Introduction to Psychology Review for Exam #1 Items on this review sheet have been designed to make you think critically about psychology concepts that you will encounter in this class. Studying, understanding and responding to items on this review sheet will comprise the majority of your work for this class. Your work on the review sheet is critical to performing well on the exam. Do not wait until the last minute to study and respond to these review sheet items. Chapter: Science of Psychology 1. In your own words, distinguish between the major goals of psychology: prediction, control, explanation and description. How would a psychologist incorporate these components in a scientific study? How could you improve your life by employing the major goals of psychology? 2. What would a functionalist be most likely to study? 3. What would a structuralist be most likely to study? What methods did structuralists use to perform research? 4. Create a list of two or three research questions that could be answered empirically. 5. What are the big differences between gestaltism, humanism, behaviorism, psychodynamic, bio-psychology, cognitive psychology and evolutionary psychology? What are some of the major ideas of these approaches? Which of these approaches makes the most sense to you? 6. On what aspects of psychology did Sigmund Freud focus? On your Facebook page, discuss whether you agree or disagree with some of Freud’s early theories. 7. The majority of psychologists work in what fields of psychology? In what fields do the fewest psychologists work? If you had to choose, which field of psychology would you want to work in? 8. How are psychiatrists and psychologists different? 9. Vido has an M.S.W. and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of psychological professional is Vido most likely to become? 10. In your own words, distinguish between “theories” and “hypotheses.” Do a quick Google search to see various definitions of these two terms. What are some of your theories and hypotheses about people? 11. In your own words, distinguish between naturalistic observations, experiments, surveys and case studies. 12. What are the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches to studying psychology? 13. If a radio show poles it’s listeners about their attitudes on a political topic, we would say that this study comprises a “non-representative” sample. Why? How do “population” and “sample” figure in to your conclusions? 14. In your own words, define “correlation.” 15. If smoking decreases one’s health, then this would be an example of what type of correlation? Do you think that it would be a strong correlation? 16. Articulate an original example of a negative correlation, a positive correlation and a non-correlation. 17. What would a graph of a .00 correlation look like? Draw it. Verbalize it. How about a correlation of +.75? How about -.43? 18. Construct your own example of an experiment and identify the dependent and independent variables. 19. What is held constant in an experiment? The dependent variable or the independent variable? Why? 20. What is an operational definition? Why do psychology researchers place so much emphasis on “operational definitions”? Grab the person in the next room and with him/her, operationally define “patriotism.” 21. Distinguish between an experimental and control group in an experiment? 22. Distinguish between “random selection” and “random assignment.” Why are both important to the research process? 23. What is the “placebo effect”? How is it related to double and single blind studies? Describe a study that might result in the placebo effect ? 24. What are the differences between case studies, experiments and observational studies? What are their strengths and weaknesses? 25. Are psychological researchers allowed to deceive their experimental participants. Why or why not? 26. Do psychologists have to allow participants to withdraw from a study once it has begun? Why or why not? 27. What are some characteristics of a critical thinker? Do you consider yourself to be a critical thinker? Why or why not? Chapter: Social Psychology 1. Distinguish among the various techniques for gaining compliance, including the foot- in-the-door, door-in-the-face, lowball, norm of reciprocity, and that’s not all. Think of how you might use one of these compliance techniques to your advantage. Then do it. Always remember to use your knowledge of psychology for good and not evil! 2. What is the difference between compliance and obedience? Is obedience a good or a bad thing? 3. What were some of the lessons learned from the Milgram experiment on obedience? 4. In your own words, distinguish among the processes of groupthink, social inhibition, social loafing and social facilitation. Describe a situation in which you have personally been affected by one of these processes. 5. Distinguish among the different components (i.e., cognitive, behavioral, affective) of an attitude. Offer one of your own attitudes and identify the cognitive, behavioral and affective parts of this attitude. 6. In your own words, talk about the different factors that are part of attitude change, including the source, message, target audience and the way in which the message is processed (central vs. peripheral). 7. What is cognitive dissonance and how does it figure into attitude change? 8. True or False: The more that one is paid for a boring task, the more one will come to enjoy that task. (Hint: Look at Festinger’s classic study of cognitive dissonance.) 9. In your own words, define stereotype. Pull out your cell phone. Call your significant other and discuss two or three of the stereotypes that you have? DO IT NOW! 10. Discuss attribution theory? What does it mean when one makes a dispositional attribution? How about a situational attribution? 11. In your own words, define the funadamental attribution error. 12. Discuss the cross-cultural research on the fundamental attribution error. 13. Distinguish between prejudice and discrimination. 14. Distinguish between in-groups and out-groups. What are a few of your in-groups and out-groups? How do these concepts relate to the automatic process of social categorization? 15. How does scapegoating affect the way that in-group members perceive out-group members? 16. Provide an example of a time when you imposed a self-fulfilling prophecy on another individual—for better or worse? 17. What were the lessons learned from the Robber’s Cave experiment? 18. Distinguish among the rules of attraction listed by your author. 19. Distinguish among Sternberg’s three components of love (i.e., intimate, passionate, companionate). 20. Call your significant other and tell him/her that you love her...and…discuss with him/her the different kinds of love—companionate, romantic, infatuation, consummate, etc. 21. What were the lessons learned from Zimbardo’s prison experiment—about the power of social roles? 22. What did the murder of Kitty Genovese teach us about altruism, the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility?
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