IMPLEMENTED by mikeholy

VIEWS: 280 PAGES: 16

									                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                        SEGMENT 1.


                    RULE 1. MANDATORY RULES GOVERNING                            WHEEL       SHOP     PRACTICES        AS
                    REQUIRED BY INTERCHANGE RULES
                    RULE 1.1 AXLES—GENERAL PRACTICES
                    Rule 1.1.1 Axles must meet the specified machine tolerances within this manual. When specified
                    machine tolerances cannot be maintained, lathes must be adjusted or repaired.
                    Rule 1.1.2 New and converted axles (as defined in paragraph 2.1.2.5) must conform to dimen-
                    sions and specifications as shown in this manual (see Figs. 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.8, 4.9, 4.12, and 4.13).
                    Secondhand axles must conform to dimensions and specifications as shown in this manual (see
                    Figs. 4.4, 4.5, 4.7, 4.11, 4.12, and 4.13).
                    Rule 1.1.3 If an axle is stenciled “Overheated—Scrap” or if the journal surface or end of axle has
                    any discoloration due to overheating (light straw, dark straw, or any departure from the normal
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    bright finish) or if circumferential checks or cracks are found in the journal, the axle must be
                    scrapped. The journal must be mutilated or the axle suitably marked to prevent reuse.
                    When roller bearings are removed from axles marked “RB Overheated,” the axle must be
                    inspected, and if found to be overheated, the journal must be mutilated or the axle suitably
                    marked to prevent reuse.
                    Rule 1.1.4 Centering holes in the ends of axles must form an angle of 60° and be in accordance
                    with Fig. 4.8. Any burrs around centers must be removed. Centering holes must be wiped clean
                    before placing the axle in the lathe in order that journals and wheel seats will not be eccentric and
                    grit will not cut the lathe centers.
                    Rule 1.1.5 Files may be used only to break sharp edges of dust guard seats and ends of axles and
                    to work down upset ends or surface defects of roller bearing axles, providing the bearing seat
                    diameters are not reduced below minimum and the surface roughness meets specifications. Files
                    must not be used on fillets or wheel seats.
                    Rule 1.1.6 Wheel seats of secondhand axles need not be re-turned prior to mounting, provided
                    they meet specifications of Rules 1.1.2 and 1.1.7. Wheel seats requiring correcting may be machine
                    cut, ground, rolled, or polished with abrasive cloth (80 grit or finer). Any depression, circumferen-
                    tial scores or checks, damage, injury, longitudinal channel way, or crack in the wheel seats must be
                    removed. To ensure true entry of the axle into the wheel bore, a taper must be turned on the outer
                    end of the wheel seat starting at least 1/32 in. less than the wheel seat diameter and extending a
                    maximum of 1/2 in.
                    Rule 1.1.7 At the beginning of each shift, from each lathe in service, an axle wheel seat must be
                    checked at not less than three points in its length and on two different diameters at each of these
                    points to ensure rotundity. Measurements shall be taken a minimum of 1 in. from the wheel seat
                    outboard edge, at the center, and 1 in. from the wheel seat inboard edge. The variation for any two
                    of these measurements must not exceed 0.002 in. As the wheel seat is measured from the journal
                    end to the axle center, at no point should the dimension decrease. Outside micrometer calipers
                    must be used for measuring axle wheel seats.
                    Rule 1.1.8 Machined and secondhand wheel seats and journal portions of unmounted second-
                    hand axles in freight car service and the entire length of unmounted secondhand axles in other
                    services must be magnetic particle tested by the wet method before remounting.
                    A detectability test must be performed weekly and a record kept (see example in Fig. 4.71). The
                    test consists of inspecting a test axle with a known circumferential crack of at least 1 in. long or an
                    equipment manufacturer’s approved test piece that will indicate and verify the following:
                          • Proper brilliance of ultraviolet light
                          • Proper concentration of bath solutions (see Fig. 4.14)
                          • Proper magnetic power source and operation of equipment


                    2/1/04                                          G-II–1
                     AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                      Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                          S-659


See paragraph 2.5.3 for recommended wet method inspection procedures. Alternate procedures are
acceptable providing they receive AAR approval.
Note: The test axle or test piece must be thoroughly cleaned of the last test indicators before test-
ing. This must be verified by light before the test is started.
Rule 1.1.9 Axles having drive devices or brake discs mounted on the body of the axle between
wheel seats must have the body of the axle magnetic particle tested by the wet method when such
wheel assemblies are processed through the wheel shop for driving device attention (see
paragraph 2.5.3). It is not necessary to remove the brake discs or drive devices before testing.
Rule 1.1.10 Welding on axles is not permitted, and any axle showing welding or cutting torch
damage is scrap. Only electrochemical metal deposition processes, covered in Rule 1.2.7, are
approved repair techniques.




                                                                                                              IMPLEMENTED 10/06
Rule 1.1.11
Surface defects such as nicks, gouges, or deep scratches less than 1/8 in. deep, as measured from
the original body contour, must be removed to a smooth contour and blended into the contour of the
axle body, with a minimum radius of 2 in. The surface roughness of such repairs shall not exceed
90 microinch Ra. A maximum of 25 such repairs shall be allowed in each axle. Removal must be
performed such that all marks are aligned with the length of axle. Operations must not produce
discoloration at any time during the process.
All repairs must be magnetic-particle-tested by the wet method and shall be completely free of de-
fects.
Axle bodies may be machined, providing surface defects can be removed without going below spec-
ifications. The surface roughness of the machined body shall not exceed 125 microinch Ra. Any axle
body that has been machined must be magnetic-particle-tested by the wet method after machining
and shall be completely free of defects.
Rule 1.1.12 When axle markings consisting of the manufacturer’s brand, date, serial number,
heat number, and grade of axle (U, D, F, etc.) will be obliterated due to refinishing, a record of this
information shall be made and the marking restored after refinishing by cold stamping
1/4-in.-high figures as shown in Fig. 4.9.
Rule 1.1.13 Shops that finish machine new axles must mark these axles in accordance with
Fig. 4.9, Note 13.
RULE 1.2 AXLES—ROLLER BEARING PRACTICES
(Reference Figs. 4.4, 4.5, 4.7, 4.11, 5.12, 5.18, 5.19, and 5.24)
Rule 1.2.1 Maximum allowable run-out between the axle wheel seat and journal is 0.015 in. total
dial indicator reading (see Fig. 4.4). When run-out exceeds this, axle wheel seats must be turned or
centers corrected to bring the axle wheel seat and journal run-out within this tolerance.
Rule 1.2.2 Unmounted secondhand axles and any mounted axles involved in a major derailment
must be checked on centers or by the alternate method, as shown in Fig. 4.11, for bent condition
using a dial indicator on each journal and obtaining a reading near the end of the journal and near
the journal fillet. If the total dial indicator reading between the end and fillet on either journal dif-
fers more than 0.010 in. in one complete revolution, the axle must be scrapped. The journal must
be mutilated or the axle suitably marked to prevent reuse.
Rule 1.2.3 Roller bearing axles with mounted wheels that have been in derailment must be
checked for bent condition with roller bearings removed. This check, including tolerances, must be
the same as specified in Rule 1.2.2.




                                                 G-II–2                                              2/1/04
                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                     SEGMENT 1.


                    RULE 1.2.4 Cleaning
                    Before attempting to qualify axles, the axle ends, journals, journal fillets, dust guard seats, and
                    wear ring grooves must be thoroughly cleaned.
                        • Abrasive method may be used provided it is 80 grit or finer.
                        • Fillets with fretting, pitting, dents, or water etch that cannot be removed with abrasive
                           cloth shall be refinished by grinding or machine cutting, providing the “U” dimension and
                           “W” dimension continue to meet tolerances as checked with the gauges shown in Figs. 5.24
                           and 5.26.
                    RULE 1.2.5 Inspection and Repair
                    Journals must be carefully inspected in accordance with Fig. 4.5 each time a roller bearing is
                    removed to determine whether the journal is within prescribed tolerances.
                         • There shall be no abrupt changes or steps over the length of the journal. Defects shall be
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                            smoothly blended (1/8-in. radius or more) into the contour of the journal surface by filing,
                            sanding, or roll burnishing such that there are no high spots and depressions are no more
                            than 1/16 in. deep. Journal finish measured at the interference fit surface must not exceed
                            63 microinch.
                         • Depressions are allowed in cone seating areas only if the following additional requirements
                            are met:
                            • The average cone seat diameter is at least .0001 in. above the minimum.
                            • Depressions spanning an entire cone seat must not exceed 1/8 in. wide at the points of
                               intersection with the cone seating boundaries.
                            • The combined area of all depressions in each cone seat must not exceed 1 in.2 (see
                               Fig. 4.6).
                            • Rule 1.2.8 gives the accept/reject criteria and process for repairing grooves in journals
                               caused by inboard seal wear rings.
                    Note: Depressions blended in this manner need not be considered when determining average jour-
                    nal diameter or journal variance.
                    Cone seats, wear ring grooves, areas where upsets occur, and tapered ends must comply with the
                    requirements in Fig. 4.5; all other areas shall average no more than .005 in. smaller than the min-
                    imum cone seat diameter.
                    Gauges used to measure journal diameter must be the digital or dial indicator type with 0.0001-in.
                    graduations. Journal diameter gauges must be referenced to a Class X or better standard. Temper-
                    ature differences, if any, between the reference standard and the journal being measured must be
                    compensated for.
                    Cone seat diameter as shown in Fig. 4.5 and located with the roller bearing seat location gauge
                    shown in Fig. 5.18 shall not vary more than .0015 in.
                    Rule 1.2.6 gives the criteria for using the electrochemical metal deposition process to repair axles
                    that are not in compliance with Fig. 4.5.
                    Rule 1.2.6 For new axles being machined, for axles being converted to a smaller size, or for
                    reclaiming axles with defective cap screw holes, see paragraph 2.1.2.5. Suitable jigs, fixtures, or
                    machines must be used to correctly locate and guide the drill or drills when drilling cap screw
                    holes in the ends of an axle. Taps should be sharp to ensure good threads. Clean holes after tap-
                    ping. Check hole location using the gauge shown in Fig. 5.12 and check threads with a standard
                    thread gauge.




                    2/1/04                                        G-II–3
                    AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                     Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                      S-659


Rule 1.2.7 All roller bearing axle journals and dust guards that are undersize or secondhand
axle journals that are long or have a groove caused by the inboard seal wear ring may be repaired
by an electrochemical metal deposition process providing they meet the following requirements:
1.2.7.1 Journals must be no smaller than 0.004-in. diameter under minimum.
1.2.7.2 The seal wear ring groove on a journal must not be more than 0.010 in. deep. Grooves
greater than 0.002 in., but not to exceed 0.010 in., must be restored to their existing diameter.
(Reference Fig. 4.5 for allowable secondhand axle diameter specifications.)
1.2.7.3 Repaired journals must meet the requirements in Rule 1.2.4 and in the AAR Manual of
Standards and Recommended Practices, Section G, Specification M-967. Surface roughness must
not exceed 63 microinch.
1.2.7.4 For plating area limits, see Fig. 5.18.




                                                                                                         IMPLEMENTED 10/06
1.2.7.5 Repaired axles must be stamped at one end of the axle with a letter “V” followed by one or
two sequential numbers, identifying symbol, and repair date month and year (See Fig. 4.9, Note 11
and Note 12.) A record of the axle stamping, in sequence of manufacturer, month and year, grade,
heat number, serial number, and electrochemical deposition solution batch number, must be main-
tained by the facility.
1.2.7.6 Buildup of the roller bearing axle journal or dust guard by electrochemical metal deposit
shall be performed only in facilities that have been certified according to the controlling MSRP
Section G, Specification M-967, and only by operators certified according to Specification M-967.
1.2.7.7 Under no circumstances shall an axle that shows signs of overheating or discoloration due
to an overheated bearing be repaired by the electrochemical metal deposition process. Any circum-
ferential steps or grooves encompassing the entire circumference of the axle journal in the bearing
seat area greater than 0.001 in. deep are a sign of a loose cone and their presence is considered an
overheated axle. Axles that have severe water etch more than 50% of the area of a bearing seat
may not be restored. Water etch less than 50% of the circumference may be restored.
1.2.7.8 The full length of the journal must be restored to the base of the journal radius. Restora-
tion of the entire journal is required on all repairs except those requiring only a seal wear ring
groove repair.
1.2.7.9 Dust guards must be no smaller than 0.004 in. under minimum. When, and only when,
fitted backing rings are applied to axles with toleranced “H” dimensions with the intent of produc-
ing a fitted application, the dust guards must be measured in a similar manner to axle journals as
described in Rule 1.2.4. Surface roughness shall not exceed 125 microinch. For plating area limits,
see Fig. 5.19.
Rule 1.2.8 Axles with grooved journals caused by inboard seal wear rings may be returned to
service provided there are no abrupt changes or sharp edges after repair. The following provisions
must also be met:
     • Groove averages no more than 0.002 in. deep and does not exceed 0.004 in. deep at any
        point; or
     • Groove does not exceed 0.010 in. at any point and axle is used in conjunction with the AAR
        Conditionally Approved or Approved parts listed in Table 1.1; or
     • Groove is repaired in accordance with Rule 1.2.7.
Notes:
1.2.8.1 Groove depth must be measured using a gauge with minimum resolution of 0.0001 in. and
a probe small enough to fit completely into the groove without interfering with the groove walls.
1.2.8.2 Average groove depth shall be determined by averaging no fewer than three equidistant
points.

                                                  G-II–4                                        2/1/04
                                             AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                               Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                                           SEGMENT 1.


                                       Table 1.1 Components approved for use with inboard seal wear ring groove
                                                                                                    Size
                                     Manufacturer                 5 1/2 in. × 10 in.   6 in. × 11 in.   6 1/2 in. × 12 in.   7 in. × 12 in.
                      Timken seal                                       K151172          K150471              K147750          K150189
                      Timken sleeve                                     K152373          K150491              K149549          K150483
                      Brenco seal wear ring with polymer insert                             1106D                1206D            1306D
                      Timken Axle Saver seal wear ring                                   K153392              K151590          K153391

                    RULE 1.3 WHEELS—BORING MILL PRACTICES
                    (Reference Figs. 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, and 4.19)
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    Rule 1.3.1 Wheel bores must meet specified tolerances within this manual. When specified toler-
                    ances cannot be maintained, the boring mill must be corrected.
                    Rule 1.3.2 Chuck jaws must be properly aligned radially and vertically. The bearing points of the
                    chuck jaws must be maintained within a tolerance of 0.015-in. total dial indicator reading to a
                    plane at right angles to the axis of the boring bar; and within a tolerance of 0.008-in. total dial
                    indicator reading of being concentric with the boring bar (see Fig. 4.15). Test wheels or other suit-
                    able means must be available to test boring mills for radial and plane error. See paragraph 2.2.2
                    for an alternate method for checking wheel bores. Shops using boring mills with independent
                    chuck jaws must use the alternate method.
                    Rule 1.3.3 A sufficient number of wheel bores must be checked at not less than three points in
                    the wheel’s length and on two different diameters at each of these points to ensure rotundity and
                    consistent accuracy in bore diameter. The variation of any two of these measurements must not
                    exceed 0.002 in. If any taper does exist, the smaller diameter must be at the outside end of the hub
                    bore.
                    Rule 1.3.4 The wheel bore must be sufficiently smaller than the wheel seat diameter to enable
                    the required mounting pressure to be obtained as set forth in Fig. 4.19. Generally, a fit allowance
                    of 0.001 in. per inch of wheel seat diameter will result in the required pressure.
                    Rule 1.3.5 The wheel must be properly aligned in position on the mill with regard to concentric-
                    ity and to plane. Two or more separate cuts, one or more roughing and one finishing, must be made
                    in boring new steel wheels. If a single-point finish tool is utilized in a finish bore, in addition to
                    meeting all tonnage requirements as specified in Figs. 4.22 through 4.29, then the minimum num-
                    ber of uniformly spaced grooves per bore must be 30, and the maximum groove depth can not
                    exceed 0.008 inches. If more than 1/4-in. thickness is to be removed, two roughing cuts must be
                    taken. The finishing cut should be approximately 1/64 in. thick. If separate roughing and finishing
                    cutters are carried simultaneously on the boring bar, they must be separated by a distance greater
                    than the length of the wheel hub being bored. A 1/8-in. radius or a 1/8-in. to 3/8-in. chamfer must
                    be provided at the entry or back of the hub of all wheels after the finishing cut (see Fig. 4.17).
                    Rule 1.3.6 Secondhand wheels or dismounted misfit wheels may be remounted without reboring
                    providing wheel bores meet all of the specified tolerances within this manual.
                    RULE 1.4 WHEELS—MOUNTING PRESS PRACTICES
                    (Reference Figs. 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, and 4.22 through 4.35)
                    Rule 1.4.1 Wheel mounting presses must be equipped with a dial pressure gauge and a pressure
                    recording gauge. These gauges must be used for every mounting operation and must agree within
                    ±2%. The dial gauge must be checked by means of a dead weight tester or accurate master gauge
                    at least once in each 6 months of service. Records must be attached to or kept in close proximity to
                    the gauge, showing the date last tested and the date actually put into service. The recording gauge
                    must have a minimum resolution of 100 tons per inch with graduations superimposed on the chart

                    2/1/04                                                G-II–5
                     AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                      Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                           S-659


in no larger than 5-ton increments. It must make a complete wheel fit pressure diagram of each
wheel mounted as shown in Figs. 4.22 through 4.29.
1.4.1.1 The diagram of each wheel shall be marked to show the identifying wheel number. The
nominal wheel seat diameter shall also be marked as shown in Fig. 4.20.
1.4.1.2 Mounting pressure must be applied at the wheel hub. If the final wheel mounting pres-
sure is not within the limits shown in Fig. 4.19 or the diagram is not acceptable as described below
and in Figs. 4.22 through 4.29, the mounting chart and corresponding wheel must be plainly
marked “MISFIT.”
1.4.1.3 The intent of the wheel mounting diagram is to provide a record indicating whether or not
the wheel bores and seats meet all AAR requirements when mounted. The area under the mount-
ing curve represents the amount of energy required to press the wheel onto the axle. The shape of




                                                                                                               IMPLEMENTED 10/06
the curve indicates whether that energy is the result of interference fit or some other source of fric-
tion (false tonnage). If the interference fit is adequate, taper is correct, lubrication is proper, align-
ment is true, and wheel and axle finishes are compatible, tonnage will increase smoothly and
almost linearly from the beginning to the end of the mount at a slightly decreasing rate. This will
yield maximum area under the curve. The following accept/reject criteria apply:
1.4.1.3.1 Mounting diagrams that are within 2 ton of the limits shown in Fig. 4.19 must be ideal
mounts as shown in Fig. 4.22.
1.4.1.3.2 Mounting diagrams must continue to build tonnage at least until the wheel is 75% on.
Minor anomalies prior to this that may be caused by system fluctuations are acceptable provided
they do not exceed 2 ton.
1.4.1.3.3 A drop-off at the end of the mount (after 75% of the mount is complete) is acceptable
provided the tonnage after the drop-off exceeds the minimum tonnage shown in Fig. 4.19.
1.4.1.3.4 The “entry spike” at the beginning of the mount must not exceed 30 ton or three times
the tonnage after the drop-off, whichever is less. For example, if the spike is no greater than 30 ton
and the tonnage after the drop-off is no less than 10 ton, the mount is acceptable.
1.4.1.3.5 Pounding (also known as hammering, hunching, or slip stick) is allowed at the end of
the mount provided that the tonnage at the low end of the pound exceeds minimum tonnage shown
in Fig. 4.19 and the wheels are centered and still in gauge. This condition is a product of incompat-
ible surface finish between the wheel bore and axle seat and must not be allowed to persist. Once it
is identified, it must be located and resolved.
1.4.1.3.6 Mounting diagrams that reach required tonnage only as the result of a quick tonnage
buildup (usually during the last half of the mount) as shown in Fig. 4.28 are unacceptable. They
normally indicate a mechanical obstruction or an excessive positive taper of the wheel seat and/or
wheel bore. Note that the tonnage would have only reached 56 ton except for the undesirable con-
dition.
1.4.1.4 Misfits must be demounted and recorded in a log showing the misfit date, demounting
date, serial number of both wheels, and their disposition. Wheel mounting diagrams and misfit
logs must be kept on record for 5 years. Misfit wheels shall be demounted immediately or placed in
a designated holding area for demounting at a later time.
Rule 1.4.2 In mounting and demounting wheels, where damage could occur to the journals and
dust guards, both journal and dust guard combinations of the axle must be protected during the
entire operation to prevent nicking and scratching the journal surfaces. A suitable method must be
used to prevent upset ends and high spots on roller bearing journals. Journal/dust guard protec-
tor’s outer diameter must be no smaller than 0.025 in. below the minimum allowable diameter of
the axle wheel seat. The inner bore shall be recessed to ensure protection of the dust guard and
shall be long enough to cover the entire axle journal.


                                                 G-II–6                                               2/1/04
                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                         SEGMENT 1.


                    Rule 1.4.3 The wheel seats and bores must be cleaned carefully to remove rust, grit, chips, and
                    grease. Both wheel seat and bore must be coated as necessary with an AAR-approved mounting
                    lubricant (see Appendix A on page G-II–148) or with a mixture of basic carbonate white lead and
                    boiled (not raw) linseed oil, with boiled linseed oil only, or with caster oil. The entire bore and one
                    half of the wheel seat should be coated, including entry radius or taper. Once the mounting proce-
                    dure has begun, lubricant may not be removed or further applied. To avoid scoring of the mounting
                    surfaces, it is particularly important that the starting edges of the wheel seat and wheel bore be
                    thoroughly coated with the material used. If a mixture of white lead and boiled linseed oil is used,
                    the proportion should be 12 lb of white lead paste to 1 gal of boiled linseed oil, thoroughly mixed,
                    which will give a gravity of 58° to 62° Baume at 60 °F to 80 °F. Only a sufficient quantity for a few
                    days’ operation should be prepared due to the drying quality of the boiled linseed oil. A thicker
                    lubricant tends to reduce the pressure and cause misfits that would otherwise be correctly
                    mounted. Lubricant should be mixed at least 12 hours before using to give it the proper blend.
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    Ready-mixed white lead compound, as specified above, may be purchased. It should be stirred
                    before applying. If boiled linseed oil is used alone, the oil must meet the requirements of
                    ANSI/ASTM D-260, Type I, “Standard Specification for Boiled Linseed Oil. Dirt,” and grit should
                    be kept out of the lubricant and the brush with which it is applied. If castor oil is used, the oil must
                    meet the requirements of ASTM D-960, “Standard Specification for Raw Castor Oil.” Do not use
                    raw linseed oil or lubricating oils either alone or for thinning.
                    Rule 1.4.4 Wheels must be mounted centrally with respect to the center of the axle within
                    mounting tolerances of 3/32 in. using wheel centering and mounting gauges in accordance with
                    specifications in this manual. With automated equipment, accuracy of centering of wheels on axles
                    shall be checked every tenth pair.
                    Rule 1.4.5 After wheels are mounted, they must be checked with a suitable mounting check
                    gauge at three equidistant points on the circumference, at a distance of 1 1/4 in. down from the
                    apex of the flange, to determine whether or not they are mounted within limits. With automated
                    equipment, every tenth pair must be checked. If measurement at any check point indicates that
                    wheels are not within limits, the wheel spacing must be adjusted to bring wheels within such lim-
                    its (see Figs. 4.29 through 4.33). Alternatively, if the gauge is correct at one place on the wheel set
                    and the radial and plane error is within specification, the wheel set is suitable for service. If radial
                    and plane error is not within specification, then wheels must be dismounted and the wheel bore
                    corrected. If the spacing cannot be adjusted within limits, the wheels must be dismounted and the
                    axle should be checked for bent condition and the wheel bores for out-of-plane.
                    Rule 1.4.6 New wheels mounted on the same axle must be the same tape size and bear the same
                    tape size marking. Secondhand wheels should be within one tape number in circumference as
                    measured with a standard wheel tape. Care must be taken to secure the greatest service life from
                    the metal in both wheel seat and hub bore.
                    Rule 1.4.7 In the selection of wheels for mating and in the machining and mounting of wheels
                    and axles for interchange service, the following must be observed. (See the Field Manual of the AAR
                    Interchange Rules, Rule 41, for additional restrictions).
                    1.4.7.1 New wheels must not be mated with secondhand wheels.
                    1.4.7.2 Wheels that are mounted on the same axle must meet the same AAR design criteria (i.e.,
                    the following attributes must match):
                    1.4.7.2.1 Manufacturer: See paragraph 3.3.7 (Note: Amtrak wheels may be of different manufac-
                    turers.)
                    1.4.7.2.2 Design designation: (e.g., CH-36, CJ-33, etc.) See Fig. 4.18.
                    1.4.7.2.3 Class of heat treatment: (e.g., U,A, B, C, L, etc.) See paragraph 3.3.6.
                    1.4.7.2.4 Plate shape: (Note: Mounting of straight plate wheels is prohibited.)

                    2/1/04                                          G-II–7
                    AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                     Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                     S-659


1.4.7.2.5 Tread profile: (Note: AAR-1B profile is mandatory on new or reprofiled wheels.)
1.4.7.2.6 Tape size: (Must be the same tape for new wheels and within one tape for reprofiled
wheels.)
1.4.7.3 If, for any reason, it is necessary to dismount from an axle one wheel of a pair of mounted
wheels, the mate must also be dismounted regardless of condition, and the axle must be handled
as a secondhand unmounted axle. This does not apply to wheels that are misfitted in mounting
operations, since only the misfit wheel needs to be removed in such cases.
1.4.7.4 The following wheels must not be returned to service:
1.4.7.4.1 Cast iron wheels
1.4.7.4.2 Davis cast steel wheels




                                                                                                        IMPLEMENTED 10/06
1.4.7.4.3 Wrought steel wheels dated prior to January 1, 1927
1.4.7.4.4 Wrought steel wheels having rims measuring 1 in. or less along with any of the follow-
ing:
     • Dated prior to January 1, 1939
     • No manufactured date markings
     • Illegible manufactured date markings
1.4.7.4.5 Wrought steel wheels that can be identified as being manufactured by ARMCO
1.4.7.4.6 Wrought steel, one-wear, 28-in. wheels with any of the following:
     • Of B-28, D-28, or Y-14 design as indicated by markings on wheels
     • No design markings
     • Illegible design markings
1.4.7.4.7 Cast steel wheels marked “AAR X-2” or “AAR X-4”
1.4.7.4.8 Abex cast wheels marked “SOUTHERN” in raised letters on the back of the wheel plate
along with any of the following:
     • Dated prior to May 7, 1958
     • One-wear, 50-ton, with less than 1/4-in. flat back face of rim and dated May 7, 1958 to Sep-
        tember 8, 1960
     • One-wear, 70-ton, marked “70T” and dated May 7, 1958 to January 1, 1964
     • One-wear, 70-ton, marked “CJ-33” and “U1” or “70T” and “U1” and dated January 1, 1964
        through December 31, 1969
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1980
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1992 through December 31, 1992
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995
     • One-wear, 100-ton, marked “CH36” dated January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996
1.4.7.4.9 Griffin cast-steel, 33-in., three-riser wheels with either of the following:
     • One-wear, 70-ton, ball rim design, marked “AAR X-3” or “AAR CS”
     • Two-wear, marked “AAR X-5” or “AAR CS-2” and dated 1960 to 1963
1.4.7.4.10 Straight plate wheels, except A-28 and A-30


                                                G-II–8                                         2/1/04
                                       AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                         Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                    SEGMENT 1.


                    1.4.7.4.11 Straight-plate wheels with missing or illegible manufacturer identification
                    1.4.7.4.12 Valdunes, Creusot-Lorrie non-heat-treated, 36-in., straight-plate wheels marked “F” or
                    “FW” manufactured in 1980 and 1981
                    1.4.7.4.13 Mafersa one-wear H-36 wrought steel wheels marked “MW” manufactured January 1,
                    1980 through December 31, 1980.
                    1.4.7.5 Do not mount 28-in. wheels on axles that have been converted from 6 1/2 in. × 12 in. to
                    6 in. × 11 in. journals unless the axle has been fully machined along its entire length to nominal
                    6 in. × 11 in. axle dimensions.
                    1.4.7.6 The mounting or remounting of straight plate wheels to freight equipment used in inter-
                    change service is prohibited.
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    Rule 1.4.8 Wheels and axles should be at approximately the same temperature when mounted.
                    Any wheel that has been heated to aid in demounting must not be remounted.
                    Rule 1.4.9 A wheel must not be remounted if evidence of overheating from being in a fire is
                    present. A wheel having any evidence of welding or a wheel having holes in the plate must not be
                    remounted.
                    Rule 1.4.10 In handling pairs of mounted wheels, wheel sticks, chains, or hoods that catch the
                    axles on the journal surfaces or on roller bearings must not be used.
                    Rule 1.4.11 The wheel shop mark and mounting date (month and two-digit year) shall be cold
                    stamped on the outside hub face of one wheel of each wheel set. The latest stamping will indicate
                    the last shop where the wheel was mounted. Heights of characters shall be not less than 5/32 in.
                    and not more than 5/16 in. Stamping shall be arranged on a circular arc or straight line, and the
                    outer edge of the hub must not be intersected by any of the stamped characters. The wheel shop
                    symbol shall consist of not more than four characters to identify the railroad, car owner, contract
                    shop, or car builder and not more than two additional characters to identify the particular shop
                    doing the work (see Fig. 4.34 for method of stamping).
                    Rule 1.4.12 Treads of each wheel of mounted wheel sets must be concentric with journal surfaces
                    within 0.030 in. total dial indicator reading, and flange throats of each wheel must be in plane
                    within 0.060 in. total dial indicator reading. Both readings must be measured as shown in
                    Fig. 4.35.
                    Rule 1.4.13 Alternate methods for measuring, collecting, displaying, and saving data, other than
                    those specifically outlined in this manual, must be approved by the AAR and a copy of the
                    approval must be maintained at the facility using the equipment. The measuring devices must be
                    calibrated against a known standard such as an electrical shunt calibration. This should be per-
                    formed at the beginning of each shift. If other calibration methods are provided by the manufac-
                    turer of the measuring devices, they should be performed as specified.
                    RULE 1.5 WHEEL LATHE PRACTICES
                    (Reference Figs. 4.35 through 4.52)
                    Rule 1.5.1 To qualify for reapplication to service without recontouring, all secondhand freight car
                    wheels must meet specifications of the Field Manual of the AAR Interchange Rules, Rule 41. Wheels
                    not meeting specifications that have sufficient service metal may be recontoured providing they
                    meet all specifications of this manual and the Field Manual of the AAR Interchange Rules, Rule 41,
                    after recontouring. When wheel lathes are not capable of producing wheels to these specifications,
                    lathes must be corrected.
                    Rule 1.5.2 Wheel tread and flange contours must be in accordance with Figs. 4.36 or 4.37, as
                    applicable, and measured with gauges shown in paragraph 5.0 (See also Figs. 4.43 through 4.52)
                    or other AAR-approved alternate standard.)

                    2/1/04                                        G-II–9
                    AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                     Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                        S-659


Rule 1.5.3 Freight car wheels must be checked for back-to-back measurement before contouring,
at a distance 1 1/4 in. down from the apex of the flange, to determine correct flange thickness.
After recontouring, wheels with over 53 3/32-in. back-to-back measurement should have flange
thickness of 1 5/32 in. (“0” on AAR steel gauge NF finger). Wheels with 52 15/16 in. to 53 3/32 in.
must have flange thicknesses of 1 5/32 in. to 1 3/8 in., but both flanges of a pair must not vary
more than 2/16 in. Wheels with less than 52 15/16 in. or more than 53 3/16 in. back-to-back mea-
surement are out of gauge and should not be contoured. (Note: Passenger car wheels must be
53 3/32 in. to 53 3/8 in. and must always be machined to 1 5/32 in. +1/16 in. and –0 in. flange thick-
ness.) See Figs. 4.36, 4.37, and the Field Manual of the AAR Interchange Rules, Rule 41.E.9, for flange
thickness tolerances. See Fig. 5.27, “Wheel back-to-back service limit gauge (typical).”
Rule 1.5.4 To qualify for reapplication, recontoured wheels must have a flange thickness of
1 5/32 in. minimum to 1 3/8 in. maximum, and flange thicknesses on a wheel set must not vary
more than 2/16 in. Both wheels of a pair should be within one tape in circumference (e.g.,




                                                                                                            IMPLEMENTED 10/06
163 1/4 to 164 1/4 or 163 1/4 to 162 1/4). Treads must be concentric with journal surfaces within
0.030 in. total dial indicator reading; and flange throats in plane, at right angle to axis of axle,
within 0.045 in. total dial indicator reading when measured as shown in Fig. 4.35. Wheel tread
and flange contours must be in accordance with this manual (with exception, that the radius on
the outside edge of the rim may be 3/8 in.) unless wheel rims are reduced in thickness to such an
extent that lathe drive dogs interfere with the machining of the radius, in which case the radius
may be reduced as necessary or a chamfer used. Wheel surfaces must be machined using a cutting
tool with no less than 5/32 in. nose radius. Feed marks must not exceed 1/8 in. wide at any place on
the wheel tread or flange contour.
Rule 1.5.5 New or reconditioned bearings must be applied any time a wheel set is processed
through a wheel shop, including shops with wheel-truing machine operations. (Exception: passen-
ger car wheel sets with inboard bearings and not removed from car.)
Rule 1.5.6 In addition, an H shall also be paint stencilled on the front plate at least 1 in. high on
those wheels of curved-plate, heat-treated configuration that have yet to be stencilled or when the
stencilling has become illegible.
Rule 1.5.7 Recontoured wheels must be ultrasonically tested after turning in accordance with
paragraph 2.9, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Reprofiled Wheels,” to qualify for reapplication to inter-
change service.
RULE 1.6 STANDARD GAUGES
Rule 1.6.1 Wheel and axle shops must have gauges as shown in paragraph 5.0 or a suitable
method to verify specified tolerances as shown in this manual.
Rule 1.6.2 Gauges must be maintained within specified wear tolerances. When gauges are found
to be defective, they must be removed from service.
RULE 1.7 GENERAL PRACTICES
Rule 1.7.1 Machinery in continuous operation must be checked at least once each week and
machinery not in continuous operation must be checked at least once each month in accordance
with this manual to ensure that specified tolerances of this manual are met. A record must be kept
of inspections showing the date, condition of the machine, nature of the correction, if any is
required, and signature of inspector. When machinery is removed from service for any reason, the
machinery inspection report must show “Out of Service” and the reason for removal. Machinery
reentering service must be inspected at time of reentry. A copy of inspections must be on record at
wheel shops for at least 2 years. See the example in Fig. 4.71.




                                               G-II–10                                             2/1/04
                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-659                                                                                        SEGMENT 1.


                    Rule 1.7.2 Wet method magnetic particle testing equipment must be checked in accordance with
                    this manual and a record kept in the wheel shop for 2 years. See Fig. 4.71 for the recommended
                    form to be used; Fig. 4.14 for the recommended method of checking bath solutions; and
                    paragraph 2.5.3 for recommended machinery specifications. The original certification of the centri-
                    fuge tube must be maintained for the life of the tube.
                    Rule 1.7.3 New or secondhand axles must not be coated between the wheel seats with heavy
                    asphaltic, tar, or cement-base coatings that prevent detection of flaws by ordinary inspection. If
                    axles are coated, only light-bodied materials may be used.
                    Rule 1.7.4 Journals and dust guards of all axles with wheels mounted must be completely coated
                    with a rust preventive that will provide proper protection and that can be readily removed. This
                    applies to wheels just mounted and to mounted wheels in storage and in transit for application.
                    Rule 1.7.5 Wheel sets must be arranged when stored so the wheel flanges cannot strike either
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    the roller bearing housing, the axle journal, or the body of the adjacent axle. Fig. 4.74 illustrates a
                    track arrangement for wheel and axle assemblies having roller bearings. When this arrangement
                    is not available, assemblies should be stored one behind the other on single tracks.
                    Rule 1.7.6 The same precautions must be used in placing mounted wheels on a car for shipment.
                    In addition, they shall be securely blocked to prevent rolling and end-sliding. Details of approved
                    methods are given in the current issue of the AAR Open Top Loading Rules Manual.
                    Rule 1.7.7 Mounted wheel and axle assemblies removed from cars for reasons other than con-
                    demnable defects, such as those removed from dismantled cars, must be carefully inspected before
                    they are placed in stock to determine if they are suitable for reuse. Any wheel and axle assembly
                    that does not meet the acceptable requirements of the Field Manual of the AAR Interchange Rules
                    must be handled in accordance with the requirements of this manual.
                    Rule 1.7.8 Building up slid-flat spots of worn flanges of wheels by welding, welding fractures, or
                    burning or drilling holes in the plate is prohibited.
                    Rule 1.7.9 Wheels with less than 52 15/16-in. or more than 53 3/16-in. back-to-back measure-
                    ment are out of gauge and must not be returned to service (see Figs. 4.29 through 4.33). See
                    Fig. 5.27, “Wheel back-to-back service limit gauge (typical).”
                    Rule 1.7.10 The wheel shop mark and mounting date (month and two-digit year) shall be cold-
                    stamped on the outside hub face of one wheel set. The latest stamping will indicate the shop where
                    wheel was last mounted. Heights of characters shall be not less than 5/32 in. and not more than
                    5/16 in. Stamping shall be arranged on a circular arc or straight line, and the outer edge of the hub
                    must not be intersected by any of the stamped characters. The wheel shop symbol shall consist of
                    not more than four characters to identify the railroad, car owner, contract shop, or car builder and
                    not more than two additional characters to identify the particular shop doing the work (see
                    Fig. 4.34 for method of stamping). See the latest AAR Circular Letter for a listing of wheel shop
                    reporting works and shop locations.
                    Rule 1.7.11 The removing railroad is responsible for ensuring that each wheel set removed for
                    Why Made Codes 50, 51, 95, or 96 is inspected to determine the cause of overheating. Each active
                    bearing manufacturer and the last bearing reconditioner must be invited to participate in the
                    inspection. A form MD-11 must be completed and forwarded to the AAR Technical Services Divi-
                    sion for all confirmed inspection, teardown, and report. This procedure is designed to ensure con-
                    sistent, accurate, and orderly MD-11 reporting.




                    2/1/04                                         G-II–11
                                                                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                             2/1/04                                                                  Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                                                                  S-723


RULE 1.8 ROLLER BEARING MOUNTING AND REMOVAL
Part 4Mandatory Rules Governing Wheel Shop Practices as Required by Interchange Rules




RULE 1.8.1 Bearing Removal
1.8.1.1 Bearing assemblies with journal housings should be removed according to the manufac-
turer’s specifications. No general instructions can adequately cover the various types.
1.8.1.2 Bearing assemblies with rotating end caps must be removed as follows:
1.8.1.2.1 Remove cap screws and the scrap locking plate.
1.8.1.2.2 Remove the end cap.
1.8.1.2.3 Remove the entire bearing assembly from the axle (see Fig. 4.61).
RULE 1.8.2 Bearing Mounting




                                                                                                                                                     IMPLEMENTED 10/06
1.8.2.1 Before proceeding with bearing application, the wheels, axle, and roller bearing assem-
blies must be approximately the same temperature. Bearings with the same certificate number,
disregarding suffix letter, must be mounted on the same axle. For example, AAR No. 6 and 6A
bearing may be mounted on the same axle. Exception: AAR No. 10 and 10A must not be mounted
on the same axle. Housing-type bearing pairs must be of the same type and manufacturer. Roller
bearings must be protected during mounting against contamination from dirt, sand, water, etc.
Caution: There are two designs of 7-in. freight car roller bearings and two designs of 7-in. freight
car roller bearing axles in service. The journal length dimension on a 7-in. freight car axle governs
which one of the two 7-in. freight car roller bearing designs must be mounted on that axle. The
mounting of 7-in. freight car roller bearings is governed by Fig. 4.75.
1.8.2.2 The axle journal, journal fillet, and dust guard seat must be cleaned with a wire brush or
other suitable means. Journal diameters on new, secondhand, or reclaimed axles must be checked
for proper size, and journal ends must be checked for upset condition (Fig. 4.5). A dial or digital
snap gauge (with 0.0001 scale) must be used to measure the journal diameter and must be cali-
brated using the master disc (at least Class X tolerance) that is the same temperature as the axle
being measured unless appropriate compensation is made for the temperature difference between
the master disc and the journal being measured. Check for proper fillet with a fillet gauge
(Fig. 4.7) to ensure proper seating of the backing ring. Excessive galling or fretting of the fillet will
require scrapping or reworking the axle, in accordance with established dimensional allowances.
Axle ends must be clean and free of dirt and contaminants. Visually inspect tapped holes in the
axle ends for thread damage, dirt, and corrosion.
1.8.2.3 Roller bearing assemblies may be installed with a bearing press or wheel press or with
portable fixtures.
1.8.2.4 A pilot sleeve (Fig. 4.62) or telescoping pilot sleeve and mounting sleeve (Fig. 4.63) must
be used to guide the bearing assembly on the axle, ensuring correct alignment of parts and protec-
tion to seals. An improperly aligned press or worn tooling can cause distortion of bearing compo-
nents and/or damage to the journal. When an unpiloted assembly sleeve is used, bolts should not
be torqued up but should be left loose so the sleeve can align itself when the bearing is being
mounted on or removed from the axle journal.
1.8.2.5 Coat the bearing seats of the axle with castor oil, heavy mineral oil (SAE4O or SAE5O
mineral oil), or a molybdenum disulphide and oil mixture before mounting bearings. Do not use
white lead. Lead compounds may be detrimental to lubricating greases by acting as an oxidation
catalyst. Mounting lubricants must be kept free of contaminants.
1.8.2.6 Apply a moderate to heavy uniform coating of an approved lead-free rust preventive (see
Appendix A on page G-II–148) to the journal fillet portion and adjacent dust guard area of the axle
prior to mounting the bearing on the axle. After the bearing has been mounted and the cap screws
torqued, if the proper amount of rust preventive material has been applied to the axle fillet, a seal-

                                                                                                             G-II–12                        2/1/04
                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-723                                                                                      SEGMENT 1.


                    ing bead should form at the juncture of the backing ring and the axle. If no sealing bead is formed,
                    apply a brush coat around the dust guard seat at the backing ring juncture.
                    1.8.2.7 Apply the bearing to the axle. Mounting pressure must be applied directly to the inner
                    ring or seal wear rings. Caution should be exercised in order not to apply pressure on the outer
                    ring, seals, or other parts of the bearing because damage will result. Caution should be exercised
                    that seals are not damaged and that seal wear ring does not slip out of place. Do not insert any tool
                    or instrument between the seal element and the seal wear ring because damage to the seal lip may
                    result.
                    1.8.2.8 Press the bearing in place using the proper mounting sleeve (Fig. 4.62) or telescoping pilot
                    and mounting sleeve (Fig. 4.63). Seating pressures (Fig. 4.64) must be used to ensure that the
                    backing ring is properly in contact with the journal fillet. Bearing or wheel presses used for mount-
                    ing roller bearings on axles must be equipped with relief valves so that a specified pressure can be
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                    maintained for a short interval to ensure that the bearings are properly seated (rather than to
                    obtain the required pressure reading on the dial pressure gauge during the surge of the press
                    when the backing ring of the bearing contacts the axle fillet). The pressure relief valves must oper-
                    ate when the dial pressure gauge indicates the specified pressure. The dial pressure gauge must
                    read in tons and be checked by means of a dead weight tester, or an accurate master gauge, at
                    least once in each 6 months of service. A tag must be securely attached to the gauge showing the
                    date last tested and the date actually put into service. The seating pressure chart should be posted
                    at the pressing area.
                    RULE 1.8.3 Applying End Cap
                    1.8.3.1 New or secondhand end caps and new or secondhand cap screws can be intermixed with
                    new or reconditioned bearing assemblies.
                    Apply the end cap, cap screws, and a new locking plate to the end of the axle. End caps must be of
                    the same manufacturer and AAR approval number as the bearing being applied (Exception: see
                    Rule 1.8.6.2 concerning the interchangeability of end caps for certain bearings by certificate num-
                    ber and by size.) End caps must not have a lubricant fitting. See Fig. 4.66 for cap screw sizes and
                    torques. (Note: See Fig. 4.65 for Amtrak passenger car end cap application.)
                    1.8.3.2 Run up the cap screws to less than prescribed values. Finish tightening the cap screws
                    using a click-type torque wrench with a slow, steady, even force being applied to obtain the pre-
                    scribed AAR torque values. The cap screws must be retorqued in sequence until no further move-
                    ment of the cap screws results from the application of the specified torque. An AAR chart showing
                    torques must be posted (Fig. 4.66). Torque wrenches should be checked frequently (preferably
                    daily) to ensure correct readings and must be checked at least weekly with a record kept of the
                    checks. In order to check the torque of cap screws when defective roller bearings are inspected at
                    the shops, it will be necessary to maintain a dial or digital-type torque wrench at each bearing
                    shop.
                    Torquing devices other than click-type wrenches must be approved by the AAR and a copy of the
                    approval maintained in the facility using the equipment. If the approved device can be calibrated
                    against a known standard, this should be done at the beginning of each shift or at the appropriate
                    period as stated in the letter approving use of the device.
                    Torque wrenches must be permanently marked with a serial number for identification on the
                    weekly record of checks.
                    RULE 1.8.4 Checking Bearing Mounted Lateral
                    1.8.4.1 Tapered roller bearings must have mounted lateral play checked and must meet manufac-
                    turer’s tolerances (See Fig. 4.69). These tolerances must be posted in roller bearing mounting
                    shops.
                    If the bearing rotates freely when rotated by hand but does not indicate 0.001 in. on the dial indi-
                    cator, the application is satisfactory for service. Check mounted lateral with a magnetic-base dial
                    indicator as shown in Fig. 4.68. Force the bearing laterally toward the wheel hub, and zero the
                    2/1/04                                        G-II–13
                   AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                    Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                     S-723


indicator. Then pull the bearing laterally away from the wheel hub to obtain a lateral reading. The
use of metal bars to force the bearing laterally to obtain lateral readings is prohibited.
1.8.4.2 Reconditioned or new bearings must not exceed manufacturer’s mounted lateral limits.
Whenever mounted lateral is more or less than allowed tolerances, the roller bearing should be
removed and corrections made.
1.8.4.3 Lock cap screws by bending all tabs of the locking plate flat against the sides of the cap
screw (Fig. 4.67).
RULE 1.8.5 Identification
1.8.5.1 For identification, each mounted roller bearing will be marked by a suitable means
(sticker, stencil, etc.) on the outer ring in 1 1/2-in. or larger letters, as follows:




                                                                                                        IMPLEMENTED 10/06
  N = New roller bearings
  R = Reconditioned roller bearings
Note: Not applicable to Amtrak passenger car bearings
1.8.5.2 Locking plates shall be stamped or legibly etched with the following information. The
minimum character size shall be 1/8 in. (0.125 in. or 3 mm). If the characters are pin punched, the
punch marks must overlap.
    N = If new, and (mm/yy) month and year of bearing manufacture (same as stamped on the
        outside of the cup) and company and shop identification marks of mounting shop
                                             OR
   R = If reconditioned, and (mm/yy) month and year of bearing reconditioning and company
        and shop identification marks of reconditioning shop
                                            AND
 Company and shop identification marks of mounting shop if different from recondition shop

Note: See latest AAR Circular Letter for a listing of wheel shop reporting marks and shop loca-
tions.
In instances where end caps and locking plates are removed only, all of the information from the
old locking plate shall be transferred onto the new locking plate. In addition, the company marks
of the shop removing and reapplying the end cap shall be applied along with the date of replace-
ment (mm/yy) and the letters “EC” (end cap removal only) (see Fig. 4.77).
Note: To ensure that the original mounting shop maintains accountability for journal size and
condition, end cap removal information should be applied in addition to, rather than in place of,
mounting shop information. The letters “EC” serve to prevent confusion in the field as to what
information represents original bearing mounting and what information represents end cap
removal only.




                                             G-II–14                                           2/1/04
                                        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
                     2/1/04                          Wheel and Axle Manual
                    S-723                                                                                     SEGMENT 1.


                    RULE 1.8.6 Interchangeable Parts
                    1.8.6.1 Cap screws (except for AAR-20 bearings) and cap screw locking plates are interchange-
                    able on all bearings.
                    1.8.6.2 Only end caps for Classes D-, E-, and F-size bearings with the part numbers listed below
                    may be interchanged. If the end cap applied is not of the same manufacturer and approval number
                    as the bearing to which applied, a distinctively colored locking plate will be used to identify the
                    bearings. The locking plate coloring medium used must be distinctively orange, green, blue, red,
                    yellow, purple, white, or brown, as the case may be, and of such permanence as to allow ready iden-
                    tification of the bearing during the time in service. If, for any reason, a colored locking plate is
                    removed without also removing the bearing, it must be replaced with one of the same color to
                    maintain bearing identity. Only the following end caps may be interchanged:
                          • Timken 1 and 1A
IMPLEMENTED 10/06




                          • Brenco 5 and 5A
                          • ND Hyatt 6, 6A, and 6B
                          • FAG 13 and 26
                          • Koyo 14
                          • NTN 19
                          • SKF 23
                    Devices that are to be attached to standard locking plates and that are intended to be used in place
                    of colored locking plates for identification must be approved by the AAR.
                                                   Table 1.2 Interchangeable end cap part numbers
                                        Bearing                   Class D      Class E       Class F       Class G
                           Company   Certificate No.   Color     5 1/2 × 10     6 × 11      6 1/2 × 12      7 × 12
                        Timken               1, 1A     Orange        K85521       K85510        K85517        K95199
                                                                   K526743      K523745       K523747       K147768
                                                                   K523744      K523746       K523748       K523749
                                                                   K151329      K529703       K523706       K523750
                                                                                K529702       K151307
                                                                                              K529705
                        Brenco               5, 5A      Green         D1011        E1111         F1211         G1311
                                                                       1011         1111           1211         1311
                                                                       1000         1100           1200         1300
                        Hyatt                6, 6A       Blue      4-R-3810     4-R-3811      4-R-3813      4-R-3885
                                                                                4-R-3812   4-R-3813-14      4-R-3888
                        FAG                    13        Red       120987/2     120988/7      120989/7        —
                        Koyo                   14       White       703N60       704N60         705N60       706N60
                                                                    120360        120460        120560        120660
                        NTN                    19       Purple     RT20D11      RT20E11       RT20F11         —
                                                                   RT20D31      RT20E31       RT20F31         —
                        SKF                    23       Yellow   1637503-11   1637504-11    1637505-11        —
                        FAG                    26       Brown     120987/14    120988/14     120989/14        —




                    2/1/04                                          G-II–15
                    AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
      2/1/04                     Wheel and Axle Manual
SEGMENT 1.                                                                                      S-723


RULE 1.8.7 Storage of Reconditioned Bearings
1.8.7.1 If bearing assemblies are to be placed in stock, they must be stored in proper packaging,
covered, and stored in a dry area free from dirt and moisture.
RULE 1.8.8 Removal and Reapplication of Roller Bearing End Caps
1.8.8.1 Shops that desire to remove and reapply roller bearing end caps for any reason, but are
not currently certified as an AAR-approved roller bearing mounting facility, must request and
receive specific AAR approval under 9A status. These requirements do not apply to wheel truing
operations for passenger cars (Amtrak, transit, or private business cars) or motive power. To
request such approval, an application must be made to the AAR, c/o Chief, Technical Standards,
Transportation Technology Center, Inc., P.O. Box 11130, 55500 DOT Road, Pueblo, CO 81001. The
following information must be provided:




                                                                                                         IMPLEMENTED 10/06
1.8.8.1.1 A detailed procedure that will be employed to ensure compliance with those parts of the
specification applicable to the removal and reapplication of the roller bearing end cap. Include the
following steps as a minimum:
1.8.8.1.1.1 Remove the wheel set completely from the truck side frames (i.e., the bearing must
not be under load).
1.8.8.1.1.2 Clean the exterior of the bearing to permit adequate visual inspection of all external
parts. Do not use solvents or chemicals that may damage the seal elastomer.
1.8.8.1.1.3 Inspect for the following in accordance with the Field Manual of the AAR Interchange
Rules, Rule 36:
     • External parts visibly cracked, broken, or bent
     • Loose, cocked or damaged seals
     • Loose backing rings
     • Internal defective parts
1.8.8.1.1.4 If secondhand cap screws are to be reused, do the following:
     • Visually check the threads and washer face on the underside of the cap screw head for
        damage.
     • Check the cap screw body for stretching or bent condition using the gauge shown in the
        AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices, Section H, Part II, Fig. 3.18.
     • Lubricate the cap screw threads and washer face prior to application with either AAR
        M-942 journal roller bearing grease, AAR M-963 journal box lubricating oil, or an equiva-
        lent lubricant that does not promote flash rusting.
1.8.8.1.1.5 Transfer all existing locking plate information to a new locking plate in accord with
Rule 1.8.5.2.
1.8.8.1.1.6 Apply end caps in accordance with Rules 1.8.3.1 through 1.8.4.3. Mounted lateral
greater than 0.025 in. after end cap replacement is an indication of excessive internal wear and is
cause for rejection.
1.8.8.1.2 Identification of all facilities removing and reapplying end caps in accordance with
AAR-approved procedures. Existing or proposed company marks (maximum four letters) and code
letters/numbers indicating the facility location or extension abbreviation (minimum two charac-
ters and maximum four characters) should accompany each application for AAR approval.
1.8.8.1.3 A description of all requisite equipment that will be used and training of personnel that
will be accomplished, to ensure compliance with the specifications and required procedures.
Subsequent to review of the submitted application with supplemental attachments, an on-site
inspection may be performed by the Field Operations Group before approval is granted.

                                              G-II–16                                           2/1/04

								
To top