeter than
one cup of sugar. Reduce liquids by     the other? The hot water inverts the          James Fischer keeps bees and
one-half cup for each cup of honey      sugar (sucrose) to become glucose        spends his Winters working on the Un-
                                                                                 solved Problems of Science, such as why
you add to the recipe.                  and fructose, and fructose is            a pint of “Heavy Cream” actually weighs
    To substitute honey for molas-      sweeter tasting than the more com-       less than a pint of “Light Cream.”

September 2003                                     BEE CULTURE                                                       11
12   BEE CULTURE   September 2003

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