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MERCURY Powered By Docstoc
Mercury – At A Glance
        –   Form And Usage
        –   Effect
        –   Toxicity Level & Safe Limit
        –   Handling
                                   AT A GLANCE
•   Its element is silver white, odorless and heavy liquid.
•   Melting point of −38.83 °C and boiling point of 356.73 °C, broadest ranges of its liquid state of
    any metal.
•   Not flammable and relatively stable.
•   Highly toxic, irritating, and causes sensitization and neurological symptoms.
•   Not a carcinogenic agent
•   If it’s exposed to extremely high temperatures in the presence of oxygen or air, toxic vapors of
    mercury and mercury oxides will be generated
•   Mercury can attack copper and copper alloys. Beside, it can react with many metals like
    aluminum to form amalgams.
                                               AT A GLANCE
                                                          Severe acute exposure hazard; onetime overexposure can result in pemanent
                                                          and may be fatal

                                                           Minimal hazard

                                                           Normally stable

                                                      Use body protection appropriate for task ( lab
                                                      coat, coverall, tyvek suit etc )

Varies from catridge type to SCBA / full-face piece
                       FORM AND USAGE
Mercury is found in three forms :

a.    Elemental mercury
      Liquid silver metal, form that’s widely used for thermometer etc.
      Usage : fluorescent lamp, thermometer, electrical switches.

b.    Inorganic mercury
      Mercury compound, combined with oxygen, chlorine or sulfur.
      Usage : fungicides, skin lightening cream, antiseptic, color paint etc.

c.    Organic mercury
      Mercury compound, combined with carbon like methylmercury and
      dimethylmercury .
      Usage : fungicides, antispetic etc
                       1. THE CHEMICAL FORM OF MERCURY

                                                          2. THE AGE OF

                                                         3. THE DURATION OF EXPOSURE

                                4. THE DOSE

                        80 % - ELEMENTAL
                        MERCURY VAPOR        1. Elemental mercury vapor is much more dangerous than
                                             liquid mercury. It’s easily absorbed ( 80 % ) by
                                             pulmonary then circulated through bloodstream. Most
                                             accumulation is found in kidney and brain.

                                             2. Inorganic mercury has higher probability to be absorbed
                                             through intestines ( 10 to 40 % ) than it of elemental
                                             mercury. Most accumulation is found in kidney.
   95 % - ORGANIC
                                             3. Methylmercury is 95 % absorbed through gastrointestinal
10 – 40 % - INORGANIC
      MERCURY                                tract. While dimethylmercury is easily absorbed
                                             through skin.
 Attack nerve system
 ( headache, tremor, memory loss, insomnia etc. )

                                                              Get into our body through
                                                              mouth, nose or adsorbed
                                                              through skin

Irritating skin & eyes
( skin rash, eyes inflammation, poor color vision,
keratopathy etc )

                                                                  Lung disturbance
       Increased heart rate                                       ( inflammation, edema, respiratory failure etc )
       and or blood pressure

         Disturb digestive system
        ( ulceration, sore gums,
        drooling, diarrhea )                                        Leaves through feces, urine or
                                        Kidney failure              breath

            Toxin to human reproduction system and gen
Band Keratopathy

     Skin Rash

                      Children with Congential Minamata Syndrome seem to be normal
                      at birth and begin to present symptoms at approximately six
                      months of age. They have instability of the neck, convulsions,
                      reduced IQ, microcephaly, malformed limbs, restricted growth and
                      an altered cerebellum. In utero exposure to methylmercury
                      induces general brain atrophy and hypoplasia.
                                          SAFE LIMIT
1. EPA
•Drinking Water : max 2 ppb
•River, lakes and streams : max 144 ppt

2. FDA
•food : max 1 ppm

•Workplace : max 0.05 mg/m3 ( metallic mercury vapor )
             max 0.1 mg/m3 ( organic mercury )
             8 hrs for 40 hour work week
                       HANDLING – GENERAL
•   Avoid generating vapours or mists.
•   Do not use with incompatible materials such as strong oxidizing agents (e.g.chlorine dioxide). Never return
    contaminated material to its original container.
•   Container :
             a. Use the type of container recommended by the manufacturer. Metals that have good or
               excellent resistance to corrosion by amalgamation include, iron, steel, stainless steel
             b. Inspect containers for leaks before handling. Secondary protective containers must be
               used when this material is being carried.
             c. Label containers.
             d. Avoid damaging containers. Keep containers tightly closed when not in use.
             e. Use corrosion-resistant transfer equipment when dispensing.
             f. Never transfer liquid by pressurizing original container with air or inert gas.
             g. Good housekeeping is very important. Immediate and complete cleanup of spills is necessary.
                Do not use on porous work surfaces (e.g. wood). Use work surfaces which can be easily
•   Follow chemical manufacturer/supplier's advice regarding venting of drums. Immediately contact the chemical
    manufacturer/supplier for handling instructions if drums of this material appear to be swollen.
•   Follow handling precautions on Material Safety Data Sheet. Have suitable emergency equipment for fires,
    spills and leaks readily available. Maintain handling equipment. Comply with applicable regulations.
a. evacuate children and pregnant women.

b. Remove all jewelry, especially gold.

c. Handle the mercury carefully. Wear rubber gloves and scoop it onto a sheet of paper or
suck it up with an eyedropper. Place the mercury in a medicine vial or similar airtight
container. The scoop, paper or eyedropper should also be bagged and disposed properly
according to guidance provided by environmental officials or your local health department.

d. Ventilate the room to the outside and close off the rest of the home. Use fans for a minimum of
one hour to speed the ventilation.

e. Do not simply throw the mercury away. Seek professional guidance from local recycling, solid
waste or hazardous waste agencies. Large retailers and building centers may accept glass-
encapsulated mercury, as in thermostats, for recycling.
      a. No data as carcinogenic agent
      b. Irritating skin, eyes and other contaminated tissue
      c. Causing allergic reaction after long term exposure
      d. Neurotoxic
      d. Harmful to human reproductive system
               - Mutagenicity : it has ability to change genetic material for certain tissue
                                 and at high dose exposure. It’s inherited to next generation.
               - Embriotoxicity / teratoxicity : Toxic for human fetus but it’s not inherited.
               - Reproductive toxicity : High dose exposure can cause impotence ( for man ) and
                                         menstrual disturbance, reduced ovulation and abortion ( for
                                         woman )