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RITES AND RITUALS OF THE HAJJ related by Sheikh Abdel-Khaliq Al-Naqeeb Imam, Masjid Omar, Paterson NJ Compiled and translated by: Upper Westchester Muslim Society Last update: Nov 2005 BEFORE LEAVING THE HOUSE FOR HAJJ 1. Write your will. You can make it simple by just listing all of your assets without mentioning any amounts. Include bank accounts (names and numbers), 401K, life insurance, stocks, etc. along with your liabilities (debts you owe). At the end you would state that you want your debt paid off whatever is left should be distributed according to Islamic shari’a. You should have it notarized and keep it in a safe place that your children, relatives, or lawyer knows about. 2. Clear any disputes with your relatives and friends. Wish farewell to them and ask them to forgive any wrong you may have done to them. 3. On the day you are traveling, before you leave the house: Make wudu and pray two rakaat (surah 109 al-Kafiroon in the first rakaa and surah 112 al-Ikhlas in the second rakaa). Then ask Allah (swt) to make your trip for „Umrah and Hajj easy for you. 4. Things to take with you: small sized Quran, small bag for Mina, inexpensive rubber slippers, and other personal items. Sisters should take good walking shoes like sneakers. Medicines you should take (in addition to your immunizations): stomach and diarrhea, cold and flu, muscle and joint pain, cream or lotion for chafed or cracked skin (especially feet). You may consider asking your doctor for antibiotics such as Zithromax (Z-Pak). 5. As you are leaving your house make the following du’a for your family: I am leaving you to Allah (swt) who will not leave you or misguide you but will protect you. Astawdi ‘ukumullah alladhi la tadee’u wadai’uh Make a lot of du’a during your trip, including du’a of the traveler. ARRIVING IN MADINAH 1. After you put your luggage in your room in the hotel: Take a shower, wear your best clothes, put on the best perfume you have (for men only), and go to the Prophet‟s Mosque, Masjid al-Nabawi. Go in the mosque like you do with other mosques (i.e., with your right foot) and say the usual du’a for entering a masjid: O Allah, open for me the gates of your mercy and forgiveness Allahumma iftah-li abwaaba rahmatika wal maghfira Try to pray at least once in the Rawdah (it is the area where the original mosque existed, distinguished by different colored pillars). The Rawdah area will be very crowded – the best time to reach it is often a couple of hours before Fajr prayer. Recite Quran and pray as much as you can in Masjid al-Nabawi (fard and sunnah), as one prayer there is worth 1000 prayers anywhere else (excepting Masjid al-Haram). 2. When you are ready to leave, move to the honored room to visit the Prophet‟s (saaw) grave. When you see the door to the grave, read surah al-Fatiha, and then make the following greeting for the prophet: Peace be on you, O Messenger of Allah; Peace be on you, O Prophet of Allah; Peace be on you, O beloved of Allah I bear witness that you delivered the message of Allah you gave your nation the advice. Assalamu 'alaika ya rasoolallah; Assalamu 'alaika ya nabiyallah; Assalamu 'alaika ya habiballah; Ash-hadu annaka ballaghtar rasala wa nasahtal ummah Then move over to the right to Abu Bakr‟s grave and say: Peace be on you, O Abu Bakr the caliph after the messenger of Allah. Assalamu ‘alaika ya Abu Bakr, ya caliphat ar-rasoolallah Then move again to the right to Umar‟s grave and say: Peace be on you, O Umar ibn al-Khattab, chief of the believers Assalamu ‘alaika ya Umar ibn al-Khattab, ya Amir Al Mu’mineen 3. Visit the historic sites of Medina (e.g., the mountain of Uhud, Jannatul Baqi graveyard, Masjid Quba, and Masjid Qiblatain) Note that the Prophet (saaw) said that two rakaat in Masjid Quba will equal Umrah. When you enter the Baqi graveyard, say Peace be on you Muslim and believers, with God‟s will we will follow you and we ask Allah‟s forgiveness for us and you Assalamu alaikum ahl ad-diyyari min al-mu’mineena wal muslimeena wa inna insha Allah bikum lalahiqoon. As alullaaha lana walakum-ul ‘afiyah 4. Attend the workshops at the hotel for the Hajj rituals. Note: If you go directly to Mecca first for your ‘Umrah, you will put your Ihram on before reaching Jeddah (take a full ghusl before leaving). Make your intention for ‘Umrah and complete the rites of ‘Umrah as described below. Also you will give your passport to the travel agents for safekeeping upon exiting customs at the airport when you arrive in Saudi Arabia. FORMS OF HAJJ There are three forms of Hajj: i) At-Tamattu’ ii) Al-Qiraan iii) Al-Ifraad At-Tamattu’: The pilgrim performs their ‘Umrah, removes their Ihram, and then reenters Ihram on 8th Dhul-Hijjah for the Hajj. Al-Qiraan: The pilgrim performs ‘Umrah and Hajj with the same Ihram, without removing it in between. When entering the state of Ihram, the pilgrim makes the intention for both Hajj and ‘Umrah combined. A pilgrim may also wear Ihram first for ‘Umrah, and then make intention for Hajj before the Tawaaf for Hajj. Al-Ifraad: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only and makes the intention for Hajj only. The sacrifice is required for those performing At-Tamattu’ and Al-Qiraan. It is not required for Al-Ifraad. The best of the three forms is At-Tamattu’. It is the form that the Prophet (saaw) encouraged his followers to perform. Even if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiraan or Ifraad he is allowed to change his intentions to Tamattu’; he can do this even after he has performed Tawaaf and Sa’yi. When the Prophet (saaw) performed Tawaaf and Sa’yi during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his companions, he ordered all those who hadn‟t brought sacrificial animals to change their intentions for Hajj to intentions for ‘Umrah, cut their hair, and disengage from Ihram until Hajj. He (saaw) said, “If I hadn‟t brought the sacrificial animal, I‟d have done what I‟ve ordered you to do.” LEAVING MADINAH and GOING TO MECCA 1. The day you are leaving Madinah and going to Mecca, take a shower (ghusl for Ihram) which is sunnah for both men and women, including menstruating women and those experiencing postnatal bleeding. Use plain unscented soap. It is also recommended to shave the pubic and underarm hair, clip the fingernails, etc. Wear the Ihram garments (do not put on any perfume). Make your intention for ‘Umrah (or according to the type of Hajj you will perform). A Pilgrim, other than those menstruating or experiencing postnatal bleeding, prays 2 rakaat (recite surah 109 al-Kafiroon in the first rakaa and surah 112 al-Ikhlas in the second rakaa). When finished with the prayer you should start the Talbiyah by saying: Here I am at your service, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, you have no partner, here I am. Truly, all praise and favor and dominion are yours. You have no partner. Labbayk Allahumma labbayk, labbayk la shareeka laka labbayk. Innal-hamdah wan-ni’mata laka wal mulk. Laa shareeka lak. A man raises his voice when saying this and a woman says it so that only one besides her may hear her. One in Ihram should say the Talbiyah as often as possible. 2. If you are going to Mecca by plane, the pilot will inform you of when to make the intention for ‘Umrah/Hajj. If you go by bus, the bus will stop at a designated mosque at Abyar Ali, the wells of Ali, where you can pray and make your intention for ‘Umrah or Hajj or both. If you go by plane, you will go to Jeddah, then by bus from the airport to Mecca (around 1.5 – 2 hours). On the bus you should recite the Talbiyah and avoid forbidden acts during Ihram. See above for the Talbiyah in Arabic and English. NOTE: Do not eat anything from the road – take your own water, snacks, etc. in your handbag (you should only eat and drink sealed items). 3. When you see the houses outside Mecca you should start saying in Arabic: Allahumma mah ijjaal lee feeha qararan wa urzukhni feeha rizqan halalan ya rabb-al-alameen Oh Allah, take care of me and provide for me in this city And when you see the Masjid al-Haram: Allahumma zid hadha albayta mahabatan wa taazeeman wa takreeman wa birran, Allahumma anta assalam wa minka assalam wa hayena bessalam Oh Allah glorify this house (the Kabaa). Oh Allah you are peace and peace is from you and greet us with peace 4. When you reach your hotel You may also consider putting some of your money in the hotel safe. Make wudu if needed (e.g., if you slept or lost your wudu‟) then go to the Haram. 5. When you enter the Haram you have to remember which door you came in from so you can go out from the same door (if you go out from a different door you may get lost). It is the sunnah to enter from the gate called As-Salam. Enter with your right foot and say: Allah, please open to me the doors to your mercy and forgiveness Allahumma iftah-li abwaaba rahmatika wal maghfira When you see the Kaaba say Bismillah Allahu Akbar 3 times then start making your du‟a. ‘UMRAH and HAJJ RITUALS 1. Enter into Ihram. See the detailed notes in Step 1 in the previous section. Avoid forbidden acts during Ihram. The standard forbidden acts are: cutting the nails, shaving, cutting, or pulling one‟s hair, killing or hunting animals, cutting trees or pulling leaves, applying perfume, and any sexual activities with spouse. Also avoid brushing or combing hair as some hair may fall out as a result. 2. Performing the „UMRAH A. Make Tawaaf around the Kaaba (seven times). Start Tawaaf from the line indicated on the floor (it is from the black stone going across and there is a green beam that you also could see on your right opposite to the black stone). When you are ready to start say: nawaytu al Tawaaf lil ‘Umrah I am making intention for ‘Umrah Tawaaf When you start, point to the black stone and say: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar. Always try to look at the Kabaa while making Tawaaf. For the men, when you are doing Tawaaf, you have to show your right shoulder (right shoulder should not be covered during Tawaaf). For men and women you should go fast (jogging during the first 3 Tawaaf around the Kabaa) this is called Al-Raml. While performing Tawaaf make du’a and ask Allah for forgiveness. You can read du’a from a book, or repeat after your group leader, or any other group leader. Make sure that before you finish each Tawaaf and before you get to the black stone (at the Yemeni corner), say: Rabbbana aatina fid-duniya hasana-tan, wa fil-akhira-ti hasana-tan, wa-qinaa adhaab an-naar Our Lord, give us good in this world, and good in the hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of the fire B. After you finish the Tawaaf (seven times around Kabaa), pray two rakaat behind Maqaam Ibrahim. Recite surah 109 al-Kafiroon in the first rakaa and surah 112 al-Ikhlas in the second rakaa. C. Then drink from Zam Zam and put Zam Zam water on your head and body. You should say the following du‟a while drinking Zam Zam: Allahumma ahyena muslimeen wa Tawaafina muslimeen wa alhekhna be al saleheen; Ghaira khazaya wala maftuneen, Allahumma as-aluka ‘ilman naafean wa rizqan waaseean wa amalan mutakabalan wa shifan min kulli daa-in be rahmatika ya arham ar-rahimeen, rabbana inna haadha lee atashi yaum al qiyama O Allah make us Muslims while we are alive and also when we die and have us join those good Muslims, I ask you for good deeds and for your bounties and I ask you to heal me from any disease and ask you for your mercy, please have this water that I am drinking now take care of my thirst on the day of judgment D. After you finish from Zam Zam go to make the Sa’yi between Safa and Marwah The Sa‟yi is seven rounds – each time between Safa and Marwah is counted as one, and between Marwah and Safa is another one. When you get to Safa and Marwah you recite from surah 2:158: Verily Al Safa and Al Marwah are among the shrines of Allah Innas-Safaa wal Marwata min sha’aairillah You start from Safa. Before you start you say: nawaytu al Sa’yi bayna al Safa wal Marwah fa takabalha minni wa yassirhali I am making intention for Sa’yi between Safa and Marwah so accept it from me and make it easy on me You go on Safa and look towards the Kabaa and raise your hand/arm and say Allahu Akbar 3 times. Then start walking towards Marwah and repeat the following du’a 3 times: Laa ilaaha ill-allahu wah-dahu la shareeka lah; Lahul mulku wa lahul-hamd; yuh-yee wa yumeetu, wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shayy’in qadeer; Laa ilaaha ill-allahu wah-dahu. Sadaqa wa’dahu wa nasara ‘abdahu wa hazamal-ahzaaba wah-dahu None has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone, and He has not partner. To Him belongs the sovereignty, and to Him belongs all praise, and He has power over all things. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone. He fulfilled His promise, aided His servant and defeated the disbelievers. You can then say any du’a and ask Allah for forgiveness. When you get to Marwah repeat all the du’a mentioned above. NOTE: You have to go fast (i.e., jogging) between the 2 green lights on the wall on your right. E. After you finish the Sa’yi, shave or trim hair and remove Ihram if you will stay in Mecca for a few days before Hajj. If you are going to Mina to start Hajj YOU DO NOT TAKE THE IHRAM OFF. 3. Going to Mina Before noon on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah (the day of at-Tarwiyah) those performing Hajj at-Tamattu’ enter into Ihram – take a shower (with plain unscented soap), shave the hair under the arms, clip nails, etc. (do not wear any perfume) and wear the Ihram garments. Those performing Hajj Qiraan will be in the same Ihram as for the ‘Umrah. Make intention for Hajj by saying: nawaytu al Ihram bil Hajj fa takaballahu minee wa yassirhali I am making my intention for Hajj, so Allah accept it from me and make it easy on me Then pray 2 rakaat sunnah for Ihram for the Hajj (Recite surah 109 al-Kafiroon in the first rakaa and surah 112 al-Ikhlas in the second rakaa) and go to Mina. Remain in Mina during the Tarwiyah Day (8th of Dhul-Hijjah) and perform the five prayers starting from Dhuhr prayer and ending with Fajr prayer on the day of Arafat. Note: you will pray Dhuhr, Asr, and Isha 2 rakaat each without combining any two prayers (each prayer to be done separately). NOTE: You need a small bag with you in Mina (your luggage will remain in the hotel or storage and you will not have access to it). You will need your medicine and other necessary personal items in that small bag. 4. Going To Arafat Leave for Arafat on the morning of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and stay until sunset. Stay in any part of Arafat (not necessarily on the mountain only). Glorify Allah, repeat supplication, repent to Allah and ask for forgiveness. Combine Dhuhr and Asr prayers at the Dhuhr time (shortened to 2 rakaat each). One of the du’a you can make is: Allahumma ajjalni mimman tobahy bihee al yaum malaaikatak innaka ala kulli shayy’in qadeer O Allah, have me as one of those who you are mentioning today to your Angels; it is only you that is capable over every thing 5. Going To Muzdalifah Leave for Muzdalifah soon after sunset of the 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah. Note that everyone will be going to Muzdalifah at the same time and it is very crowded. Be patient and make zhikr and du’a. Perform Maghrib and Isha prayers combined (Isha is shortened to two rakaat) in Muzdalifah at the Isha time. Stay overnight and collect 50-70 pebbles (depending on how many days you will remain in Mina) and perform the Fajr prayer. Note: Some scholars say that if there are old people, pregnant women, or sick people in your group it is permissible to leave Muzdalifah after midnight instead of waiting until Fajr when it will be very crowded. 6. Return To Mina Shortly before sunrise on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah, leave Muzdalifah for Mina. Go to Jamarat Al-Aqabah (the biggest Jamarah) and stone it with seven pebbles, make takbeer every time you stone (Bismillah Allahu Akbar). Slaughter your sacrificial animal and shave/cut your hair. Remove your Ihram garments. Some restrictions are lifted. Then go to Mecca for Tawaaf Al-Ifada. 7. Tawaaf Al-Ifadha On the 10th of Dhul-Hijja (or after) Go to Mecca and make Tawaaf Al-Ifada. Make Sa’yi between Safa and Marwah and drink from Zam Zam. After Tawaaf al-Ifada, all restrictions of Ihram are lifted. 8. Return To Mina The 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah: Spend the Tashreeq days in Mina. After dhawal (mid day) of each day, stone the three Jamarat starting from the small and ending with Al-Aqabah (7 pebbles each Jamarah for a total of 21 pebbles each day). You may leave early on the 12th after stoning the Jamarat. 9. Farewell Tawaaf (Tawaaf al Wada) After the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah go to Mecca and make Tawaaf. Perform two rakaat of Tawaaf. Let the Tawaaf be the last thing you do in Mecca (i.e., if you are staying in Mecca a few days, do it at the end of your stay before leaving Mecca and returning home). We ask Allah to accept from all of us our Hajj, our striving, and our good deeds.
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