GLOBAL POVERTY by mikeholy

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 29

									    BUILDING GLOBAL
   CITIZENRY THROUGH
TEACHING ABOUT POVERTY
                               Farida C Khan
                     Professor of Economics
Co-Director, Center for International Studies
  Poverty Measures
$1 a day
$2 a day
Percentage below poverty line
                                    The higher
                                    the bar,
                                    the greater
        QuickTime™ and a
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                                    proportion
                                    of people
                                    in poverty
          QuickTime™ and a
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 Where is poverty to be found?
What percent is poor in each nation?
If poverty is hunger,
how well do nations provide food for their people?
What do we understand by
    these numbers?
      Cultural definitions
      Historical experiences
      Economic processes
      Visual understanding?
               Images
Here’s what we might see:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Nf1j-
  CtnxM

Or this:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFgb1B
  dPBZo
How should images be used?

   To clarify the magnitude of the
    problems?
   Might they create
    misunderstandings about
    societies?
   To enable students to appreciate
    their circumstances?
   Might they instill static ideas about
    certain regions that are poor?
How should information be
       provided?
       Not too abstract?
       Not too dehumanizing?
       To generate interest?
       To maintain respect for
        humanity?
       To overcome
        objectification?
 POSSIBLE MODELS to
IMPART INFORMATION

         Technical Models
         Historical Models
         Cultural Models
         Mix of the above?
   Technical Models
Source: World Bank, UNDP, IMF, NGOs
Human Development Index (UN):
 development indicators include income
 poverty, life expectancy, literacy &
 schooling
Millennium Development Goals (UN)
 http://www.endpoverty2015.org/

     http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
  poverty.shtml
Millennium Development Goal 1
      ERADICATE EXTREME
      POVERTY & HUNGER
         Target 1:
         Halve, between 1990 and
          2015, the proportion of
          people whose income is less
          than $1 a day
           * Conflict leaves many
          displaced and impoverished
Millennium Development Goal 1
     ERADICATE EXTREME
     POVERTY & HUNGER
   Target 2:
   Achieve full and productive employment
     and decent work for all, including
     women and young people
   * Low-paying jobs leave one in five
     developing country workers mired in
     poverty
    * Half the world’s workforce toil in
     unstable, insecure jobs
Millennium Development Goal 1
      ERADICATE EXTREME
      POVERTY & HUNGER
       Target 3:
       Halve, between 1990 and
         2015, the proportion of people
         who suffer from hunger
          * Rising food prices threaten
         limited gains in alleviating child
         malnutrition
    Breaking the Link Between
Poverty and Per Capita Income
        Kerala and Sri Lanka
        Hans Rosling Video:
        http://www.ted.com/index.h
          p/talks/hans_rosling_revea
          ls_new_insights_on_povert
          y.html
        NGOs and delivery of basic
          services (Grameen Bank
          and micro-credit)
      Historical Model
 What has been our thinking
  about other countries?
Mercantilism: State interest and
  colonization
Liberalism: “Stationary
  economies”
Advent of development
  economics in 1940s/50s
   Historical Model
W.W Rostow: Stages of Growth,
  R. Nurkse: Balanced Growth,
  etc.
Suggests that there are
  underdeveloped/traditional and
  developed societies in a
  spectrum
Traditional societies included slave
  systems of early Greece and
  Rome; peasant societies in
  India, Egypt, China
Confluence of development and
  time
Historical Model

Dependency and World
  Systems theorists
  (60s/70s):
Development and
  colonization causes
  underdevelopment
Modern models of growth
  create system of
  dependence and debt that
  worsen poverty
      Historical Model
1980s/90s:
Neo-liberal policies - increase
  growth through market policies to
  trickle down
Kuznets curve? (growth 
  inequality)
State provision of goods and
  services 
Juxtaposition of images of rich and
  poor
Sense of entitlement  but actual
  conditions worsened in some places
CONTEMPORARY
       ISSUES

Economic crises such as
 rising prices, reduced
 credit, global recession
Climate change and
 environmental
 degradation
  NGOS

Micro-credit
Advocacy
Projects
  Cultural Model

Pre-modern Cultural
 contingency
Cultural differences;
 civilizational differences;
Policies based on
 understanding of a unified
 nature - how much do
 anthropologists inform
 understanding of poverty?
 Cultural Model
Other regions in the world -
 multiplicities of indigenous
 peoples
How have cultures
 contended with colonization
 and modernity
      Marshall Sahlins
"Hunters and gatherers have by force of
  circumstances an objectively low standard of
  living. but taken as their objective, and given
  their adequate means of production, all the
  people's material wants usually can easily be
  satisfied (a common understanding of
  'affluence'). ... The world's most primitive
  people have few possessions, but they are not
  poor. Poverty is not a certain small amount
  of goods, nor is it just a relation between
  means and ends; above all it is a relation
  between people. Poverty is a social status. As
  such it is an invention of (modern)
  civilization."
      Cultural Model
NATURE HITS BACK?
We see the environment as what we
  “use” but our daily habits,
  interactions, architecture changes
  the environment.
Environmental degradation goes
  hand in hand with the
  homogenization and unification of
  cultures and the desire to
  consume in a single manner.
          TEACHING TIPS
1. Keep the connection between micro
   and macro: case studies should be
   used for generalizations
2. Focus on a single region or country or
   have the student do so
3. Have the student tie this in with his/her
   language class, literature, science
4. Learning more about a place will
   generate love and ownership
5. Have the student do a creative project;
   a video, narrative, poem, song –
   encourage action
          TEACHING TIPS
1. Suggest that the student should make
   a pen friend in the country
2. Encourage Study Abroad to
   destinations other than Western
   Europe
3. Teach about heroes that fought poverty
4. Explain global resource scarcity and
   the impossibility of a global American
   lifestyle
5. Encourage involvement with a NGO or
   charity organization; encourage the act
   of giving to make a difference

								
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