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Understanding the Audience: The Key to Preventing Youth
                  Gambling Problems




                     November, 2003




                       Jamie Wiebe
               Responsible Gambling Council


                   Agata Falkowski-Ham
               Responsible Gambling Council
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                                              Table of Content

TABLE OF CONTENT.....................................................................................................I
LIST OF TABLES ..........................................................................................................III
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 4
BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................... 6
PHASE 1:TWEEN REPORT (LIFESTYLES AND GAMBLING)............................. 9
   PHASE 1: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 9
     Survey Questions......................................................................................................... 9
     Sampling strategy........................................................................................................ 9
     Data Analysis ............................................................................................................ 10
     Limitations ................................................................................................................ 10
   PHASE 1: TWEEN FINDINGS ............................................................................................ 12
     Characteristics and Lifestyle .................................................................................... 12
     Gambling Participation and Attitudes ...................................................................... 15
   PHASE 1: PARENT FINDINGS........................................................................................... 22
PHASE 2: FOCUS GROUPS......................................................................................... 26
   PHASE 2: METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 26
     Data Analysis ............................................................................................................ 26
     Limitations ................................................................................................................ 27
   PHASE 2: FINDINGS ........................................................................................................ 28
     Top of Mind Concerns .............................................................................................. 28
     Word Associations .................................................................................................... 28
     Why Gamble?............................................................................................................ 29
     Gambling Behaviour................................................................................................. 29
     Perceptions of Gambling and Gamblers................................................................... 29
     Problem Gambling Indicators .................................................................................. 30
     Sources of Gambling Information............................................................................. 30
     Suggestions on how to Discourage Gambling .......................................................... 31
PHASE 3: QUANTITATIVE TELEPHONE SURVEY ............................................. 32
   PHASE 3: METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 32
     Survey questions........................................................................................................ 32
     Sampling Strategy ..................................................................................................... 32
     Data Analysis ............................................................................................................ 33
     Limitations ................................................................................................................ 33
   PHASE 3: FINDINGS ........................................................................................................ 34
     General Characteristics and Lifestyles..................................................................... 34
     Perceptions of Gambling/Gamblers ......................................................................... 35
     Gambling Participation ............................................................................................ 37
     Gambling Beliefs....................................................................................................... 44
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       Problem Gambling and Responsible Gambling ....................................................... 45
       Problems Experienced from Gambling..................................................................... 47
       Parental Gambling.................................................................................................... 47
       Gambling Advertisements ......................................................................................... 48
DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................. 49
REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 53
APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................. 55
   TWEENS’ SELF-COMPLETION QUESTIONNAIR ................................................. 65
   PARENTS’ SELF-COMPLETION QUESTIONNAIRE ............................................. 69
APPENDIX B .................................................................................................................. 72
APPENDIX C .................................................................................................................. 95
APPENDIX D .................................................................................................................. 97
APPENDIX E ................................................................................................................ 108
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                                                   List of Tables
TABLE 1.1: SAMPLE ........................................................................................................... 10
TABLE 1.2: PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................... 13
TABLE 1.3: WORRIES/CONCERNS AT SCHOOL ..................................................................... 14
TABLE 1.4: TWEEN’S PERCEPTION OF GAMBLING ............................................................... 16
TABLE 1.5: LOCATION OF GAMBLING ACTIVITY AMONG GAMBLERS ................................. 17
TABLE 1.6: TWEEN OVERALL GAMBLING ACTIVITIES IN THE PAST YEAR ........................... 18
TABLE 1.7: CORRELATION BETWEEN PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GAMBLING
    ACTIVITIES. ................................................................................................................ 19
TABLE 1.8: WHETHER TWEEN FEELS ITS FUN TO BET WITH FRIENDS AT SCHOOL ................ 20
TABLE 1.9: WHETHER TWEEN FEELS ITS COOL TO BET WITH FRIENDS ................................ 20
TABLE 1.10: WHETHER TWEEN FEELS MAKING MONEY/WINNING THINGS FROM GAMBLING IS
    FUN ............................................................................................................................ 21
TABLE 1.11: HOW RESPONDENTS PAY FOR THEIR BETS ...................................................... 21
TABLE 1.12: PARENTAL REACTION TO CHILD’S GAMBLING IN SCHOOL .............................. 22
TABLE 1.13: PARENT AND YOUTH PERCEPTIONS OF GAMBLING ......................................... 23
TABLE 1.14: PARENT AND YOUTH GAMBLING PARTICIPATION ........................................... 23
TABLE 1.15: CHILD’S GAMBLING BY INCIDENCE OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBER BEING LAID OFF IN
    THE PAST YEAR .......................................................................................................... 24
TABLE 2.1: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF FOCUS GROUP PARTICIPANTS BY LOCATION ............... 26
TABLE 3.1: SAMPLE ........................................................................................................... 33
TABLE 3.2: TOP TRENDS AMONG YOUTH ............................................................................ 34
TABLE 3.3: AVERAGE ENDORSEMENT OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ............................ 35
TABLE 3.4: NEGATIVE RATING OF ACTIVITIES .................................................................... 35
TABLE 3.5: CHARACTERISTICS THAT PERFECTLY DESCRIBE GAMBLERS ............................. 36
TABLE 3.6: RESPONDENT’S PERCEPTION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES GAMBLING AND BETTING 37
TABLE 3.7: PARTICIPATION IN GAMBLING ACTIVITIES IN THE PAST YEAR .......................... 38
TABLE 3.8: FREQUENCY, LEVEL OF SKILL AND CHANCES OF WINNING AT EACH OF THE
    ACTIVITIES THAT TWEENS PARTICIPATED IN ............................................................... 40
TABLE 3.9: WHERE AND HOW WERE SCRATCH AND LOTTERY TICKET OBTAINED ............... 41
TABLE 3.10: HOW RESPONDENTS PAID FOR INTERNET GAMBLING ..................................... 41
TABLE 3.11: WHETHER RESPONDENTS HAD PARENTAL APPROVAL TO BUY LOTTERY OR
    SCRATCH TICKETS OR GAMBLE ON INTERNET ............................................................. 42
TABLE 3.12: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN NUMBER OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES AND PERSONAL
    CHARACTERISTICS...................................................................................................... 42
TABLE 3.13: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GAMBLING
    ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................. 43
TABLE 3.14: GAMBLING BELIEFS AND PRACTICES .............................................................. 44
TABLE 3.15: ENDORSEMENT OF RANDOMNESS ITEMS ....................................................... 45
TABLE 3.16: WARNING SIGNS THAT SOMEONE THEIR AGE HAS A GAMBLING PROBLEM...... 46
TABLE 3.17: DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING ....................................................... 47
TABLE 3.18: YOUTH PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTAL GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ........................ 48
TABLE B1: GENDER BY PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ...................................................... 72
TABLE B2: AGE BY PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................. 73
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TABLE B3: GENDER BY THINGS MOST IMPORTANT IN LIFE ................................................. 74
TABLE B4: AGE BY THINGS MOST IMPORTANT IN LIFE ....................................................... 75
TABLE B5: GENDER BY WORRIES/CONCERNS AT SCHOOL .................................................. 76
TABLE B6: AGE BY WORRIES/CONCERNS AT SCHOOL ......................................................... 77
TABLE B7: GENDER BY FAVOURITE WAYS OF SPENDING FREE TIME................................... 78
TABLE B8: AGE BY FAVOURITE WAYS OF SPENDING FREE TIME ......................................... 79
TABLE B9: GENDER BY ITEMS BOUGHT MOST OFTEN WITH TWEEN’S MONEY..................... 80
TABLE B10: AGE BY ITEMS BOUGHT MOST OFTEN WITH TWEEN’S MONEY ......................... 81
TABLE B11: GENDER BY ITEMS THAT WOULD LIKE TO BUY RIGHT NOW ............................ 82
TABLE B12: AGE BY ITEMS WOULD LIKE TO BUY RIGHT NOW ............................................ 83
TABLE B13: GENDER BY USE OF INTERNET ....................................................................... 84
TABLE B14: AGE BY USE OF INTERNET .............................................................................. 84
TABLE B15: GENDER BY HOW THEY FEEL ABOUT TIME SPENT ON INTERNET ..................... 84
TABLE B16: AGE BY HOW THEY FEEL ABOUT TIME SPENT ON INTERNET ............................ 84
TABLE B17: GENDER BY ACTIVITIES WHILE “SURFING THE NET” ...................................... 85
TABLE B18: AGE BY ACTIVITIES WHILE “SURFING THE NET .............................................. 86
TABLE B19: GENDER BY PERCEPTION OF GAMBLING ......................................................... 87
TABLE B20: AGE BY PERCEPTION OF GAMBLING................................................................ 88
TABLE B21: GENDER BY WHETHER RESPONDENT HAS SEEN STUDENTS BETTING IN THEIR
    SCHOOL ...................................................................................................................... 88
TABLE B22: AGE BY WHETHER RESPONDENT HAS SEEN STUDENTS BETTING IN THEIR
    SCHOOL ...................................................................................................................... 88
TABLE B23: GENDER BY WHETHER RESPONDED HAS BEEN ASKED TO BET ON SOMETHING 88
TABLE B24: AGE BY WHETHER RESPONDED HAS BEEN ASKED TO BET ON SOMETHING ...... 89
TABLE B25: GENDER BY WHETHER RESPONDENT ASKED TO GAMBLE FOR MONEY ............ 89
TABLE B26: AGE BY WHETHER RESPONDENT ASKED TO GAMBLE FOR MONEY ................... 89
TABLE B27: GENDER BY WHETHER RESPONDENT ASKED TO GAMBLE FOR SOMETHING ELSE
    ................................................................................................................................... 89
TABLE B28: AGE BY WHETHER RESPONDENT ASKED TO GAMBLE FOR SOMETHING ELSE ... 89
TABLE B29: GENDER BY BETTING LOCATION..................................................................... 90
TABLE B30: AGE BY BETTING LOCATION ........................................................................... 90
TABLE B31: AGE BY OVERALL GAMBLING PARTICIPATION IN THE PAST YEAR ................... 90
TABLE B32: GENDER BY OVERALL GAMBLING PARTICIPATION IN THE PAST YEAR ............. 90
TABLE B33: GENDER BY GAMBLING PARTICIPATION ......................................................... 91
TABLE B34: AGE BY GAMBLING PARTICIPATION................................................................ 91
TABLE B35: TWEEN GAMBLING PARTICIPATION ................................................................ 92
TABLE B36: GENDER BY FEELING ITS FUN TO BET WITH FRIENDS AT SCHOOL .................... 92
TABLE B37: AGE BY FEELING ITS FUN TO BET WITH FRIENDS AT SCHOOL .......................... 92
TABLE B38: GENDER BY FEELING ITS COOL TO BET WITH FRIENDS .................................... 93
TABLE B39: AGE BY FEELING ITS COOL TO BET WITH FRIENDS .......................................... 93
TABLE B40: GENDER BY FEELING MAKING MONEY/WINNING THINGS FROM GAMBLING IS
    FUN ............................................................................................................................ 93
TABLE B41: AGE BY FEELING MAKING MONEY/WINNING THINGS FROM GAMBLING IS FUN 93
TABLE B42: GENDER BY HOW RESPONDENTS PAY FOR THEIR BETS.................................... 94
TABLE B43: AGE BY HOW RESPONDENTS PAY FOR THEIR BETS .......................................... 94
TABLE B44: GENDER BY AGE OF ONSET OF GAMBLING ...................................................... 94
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TABLE E1: GENDER BY WHETHER GAMBLING OR BETTING ON THINGS IS A POPULAR
    ACTIVITY AMONG PEOPLE THEIR AGE ....................................................................... 108
TABLE E2: AGE BY WHETHER GAMBLING OR BETTING ON THINGS IS A POPULAR ACTIVITY
    AMONG PEOPLE THEIR AGE ....................................................................................... 108
TABLE E3: GENDER BY WHETHER TWEEN CONSIDERS AN ACTIVITY AS GAMBLING .......... 109
TABLE E4: AGE BY WHETHER TWEEN CONSIDERS AN ACTIVITY AS GAMBLING ................ 110
TABLE E5: GENDER BY WHETHER TWEEN CONSIDER AN ACTIVITY AS BETTING. .............. 111
TABLE E6: AGE BY WHETHER TWEEN CONSIDERS AN ACTIVITY AS BETTING.................... 112
TABLE E7: GENDER BY TWEEN GAMBLING PARTICIPATION.............................................. 113
TABLE E8: AGE BY TWEEN GAMBLING PARTICIPATION .................................................... 113
TABLE E9: GENDER BY WHETHER TWEEN HAD PARENTAL APPROVAL TO BUY TICKETS OR
    BET ON INTERNET ..................................................................................................... 113
TABLE E10: AGE BY WHETHER TWEEN HAD PARENTAL APPROVAL TO BUY TICKETS OR BET
    ON INTERNET ........................................................................................................... 114
TABLE E11: GENDER BY WHETHER RESPONDENT BELIEVES THAT THE ACTIVITIES THEY
    PARTICIPATE IN MAY LEAD TO GAMBLING PROBLEMS .............................................. 114
TABLE E12: AGE BY WHETHER RESPONDENT BELIEVES THAT THE ACTIVITIES THEY
    PARTICIPATE IN MAY LEAD TO GAMBLING PROBLEMS .............................................. 114
TABLE E13: GENDER BY GAMBLING BELIEFS AND PRACTICES ......................................... 115
TABLE E14: AGE BY GAMBLING BELIEFS AND PRACTICES ................................................ 115
TABLE E15: GENDER BY KNOWLEDGE OF RANDOMNESS.................................................. 116
TABLE E16: AGE BY KNOWLEDGE OF RANDOMNESS ........................................................ 116
TABLE E17: GENDER BY WARNING SIGNS OF GAMBLING PROBLEMS ................................ 117
TABLE E18: AGE BY WARNING SIGNS OF GAMBLING PROBLEMS ...................................... 117
TABLE E19: GENDER BY DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING ................................... 118
TABLE E20: AGE BY DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING ......................................... 118
TABLE E21: GENDER BY WHETHER TWEEN EXPERIENCED ANY PROBLEMS AS A RESULT OF
    THEIR GAMBLING ..................................................................................................... 119
TABLE E22: AGE BY WHETHER TWEEN EXPERIENCED ANY PROBLEMS AS A RESULT OF THEIR
    GAMBLING ............................................................................................................... 119
TABLE E23: GENDER BY WHETHER FRIENDS EXPERIENCED GAMBLING PROBLEMS .......... 119
TABLE E24: AGE BY WHETHER FRIENDS EXPERIENCED GAMBLING PROBLEMS ................ 119
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                             Executive Summary

        This study assembles an in-depth profile of youth between the ages of 9 and 16
for the purposes of guiding the development of problem gambling prevention strategies.
Understanding the initial development and progression of gambling-related attitudes,
beliefs and behaviours is essential to the development of effective, targeted strategies.
At the core of this research is the question about what someone designing a health
communication program would like to know about his/her target audience. The research
develops a profile of young people based on information about their general lifestyle, as
well as gambling specific areas including: understanding, attitudes and behaviours
relative to problem and responsible gambling, language used for gambling activities and
understanding of gambling terms, and awareness of and reaction to gambling
advertising.
        A three-phase research process is used to collect the information for this study.
The first phase of the study builds on a yearly “Tween Report”, a youth survey
sponsored by YTV that provides a wealth of lifestyle, preference and motivational
information. In Phase 2, focus groups are used to probe the meaning various gambling
terms have for participants, along with their experience and understanding of gambling
in general. Because the findings from the focus groups are exploratory in nature, key
findings from Phase 2 are validated in Phase 3 through a quantitative study. Collectively,
the three phases provide a multi-layered examination of youth and gambling that can
inform the development of prevention initiatives.


Highlights:

   •   Youth attribute different meanings to the terms betting and gambling, with
       gambling viewed as more negative than betting. Furthermore, youth are likely to
       define the types of activities they engage in (e.g. betting on card/board games or
       physical activities they are involved with) as betting, rather than gambling. This
       has important implications for the development of targeted messages. Not only is
       it important to use the appropriate language, in this case “betting”, but also to
       reinforce that all activities where something of value is being risked have the
       potential to create problems.

   •   Internet gambling is an area of increasing concern. While approximately 10% of
       11-16 year olds reported betting on the Internet, the large majority (95%) report
       that the site did not require a credit card. There are a number of Internet sites
       that offer individuals the opportunity to play various games, solo or against
       others, which include casino type games such as slot machines and blackjack.
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    While a person does not actually have to risk any of their own money, these
    games display winnings and losses in terms of dollars. Essentially, youth are
    learning how to gamble on “adult” games. The impact of these sites on later
    gambling practices is certainly an area worthy of further investigation.

•   Just over 4% of 11-16 year olds report problems related to their gambling,
    consisting of arguments, physical fights and loss of money. Interestingly, 16%
    indicated that their friends have experienced problems from gambling. These
    results speak to the need for targeted prevention strategies that reinforce the
    problems that can be created from gambling or betting, highlighting the very real
    consequences of arguments, fights and loss money. As well, given that so many
    youth know friends who are experiencing these problems, it may be
    advantageous to target this group separately. The information may include ways
    to avoid peer pressure, as well as helpful advice that youth can provide their
    friends regarding gambling matters.

•   Just less than one-quarter of youth feel that betting is cool and approximately
    one-third feel that it is fun. These perceptions increase with age. In addition,
    youth who describe themselves as popular, leaders or risk-takers are more likely
    to gamble.

•   In terms of understanding the chances of winning at gambling, perceptions vary
    depending on the type of gambling activity. That is, youth believe that they will
    win at least half the time betting on physical activities but will lose most times
    gambling on scratch or lottery tickets. There is, however, a general lack of
    knowledge of probability. For instance, the majority of respondents believe that a
    random series of numbers is more likely to win than a string of numbers in a
    sequence. Whether this erroneous belief is a risk factor for gambling problems
    has not been firmly established. However, it does make sense that the more
    individuals understand randomness and probability as they relate to gambling,
    the better able they are to make informed decisions.

•   Most youth understand that gambling can create problems, and recognize that
    spending more money and time gambling than intended, or borrowing or stealing
    from others can create problems. At the same time, about 25% of youth do not
    feel that these are potential warning signs. This signifies a need to reinforce the
    potential warning signs of a gambling problem. In doing so, however, it is critical
    that the language and examples are meaningful to the target audience.

•   Parents are important key influencers. The results show that youth learn about
    gambling from parents, gamble with parents and at home with friends, that
    parents purchase scratch and lottery tickets for their children, and that youth are
    aware of their parent’s gambling activities. At an early age, children develop
    concepts of gambling from observing their parents. It is important that parents
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       realize the impact their own gambling behavior and attitudes have on their
       children, and the importance of transferring healthy and balanced attitudes about
       gambling.

   •   The large majority of youth (78%) have received messages, from television or the
       Internet, that promote gambling. Only 12% of participants have seen any
       advertising for problem or responsible gambling. This imbalance in messaging
       sets the stage for a biased understanding of the impacts of gambling. While
       strides have been made in providing information to youth, efforts tend to rely on
       the school as the dissemination vehicle. There is a need to broaden the focus by
       utilizing an array of mediums to raise awareness of the potential risks associated
       with gambling.


       The results from this study reinforce the findings from past research that many
youth gamble and some experience negative consequences resulting from gambling. In
terms of providing meaningful and targeted problem gambling awareness messages to
youth, the results highlighted potential areas for consideration. These include
understanding the language of the target group, developing messages that speak to the
negative impacts (i.e. loss money, fights) and perceived positive impacts of gambling
(i.e. status and bragging rights), drawing on parents as a key information source,
increasing parent’s awareness of youth gambling and associated negative impacts, and
disseminating messages outside the confines of the school.

       The results also highlight the need for problem gambling prevention initiatives
targeting the younger ages. As shown, gambling participation, the popularity or
perceived “coolness” of gambling, and gambling-related problems (among friends)
increase with age. It is important to equip youth with information on the risks associated
with gambling at the point that gambling-related attitudes and behaviors are being
formed.

       This study has provided a baseline of information regarding knowledge, values,
beliefs and behaviors regarding gambling. The information can serve as a valuable
resource for the development of prevention initiatives designed to prevent problem
gambling among youth.
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                                    Introduction
        In the past decade, the presence of legalized gambling has increased in Ontario,
as well as in other areas of Canada and the world. In many cases, the current
generation of young people are the first to grow up in a society where gambling is widely
available and readily accepted as entertainment. Moreover, the advertising and
marketing messages from the gaming industry very likely reach underage audiences via
television, radio and the Internet. Research shows that the large majority of young
people already engage in gambling activities, and that problem gambling can arise at
very young ages. Concerns have been voiced about the potential impact of the
extensive availability, advertising and promotion of legalized gambling on adolescents
and the need for prevention and education strategies targeting youth gambling. A solid
understanding of the audience is necessary in addressing these concerns through well-
targeted and effective strategies.
         This study seeks to establish an in-depth profile of youth between the ages of 9
and 16 for the purposes of developing effective problem gambling prevention strategies.
To date, few studies have examined the gambling behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of
youth as young as age 9. Given that the first gambling experience often occurs at age 9
or 10, it is important to identify these initial attitudes and beliefs about gambling and
examine developments over the course of adolescence. This understanding allows for
the development of prevention programs that target young people as they are forming
their attitudes and behaviours rather than trying to alter attitudes and behaviours after
they are established.
         At the heart of this research is the question about what someone designing a
health communication program would like to know about his/her target audience. The
research will develop a profile of young people based on information about their general
lifestyle, as well as gambling specific areas including: understanding, attitudes and
behaviours relative to problem and responsible gambling, language used for gambling
activities and understanding of gambling terms, and awareness of and reaction to
gambling advertising.
        This research brings together three unique areas of expertise in one initiative: (1)
RGC, an organization with expertise in problem gambling and public awareness; (2) YTV
with expertise in understanding a young audience and providing programming for them;
and (3) Ipsos-Reid, a leader in polling and public surveys. A three-phase research
process is used to collect the information for this study. The first phase of the study
builds on a yearly “Tween Report”, a youth survey sponsored by YTV that provides a
wealth of lifestyle, preference and motivational information. In Phase 2, focus groups are
used to probe the meaning various gambling terms have for participants, along with their
experience and understanding of gambling in general. Because the findings from the
focus groups are exploratory in nature, key findings from Phase 2 are validated in Phase
                                                                                         5

3 through a quantitative study. Collectively, the three phases provide a multi-layered
examination of youth and gambling that can direct the development of prevention
initiatives.
                                                                                         6


                                   Background
        The current generation of Canadian adolescents is growing up in an environment
that offers extensive gambling opportunities, media advertising designed to encourage
participation, and a climate that sanctions gambling as a government regulated activity.
Kezwer (1996) described the environment as one where gambling is now viewed as
legitimate activity, providing benefits to charities and the community at large.
       Public Health and addictions professionals have voiced concerns about the
impact of the extensive availability, advertising and sanctioning of legalized gambling on
adolescents (Korn, 2000). Consistently, research shows that a large majority of
adolescents participate in gambling activities. Research in a number of jurisdictions has
found gambling-related problems to be two to four times more prevalent among youth
than adults (Shaffer, Hall & Vander Bilt, 1997). In a 1994 Ontario school-based survey of
965 adolescents 14 to 19 years of age from the city of Windsor, 8.1% of youth had
gambling-related problems and 9.4% were at-risk of experiencing problems (Govoni, et
al. 1996).
       Among adolescents, there is evidence that gambling participation and problem
gambling occurs as early as the pre-teen years. In a study with 1,320 primary school
students in grades 4 to 6 (8 to 12 years of age), 86% admitted to having bet money and
the majority (59%) had bet money with their parents (Ladouceur, Dube & Bujold, 1994).
Several prevalence studies have observed that age is not an independent predictor of
problem gambling among adolescents (Govoni et al., 1996; Poulin, 2000; Wiebe, 1999;
Winters et al., 1995; Wynne Resources Ltd, 1996). For example, in a Manitoba gambling
prevalence study with youth between the ages of 12 and 17 years, rates of problem
gambling were not related to age (Wiebe, 1999). The proportion of youth between the
ages of 12 and 13 who were experiencing gambling-related problems did not differ from
those between the ages of 16 and 17 years. Perhaps, as Wynne (1996) suggests,
younger adolescents have caught up to older adolescents as a result of easy access to
an array of gambling options, and a progressively younger age of gambling onset.
        Many researchers have called attention to the need for problem gambling
prevention and education programs designed for youth (Derevensky and Gupta, 1997;
Stinchfield and Winters, 1998; Jacobs, 2000). Gupta and Derevensky (1997) argue that
effective interventions for youth require a firm understanding of the perceptions and
motivations underlying youth gambling. According to Ladouceur et al. (1994), because of
the early development of gambling behaviours in children, it is essential that prevention
programs be made available for fourth, fifth and sixth graders.
       In 1999, Wynne Resources examined existing gambling awareness campaigns in
North America, with detailed information and recommendations for designing and
implementing an effective public awareness campaign. The results showed that problem
                                                                                              7

gambling public awareness campaigns are relatively recent initiatives of organizations in
Canadian jurisdictions. The report also underlined the importance of understanding the
audience, arguing that a strategy that is “unfocused in terms of articulating
goals/objectives and strategic activities with specific target groups is at risk of being both
inefficient in terms of poor or redundant resource utilization, and ineffective in achieving
desired outcomes.” (Wynne Resource, 1999, p.42).
         This need to understand the audience is well documented in health
communication and social marketing literature (Andreason, 2000; Kotler, 1979; Novelli,
1990). Such insight increases the likelihood that audience members will pay attention to
the message, be persuaded by the message, and adopt the health action (Kotler &
Roberto, 1989). In fact, Andreason (2000), a prolific writer in the field of social marketing,
argues that one of the most important contributions that commercial marketing has made
to non-profit social marketing is the introduction of the “customer mindset”. He is
referring to the tendency of non-profit organizations to promote a cause in the absence
of sufficient understanding of the needs, perceptions and motivations of the target
audiences.
        Insight into the audience is achieved by formative research to better understand
the audience profile and consists of gathering, interpreting and applying demographic,
behavioral (e.g. actual current behavior, benefits they derive from their behavior) and
psycho-graphic information (e. g. fundamental values and beliefs, key personal
characteristics, where they get their information, social networks they belong to, how
they spend their time, how they spend their money) (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human
Services, 2002). In developing an audience profile, it is recommended that both
quantitative and qualitative data are collected, and validated (Health Communication
Unit, 2000; Slater, 1995).
        Additionally, prevention strategies targeting youth require special attention. Many
of the current health campaigns are based on the assumption that knowledge of the
risks or dangers associated with partaking in an activity will in fact lead to the rejection of
that activity. However, as Austin (1995) points out, campaign designers tend to ignore
the fact that forbidden behaviours often look appealing to youth. In order for youth to
consider health messages, campaign designers must understand and respect the child’s
perspective, and explain specific consequences of a behaviour that are meaningful to
the target group. As an example, designers of anti-smoking campaigns came to
recognize that the negative consequence of bad breath and stained teeth were far more
important than health consequences such as cancer and heart disease.
       The conclusions of leading writers in the problem gambling, health
communication and social marketing fields point to a solid understanding of the audience
as essential to successful prevention initiatives. Yet, in spite of the widespread
agreement, relatively little has been done to apply this learning to the area of problem
                                                                                          8

gambling prevention. Rather, it appears that many of the strategies targeting youth and
gambling have been on an ad hoc basis, with little understanding of the needs of the
audience or the best ways of communicating the information (Baumrid, 1985).
        This study seeks to establish an in-depth profile of youth (9-16 years) and
gambling that can guide the development of problem gambling prevention and education
strategies.
                                                                                         9


      Phase 1:Tween Report (Lifestyles and Gambling)
         Phase I of this study builds on a yearly “Tween Report”, a youth survey
sponsored by YTV and carried out by Creative Research International. One of the
unique features of this survey is that information is collected from both the youth and one
of their parents. This survey includes a wealth of information related to lifestyle, media
habits, product purchases and preferences, to name a few areas. While this information
is invaluable to the development of targeted prevention strategies, detailed examination
of these various domains is beyond the scope of this report. Rather, the primary focus is
examination of gambling-related attitudes and behaviour.



                             Phase 1: Methodology
Survey Questions

        Approximately 20 gambling-related questions were added to the existing YTV
Tween survey. The focus of these questions was to obtain some initial information on the
types of gambling activities youth engage in, their perceptions of what constitutes
“gambling”, as well as to examine relationships between child and parent gambling
participation and perceptions of gambling. One-half of these questions were inserted into
the existing survey as “piggyback” questions. For example, when tweens were asked to
select the three items they buy most often with their money from a list of items, scratch
and win and lottery tickets were added to the pre-existing list of items. The remaining
questions were “stand alone” gambling questions. These questions gathered
information about gambling behaviours, attitudes, and perceptions. The gambling
questions added to the YTV Tween survey appear in Appendix A.
       The Tween survey consists of three sections. The first section is completed by
the tween in front of a parent, the second section is completed by the tween alone, and a
parent completes the third section. Most of the gambling-related questions were
inserted in the second section completed by the tween alone.



Sampling strategy

        For Phase 1, 403 youth between the ages of 9 and 14 from across Canada were
interviewed in-person. The population was selected from a national compilation of
households by enumeration area, provided by Statistics Canada. A start point address
in the target area was randomly selected with the assistance of SM Research, which is a
sampling company that services the Market Research Industry. Additionally, age and
gender quotas were applied within each city: a 50/50 split between boys and girls, and
an even split between the 6 age cohorts. To target an age group, a ratio was
                                                                                      10

constructed for each enumeration area (EA). The ratio is the target age group in a
particular EA divided by the population of that EA. Ratios are sorted from largest to
smallest. The EA’s targeted for the sample are higher than the average incidence. Thus,
the sample selected within these areas normally yields a higher hit rate than a standard
sample.
        A door-to-door method was used to recruit potential participants. If two or more
youth in the household were between the ages of 9 and 14, the youth with the closest
birthday was requested to participate. Informed consent was obtained from both parent
and youth. Finally, 10% of each interviewer’s work was validated by a telephone call-
back to the household according to the guidelines of CAMRO (Canadian Association of
Market Research Organization).
        Weights were calculated based on the regional distribution of households in
Canada. The population was divided into four regions: Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, and
West. Canadian Census 1996 was used to obtain actual distribution of households
within each region, and thus sample weights were constructed based on this distribution.
Table 1.1 shows the dwelling distribution across Canada based on the Canadian Census
1996, as well as the unweighted sample regional distributions. The sample was
weighted to reflect the dwelling distribution in the population.


                                   Table 1.1: Sample
              Region               Dwelling count            Sample
                                 Percent        N      Percent         N
              Atlantic             8%         2,399       9.9%         40
              Quebec               25        7,497        25.3        102
              Ontario              37        11,095        35.0       141
              West                 30         8,996        29.8       120
              N                   100.0      29,987       100.0       403


Data Analysis
        The SPSS computer statistical software package was used to provide frequency
distributions, and to conduct chi-square test and analysis of variance procedures to
determine overall levels of association. All reported tests of significance were set at
probability levels equal to or greater than 0.95. Appendix B provides responses to
questions by gender and age.



Limitations
       The sampling procedure associated with this study places limitations on
the ability to generalize the results to the general population of 9-14 year olds in
                                                                             11


Canada and by jurisdiction. As well, that parents were present during the
collection of data may cause some youth to answer in a more socially desirable
manner.
                                                                                        12


                           Phase 1: Tween Findings
        The findings are presented in three sections. The first section provides a general
overview of the lifestyle and attitudes of youth between the ages of 9 and 14 years. This
includes information related to how this age group describes themselves, their values,
things that worry them, how they like to spend their time and money, and use of the
Internet. The second section focuses on gambling, including the activities tweens
perceive as “gambling”, gambling behaviour in terms of type of activity, location in which
betting occurs, how money is obtained for gambling, and attitudes towards gambling.
The final section focuses on parents, and includes how parents feel about youth
gambling, activities perceived as gambling, relationships between parent and child
gambling, and selected socio-demographic information.



Characteristics and Lifestyle

        Participants were given a list of several personal characteristics and asked to
identify those that best described them. Table 1.2 presents the endorsement of a sample
of these items. As shown, most tweens perceive themselves as friendly, happy, nice,
and smart. A notable number also identify themselves as risk takers (39%) and
troublemakers (19%). Female respondents are more likely to identify themselves as
friendly (89.1% vs. 79.0%), nice (87.6% vs. 71.5%), happy (85.1% vs. 74.0%) shy
(44.6% vs. 31.5%) or weird (16.3% vs. 6.5%), while male respondents see themselves
as cool (65.0% vs. 50.0%), athletic (62.4% vs. 47.0%), popular (52.5% vs. 38.1%),
competitive (51.0% vs. 39.1%), and a risk taker (44.0% vs. 34.2%). As age increases,
respondents are more likely to see themselves as leaders (21.1% vs. 32.1% vs. 35.1%)
and weird (4.5% vs. 11.8% vs. 18.0%).
                                                                                        13


                          Table 1.2: Personal characteristics
                            Characteristics      Percentage
                            Friendly                84.1
                            Happy                   79.5
                            Nice                    79.5
                            Smart                   71.5
                            Cool                    57.5
                            Lucky                   56.1
                            Athletic                54.7
                            Popular                 45.4
                            Competitive             45.2
                            Risk taker              39.1
                            Shy                     37.9
                            My own boss             34.5
                            A leader                29.4
                            Troublemaker            18.7
                            Rebellious              12.3
                            Weird                   11.6
                            N                       402


         Respondents were asked, in an open-ended format, to list the things that they
consider most important in their life. Family and parents are considered most important,
as identified by 73.2% of respondents. Other mentions included friends (33.0%),
attaining success in their life (21.1%), getting good grades (18.4%), good health
(15.3%), happiness (14.2%), and having fun (14.0%). Female respondents are more
likely than their male counterparts to feel that their family (77.8% vs. 68.2%), friends
(37.9% vs. 28.3%), and getting good grades (23.2% vs. 13.1%) are the most important
things in their lives. As age increases, respondents are more likely to consider getting a
good job as the most important thing in their life (4.5% vs. 7.4% vs. 12.7%).
        An open-ended question asked participants about the things that worry or
concerns them at school (Table 1.3). Tweens are most likely to be worried about poor
grades (46.1%). One in four (23.9%) tweens do not worry about anything, and one in ten
(10.7%) worry about bullying/getting beaten up. Gender was not significantly related to
area of concern. The oldest age group (13-14) are the most likely to worry about bad
grades in school (59.0%). The youngest age group (9-10) is the most likely group to be
worried about bullying at school (16.5%), while respondents 11-12 years of age are the
most likely group to say that nothing worries or concerns them at school (29.9%).
                                                                                       14

                        Table 1.3: Worries/concerns at school
               Worries or concerns you at school              Percentage
               Bad grades                                        46.1
               Nothing                                           23.9
               Homework/school work not being done               16.7
               correctly/well/on time
               Specific school subject                            11.1
               Bullying/getting beaten up                         10.7
               Problems with/afraid of teachers                    8.8
               Kids bothering me                                   7.6
               Friends-who they are/amount                         7.2
               Kids/friends fighting/arguing                       6.5
               Getting a detention                                 1.0
               Bombs/guns in school                                0.7
               Not having the right clothes                        0.5
               Kids who get me into trouble                        0.3
               N                                                  403



         Another open-ended question asked tweens to identify their favourite ways of
spending free time. Playing sports was the most endorsed activity (17.5%), followed by
hanging out with their friends at home (17.1%), playing video games (10.5%), watching
TV (8.9%), going shopping (6.0%), and listening to music (5.7%). Only one respondent
(0.3%) mentioned betting as their favourite way of spending free time. Males are more
likely than females to list playing sports (24.0% vs. 11.4%), playing video games (19.0%
vs. 2.0%), watching TV (12.0% vs. 5.4%) and skateboarding (7.5% vs. 0.5%) as
examples of some of their favourite ways of spending their free time, while females are
more likely to list going shopping (10.9% vs. 1.0%), hanging out with friends at the mall
(7.9% vs. 2.5%), and dancing (7.4% vs. 1.0%). As age increases, respondents are less
likely to identify watching TV as their favourite way of spending free time (13.6% vs.
9.6% vs. 3.0%).
        A series of questions were posed regarding the amounts of money tweens
receive, and how they like to spend their money. Just over half (52.4%) of tweens report
receiving a regular allowance. On average, tweens receive $7.89 per week in
allowance. Most tweens (82.7%) received some gift money for their last birthday, the
average amount being $74.34. The majority (60.8%) have received gift money on a
major holiday, with an average amount of $74.16. Of the total sample, 16.7% reported
having a paid job.
         In terms of how tweens like to spend their money, most common is buying candy
(43.1%), followed by clothes (36.2%) non-electronic games or toys (21.8%), food or
drinks (17.7%), music (17.2%), and books or magazines (16.4%). Only 0.3% of tweens
identified buying scratch and win or lottery tickets as one of the three items they buy
most often with their money. When asked to list the items that they would want to buy
                                                                                       15

right now, the most common response was clothing (27.7%), followed by CDs (15.5%)
video game equipment (15.5%), a computer (8.4%), toys (8.1%) and a CD player (8.0%).
        The majority (84.3%) of tweens use the Internet, either at school (63.1%) or at
home (58.4%). Age, but not gender, is significantly related to where tweens use the
Internet. As age increases, respondents are more likely to use the Internet in general,
and they are more likely to use it at school. On average, tweens spend 5.5 hours on the
Internet per week. Those who are 9-10 years of age spend on average 3.69 hours/week
on the Internet, 11-12 year olds spend 4.80 hours, and 13-14 year olds spend 7.34
hours (F{269, 2}=6.218, p<0.01). Compared to last year, 45.3% of respondents felt that
they were now spending more time on the Internet. Of all the tweens, only 1.8% (n=6)
made a purchase on the Internet. Purchases included video games, books, clothing,
beanie babies, and electronic toys. Most purchases were made with a parent’s credit
card.
         Tweens were also asked about their activities while “surfing the net”. Most used
it to locate information of interest (74.6%), to research school projects (70.0%), just
explore the net (65.0%), play games by themselves (61.0%), send e-mails (60.1%) or
listen to music (52.0%). Of all respondents who use the Internet, 2.3% said that they
check out betting sites, and 1.8% indicated that they have bet on websites.
       Male respondents are more likely then female respondents to surf the net to play
games by themselves (66.7% vs. 55.8%) or with others (51.5% vs. 33.7%), download
games (42.5% vs. 16.3%), TV/video clips (19.2% vs. 9.3%) or software (15.5% vs.
6.9%), while female respondents are more likely to send emails (66.5% vs. 53.6%).
       As age increases, respondents are more likely to use the Internet to research
school projects, send email, listen to music, chat in chat rooms, download music or
TV/video clips, do instant messaging, or burn CDs from music on the Net. On the other
hand, younger respondents are more likely to play on line games by themselves.



Gambling Participation and Attitudes

         Participants were presented with a list of gambling activities and asked to
indicate the ones that they consider to be gambling (Table 1.4). The large majority
(83.9%) consider slots to be gambling. However, less than one half of participants
consider tickets (lottery/scratch/pull tabs, raffle) or Bingo as gambling. Female
respondents are significantly more likely than males to perceive slots (88.1% vs. 79.5%),
betting on sport events (68.9% vs. 57.1%), and outcomes of games (58.8% vs. 47.9%)
as gambling. In terms of age differences, younger participants (9-10 years) are the least
likely to identify Internet betting (52.5%) and Pro-line (50.8%) as forms of gambling.
                                                                                      16


                     Table 1.4: Tween’s perception of gambling
                   Gambling activities                      Percent

                   Slot machines                              83.9
                   Cards or board games for money             65.1
                   Internet                                   63.8
                   Sport events (other then pro-line)         63.0
                   Pro-line                                   56.3
                   Outcome of a game you are playing          53.4
                   Lottery tickets                            43.5
                   Scratch tickets                            42.1
                   Bingo                                      39.9
                   Pull tabs                                  32.4
                   Raffle tickets                             27.3
                   N                                          384


        Just over one half of respondents (54.2%) have seen students betting at their
school, and neither age nor gender is significantly related to the likelihood of seeing
other students betting at school. Of the total sample, 40.5% have been asked to bet on
something. Age, but not gender, is significantly related to being asked to bet on
something. The oldest age group, 13-14 year olds (52.4%) is more likely than younger
participants to have been asked to bet on something.
        Among those who were asked to bet on something, 57.1% of bets are with
money, as opposed to something else of value. Age, but not gender, is significantly
related to type of betting. Whereas 68.2% of 13-14 year olds have been asked to bet
money, the rates for 9-10 year olds and 11-12 year olds are 48.9% and 47.5%,
respectively.
        Respondents who were asked by someone to bet on something in the past were
asked where they usually do the betting. Most tweens usually bet at school, followed by
a friend’s house, and their own home (Table 1.5). Betting location was not related to
gender or age.
                                                                                       17


             Table 1.5: Location of gambling activity among gamblers
                         Where do you usually do         All
                         the betting                   gamblers

                         School                         47.7%
                         Friend’s home                   30.4
                         At home                         29.7
                         Arcade                           4.4
                         Convenience store                3.9
                         Other                            3.2
                         N                               155


         Participants were presented with a list of gambling activities and asked to
indicate those that they have participated in the past year (Table 1.6). Of all the
respondents, 44.4% have participated in at least one gambling activity, with 55.6% not
having participated in any gambling activities in the past year. The oldest age group, 13-
14 years of age, is the most likely group to have participated in at least one gambling
activity (57.1%), with similar participation rates for 9-10 year olds (37.1%) and 13-14
years olds (37.2%). There is a significant relationship between the number of gambling
activities and gender and age. On average, males participate in more gambling activities
than females (1.2 vs. 0.9). Additionally, as the age of the respondent increases so does
the number of gambling activities: 13-14 year olds participate in an average of 1.4
gambling activities, 11-12 age group participates in 0.9, and 9-10 age group participates
in 0.8 gambling activities.
        The most common gambling activity is raffle tickets, followed by scratch tickets
and card/board games with family and friends. Males are more likely than females to
play cards or board games for money with friends (15.5% vs. 7.4%), bet on sporting
events (14.5% vs. 6.9%), and the outcome of sporting events/games that the youth is
playing (13.0% vs. 6.4%). The only age differences related to playing card or board
games for money with friends (3.8% for 9-10 years vs. 8.0% for 11-12 years vs. 22.6%
for 13-14 years) and betting on the outcome of sporting events that the youth is playing
(4.5% for 9-10 years vs. 6.6% for 11-12 years vs. 18.0% for 13-14 years).
                                                                                          18

            Table 1.6: Tween Overall gambling activities in the past year
                    Gambling activities                      Total

                    Raffle                                  17.8%
                    Scratch                                  15.8
                    Card/board games with family             12.0
                    Card/board games with friends            11.5
                    Other then pro-line                      10.8
                    Outcome of sporting events               9.7
                    Lottery                                   7.3
                    Bingo                                     6.3
                    Pull tabs                                 3.2
                    Slots                                     3.0
                    Pro line                                  3.0
                    Websites                                 2.2
                    N                                        403


        Analyses were conducted to examine relationships between participation in
various gambling activities and perceived personal characteristics. As shown in Table
1.7, there is a weak to moderate significant relationship between a number of personal
characteristics and various gambling activities. Of all the characteristics, popular, leader
and risk-taker are the ones associated with the greatest number of gambling activities.
All three characteristics are related to betting on cards with family or friends, and betting
on sports other than pro-line. As well, individuals who describe themselves as popular or
leaders are more likely to gamble on lottery tickets and Pro-line.
                                                                                                                                       19

                           Table 1.7: Correlation between personal characteristics and gambling activities.
Characteristics                                                                   Correlation
                  Lottery     Bingo   Raffle   Scratch   Pull tabs   Cards with     Cards with   Slots   Pro-line   Other than   Sporting   Websites
                                                                     family         friends                         pro-line     events
Smart             -.036       -.093   -.092    -.090     -.051       -.025          -.076        .019    -.084      -.158**      -.108*     -.082
Athletic          .064        .043    .019     .127*     .016        .092           .086         -.070   .014       .041         .147**     -.059
Cool              .121*       .026    .042     .056      .088        .108*          .108*        .030    .026       .065         .061       -.041
Trouble maker     -.039       .052    .058     .017      .045        .079           .090         .033    .034       .165**       .153**     .009
Shy               .006        .056    .036     .016      .050        .120           -.010        .020    .022       .015         .092       .030
Good looking      .094        .082    .022     -.026     .030        .015           .090         .045    -.050      .027         .096       .103*
Lonely            -.032       .045    .012     -.031     .060        -.001          .057         .018    .018       -.056        -.015      .035
Friendly          .074        .012    .045     .066      -.014       -.037          .101*        .004    .044       .066         .053       -.010
Popular           .130**      .015    .082     .009      .074        .104*          .151**       .044    .102*      .156**       .131**     .066
Leader            .134**      .037    .184**   .086      .086        .147**         .110*        .046    .113*      .202**       .087       .048
Happy             .052        .050    .064     .009      .009        .059           .043         -.012   -.007      .003         -.015      -.045
Competitive       .072        .018    .031     .081      .073        .123*          .114*        .016    -.012      .045         .124*      -.002
Funny             .057        .082    .096     .058      .057        .162**         .209**       .021    .050       .123*        .055       -.014
Honest            .072        .015    -.001    .018      -.012       .030           -.084        -.065   -.037      -.043        -.043      -.108*
Religious         .018        .002    .021     -.044     -.051       -.051          -.041        .007    .008       -.063        -.050      -.043
Rebellious        .015        .048    .000     .004      .056        .000           .099*        -.018   -.022      .021         .033       -.001
Nice              .050        .014    .061     .017      .000        .027           .062         -.051   -.084      .001         .045       -.121*
My own boss       -.003       .071    .052     -.031     .094        .057           .097         -.037   .057       .088         .117*      -.042
Self-confident    .104*       .052    .105*    .009      -.024       .071           .084         -.029   -.058      .020         .053       -.047
Fat               -.058       .034    .045     .080      .118*       .053           .065         -.008   .099*      .079         .033       -.049
Too thin          -.024       .090    -.008    .053      .024        -.059          .001         -.054   -.054      -.047        .050       -.046
Rich              -.057       .091    .076     -.067     -.007       .064           .039         -.006   .034       .051         .046       .072
Poor              .008        .082    .041     .131**    .104*       -.001          .062         -.046   .016       .074         .115*      -.039
Geeky             -.037       .107*   -.010    -.058     -.024       .012           .075         .095    .094       .015         .021       .117*
Weird             -.070       .030    .056     .013      -.020       .013           .072         -.063   .029       .079         .043       .002
Unselfish         -.026       -.070   .005     .003      -.016       -.088          .060         .044    -.047      -.026        .100*      -.047
Lucky             .074        .084    .133**   .060      .041        .122*          .128*        .014    .039       .068         .059       .034
Risk taker        .008        .069    .149**   .030      .067        .129**         .183**       .037    .063       .149**       .198**     -.055
N                 402         402     402      402       402         402            403          403     402        403          403        403
                                                                                                   20



        A series of questions were posed related to attitudes towards gambling. The first
question asked whether it is fun to bet with friends at school (Table 1.8). Approximately one in
three respondents (31%) agreed with this statement. Males (35.4%) are more likely than
females (26.7%) to feel betting with friends is fun, as are older youth 13-14 years (44.4%).



            Table 1.8: Whether tween feels its fun to bet with friends at school
                             It is fun to bet with friends   Total
                             at school
                             Disagree strongly               41.3%
                             Disagree somewhat                15.6
                             Neither agree or disagree        12.1
                             Agree somewhat                   22.5
                             Agree strongly                    8.4
                             N                                400


         Another question asked if it is cool to bet with friends (Table 1.9). Tweens were less
likely to perceive betting with friends as cool (21%) compared to being fun (31%). Responses to
this question were not related to gender, but were related to age. The oldest age group is the
most likely to feel that gambling with friends is cool (28.8%).


                 Table 1.9: Whether tween feels its cool to bet with friends
                          It is cool to bet with friends       Total

                          Disagree strongly                    45.5%
                          Disagree somewhat                     19.2
                          Neither agree or disagree             14.3
                          Agree somewhat                        14.7
                          Agree strongly                         6.3
                          N                                     400


        Tweens were also asked about their feelings towards winning money from betting (Table
1.10). One in three respondents (32.7%) agree that making money/winning things from betting
is fun. Age, but not gender, is significantly related to this question. Youth between 13-14 years
are the most likely age group to feel that winning money from betting is fun (44.4%)
                                                                                                21




   Table 1.10: Whether tween feels making money/winning things from gambling is fun
                             Making money/winning            Total
                             things from gambling is
                             fun
                             Disagree strongly               39.3%
                             Disagree somewhat                17.4
                             Neither agree or disagree        10.7
                             Agree somewhat                   19.6
                             Agree strongly                   13.1
                             N                                399


      In terms of obtaining money for gambling, the most common source is allowance
(32.2%) followed by job earnings (20.4%). Neither gender nor age is significantly related to how
respondents obtain money for gambling.


                       Table 1.11: How respondents pay for their bets
                       When you gamble, do you mainly use         All
                                                                gamblers

                       Money you get as your allowance            32.2%
                       Money you have earned from a job           20.4%
                       Gift money                                 12.7%
                       Other                                       3.5%
                       N                                            142


        On average, participants reported an average win of $4.30 from gambling in the past
month. Most (64.6%) report no wins, 21.4% indicate winning $1-5 in the last month, and 10.5%
said that they have won $11 or more (maximum reported amount of winning was $50.00).
Gender and age were not significantly related to the amount of money won in the last month.
        Finally, participants were asked to recall how old they were when they first tried betting
for money. Most (42.4%) started betting when they were 9-10 years of age, another 28.0%
started when they were less than 9 years of age, and 21.6% said that they started betting when
they were 11-12 years of age. Gender was not significantly related to age of onset of gambling.
                                                                                                22




                               Phase 1: Parent Findings
        Most often, the parent who responded to the parent section of the survey was the
tween’s mother (78.4%). Most tweens live in a two-parent household (61.9%), followed by
single parent households (26.3%).
        Parents were asked an open-ended question about how they would react if they found
out that their child was betting at school. As shown in Table 1.12, most parents would be upset,
worried, concerned and would talk to the child or speak to school officials. Less than 5%
indicated that they would not be concerned.


                 Table 1.12: Parental reaction to child’s gambling in school
                           Parental reaction to child’s      Percent
                           gambling

                           Mad/angry/upset                     32.9
                           Talk/discuss it with child          31.4
                           Child would be disciplined          15.0
                           Speak to school officials           14.8
                           Would figure out a solution          9.1
                           Worried/concerned                    8.5
                           Hurt/disappointed                    7.3
                           Shocked/alarmed/surprised            5.7
                           Not concerned                        4.9
                           N                                   403



         Similar to the youth participants, parents were also given a list of various gambling
activities and asked to identify those that they consider as being gambling. Table 1.13
compares parent and youth perceptions of what activities are considered as gambling. Although
parents are overall more likely than youth to endorse activities as gambling, the trend in most to
least endorsed is quite similar. There is a fairly wide perception among youth and their parents
that tickets and bingo do not constitute gambling.
                                                                                                 23



                   Table 1.13: Parent and youth perceptions of gambling
     Gambling Activities                             Parent Considers      Youth Considers
                                                        Gambling              Gambling
     Slot machines                                        85.4%                  83.9
     Internet                                              78.3                  63.8
     Sports games/events (other the Pro-line)              76.1                  63.0
     Pro-line                                              70.5                  56.3
     Outcome of sporting event you are playing             70.1                  53.4
     Cards/board games                                     69.0                  65.1
     Lottery tickets                                       65.6                  43.5
     Scratch tickets                                       61.5                  42.1
     Bingo                                                 59.5                  39.9
     Pull-tabs                                             58.3                  32.4
     Raffle tickets                                        47.0                  27.3
     N                                                      388                  384
         Parents were also presented with a list of gambling activities and asked to indicate past
year participation. Table 1.14 shows gambling participation for parents and youth. Not
unexpected, parents tend to participate in regulated forms of gambling more than youth. There
is a fair amount of consistency in participation rates among parents and youth related to
cards/board games with family and friends, pro-line and the Internet.


                    Table 1.14: Parent and youth gambling participation
           Gambling activity                                 Parent           Youth
           Lottery tickets                                   92.8%            7.3%
           Scratch tickets                                    58.8             15.8
           Raffle tickets                                     37.2             17.8
           Slot machines                                      22.6              3.0
           Bingo                                              18.5              6.3
           Pull tabs                                          16.5              3.2
           Cards or board games for money with family         10.1             12.0
           Cards or board games for money with friends         8.6             11.5
           Pro-line                                            3.9              3.0
           Outcome of a sporting event you are playing        3.1              9.7
           Internet                                            0.9              2.2
           Sport events (other than pro-line)                   0              10.8
           N                                                  361              403


         Further analysis identified a weak, albeit significant, relationship between the number of
gambling activities engaged by the parent and by their child. That is, as the number of gambling
activities of the parent increases, so does the number of gambling activities of their child
(r=.120, p<0.05).
                                                                                                    24



     Analyses were also conducted to examine whether parental participation in a specific type of
gambling activity was related to the child’s participation in that activity. The results identified the
following relationships:

   •   Tweens are more likely to buy raffle tickets if their parent buys raffle tickets;

   •   Tweens are more likely to gamble on scratch tickets if the parent buys them as well;

   •   Tweens are more likely to play card/board games with family if the parent plays cards
       with the family;

   •   Finally, tweens are more likely to bet on websites if their parent bets on websites
    The survey also included a few socio-demographic type questions. One question asked
parents how fearful they were of losing their jobs. Very few (3.7%) are “very fearful” of losing
their jobs, and 18.6% are “somewhat fearful”. Fearing a job loss was not related to participation
in number of gambling activities or participation in a specific type of activity.
     The parent was also asked whether anyone in the household has been laid off or fired in the
past year. Just over 10% (12.1%) had experienced this in the past year. Again, no relationships
were observed between the number of gambling activities the parent participates in, type of
gambling participation, and whether anyone in the household has been laid off or fired in the
past year. However, there was a significant relationship between a family member being laid
off/fired and child’s gambling behaviour. Tweens were more likely to have gambled in the past
year if someone in their household has been laid off or fired (see Table 1.15). That is, whereas
16.5% of tweens who lived in a household where a family member had been laid off gambled,
only 8.6% of tweens gambled in households where a family member had not been laid off.



Table 1.15: Child’s gambling by incidence of household member being laid off in the past
                                          year
            Incidence of household member             Child’s gambling            Total
            being laid off in the past year           Yes          No
            Yes                                      16.5%        8.6%           12.1%
            No                                        83.5        91.4            87.9
            N                                         221          176            397


       Over one-third (37.4%) of the interviewed households had a combined income of under
$30,000 per year and 22.4% reported a household income ranging from $50,000 to $75,000 per
year. There was no significant relationship between household income and whether or not the
tween gambled in the past year, or overall parental gambling participation. The relationship
between household income and parental participation in particular gambling activities was
                                                                                              25



examined. As the household income increases the likelihood of playing bingo and buying
scratch tickets decreases.
        Additionally, the parent was asked about their highest level of formal education. Close
to the same number of parents had post-secondary education (44.0%) as high school or less
(43%). There was no significant relationship between parent’s education and whether or not the
tween gambled in the past year, or overall parental gambling participation. However, as
parental education increases the likelihood of playing bingo or buying scratch tickets decreases.
                                                                                               26




                              Phase 2: Focus Groups
        Phase 2 of this study consisted of focus groups with 9 to 14 year olds. This phase builds
on Phase 1 by taking a more in-depth look at gambling attitudes and behaviours, as well as
exploring this age group's use and understanding of various gambling-related terms.



                                 Phase 2: Methodology
        Ipsos-Reid conducted a series of six focus groups with youth between the ages of nine
and fourteen years. Participants were selected from a panel of 40,000 households that have
agreed to participate in Ipsos-Reid studies. The composition of the panel is maintained to be
representative of the Ontario population according to Statistics Canada data. Informed consent
was obtained from both the parent/guardian and the participating youth, both over the phone
during the recruitment and in-person before the youth entered the focus group room.
        Two focus groups were conducted in each of three cities: Toronto, Barrie and Ottawa.
Table 2.1 shows the age distribution of each of the focus groups conducted in these cities.
Each focus group consisted of a 90-minute group discussion with 10 to 12 youth led by a trained
moderator and recorder. The focus groups were conducted in special facilities that included
one-way mirrors and audio taping capabilities. This allowed the research team members to
view the discussion and take notes without influencing group dynamics, as well as to ensure
that no information was missed. A copy of the moderator’s guide appears in Appendix C.


           Table 2.1: Age Distribution of Focus Group Participants by Location
              City                         Age Groups
              Toronto                      Group 1: 9 to 10 years
                                           Group 2: 11 to 12 years
              Barrie                       Group 1: 11 to 12 years
                                           Group 2: 13 to 14 years
              Ottawa                       Group 1: 9 to 10 years
                                           Group 2: 13 to 14 years

Data Analysis
       Qualitative analysis was conducted on the transcribed focus group discussions. The
main goal was the extraction of themes in the areas of key influencers, information sources, and
gambling attitudes that could then be tested in the quantitative study in Phase 3.
                                                                                                27




Limitations
       The major limitation of focus groups is that findings cannot be generalized to the entire
population. For this reason, themes identified will be tested in a larger sample of youth in Phase
3. Another limitation of focus groups is that the results can be dependent upon the interaction
between the respondents and the moderator.
                                                                                                28




                                    Phase 2: Findings

Top of Mind Concerns
       Focus groups began with a general look at some of the concerns facing this age group.
Gambling and betting were not top-of mind concerns for participants. When asked to list the
kinds of problems kids their age face, participants generally mentioned peer pressure or
arguments with parents. Other less frequently mentioned concerns included drugs, alcohol, and
AIDS.



Word Associations
    Participants were presented with various gambling-related words and asked to provide
definitions.
a) Risky Behaviour
   Participants were split in their views on the term “risky behaviour.” Some felt risky behaviour
was negative in that it was dangerous and could result in harm. However, others felt risky
behaviour was part of life. In other words, if “risky behaviour” is used in discussing the risk of
gambling to youth, it doesn’t necessarily impart a negative behaviour.
b) Gambling versus betting
     Questions were posed to determine if participants saw a distinction between “gambling” and
“betting”. Participants usually associated negative consequences with the term “gambling” such
as losing money, getting into fights and cheating. Furthermore, “gambling” was not a word they
appeared comfortable using to describe their own behaviour. Betting tended to be viewed as
less harmful than gambling, and was a term that they were comfortable using to describe their
own behaviour. Participants provided examples of making bets with friends that have no real
consequences. Further probing seemed to confirm that participants believed there was a
difference between the terms “betting” and “gambling”. However, they encountered difficulties in
trying to precisely distinguish between two terms. Some mentioned that betting is a type of
gambling.
c) Safe Gambling versus Responsible Gambling
    Safe gambling was considered gambling that is harmless and would not get the person into
trouble. In fact, for some participants it appeared as though safe gambling would be comprised
of activities that are not in fact gambling. Most participants associated the term “responsible
gambling” with controlling the amount of money and time spent gambling. The argument was
also made that the concept of responsible gambling was a misnomer.
                                                                                                    29



d) Problem Gambling
   Problem gambling for participants was associated with not being able to control gambling
and losing money. For instance, “lose money because you gambled too much”, “keep thinking
they will win, so they don’t stop, and lose all their money”, “addiction, you can’t stop, you get
cravings for it”.


Why Gamble?
        Many participants demonstrated a fairly sophisticated understanding of the odds
involved in gambling. Most understood that the chances of winning are far lower than the
likelihood of losing. However, there was far less sophistication regarding exactly how low the
odds were in some instances.
         Many participants believe that people gamble despite the high likelihood of losing
because they want to win money and prizes, it is fun, or because people are “stupid”. The 13-14
year old groups suggested that betting and winning allows kids to improve their status among
their friends at school. Many also pointed out that gambling could be an addiction (e.g.
“gambling is very addictive, it is just like smoking”, “I think it is addictive because some people
just need to win and they play again and again, and they never win”).


Gambling Behaviour
        Many respondents indicated that they don’t gamble or make bets, this was true
particularly among younger participants (9-10 year olds). Others indicated that it was illegal to
gamble under eighteen years of age.
         Many focus group participants provided examples of what they deemed to be harmless
“betting” activities that take place at school, such as races to win a prize. This kind of gambling
that is not “real” gambling is considered to be something that is done by friends or classmates
who are confident that they will be winners.


Perceptions of Gambling and Gamblers
        When asked whether gambling or betting is good or bad, younger participants were
more likely to say that gambling in general is bad. Older participants demonstrated a more
nuanced view on whether gambling is good or bad. For the most part, they thought it could be
good or it could be bad depending on the frequency of gambling or betting, and the amount lost.
        Most agreed that there are some forms of gambling or betting that are worse than
others. Casinos were generally perceived as the worst type of gambling, and the activity that
                                                                                                 30



could get a person in the most trouble. In contrast, some did not feel that lottery tickets are very
problematic because they cost so little to buy.
        Participants completed a collage exercise designed to reveal their attitudes and
perceptions about gamblers and gambling. Collages and focus group discussion demonstrated
that participants were most likely to depict gamblers as male, younger usually and older for slots
and bingo, and rebellious. Many focus group participants associated gambling with alcohol
consumption. Collages tended to depict either winners who are happy and have won everything
or losers who have lost everything. The idea that gambling is something that everyone does on
a daily basis in their life that is not necessarily related to winning money was also brought up
during discussions (“living is a gamble, there are consequences, good things and bad things
can happen”, and “gambling with your education if you don’t do your homework”).


Problem Gambling Indicators
        Most participants did not feel that gambling or betting was a problem for their peers.
When asked to identify the signs of a gambling problem, the most common response was a
person who is always eager to bet on things. Other mentions included using allowance money
to gamble, and not having money to buy things like lunch. Participants in the Ottawa focus
groups were asked to create a list of questions they would use to determine whether someone
their age was having a problem with gambling or may have a problem in the future. Their
questions typically addressed frequency of betting behaviour, familial gambling behaviour, a
gauge on how “cool” gambling was perceived to be, and whether or not the respondent had
ever thought they could beat the odds to win.
        Participants were also asked to give their reaction to some of the items currently used to
measure problem gambling among youth by the SOGS-RA. First, most participants did not feel
that they would endorse any of the items. The item related to chasing losses was considered
confusing by some participants. There was some uncertainty about whether the question was
asking if they had actually tried to win back what they had lost or thought in their mind about
trying to win back what was lost. The other item that was found confusing was related to hiding
signs of gambling/betting from family/friends. One participant specifically mentioned that they
were not sure if this would include hiding something that was purchased with money from a bet.
Finally, while SOGS-RA questions are worded in the “past 12 months”, many participants
preferred wording it “in the past year”.



Sources of Gambling Information
       Most focus group participants indicated that they learned about gambling from their
parents or at school. Many also recalled seeing ads on TV and/or radio, mostly for casinos. In
                                                                                                 31



addition, most participants had experienced pop-up screens that invited them to gamble when
they are on the Internet. Television advertisements were considered as targeting adults, while
many felt that Internet sites were for everyone, including children. As one participant noted,
“computer ads are aimed at children because they are on sites we visit.”


Suggestions on how to Discourage Gambling
        When asked how participants would discourage their friends from gambling, many
suggested discussing the consequences of gambling and the likelihood of losing. Others would
put their friendship on the line. Younger participants were more likely to threaten to tell their
friends’ parents in order to discourage gambling. Older participants were more likely to suggest
they would go to a parent or an older friend to get help for a friend who had a problem with
gambling.
                                                                                              32




                 Phase 3: Quantitative Telephone survey
        The focus group discussions in Phase 2 identified a number of themes related to
behaviour, attitudes and language. Phase 3 builds on these findings by attempting to validate
some of the key themes identified, as well as expand upon the information obtained in Phase 1.
Specific areas explored included general lifestyle, perceived differences between betting and
gambling, the nature and extent of participation in gambling activities, knowledge of
randomness, understanding of problem and responsible gambling, perceptions of their parent’s
gambling, and awareness of gambling advertisements.
        A prominent observation from the focus groups in Phase 2 was the considerable
differences between 9-10 year olds and the older age groups. For the most part, 9-10 year olds
had difficulty discussing gambling-related issues due to lack of understanding and experience. It
was felt that this lack of understanding would make it difficult to engage this age group in the
telephone survey for Phase 3. As such, a decision was made to remove 9-10 year olds from
Phase 3 and replace them with a sample of 15-16 year olds.



                                 Phase 3: Methodology
Survey questions
       The questionnaire included questions regarding gambling participation, attitudes and
knowledge about gambling, parental gambling, awareness of gambling advertisement, and
understanding of the concept of responsible gambling. In addition, a few general lifestyle
questions were included. The questionnaire appears in Appendix D.



Sampling Strategy
        A sample of 501 individuals was drawn from an Ipsos-Reid Canadian Household Panel
(Table 3.1). The sample was balanced on region, age and gender to meet the quotas.
Interviews were conducted over the telephone and were approximately 15 minutes in length.
The survey was pre-tested with twenty youth. Verbal informed consent was obtained from the
parent/guardian and the youth.
                                                                                                   33



                                        Table 3.1: Sample
                                          Sample                  Population
                                     Percent         N         Percent       N
                 Gender
                    Male              48.7%         244         51.3%       445,350
                    Female            51.3%         257         48.7%       422,000
                 Age
                    11-12             32.1%         161        34.1%        295,320
                    13-14             35.1%         176        33.1%        287,315
                    15-16             32.7%         164        32.8%        284,715
                 Total                100.0%        501        100.0%       867,350



        Data were weighted to ensure that it reflected the composition of the Ontario population
of 11 to 16 year olds. The weights are based on the distribution of the population by age and
gender for each of the 5 regions of Ontario from the Statistics Canada 1996 Census.


Data Analysis
        The SPSS computer statistical software package was used to provide frequency
distributions, and to conduct chi-square test and analysis of variance procedures to determine
overall levels of association. All reported tests of significance were set at probability levels equal
to or greater than 0.95. Appendix E contains a complete listing of responses to questions by
gender and age.



Limitations
       While panels are constructed to represent the general population in terms of
demographics, it is possible that those who agree to participate in a panel are different
from those who refuse in terms of attitudes and behaviours. As such, caution needs to
be exercised in generalizing the results to the entire population. Another limitation is that
this phase, with 11-16 year olds, is testing themes identified in the focus groups with 9-
14 year olds. It is therefore possible that certain themes specific to 15-16 year olds have
been missed.
                                                                                               34




                                    Phase 3: Findings

General Characteristics and Lifestyles
        Participants were asked to list the top two trends among youth their age in terms of
things that are popular right now or that they or their friends like to do. As shown in Table 3.2,
playing sports, listening to music, or watching movies were the most endorsed trends. Just over
one percent of youth indicated that gambling or gaming is one of the top trends among youth
their age.


                             Table 3.2: Top trends among youth
          Top Trends                   Percentage   Top Trends              Percentage
          Sports                          26.5      Dancing                     3.3
          Listening to music              21.4      Parties                     3.1
          Movies                          20.8      Collector cards             2.7
          Shopping/the mall               17.0      Play hockey                 1.6
          Hanging out                     14.4      Arts/crafts                 1.4
          Video Games                     10.3      Play basketball             1.2
          Skateboarding                    7.3      Gaming/gambling             1.1
          Computer/computer games          7.0      Read                        0.8
          Talk/talk on the phone           6.0      Smoking                     0.6
          Clothes                          5.6      Cartoons                    0.4
          Biking                           3.7      Picnics                     0.2
          Beyblades                        3.5      Nothing                     0.2
          Watch T.V.                       3.4      Candies                     0.2
                                                    Total                      501



        Participants were also given a list of some words and asked to indicate those that
described them on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 “does not describe you at all” and 5 “describes you
perfectly” (Table 3.3). Youth between the ages of 11 and 16 years old are happy and perceive
themselves as trusting and hard-working. Although all of the characteristics are endorsed to
some degree, participants are much less likely to identify themselves as risky, stubborn, lucky,
impulsive, quiet and selfish.
                                                                                              35



                Table 3.3: Average endorsement of personal characteristics
                Characteristics      Average          Characteristics      Average
                Happy                  4.2            Laid back              3.1
                Trusting               4.1            Risky                  2.9
                Hard-working           3.9            Stubborn               2.8
                Outgoing               3.7            Lucky                  2.8
                Competitive            3.6            Impulsive              2.7
                Leader                 3.4            Quiet                  2.6
                Popular                3.4            Selfish                2.0
                Organized              3.2
                Total                  501            Total                  501



        In a separate question, the majority (51.9%) of respondents said that they have few very
close friends, and 47.9% said that they have a lot of friends they know well. Only one person
said that they do not have many friends.
         Participants were presented with a list of words and phrases and asked to indicate
whether the words sounded positive or negative (Table 3.4). With all items, the majority of
youth rated the activities as negative. Respondents were most likely to think that, smoking,
drinking and gambling sounded negative, while they were least likely to view tattoos and staying
out all night as negative. Gambling and drinking had similar levels of endorsement.
Interestingly, respondents perceived betting as more positive than gambling, indicating that
youths attribute a different meaning to these two terms.


                            Table 3.4: Negative rating of activities
                              Activities                      Percentage
                              Smoking                            97.8
                              Drinking                           87.6
                              Gambling                           87.5
                              Driving fast                       83.5
                              Betting                            80.9
                              Staying out all night              73.4
                              Tattoos                            70.4
                              Total                              501



Perceptions of Gambling/Gamblers
Participants were given a list of words and phrases and asked to identify whether they
described a gambler (Table 3.5). The majority characterized gamblers as risky and competitive.
Less than 10% of participants felt that gamblers were happy, hard-working, leaders, quiet or
organized
                                                                                                  36




                 Table 3.5: Characteristics that perfectly describe gamblers
                           Characteristics      Percentages (perfectly
                                                   describes them)
                           Risky                         70.6
                           Competitive                   60.3
                           Selfish                       43.6
                           Stubborn                      39.0
                           Impulsive                     35.5
                           Outgoing                      23.9
                           Laid back                     19.0
                           Lucky                         15.5
                           Trusting                      12.2
                           Popular                        9.9
                           Happy                          9.8
                           Hard-working                   8.1
                           Leader                         7.2
                           Quiet                          6.2
                           Organized                      6.1
                           Total                         501



        Respondents were asked whether gambling or betting on things is a popular activity
among people their age. Just over one third (31.0%) of respondents said that gambling or
betting was a very or somewhat popular activity among their peers. Age, but not gender, was
significantly related to the popularity of gambling among their peers. Whereas 41.1% of 15-16
year olds said that gambling is popular among their peers, the rates for 11-12 and 13-14 year
olds was 21.6% and 31.0%, respectively.
        An open-ended question was presented that asked participants to list the activities they
associate with gambling (Table 3.6). The most frequently cited activity was card/board games
(41.4%), followed by casinos (26.5%) and slot machines (20.7%). This same question was
repeated, this time asking for activities associated with betting. Sports teams/events was the
most common activity mentioned by 28.0%, followed by horse racing (16.7%) and card/board
games (16.4%). It is clear from the listing of “gambling” and “betting” activities that the two terms
tend to be associated with different types of activities.
         In terms of age and gender differences related to “gambling” activities, males are more
likely than females to identify card/board games (48.8% vs. 33.9%) and roulette (6.3% vs.
2.0%), while females are more likely to list casinos (31.3% vs. 21.8%). Older individuals (15-16
years) are more likely to identify gambling as: pro line (1.8%), betting on sport teams or events
(23.3%), and casinos (33.1%). The youngest age group (11-12 years old) is the most likely
group to give no examples of gambling (8.2%).
                                                                                                37



         In terms of what constitutes “betting”, boys are more likely than girls to consider
racetrack activities as an example of betting (2.4% vs. 0%). The oldest age group (15-16 years
old) is the most likely group to identify sports teams or events (39.9%) and Proline (1.8%) as
forms of betting.


      Table 3.6: Respondent’s perception of what constitutes gambling and betting
                                                   Gambling     Betting

                          Card/board games           41.4%        16.4
                          Casino                      26.5         4.8
                          Slot machines               20.7         2.1
                          Sport teams/events          14.0        28.0
                          Blackjack                    6.2         1.2
                          Horse racing                 6.3        16.7
                          Dice                         5.6         1.6
                          Poker                        5.2         1.5
                          Lottery                      4.7         1.2
                          None                         4.5        15.0
                          Roulette                     4.2         1.0
                          Dare                         2.2         3.5
                          Money                        1.9         3.0
                          Bingo                        1.8          0
                          Internet                     1.7         0.6
                          Race track                   1.4         1.2
                          Win money                    1.3         0.8
                          Scratch                      1.5         0.8
                          Physical activities          1.1         6.1
                          Las Vegas                    1.1          0
                          Who knows what               1.0         5.0
                          Lose money                   1.0         1.5
                          Pro line                     0.6         0.6
                          Auctions                      0          1.5
                          Dog races                    0.2         0.9
                          N                           501         501



Gambling Participation
         Respondents were presented with a list of activities and asked to indicate those that they
have participated in the past year (Table 3.7). The list was not comprehensive, and included
scratch tabs/pull tabs, pro line, lottery tickets, sports teams/events, cards/board games, bingo,
physical activities such as who can run the fastest, who knows what (like who is smarter), and
the Internet. Over all, 75.4% of respondents have participated in at least one of these gambling
activities (and 15.1% have participated in 4 or more gambling activities). The most common
                                                                                                    38



activities are betting on physical activities (38.0%), Bingo (36.2%), betting on sports
teams/events (28.0%), who knows what (28.0%) and card/board games (25%).
       Boys are more likely than girls to bet on pro line (3.6% vs. 0.8%), and card games
(31.8% vs. 18.5%). When looking at age distribution, respondents who are 15-16 years old are
the most likely age group to bet on lottery (11.7%), while those 11-12 years are the most likely
age group to play bingo (45.3%). It should be noted, however, that the survey asked participants
whether they had “played” Bingo, while most other activities asked whether they had “bet”. As
such, participants may have simply played Bingo without risking something of value.


               Table 3.7: Participation in gambling activities in the past year
                 Bet on:                                               Percentage
                 Physical activities                                      38.0
                 Bingo                                                    36.2
                 Sports team/events                                       28.0
                 Who know what, like who is smarter                       28.0
                 Card/board games                                         25.0
                 Scratch tickets                                           9.6
                 Internet                                                  9.2
                 Lottery tickets                                           7.4
                 Pro line                                                  2.3
                 N                                                        501



        For each activity that a participant had participated in, they were asked a series of
questions regarding frequency of participation, whether they consider the activity as gambling or
betting, level of skill required and their chances of winning (Table 3.8).
In terms of frequency of participation, most gamble “a few times a year” across all types of
activities. The activities with the greatest amount of weekly or daily participation included who
knows what (24.3%), Internet (20.0%) and physical activities (16.7%).
        When asked whether they would define each activity as gambling, betting, both or
neither, scratch and lottery tickets were the only activities that were defined by the majority as
gambling or both gambling and betting. The majority (67.3%) viewed Proline as betting, and not
as gambling nor both gambling and betting (24.9%). Bingo was not viewed as either betting or
gambling (64.9%), possibly because money or things of value were not being wagered. The
results were mixed regarding the classifications of betting on card/board games and games on
the Internet.
          In terms of skill required, most felt that scratch, lottery tickets, and bingo required no
skill. All other activities were viewed as requiring some or a lot of skill. Betting on games on the
Internet was viewed as the activity requiring the most skill.
                                                                                                   39



         Finally, participants were asked to rate how likely they were to win at each of the
activities they participated in the past year. Consistent with the skill ratings, youth rated scratch
and lottery tickets, and bingo as having the lowest chances of winning. For all other activities,
participants felt that a win was likely at least half the time. The best chances of winning were
associated with who knows what and physical activities.
                                                                                                                        40



   Table 3.8: Frequency, level of skill and chances of winning at each of the activities that tweens participated in
                                    Scratch   Pro    Lottery   Sports   Card/board   Bingo   Physical     Who knows   Internet
                                              line                        games              activities     what
How often do you do it
  A few time a year                  64.7     54.5    55.6      56.2       52.3      73.6      41.9         41.7       55.8
  About once a month                 22.7     28.0    24.8      21.0       26.1      10.8      22.0         20.0        6.1
  A few time a month                 10.6      7.3    14.4      13.5       16.8      8.8       19.4         13.9       18.0
  About once a week                   2.0     10.2    5.2        7.8       4.0       6.2       11.9         16.6       10.9
  About one a day                      0        0      0         1.5       0.8       0.6        4.8          7.7        9.1
How would you define the activity
  Gambling                           40.0     16.7    38.5       7.4       19.0      15.5       3.6          2.2       21.5
  Betting                             6.7     67.3    17.4      55.4       29.5      5.8       54.4         48.3       24.4
  Both                               20.1      8.2    22.4      19.0       25.5      13.9       8.7          9.0       27.6
  Neither                            33.3      7.8    21.6      18.2       26.1      64.9      33.3         40.4       26.5
Level of skill required
  No skill                           85.0     18.0    77.7      31.4       20.7      63.4      27.7         28.6       12.2
  Some skill                         10.9     61.5    19.2      65.0       61.2      33.0      50.7         42.6       56.4
  A lot of skill                      4.2     20.5    3.1        3.6       18.1      3.7       21.6         28.8       31.4
Chances of winning
  Rarely/never                       35.7       0     30.6      12.7       9.0       31.0       9.7          6.9       21.3
  Not very often                     36.3      0      29.8      16.4       21.4      33.5       8.5         13.0       12.2
  About half the time                23.6     73.2    28.5      54.5       46.3      30.0      51.5         46.3       45.4
  More than half the time              0      16.5    5.6       11.8       12.4      2.3       20.4         21.9       10.3
  Most of the time                    4.4     10.4    5.5        4.7       10.9      3.2        9.9         11.9       10.9
N                                     48       11      37       140        125       181       189          140         46
                                                                                          41


        Respondents who had bet on lottery or scratch/pull tickets in the past year were
also asked where and how they purchased these tickets (Table 3.9). While most tickets
were purchased at a store, scratch/pull tickets were more likely than lottery tickets to be
obtained through a gift. In most instances, parents purchased these tickets for their
children.



         Table 3.9: Where and how were scratch and lottery ticket obtained
                                                     Scratch/pull       Lottery
              Where did you purchase these
              tickets
                 Convenience store                        47.0%          74.8%
                 Gift                                      21.1           2.3
                 Grocery store                              9.6           11.1
                 Mall                                       6.4            0
                 Friend                                     4.0           3.1
                 Other                                     11.9           8.8
              Who bought the ticket?
                 Parent                                   60.0           66.2
                 Someone else                             16.2           9.5
                 Friend                                   15.0           16.5
                 Personally bought the ticket              8.7           7.8
              N                                            48             36



        Respondents who bet on games on the Internet in the past year were asked how
they paid for the bet. The majority (95.2%) of respondents said that the Internet site did
not require a credit card. Clearly, young respondents who claim that they bet on games
on the Internet are not actually gambling in the sense of risking money. However, just
less than 5% used their parent’s credit card to play.


               Table 3.10: How respondents paid for Internet gambling
                   How did you pay for it                        Percentage
                     Site did not require a credit card             95.2
                     Parent’s credit card                            4.8
                     My credit card                                   0
                     Friends credit card                              0
                     Someone’s card                                   0
                   N                                                 45



        Virtually all youth who have gambled with scratch/pull tickets (91.1%) or lottery
tickets (90.8%) indicate that they have parental approval to do so. In comparison, 72.4%
of youth who have bet on games on the Internet indicate that they do so with parental
approval (Table 3.11).
                                                                                          42




 Table 3.11: Whether respondents had parental approval to buy lottery or scratch
                          tickets or gamble on Internet
              Having parental approval         Percentage          N
              Scratch/pull tickets                91.1             48
              Lottery tickets                     90.8             36
              Internet                            72.4             45



        Participants were asked whether they think that any of the gambling activities
they participated in the past year could lead to problems such as problem gambling. The
majority (85.2%) of respondents felt that these activities could lead to problems. Gender
and age were not significantly related to whether respondents believe that any of the
gambling activities they participate in may lead to gambling problems.
        Analyses were conducted to examine relationships between participation in
gambling activities and perceived personal characteristics. Table 3.12 shows the
relationship between personal characteristics and overall gambling participation, while
Table 3.13 shows the relationships between personal characteristics and each type of
gambling activity. As shown, the personal characteristics most related to gambling
participation include risky, popular, competitive and outgoing.


   Table 3.12: Correlations between number of gambling activities and personal
                                 characteristics.
                        Personal                    Correlation
                        Characteristics             Coefficient
                        Risky                         .158**
                        Popular                       .138**
                        Competitive                   .135**
                        Outgoing                      .132**
                        Laid back                      .102*
                        Selfish                        .091*
                        Leader                          .086
                        Impulsive                       .085
                        Lucky                           .072
                        Stubborn                        .047
                        Quiet                           .000
                        Hard-working                   -.015
                        Happy                          -.023
                        Organized                      -.024
                        Trusting                       -.056
                        N                                491
                                                                                                                                        43




                         Table 3.13: Correlations between personal characteristics and gambling activities
Personal                        Scratch/pull-   Pro line   Lottery   Sport          Card/board   Bingo   Physical     Bet who   Internet
Characteristics                 tabs                       tickets   teams/events   games                activities   knows
                                                                                                                      what
Competitive                     .036            .100*      .105*     .143**         .034         .007    .084         .111*     -.014
Happy                           -.080           .005       .043      .041           -.023        -.076   -.006        .052      -.053
Hard-working                    -.033           .044       -.104*    .020           -.096*       .069    -.010        .072      -.056
Laid back                       .074            .123**     .050      .003           .052         -.049   .097*        .100*     .057
Leader                          -.012           .012       .062      .049           .011         -.001   .107*        .111*     -.039
Lucky                           .069            .046       .108*     -.025          .095*        .017    -.032        .015      .038
Organized                       -.035           .009       -.075     .036           -.045        -.002   -.059        .042      .012
Outgoing                        .010            -.014      -.018     .069           .082         .030    .080         .192**    .012
Popular                         .038            .099*      .092*     .097*          .057         -.010   .128**       .092*     -.014
Quiet                           -.045           .022       .022      -.039          .043         -.008   .004         -.066     .095*
Risky                           .091*           .083       .012      .095*          .077         .078    .024         .124**    .081
Selfish                         .103*           .037       .083      .124**         .082         -.069   .033         .056      -.025
Stubborn                        .077            .007       .049      .041           -.010        -.010   .026         .036      .011
Trusting                        -.134           -.067      -.028     .014           -.083        -.066   .064         .033      -.042
Impulsive                       .078            -.022      -.012     .025           .047         .032    .024         .135**    -.010
N                               492             494        501       501            501          501     501          499       501
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
                                                                                                 44



Gambling Beliefs
      A series of statements were posed in an attempt to learn more about
respondent’s beliefs and attitudes towards gambling, as well as their understanding of
how gambling works in terms of randomness and probability.
        As shown in Table 3.14, the large majority of youth agreed that gambling could
be a problem when a person borrows money to gamble, or gambles longer than
intended. Furthermore, most did not feel that gambling or betting at school was a cool
thing to do. Although 80% did not feel that they would be gamblers, 20% endorsed this
item. One in five youth report being pressured by friends to gamble, even though they
did not want to.
       In terms of gender differences, male respondents were more likely than female
respondents to say that they sometimes feel pressured to gamble with friends, even
though they did not want to (24.1% vs. 16.1%). Males were also more likely to think that
gambling is okay as long as one sticks to the monetary limit that was set (89.7% vs.
79.0%) and that they are a lucky person when it comes to gambling or betting (38.5% vs.
28.5%). As age increases, the likelihood of being pressured to gamble declines, where
27.1% of 11-12 year olds, 17.9% of 13-14 year olds and 15.3% of 15-16 year olds feel
pressure to gamble. On the other hand, as age increases, the likelihood of thinking that
gambling is okay as long as you stick to the limit also increases (85.9% vs. 92.2% vs.
96.2%)


                        Table 3.14: Gambling beliefs and practices
Gambling beliefs and practices                                                         Percentage
Gambling is a problem when you have to borrow money to gamble                             91.5
Gambling is okay as long as you stick to the limit you want to spend                      84.4
Someone who gambles for a long period of time than they planned to probably has           83.7
a problem
I think gambling is okay for most people, but I don’t think I will ever be much of a      80.1
gambler
I think of myself as a lucky person when it comes to gambling or betting                  33.5
Success in life is more about luck than anything else                                     23.5
I sometimes feel pressured to gamble with my friends, even though don’t want to           20.1
Betting is a cool thing to do at my school                                                14.4
Gambling is a cool thing to do at my school                                               10.9
N                                                                                         501



       Respondents were also asked a number of questions about randomness and
probability. Table 3.15 shows youth responses as well as responses obtained in a
survey conducted in Ontario with residents 18 years and older (Kelly et al. 2001).
                                                                                              45


             Overall, the majority of young participants seem to understand the odds of
    winning, nonetheless, a notable percentage of participants demonstrated erroneous
    thinking when it comes to how gambling works. Over half of respondents believe that a
    random series of numbers is more likely to win than a series of numbers in sequence
    (57.6%) and that if one flips a coin and get heads 5 times in a row, one is more likely to
    get tails the next time (55.4%). Although participants have no experience with slot
    machines, approximately one-third carry the belief that staying at the same slot machine
    improves one’s chances of winning (35.8%).
             None of the knowledge questions were significantly related to gender. However,
    a number of age differences were observed. Younger individuals (11-12 years old) were
    more likely to believe that if you flip a coin and get heads 5 times in a row you are most
    likely to get tails if you flip the coin again (61.8%), and to think that one has a better
    chance of becoming rich by gambling than working hard (11.2%). Older respondents
    (15-16 years old) are the most likely to believe that staying at the same machine
    improves one’s chances of winning (42.2%). Respondents who are 13-14 years of age,
    are the most likely group to thinking that since they have not been lucky in the past, they
    are due for a win (24.6%).
            While adults tend to score better than youth on the knowledge questions, the
    differences are not as striking as one may expect. This is particularly true for the
    question related to staying at the same slot machine and becoming rich from gambling.


                         Table 3.15: Endorsement of Randomness Items
Knowledge of Randomness                                                     Phase 3:     Weathervane
                                                                           Youth Study   Adult Study
In a lottery, all numbers have the same chance of winning                     64.6          78.8
A random series of numbers such as 12-5-23-17 is more likely to win           57.6          42.1
than a series of numbers in sequence, like 1-2-3-4
If you flip a coin and get heads 5 times in a row you are most likely to      55.4          34.4
get tails if you flip the coin again
You have a better chance of winning the lottery then getting struck by        46.2           N/A
lightning
Staying at the same slot machine improves your chances of winning             35.8          37.8
Betting the same number for every lottery draw will help you win              32.8          20.4
I haven’t been very lucky in the past with gambling, but that means that      19.1          N/A
I am due for a win
You have a better chance of becoming rich by gambling than working             6.9           4.0
hard
N                                                                             501           2073



    Problem Gambling and Responsible Gambling
           Respondents were given a list of phrases and asked to identify those that are
    warning signs that someone their age has a gambling problem (Table 3.16). The items
                                                                                      46


deemed most indicative of a gambling problem included gambling more money than
intended, taking money from others, borrowing money to gamble, and gambling longer
than intended. Approximately two-thirds of respondents also felt that consuming alcohol
while gambling, feeling bad about gambling and gambling on the Internet were signs of a
gambling problem. Upon further probing, other signs of problem gambling were identified
as constantly gambling, and betting more than one could afford to lose.
        There were no significant differences between gender and the different signs of
gambling problems. As age increases, respondents are more likely to endorse the
following warning signs of gambling problems: taking money from others or gamble,
borrowing money, feeling bad about gambling, gambling more than intended, gambling
longer than intended, and gambling on the Internet


    Table 3.16: Warning signs that someone their age has a gambling problem
  Warning signs:                                                           Percent
  Gambles more money then they intended                                     77.7
  They take money from parents/relatives/friends to make bets or gamble     75.8
  Borrows money from others to make bets or gamble                          74.4
  Gamblers for a longer time than they intended                             73.3
  Drinks alcohol while gambling                                             66.9
  Feels bad about their gambling                                            66.1
  Gambles on the Internet                                                   64.0
  His or her parents gamble regularly                                       55.4
  Bets at school                                                            55.4
  Buys lottery tickets                                                      53.3
  Buys scratch tickets                                                      52.0
  N                                                                          501


        In an open-ended question, respondents were asked to define “responsible
gambling” (Table 3.17). Approximately one-third of respondents defined responsible
gambling as not betting more than you can afford to lose (32.6%), and not gambling too
frequently (32.4%). Eight percent (8.5%) of respondents felt that there was no such
thing as responsible gambling.
        Gender was not related to how respondents defined responsible gambling. Older
respondents (15-16 years) were more likely to define responsible gambling as knowing
when to stop/walk away (17.8%). The youngest age group (11-12 years of age) was the
least able to provide any answer to this question (5.8%).
                                                                                      47


                   Table 3.17: Definition of responsible gambling
               Responsible gambling:                            Percentage
               Not betting more than you can afford to lose        32.6
               Not gambling too frequently/in moderation           32.4
               Knowing when to stop/walk away                       9.8
               There is no such thing as responsible gambling       8.5
               Set a dollar limit before gambling                   8.0
               Gambling just for fun                                4.7
               Knowing how to gamble/gambling wisely                3.3
               Repaying debts                                       2.4
               Honesty/always keeping your word/being fair          2.2
               Being responsible when gambling                      1.5
               N                                                   501



Problems Experienced from Gambling
       The majority (95.9%) of respondents said that they have not experienced any
problems as a result of their gambling. Of the few who did experience problems (4.1%,
n=16), problems including arguments, physical fights and loss money. No relationship
was observed between experiencing problems and age and gender.
         Among those who had gambled in the past 12 months, 12.6% said that they
rarely or never pay when they lose a bet. Most (95%), however, have never experienced
problems when they did not pay. Of the few (5.0%) who did experience problems from
failing to pay bets, problems included fights or threats (30.0%) and loss friendships
(29.8%).
        Respondents were also asked whether their friends have experienced any
problems from gambling. Of the total sample, 16.2% indicated that their friends have
experienced problems from gambling. These problems were often related to fights or
threats related to not paying debts. Age, but not gender, was significantly related to
whether respondents’ friends experienced problems as a result of their gambling. As
age increases, so does the likelihood of having friends who have experienced problems
resulting from their own gambling, with 9.7% of 11-12 year olds, 17.0% of 13-14 year
olds and 22.1% of 15-16 year olds.



Parental Gambling
        Respondents were asked a number of questions about the gambling habits of
their parents. Just over 40% of respondents said that their parents do not gamble, while
35% said that both parents gamble. Among respondents where only one parent
gambles, fathers were only slightly more likely to gamble than mothers (12% vs. 10.5%).
The vast majority (97.8%) of respondents did not feel that their parents gambled too
much, and 100% indicated that there were no problems resulting from their parent’s
                                                                                          48


gambling. In terms of activities (Table 3.18), participants state that their parents are most
likely to buy lottery tickets (84.7%) and scratch tickets (68.2%).


           Table 3.18: Youth Perceptions of Parental Gambling Activities
                           Gambling activity:          Youth
                                                    perceptions
                           Lottery                      84.7
                           Scratch                      68.2
                           Bingo                        26.8
                           Pull-tabs                    20.8
                           Slots/VLTs                   16.7
                           Casino table games           16.1
                           Cards/boar games             14.0
                           Pro-line                     12.1
                           Horse races                  6.7
                           Internet                     4.3
                           N                            225



Gambling Advertisements
        Most participants (78.3%) have read, seen or heard an advertisement for
gambling. Of those who did see a gambling advertisement, just over 50% saw it on TV,
and 27.4% saw in on the Internet. The messages usually encouraged the viewer to
gamble, or visit a casino, as well as suggested that gambling is entertaining, fun and
exciting.
        Youth were also asked whether they have seen any advertising for problem or
responsible gambling. Just over 10% (12.2%) said that they did see some
advertisement, and they saw it on television, magazines, or in school. The messages
conveyed that gambling can become addictive, help is available, and encouraged people
to gamble responsibly. Some messages also pointed out that gambling could lead to
financial problems.
                                                                                          49



                                     Discussion
        There is extensive evidence showing that school-aged youth gamble and that
some experience problems related to their gambling. Even for those without problems,
today’s youth are entering an adult world where gambling is readily available. In fact,
gambling has been described as the new rite of passage into adulthood. In other areas
of potential addiction, such as alcohol and other drugs, young people receive constant
reminders about the potential risks. At present, there is little information about gambling
and problem gambling. A critical step in the development of effective prevention
programs is an understanding of the audience in terms of language, behaviour, beliefs
and key influencers. This study is an initial step in enhancing that understanding and
providing informed direction for future programming.
         Youth in this study attribute different meanings to the terms betting and gambling.
While participants were unable to articulate the difference between the two terms,
gambling tends to have a more negative connotation than betting. Furthermore, youth
are likely to define the types of activities they engage in as betting, rather than gambling.
This has important implications for the development of targeted messages. Not only is it
important to use the appropriate language, in this case “betting”, but also to reinforce
that all activities where something of value is being risked have the potential to create
problems. As well, caution needs to be exercised with the term “risky”, as the word is not
necessarily associated with negative behaviours.
         Gambling is a fairly popular activity among youth. In Phase 1, with 9 to 14 year
olds, 44% of participants indicated that they had participated in at least one gambling
activity in the past year. In Phase 3, with 11 to 16 year olds, 75% reported gambling on
at least one activity. The reasons for this discrepancy in rates is not known, but may be
related to differences in the age of the samples (9-14 years vs. 11-16 years), residence
(across Canada vs. Ontario), methodology (in-person vs. telephone) or differences
related to the list of activities included in the question. In general, youth tend to gamble
on unregulated activities such as card or board games, sports teams/events or contests
involving physical activities or what people know. At the same time, a notable number
play Bingo and scratch tickets.
        In Phase 3, 9.2% of 11 to 16 year olds indicated that they had bet on the Internet.
Of these individuals, however, the large majority (95%) reported that the site did not
require a credit card. There are a number of Internet sites that offer individuals the
opportunity to play various games, solo or against others, which include casino type
games such as slot machines and blackjack. While a person does not actually have to
risk any of their own money, these games display winnings and losses in terms of
dollars. Essentially, youth are learning how to gamble on “adult” games. Do youth
perceive that they are gaining skill through playing these games, and does this have
implications for gambling behaviour when they turn legal age? If they experience a big
                                                                                          50


win, does this impact gambling behaviour later on? The impact of these sites on later
gambling practices is certainly an area worthy of further investigation.
        Despite its popularity, gambling is not a top of mind concern for youth. In Phase
3, the majority of participants (96%) reported that they have not experienced any
problems as a result of their gambling. However, 4% have experienced problems,
relating to arguments, physical fights and loss of money. Interestingly, 16% indicated
that their friends have experienced problems from gambling. Again, problems were often
related to fights or threats from not paying debts. As age increases, so does the
likelihood of having friends who have experienced problems resulting from their own
gambling, with 22% of 15-16 year olds indicating that their friends have incurred
gambling-related problems.
        These results speak to the need for targeted prevention strategies that reinforce
the problems that can be created from gambling or betting, highlighting the very real
consequences of arguments, fights and loss money. As well, given that so many youth
know friends who are experiencing these problems, it may be advantageous to target
this group separately. The information may include ways to avoid peer pressure, as well
as helpful advice that youth can provide their friends regarding gambling matters.
        Another potential angle for messages may entail the perceived “coolness” or
boasting rights offered from winning a betting competition. Just less than one-quarter of
youth feel that betting is cool and approximately one-third feel that it is fun. These
perceptions increase with age. The results also showed that those who describe
themselves as popular, leaders or risk-takers are more likely to gamble. While this is an
area that warrants further investigation, it is possible that there is a place for messages
that target the desirable attributes associated with betting.
        In terms of understanding the chances of winning at gambling, perceptions vary
depending on the type of gambling activity. That is, youth believe that they will win at
least half the time betting on physical activities or who knows what but will lose most
times gambling on scratch or lottery tickets. In a sense, this distinction is likely quite
accurate. There is, however, a general lack of knowledge of probability. For instance, the
majority of respondents believe that a random series of numbers is more likely to win
than a series of numbers in a sequence. Whether this erroneous belief is a risk factor for
gambling problems has not been firmly established. However, it does make sense that
the more individuals understand randomness and probability as they relate to gambling,
the better able they are to make informed decisions. Many jurisdictions around the world
have developed problem gambling prevention programs in health, life management,
economics and math curriculum, and have incorporated sessions on probability and
randomness. For example, the “Drawing the Line” program in Nova Scotia, developed
for grades 7 to 9, examines the mathematics and economics of games to increase
understanding of how gambling works. In Quebec, grade four students in the program
                                                                                         51


“Count Me Out” learn about how “chance is impossible to control.” The “Mathematics of
Gambling” program offered at Harvard helps students develop their math skills while
they calculate lottery outcomes and probability. And “A Certain Bet” created by
GamCare in Britain teaches students how to assess risk in gambling activities.
       Most youth understand that gambling can create problems, and recognize that
spending more money and time gambling than intended, or borrowing or stealing from
others can create problems. At the same time, about 25% of youth do not feel that these
are potential warning signs. This signifies a need to reinforce the potential warning signs
of a gambling problem. In doing so, however, it is critical that the language and
examples are meaningful to the target audience.
        Quite obviously, parents are important key influencers. The results show that
youth learn about gambling from parents, gamble with parents and at home with friends,
that parents purchase scratch and lottery tickets for their children, and that youth are
aware of their parent’s gambling activities. Similar to youth, parents differentiate between
betting activities and gambling activities. At an early age, children develop concepts of
gambling from observing their parents. It is important that parents realize the impact their
own gambling behavior and attitudes have on their children, and the importance of
transferring healthy and balanced attitudes about gambling.
        The large majority of youth (78%) have received messages, from television or the
Internet, that promote gambling. Only 12% of participants have seen any advertising for
problem or responsible gambling. This imbalance in messaging sets the stage for a
biased understanding of the impacts of gambling. While strides have been made in
providing information to youth, efforts tend to rely on the school as the dissemination
vehicle. There is a need to broaden the catchment area by utilizing an array of mediums
to raise awareness of the potential risks associated with gambling.
        The results from this study reinforce the findings from past research that many
youth gamble and a notable number experience negative consequences resulting from
gambling. In terms of providing meaningful and targeted problem gambling awareness
messages to youth, the results highlighted potential areas for consideration. As
discussed, these include understanding the language of the target group, developing
messages that speak to the negative impacts (i.e. loss money, fights) and perceived
positive impacts of gambling (i.e. status and bragging rights), drawing on parents as a
key information source, increasing parent’s awareness of youth gambling and associated
negative impacts, and disseminating messages outside the confines of the school.
        Ultimately, many of the unanswered questions regarding youth and gambling
require longitudinal research. At the international Think Tank on Youth Gambling, held at
McGill University, the conference was challenged by an urgent call for the initiation of
longitudinal studies of youthful gambling. The major limitation of one time, cross
sectional ‘snapshots’ of an existing population is that they provide no indication of the
                                                                                       52


conditions that preceded, and possibly caused, the obtained findings. The understanding
of the risk and protective factors associated with problem gambling, as identified through
longitudinal research, would greatly enhance understanding and provide greater
precision in preventing gambling problems and intervening with those at-risk of
experiencing problems.
                                                                                        53



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                                                                                                              55




                                            Appendix A
                  Project Title: KIDS & TWEEN STUDY VII— TWEENS

PLEASE PRINT: Parent’s Name:____________________________________________
RESPONDENT Kid’s Name: _____________________________________________
           Address:____________________________________________________
                  _
           City: _________________________
           Province:_________________________
           Phone:        (___)___-___

(INTERVIEWER Name:_____________________ Start interview: ___________
                                       a.m./p.m. Finish self-
                                       complete:________ a.m./p.m.
           Date:_____________________ Day: M T W Th F Sa S~

CITY
        Atlantic                 Ontario                  West                              Quebec
St. John’s, Nfld       01       Ottawa         03     Calgary, AB               07         Montreal 12
Halifax, NS            02       Kitchener      04     Edmonton, AB              08
                                Toronto        05     Regina, Sask              09
                                Sudbury        06     Winnipeg, Man             10
                                                      Vancouver, BC             11

GAIN PERMISSION OF PARENT BEFORE BEGINNING SURVEY.

INITIAL SCREENER: 9—14 YEARS OLD

Hello. I am ______________________ from Creative Research International, a market
research company. We are conducting a survey with Canadian kids between the ages of 6
and 14. If you agree to participate and qualify, your child’s name will be entered in a
draw for 4 prizes of $500 each. The odds of winning are I in 150. Furthermore, each
participating child will receive a small selection of snacks.

A. Is there someone in this household who falls into this age group and is available to
   speak with me now?
               Yes ...................................................................................... 1
               No........................................................................................ 2

B.      (IF MORE THAN ONE): Of these, whose birthday comes next?

C.      Now, I can’t do the survey unless I get the permission of a parent or guardian. Is
        there someone at home now who could give me their permission to interview this
                                                                                                                 56


         6 to 14 year old?
                 Yes .................................................................... CONTINUE
                 No.................................................................. END&TALLY

PARENT’S SCREENER

D.       Creative Research is conducting a market research study on the attitudes,
         behaviour and preferences of young people, aged 6 to 14. We would like to
         interview your child for about 30 minutes to collect basic usage and attitude
         information. The results would be used only in statistical averages and will help
         marketers design products for this age group. Could I get your permission to go
         ahead?
                 Yes .................................................................... CONTINUE
                 No.................................................................. END&TALLY

ASK IN QUEBEC ONLY
E.   What language does this 6-14 year old speak mostly at home?
            English ................................................................................ 1
            French ................................................................................. 2
            Other ................................................................................... 3
            (IF OTHER:) Would this child prefer to be interviewed in...?

                    English ................................................................................ 1
                    French ................................................................................. 2
                                                                                                                   57



Great, Could you please fill out this brief questionnaire while I start the interview with
your son/daughter?
I’d like to start with a few questions about you.

F. First of all, how old are you?
                  6........................................................................................... 1
                  7........................................................................................... 2
                  8........................................................................................... 3
                  9........................................................................................... 4
                  10......................................................................................... 5
                  11......................................................................................... 6
                  12......................................................................................... 7
                  13......................................................................................... 8
                  14......................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION
   1. And what grade are you in at school?
            Kindergarten ....................................................................... 0
            Gradel.................................................................................. 1
            2........................................................................................... 2
            3........................................................................................... 3
            4........................................................................................... 4
            5........................................................................................... 5
            6........................................................................................... 6
            7........................................................................................... 7
            8........................................................................................... 8
            9........................................................................................... 9
            10....................................................................................... 10
            11....................................................................................... 11
            12....................................................................................... 12
            Not in school ..................................................................... 99

2.        (DO NOT READ) RECORD SEX:
                MALE ................................................................................. 1
                FEMALE............................................................................. 2

TECHNOLOGY
3 Do you use the lnternet/World Wide Web....? (READ LIST)
              at home? .............................................................................. 1
              at school? ............................................................................ 2
              somewhere else (SPECIFY)______________________ ... 3
              DO NOT USE AT ALL (DO NOT READ) ....................... 4
              NEVER HEARD OF THE INTERNET (DO NOT READ)5

4 How much time, if any, would you say you spend on the Internet in a week? (DO
NOT READ)
                                                                                                          58


                 NONE ............................................................................. 000
                 (WRITE IN NUMBER OF HOURS)_________ .................
                 DON’T KNOW............................................................... 999

5       Compared to last year, are you spending more time on the Internet, about the same
        amount of time or less time on the Internet?
               More time on the Internet ................................................... 1.....
               About the same amount of time on the Internet.................. 2
               Less time on the Internet..................................................... 3 ....
               DON’T KNOW................................................................. 99


6a) OR EVERYONE ONLINE ANYWHERE AT Q.6-a, ASK, OTHERWISE SKIP TO
     Which of these do you do when you ‘surf the Net’? (ROTATE FROM AND
     READ)
            Research school projects..................................................... 1
            Look for information........................................................... 2 ASK Q6b)
            Chat in chat-rooms .............................................................. 3
            Send e-mail ......................................................................... 4
            INSTANT MESSAGING LIKEICQ/MSN ........................ 5
            Play online games by myself .............................................. 6
            Play online games with others ............................................ 7
            Buy stuff.............................................................................. 8
            Download games................................................................. 9
            Just explore ....................................................................... 10
            Download music (MP3).................................................... 11
            Listen to music.................................................................. 12
            Burn CDs from music on the Net ..................................... 13
            Download TV/video clips ................................................. 14
            Check out advertising ....................................................... 15
            Download software ........................................................... 16
            Enter contests .................................................................... 17
            Check out betting sites ...................................................... 18
            Bet on websites ................................................................. 19
            ASK LAST
            Anything else? (SPECIFY)_________................................. . 20

6 b) What types of information? (READ)
                                                                                                                     59


                     music ................................................................................... 1
                     sports ................................................................................... 2
                     movies ................................................................................. 3
                     fashion/clothing................................................................... 4
                     celebrities ............................................................................ 5
                     news .................................................................................... 6
                     science................................................................................. 7
                     betting information.............................................................. 8
                     Other (SPECIFY)______________________.................. 10

7a) In the past year, have you yourself bought anything over the Internet?
                Yes .......................................................................................1 ....
                No ........................................................................................2 .....
                DK .......................................................................................3 ....

7b)~ (IF ‘YES’) What did you buy over the Net?
____________________________________________________________________
8 How do you pay for things you buy over the Net? (DO NOT READ)
              Your own credit card .......................................................... 1
              Parent’s credit card ............................................................. 2
              By invoice sent to you or your parents ............................... 3
              Cash, when delivered .......................................................... 4
              Other (SPECIFY)______________________.................... 5

MONEY
Now let’s change topics and talk about money. We are interested in knowing where
people in your age group get their spending money. Your answers are all confidential.
Do you ….(READ LIST, CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)
9a) Get a regular allowance?
               Yes ...................................................................................... 1 ....
               No........................................................................................ 2.....

10b) How much do you get per week for allowance?
            $_____ . ____ per week, or
            Other (SPECIFY)_________________________
            Don’t know ..................................................................... 999

10c) you get gift money on your last birthday?
              Yes ...................................................................................... 1 ....
              No........................................................................................ 2 ....

10d) roughly how much in total did you get on your last birthday?
              $ ___ . ___

10e) Do you get gift money on a major holiday, like Christmas or Chanukah?
                                                                                                                         60


                     Yes ...................................................................................... 1 ....
                     No........................................................................................ 2 ....

10f) roughly how much in total did you get on the last holiday?
$___ . ___

10g) Do you have a job where you get paid?
             Yes ...................................................................................... 1 ....
             No........................................................................................ 2 ....

11 What are the three items you buy most often with your money? (DO NOT READ)
     (RECORD UP TO 3)
              BOOKS/MAGAZINES ...................................................... 1
              CLOTHES/SHOES............................................................. 2
              COMPUTER SOF1WARE................................................. 3
              FOOD/DRINKS:................................................................. 4
              CANDY .............................................................................. 5
              GUM ................................................................................... 6
              ICE CREAM....................................................................... 7
              POP ..................................................................................... 8
              POPSICLES/MR. FREEZE................................................ 9
              POTATO CHIPS .............................................................. 10
              GAMES/TOYS — NOT ELECTRONIC......................... 11
              GIFTS/PRESENTS (FOR FAMILY MEMBERS
              , FRIENDS, ETC.) ............................................................ 12
              HAIR COLOURING ........................................................ 13
              HAIR ACCESSORIES (E.G., HAIR CLIPS,
              BARRETTES) .................................................................. 14
              KNAPSACKS................................................................... 15
              TRADING CARDS (SPORTS, POKEMON, ETC.)........ 16
              MAKEUP.......................................................................... 17
              MOVIES (ATA THEATRE) ............................................ 18
              MOVIES (RENTED ON VIDEO).................................... 19
              MUSIC (CDS, TAPES, ETC.).......................................... 20
              SCHOOL ACTIVITIES/SUPPLIES ................................ 21
              SCRATCH & WIN OR LOTTERY TICKETS................ 22
              SPORTS EQUIPMENT.................................................... 23
              TICKETS TO CONCERTS.............................................. 24
              TICKETS TO SPORTING EVENTS............................... 25
              VIDEO GAMES ............................................................... 26
              WAR HAMMERS ............................................................ 27
              YO-YOS ........................................................................... 28
              JEWELLERV ................................................................... 29
              OTHER (SPECIFY) _________________________....... 30
              DK.......................................................................................V

12 If you could buy anything right now, what would it be? (DO NOT READ) (RECORD
                                                                                                        61


AS MANY AS APPLY)

          ACCESSORIES / JEWELLERY........................................ 1
          BICYCLE ........................................................................... 2
          BOOKS/MAGAZINES ...................................................... 3
          CD PLAYER / DISCMAN................................................. 4
          CDs ..................................................................................... 5
          CLOTHES/SHOES............................................................. 6
          COMPUTER....................................................................... 7
          CONCERTTICKETS ......................................................... 8
          DVD PLAYER ................................................................... 9
          HOUSE ............................................................................. 10
          MAKEUP.......................................................................... 12
          PET ................................................................................... 13
          ROLLER BLADES / ROLLER SKATES........................ 14
          SKATEBOARD................................................................ 15
          SNOWBOARD................................................................. 16
          TOYS ................................................................................ 17
          TRADING CARDS (SPORTS, POKEMON, ETC.)........ 18
          TV ..................................................................................... 19
          VCR .................................................................................. 20
          VIDEO GAME EQUIPMENT (NINTENDO,
          PLAYSTATION, ETC) .................................................... 21
          OTHER (SPECIFY) _______________________........... 22
          DK..................................................................................... 99
                                                                                                       62



13   What is your favourite thing to do in your spare time? (DO NOT READ)
     (RECORD AS MANY AS APPLY)
             ART I DRAWING / CRAFTS............................................ 1
             DANCING .......................................................................... 2
             GO SHOPPING I TO THE MALL .................................... 3
             LISTEN TO MUSIC........................................................... 4
             PLAY BASEBALL ............................................................ 5
             PLAY BASKETBALL ....................................................... 6
             PLAV HOCKEY ................................................................ 7
             PLAY ON THE COMPUTER............................................ 8
             PLAY OUTSIDE ................................................................ 9
             PLAY SOCCER................................................................ 10
             PLAY TENNIS................................................................. 11
             PLAY VIDEO GAMES.................................................... 12
             PLAY WITH FRIENDS ................................................... 13
             READ/HEARASTORY.................................................... 14
             RIDEA BIKE .................................................................... 15
             SKATEBOARDING / ROLLERBLADING .................... 16
             SWIM................................................................................ 17
             BATTLE/TRADE CARDS .............................................. 18
             WATCHAMOVIENIDEO ............................................... 19
             WATCH TV...................................................................... 20
             OTHER (SPECIFY) ______________________............. 21
                                                                                                       63


SOCIAL ISSUES
Now for something a little more personal.
14    What worries or concerns you at school? (DO NOT READ LIST) (PROBE)
      Anything else?
             BAD GRADES/MARKS/TESTS....................................... 1
             BULLYING/GETTING BEATEN UP/PICKED ON ........ 2
             PROBLEMS WITH/AFRAID OF TEACHERS ................ 3
             SPECIFIC SCHOOL SUBJECT......................................... 4
             HOMEWORK/SCHOOL WORK NOT BEING DONE......
             CORRECTLY/WELL/ON TIME....................................... 5
             KIDS/FRIENDS FIGHTING/ARGUING .......................... 6
             FRIENDS — WHO THEY ARE/AMOUNT ..................... 7
             KIDS BOTHERING ME .................................................... 8
             OTHER (SPECIFY) ______________________............... 9
             NOTHING ........................................................................ 10

15    What is most important to you in your life? (DO NOT READ) (RECORD AS
      MANY AS APPLY)
              BEING A SUCCESS — ACHIEVING MV GOALS ........ 1
              FAMILY/PARENTS .......................................................... 2
              FRIENDS............................................................................ 3
              GETTING GOOD GRADES.............................................. 4
              GETTING GOOD JOB....................................................... 5
              GOD I RELIGION.............................................................. 6
              GOOD HEALTH ................................................................ 7
              HAPPINESS ....................................................................... 8
              HOLIDAYS ........................................................................ 9
              MONEY/TO BE RICH..................................................... 10
              MY PET ............................................................................ 11
              OPPOSITE SEX - ROMANCE / LOVE .......................... 12
              TO HAVE FUN ................................................................ 13
              OTHER (SPECIFY) ___________________................... 14

BETTING
Now for a different topic. (SHOW LETTER TO PARENTS)
16a) Which of the following do you consider to be gambling? (READ LIST)
                                                                                                                     64


                   Buying lottery tickets such as 6/49 ..................................... 1
                   Playing bingo at a bingo hall .............................................. 2
                   Buying raffle tickets............................................................ 3
                   Buying scratch tickets ......................................................... 4
                   Buying pull tabs or Nevada tickets ..................................... 5
                   Playing cards or board games for money............................ 6
                   Playing slot machines ......................................................... 7
                   Betting on Pro-Line............................................................. 8
                   Betting on a sports event or sports game (other
                   than Pro-Line) ..................................................................... 9
                   Betting on the outcome of a game you are
                   playing such as golf, pool, checkers, or bowling.............. 10
                   Betting on the Internet ...................................................... 11

16b) I am going to read you a few things about betting. For each
     statement, I want you to tell me if you agree strongly, agree somewhat, neither
     agree nor disagree, disagree somewhat or disagree strongly. (ROTATE FROM
     AND READ)
                                                     Agree         Agree        Neither agree        Disagree   Disagree
                                                    strongly     somewhat        or disagree        somewhat    strongly
It’s fun to bet with my friends at school               5            4                3                 2           1
It is cool to bet with friends                          5            4                3                 2           1
Making money or winning things from                     5           4                 3                 2           1
bets is cool


17.    Have you ever seen students betting at your school?
              YES ..................................................................................... 1
              NO....................................................................................... 2
              NOT SURE ......................................................................... 3

18.    (DO NOT READ) RECORD DWELLING TYPE:
             House (detached, semi) ...................................................... 1
             Apartment ........................................................................... 2
             Townhouse.......................................................................... 3
             Duplex/triplex ..................................................................... 4
                                                                                                        65




           TWEENS’ SELF-COMPLETION QUESTIONNAIR
S1   Which of the following activities is your favourite way of spending your free
     time? CIRCLE ONE ONLY
            Chatting in chat rooms on the Internet................................ 1
            Dancing ............................................................................... 2
            Doing homework ................................................................ 3
            Going shopping................................................................... 4
            Hanging out with friends — at home.................................. 5
            Hanging out with friends — at the mall.............................. 6
            In-line skating (rollerblading) ............................................. 7
            Instant messaging like ICQ / MSN ..................................... 8
            Listening to music............................................................... 9
            Listening to the radio ........................................................ 10
            Playing music.................................................................... 11
            Playing sports.................................................................... 12
            Playing video games ......................................................... 13
            Reading books................................................................... 14
            Reading magazines or e-zines........................................... 15
            Sending or receiving e-mail .............................................. 16
            Skateboarding ................................................................... 17
            Surfing the Internet ........................................................... 18
            Shopping on-line............................................................... 19
            Talking on the phone ........................................................ 20
            Watching TV..................................................................... 21
            Going to the movies .......................................................... 22
            Going to a concert............................................................. 23
            Watching videos at home or at a friend’s ......................... 24
            Downloading music off the Internet (e.g., MP3) .............. 25
            Betting............................................................................... 26
            Any other activity? (WRITE IN)____________ .............. 27

S2   Which of the words below describes you? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY
                                                                                                                   66


                    Smart ................................................................................... 1
                    Athletic................................................................................ 2
                    Cool..................................................................................... 3
                    A trouble maker .................................................................. 4
                    Shy ...................................................................................... 5
                    Good looking ...................................................................... 6
                    Lonely ................................................................................. 7
                    Friendly ............................................................................... 8
                    Popular ................................................................................ 9
                    A leader............................................................................. 10
                    Happy................................................................................ 11
                    Competitive....................................................................... 12
                    Funny ................................................................................ 13
                    Honest ............................................................................... 14
                    Religious ........................................................................... 15
                    Rebellious ......................................................................... 16
                    Nice ................................................................................... 17
                    My own boss ..................................................................... 18
                    Self-confident.................................................................... 19
                    Fat ..................................................................................... 20
                    Too thin............................................................................. 21
                    Rich ................................................................................... 22
                    Poor ................................................................................... 23
                    Geeky ................................................................................ 24
                    Weird................................................................................. 25
                    Unselfish ........................................................................... 26
                    Lucky ................................................................................ 27
                    Risk taker .......................................................................... 28

Now on to another topic.
S3 a) Has anyone ever asked you to bet on something?
             YES ..................................................................................... 1
             NO....................................................................................... 2.....
             NOT SURE ......................................................................... 3 ....

S3 b) Was it for... (READ)?
              Money ................................................................................. 1
              Something else? .................................................................. 2

S3 c) Where do you usually do the betting? (CIRCLE AS MANY AS APPLY)
                                                                                                                67


                   At home............................................................................... 1
                   Friend’s house..................................................................... 2
                   School ................................................................................. 3
                   Arcade ................................................................................. 4
                   Convenience stores ............................................................. 5
                   Other (SPECIFY)__________________............................ 6
                   DON’T KNOW................................................................... 7
                   NEVER BET....................................................................... 0.....

S3 d) Can you recall how old you were when you first tried betting for money?
                               _______YEARS OLD

S3 e) When you make a bet or gamble, do you mainly use...?
            Money you get as your allowance ..................................... .1
            Gift money .......................................................................... 2
            Money you have earned from a job .................................... 3
            Other (SPECIFY)___________________________.......... 4

S3 f) Last month, how much money did you win? (NO CENTS, ROUND UP TO
      THE NEAREST DOLLAR)
             Nothing ............................................................................... 0
             Or, fill in amount $ —...........................................................
             Don’t know ..................................................................... 999

S4     Have you done any of the following in the past year?(CIRCLE THE NUMBER TO
       SHOW YES OR NO FOR EACH)
                                                                             Yes           No
Bought lottery tickets such as 6/49                                            1            2
Played bingo at a bingo hall                                                   1            2

Bought raffle tickets                                                          1            2

Bought scratch tickets                                                         1            2

Bought pull tabs or Nevada tickets                                             1            2

Played cards or board games for money with your family                         1            2

Played cards or board games for money with friends                             1            2

Played slot machines                                                           1            2

Bet on Pro-Line                                                                1            2

Bet on a sports event or sports game (other than Pro-Line)                     1            2

Bet on the outcome of a game you are playing such as golf,                     1            2

pool, checkers, or bowling
Placed bets on betting websites                                                1            2


THANK YOU FOR HELPING US. PLEASE GIVE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE BACK
                      68



TO THE INTERVIEWER.
                                                                                                                 69



           PARENTS’ SELF-COMPLETION QUESTIONNAIRE

Thank you for agreeing to let us interview your child. This questionnaire collects some
basic information about your household that will help us group your child’s answers with
those in similar households. The information you give us will be completely confidential.
If you have any questions, please ask our interviewer or call the Field Director, Chris
Menagh, at (416) 250-8500 ext. 260.
FOR EACH QUESTION, CIRCLE THE NUMBER NEXT TO YOUR ANSWER.
P1.    Are you the child’s...?
              Mother................................................................................. 1
              Stepmother .......................................................................... 2
              Father .................................................................................. 3
              Stepfather ............................................................................ 4
              Partner of parent.................................................................. 5
              Other legal guardian (SPECIFY) ........................................ 6


P2     Including yourself, how many people, in total, live in your household?
      (WRITE IN NUMBER)

                                        __________________

P3     How concerned are you about how your child uses the Internet?
             Very concerned ................................................................... 1
             Somewhat concerned .......................................................... 2
             Not very concerned ............................................................. 3
             Not at all concerned ............................................................ 4

P4      Compared to one year ago, do you feel your child is spending more time, the
        same amount or less time on the Internet?
              More.................................................................................... 1
              Same amount....................................................................... 2
              Less ..................................................................................... 3
              Never done .......................................................................... 0


P5     Does your child have access to the Internet at home?
             Yes ...................................................................................... 1
             No........................................................................................ 2 ....

P6     For this child, do you set limits on time spent on internet
               Yes ...................................................................................... 1
               No........................................................................................ 2

P7     How would you react if you found out your child was betting (gambling) at
school?
                                                                                                       70


___________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Now few something different.
P8    Have you done any of the following in the past year?
             Bought lottery tickets such as 6/49 ..................................... 1
             Played bingo at a bingo hall................................................ 2
             Bought raffle tickets............................................................ 3
             Bought scratch tickets ......................................................... 4
             Bought pull tabs or Nevada tickets ..................................... 5
             Played cards or board games for money with your family . 6
             Played cards or board games for money with friends......... 7
             Played slot machines........................................................... 8
             Bet on Pro-Line................................................................... 9
             Bet on a sports event or sports game (other
              than Pro-Line): ................................................................. 10
             Bet on the outcome of a game you are
             playing such as golf, pool, checkers, or bowling.............. 11
             Placed bets on betting websites......................................... 12

P9     Which of the following do you consider to be betting or gambling?
             Buying lottery tickets such as 6/49 ..................................... 1
             Playing bingo at a bingo hall .............................................. 2
             Buying raffle tickets............................................................ 3
             Buying scratch tickets ......................................................... 4
             Buying pull tabs or Nevada tickets ..................................... 5
             Playing cards or board games for money............................ 6
             Playing slot machines ......................................................... 7
             Betting on Pro-Line............................................................. 8
             Betting on a sports event or sports game (other
             than Pro-Line) ..................................................................... 9
             Betting on the outcome of a game you are
             playing such as golf, pool, checkers, or bowling.............. 10
             Betting on the Internet ...................................................... 11

And now here are a few questions that will help us group your answers with those of
others who are participating in this survey.

P10    How fearful are you of losing your job? Are you...
             Not at all fearful .................................................................. 1
             Not very fearful................................................................... 2
             Somewhat fearful ................................................................ 3
             Very fearful......................................................................... 4

P11    What was the highest level of formal education that you completed?
                                                                                                               71

                   Elementary/public school.................................................... 1
                   Partial high school............................................................... 2
                   Graduated high school ........................................................ 3
                   Partial community college or technical school .................. 4.
                   Graduated community college or technical school ............. 5
                   Partial university ................................................................. 6
                   Graduated university........................................................... 7

P12      What is your marital status?
                Married/co-habiting ............................................................ 1
                single ................................................................................... 2
                widowed/divorced/separated............................................... 3

P13a) Finally, we might want to be able to call you or your child back at some point
      over the next few months to ask a few more questions. Would that be OK?
              YES ..................................................................................... 1
              NO....................................................................................... 2

P13b) Do you have an email address that we could use to reach you? This would be for
marketing research purposes only. We w Id not be trying to sell you anything and we
would not give away or sell your email dress to anyone. Would you be willing to let us
contact you by email?
              Do not have email ............................................................... 1
              Have email but refuse ......................................................... 2
              Agree................................................................................... 3

What is the email address at which you’d like us to contact you? Please include both your
username as well as your domain, for example: smithj@aol.com:
______________________________
Thank you for your help/please return this questionnaire to the interviewer.
                                                          72



                       Appendix B

    Table B1: Gender by personal characteristics
     Characteristics             Gender           Total
                             Male     Female
          1
  Friendly                   79.0%        89.1%   84.1%
  Nice 2                      71.5         87.6    79.5
  Happy 3                     74.0         85.1    79.5
  Smart                       71.0         72.3    71.5
  Funny                       67.5         71.3    69.4
  Honest                      65.0         72.3    68.6
  Cool4                       65.0         50.0    57.5
  Lucky                       55.5         56.7    56.1
  Athletic 5                  62.5         47.0    54.7
  Self-confident              48.8         53.5    51.2
  Popular 6                   52.5         38.1    45.4
  Competitive7                51.0         39.1    45.2
  Good looking                48.5         41.1    44.6
  Risk taker 8                44.0         34.2    39.1
  Unselfish                   37.5         40.1    38.8
  Shy 9                       31.5         44.6    37.9
  My own boss                 36.5         32.7    34.5
  A leader                    31.0         27.7    29.4
  Religious                   23.9         25.2    24.4
  A trouble maker             22.4         15.3    18.7
  Rebellious                  14.5         10.4    12.3
  Weird 10                     6.5         16.3    11.6
  Fat                          7.5         11.4     9.7
  Rich                        10.5          7.9     9.3
  Too thin                    11.0          6.4     8.7
  Lonely                       6.5          6.4     6.3
  Poor                         7.5          5.4     6.5
  Geeky                        2.0          1.5     1.7
  N                           200          202     402
1 X2=7.672, df=1, p<0.01
2 X2=16.091, df=1, p<0.001
3 X2=7.693, df=1, p<0.01
4 X2=9.251, df=1, p<0.01
5 X2=9.708, df=1, p<0.001
6 X2=8.389, df=1, p<0.01
7 X2=5.741, df-1, p<0.05
8 X2=4.090, df=1, p<0.05
9 X2=7.265, df=1, p<0.01
10 X2=9.596, df=1, p<0.01
                                                              73


          Table B2: Age by personal characteristics
  Characteristics                Age                  Total
                       9-10    11-12      13-14
 Friendly              80.3%   85.4%      86.5%       84.1%
 Happy                  80.3    77.2       81.3        79.5
 Nice                   76.5    81.6       80.6        79.5
 Smart                  72.9    74.5       67.2        71.5
 Funny                  67.4    71.3       69.4        69.4
 Honest                 63.6    69.9       72.4        68.6
 Cool                   53.4    64.0       55.2        57.5
 Lucky                  61.7    58.1       48.5        56.1
 Athletic               47.0    58.1       59.0        54.7
 Self-confident 1       42.4    57.4       53.4        51.2
 Popular                37.9    50.7       47.0        45.4
 Competitive            38.6    47.4       49.6        45.2
 Good looking           40.2    48.5       44.8        44.6
 Risk taker             34.6    40.1       42.9        39.1
 Unselfish              33.3    40.4       42.9        38.8
 Shy                    43.2    37.5       33.1        37.9
 My own boss 2          23.5    40.9       39.1        34.5
 A leader 3             21.1    32.1       35.1        29.4
 Religious              31.1    21.3       21.1        24.4
 A trouble maker        18.8    18.4       18.8        18.7
 Rebellious              7.6    11.8       17.3        12.3
 Weird 4                 4.5    11.8       18.0        11.6
 Fat                     5.3    10.3       13.4         9.7
 Rich                    9.1    12.5        6.0         9.3
 Too thin               12.9     5.9        7.5         8.7
 Poor                    7.6     3.7        8.2         6.3
 Lonely                  5.3     6.6        6.8         6.5
 Geeky                   1.5     1.5        2.3         1.7
    N                   132     136        134         402
1 X2=6.382, df=2, p<0.05
2 X2=10.784, df=2, p<0.01
3 X2=7.022, df=2, p<0.05
4 X2=11.906, df=1, p<0.01
                                                                      74


          Table B3: Gender by things most important in life
Things that are important in your life       Gender           Total
                                         Male     Female
Family/parents 1                         68.2%        77.8%   73.2%
Friends 2                                 28.3         37.9    33.1
Being a success                           19.2         23.2    21.1
Getting good grades 3                     13.1         23.2    18.4
Good health                               13.6         16.7    15.3
Happiness                                 12.1         16.3    14.2
Have fun                                  14.1         13.8    14.0
My pet                                    12.6         13.8    13.1
Money/to be rich                          10.6          5.9     8.3
Getting a good job                         7.1          8.9     8.0
God/religion                              4.5           4.9     4.9
Holidays                                  5.1           3.9     4.3
Sex-romance/love                           3.0          5.4     4.3
Miscellaneous                             3.0           2.0     2.6
Miscellaneous sports                      3.0           1.5     2.2
Good education                            1.0           2.5     1.8
Miscellaneous hobbies                     1.0           2.5     1.7
Play games                                 1.5          1.0     1.3
Miscellaneous toys                         1.5          0.5     0.9
Computer internet                         1.5            0     0.8
House/nice house                          0.5           0.5     0.5
N                                         198          203     401
1 X2=4.744, df=1, p<0.05
2 X2=4.209, df=1, p<0.05
3 X2=6.760, df=1, p<0.01
                                                                           75


                Table B4: Age by things most important in life
  Things that are important in your life           Age             Total
                                           9-10    11-12   13-14
 Family/parents                            78.8%   74.1%   66.4%   73.2%
 Friends                                    32.3    32.4    34.6    33.1
 Being a success                            15.2    23.7    24.1    21.1
 Getting good grades                        16.7    17.8    20.3    18.4
 Good health                                18.2    11.0    16.5    15.3
 Happiness                                  18.0    14.8    10.4    14.2
 Have fun                                   13.6    14.8    12.8    14.0
 My pet                                     15.0    14.1     9.8    13.1
 Money/to be rich                            4.5    11.1     9.7     8.3
 Getting a good job 1                        4.5     7.4    12.7     8.0
 God/religion                               6.8      2.2     6.0     4.9
 Holidays                                    4.5     6.7     2.2     4.3
 Sex-romance/love                            1.5     5.2     6.0     4.3
 Miscellaneous                              3.0      0.7     3.8     2.6
 Miscellaneous sports                       0.8      2.2     3.7     2.2
 Good education                             2.3      1.5     1.5     1.8
 Miscellaneous hobbies                      1.5      1.5     2.3     1.7
 Play games                                  1.5     1.5     0.8     1.3
 Miscellaneous toys                          0.8     1.5     0.7     0.9
 Computer internet                          0.8      1.5      0      0.8
 House/nice house                           0.8      0.7      0      0.5
 N                                          132     135     134     401
1 X2=6.049, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                  76


         Table B5: Gender by worries/concerns at school
Worries/concerns                         Gender           Total
                                     Male      Female
Bad grades                          44.5%       47.8%     46.1%
Nothing                              24.5        23.2      23.9
Homework not being done on           16.0        17.2      16.7
time/well
Specific school subject             12.0        9.9       11.1
Bullying                            11.5        9.9       10.7
Problems with teachers               9.5        8.4        8.8
Kids bothering me                    7.5        7.9        7.6
Friends—who they are/amount          5.5        8.9        7.2
Kids/friends fighting/arguing        5.0        7.9        6.5
Getting a detention                  1.0        1.0        1.0
Bombs/guns in school                 0.5        1.0        0.7
Not having the right clothes          0         1.0        0.5
Kids who get me in trouble           0.5         0         0.3
Other                                2.5        2.5        2.7
N                                   200         203       403
                                                                          77


                 Table B6: Age by worries/concerns at school
Worries/concerns                                  Age             Total
                                        9-10     11-12    13-14
Bad grades 1                           42.5%     36.8%    59.0%   46.1%
Nothing 2                               24.8      29.9     16.5    23.9
Homework not being done on time/well    16.5      17.6     15.8    16.7
Specific school subject                 10.5       8.8     14.3    11.1
Bullying 3                              16.5       7.4      7.5    10.7
Problems with teachers                   6.7       8.1     11.9     8.8
Kids bothering me                        8.3      10.3      4.5     7.6
Friends—who they are/amount              6.0       5.8      9.8     7.2
Kids/friends fighting/arguing            6.7       2.9      9.8     6.5
Getting a detention                      0.8       1.5      0.8     1.0
Bombs/guns in school                     0.8       0.7      0.7     0.7
Not having the right clothes              0         0       1.5     0.5
Kids who get me in trouble               0.8        0        0      0.3
Other                                    3.8       1.5      2.2     2.7
N                                       133       136      134     403
1 X2=14.368, df=2, p<0.001
2 X2=6.771, df=2, p<0.05
3 X2=7.890, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                     78


  Table B7: Gender by favourite ways of spending free time
Favourite ways of spending free time            Gender       Total
                                            Male    Female
Playing sports 1                           24.0%     11.4%   17.5%
Hanging out with friends-at home            16.0      17.9    17.1
Playing video games 2                       19.0       2.0    10.5
Watching TV 3                               12.0       5.4     8.9
Going shopping 4                             1.0      10.9     6.0
Listening to music                           6.0       5.4     5.7
Hanging out with friends-at the mall 5       2.5       7.9     5.1
Reading books                                3.5       5.9     4.7
Dancing 6                                    1.0       7.4     4.2
Skateboarding 7                              7.5       0.5     4.0
Going to the movies                          2.0       5.4     3.8
Chatting in chat rooms on internet           4.0       3.0     3.5
In-line skating                              2.5       4.5     3.6
Talking on the phone                         2.0       4.5     3.2
Instant messaging                            1.5       4.0     2.7
Playing music                                1.5       2.0     1.8
Watching videos at home or at a friend’s     2.5       1.0     1.8
Downloading music off the internet           1.5       1.0     1.2
Doing homework                               1.0       1.5     1.3
Surfing the internet                         1.5       1.0     1.2
Listening to radio                           1.0       0.5     0.8
Sending or receiving e-mail                   0        1.5     0.8
Going to a concert                            0        1.0     0.5
Reading magazines or e-zines                 0.5        0      0.3
Betting                                       0        0.5     0.3
Shopping on-line                              0         0       0
Other                                        3.0       5.4     4.3
N                                           200        202    402
1 X2=10.996, df=1, p<0.001
2 X2=31.115. df=1, p<0.001
3 X2=5.432, df=1, p<0.05
4 X2=17.514, df=1, p<0.001
5 X2=17.514, df=1, p<0.001
6 X2=5.965, df=1, p<0.05
7 X2=10.246, df=1, p<0.001
8 X2=12.904, df=1, p<0.001
                                                                            79


            Table B8: Age by favourite ways of spending free time
 Favourite ways of spending free time               Age             Total
                                             9-10   11-12   13-14
 Playing sports                             21.2%   18.4%   12.8%   17.5%
 Hanging out with friends-at home            22.0    12.5    16.5    17.1
 Playing video games                         11.4    11.8     8.2    10.5
 Watching TV 1                               13.6     9.6     3.0     8.9
 Going shopping                               5.3     8.8     3.7     6.0
 Listening to music                           2.3     8.1     6.7     5.7
 Hanging out with friends-at the mall         3.0     5.1     7.5     5.1
 Reading books                                3.8     5.8     4.5     4.7
 Dancing                                      4.5     4.4     3.8     4.2
 Skateboarding                                3.8     3.7     4.5     4.0
 Going to the movies                          4.5     2.9     3.8     3.8
 In-line skating                              4.5     3.7     2.3     3.5
 Chatting in chat rooms on internet           0.8     3.7     6.0     3.6
 Talking on the phone                         2.3     3.7     3.7     3.2
 Instant messaging                            0.8     2.9     4.5     2.7
 Watching videos at home or at a friend’s     2.3    2.2      0.8     1.8
 Playing music                                3.0     2.2      0      1.8
 Doing homework                               0.8     2.2     0.8     1.2
 Surfing the internet                         1.5     0.7     1.5     1.3
 Downloading music off the internet           1.5     1.5     0.8     1.2
 Listening to radio                           0.8     0.7     0.8     0.8
 Sending or receiving e-mail                   0      1.5     0.8     0.8
 Going to a concert                           0.8     0.7      0      0.5
 Reading magazines or e-zines                 0.8      0       0      0.3
 Betting                                      0.8      0       0      0.3
 Shopping on-line                              0       0       0       0
 Other                                        0.8     6.6     5.3     4.3
 N                                           132     136     134     402
1 X2=9.573, df=2, p<0.01
                                                                 80


Table B9: Gender by items bought most often with tween’s money
  Items bought most often                Gender        Total
  with tween’s money                Male      Female
  Candy                            44.5%      41.4%    43.1%
  Clothes/shoes 1                   19.0        53.2    36.2
  Games/toys—not electronic 2       26.5        17.2    21.8
  Food/drinks                       21.0        14.7    17.7
  Music 3                           12.5        22.2    17.2
  Books/magazines                   15.5        17.2    16.4
  Video games 4                     26.0         2.0    14.0
  Pop                               14.5        10.3    12.3
  Potato chips                      12.0        11.8    12.0
  Moves at theatre                  11.0         9.4    10.1
  Ice cream                         8.0          9.9     8.9
  Gum                               7.5          9.9     8.7
  Makeup 5                            0         15.8     8.0
  Hair accessories 6                  0         14.3     7.3
  Gifts                              4.5         8.9     6.7
  Trading cards 7                   11.0         1.0     5.9
  Movies rentals/video 8             9.0         2.0     5.5
  Jewellery 9                        0.5        10.3     5.4
  Popsicles                         6.0          3.9     5.0
  School activities/supplies         3.0         5.4     4.3
  Sports equipment 10                6.0         1.5     3.7
  Computer software 11               3.0          0      1.5
  Hair colouring                      0         1.5     0.8
  Tickets to concerts               0.5          0.5     0.4
  Yo-yos                            0.5          0.5     0.5
  Scratch/win or lottery tickets      0          0.5     0.3
  Knapsacks                           0           0       0
  Tickets to sporting events          0           0       0
  War hammers                         0           0       0
  Other                             6.5          5.9     6.2
  N                                 200         203     403
 1 X2=51.009, df=1, p<0.001
 2 X2=5.060, df=1, p<0.05
 3 X2=6.560, df=1, p<0.01
 4 X2=48.619, df=1, p<0.001
 5 X2=34.246, df=1, p<0.001
 6 X2=30.787, df=1, p<0.001
 7 X2=18.041, df=1, p<0.001
 8 X2=9.646, df=1, p<0.01
 9 X2=18.919, df=1, p<0.001
 10 X2=5.749, df=1, p<0.5
 11 X2=6.182, df=1, p<0.05
                                                                   81


   Table B10: Age by items bought most often with tween’s money
 Items bought most often                     Age           Total
 with tween’s money                9-10   11-12    13-14
 Candy 1                          50.4%   48.5%    30.1%   43.1%
 Clothes/shoes 2                   19.5    35.3     53.4    36.2
 Games/toys—not electronic 3       32.3    27.2      6.0    21.8
 Food/drinks                       13.5    16.1     23.3    17.7
 Music                             13.4    16.2     21.8    17.2
 Books/magazines                   13.4    18.4     17.3    16.4
 Video games                       11.3    16.8     14.2    14.0
 Pop                               15.0    10.9     11.2    12.3
 Potato chips                       9.7    13.9     12.8    12.0
 Moves at theatre 4                 3.7     9.6     17.2    10.1
 Ice cream                         11.3     8.8      6.7    8.9
 Gum 5                             15.0     5.1      6.0    8.7
 Makeup 6                           3.8     5.1     15.0    8.0
 Hair accessories                   4.5     6.6     10.5    7.3
 Gifts                              6.0     6.6      7.5     6.7
 Trading cards                      6.8     7.4      3.7    5.9
 Movies rentals/video               3.0     8.1      5.3    5.5
 Jewellery                          3.8     5.8      6.8    5.4
 Popsicles                          7.5     2.9      4.5    5.0
 School activities/supplies         6.0     3.7      3.0    4.3
 Sports equipment 7                 2.3     1.5      7.5    3.7
 Computer software                  0.8    2.2       1.5    1.5
 Hair colouring 8                    0       0       2.3    0.8
 Tickets to concerts                 0       0       1.5    0.4
 Yo-yos                             0.8     0.7       0     0.5
 Scratch/win or lottery tickets      0       0       0.8    0.3
 Knapsacks                           0       0        0       0
 Tickets to sporting events          0       0        0       0
 War hammers                         0       0        0       0
 Other 9                            9.0     1.5      8.2    6.2
 N                                 133     136      134     403
1 X2=13.711, df=2, p<0.01
2 X2=33.067, df=2, p<0.001
3 X2=30.643, df=2, p<0.001
4 X2=13.336, df=2, p<0.001
5 X2=10.087, df=2, p<0.01
6 X2=13.847, df=2, p<0.001
7 X2=7.954, df=2, p<0.05
8 X2=6.113, df=2, p<0.05
9 X2=7.978, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                            82


 Table B11: Gender by items that would like to buy right now
 Items that would like to buy            Gender          Total
 right now                          Male      Female
 Clothes/shoes 1                   11.5%       43.6%     27.7%
 CDs 2                              9.5         21.7      15.5
 Video game equipment 3             25.0         5.9      15.5
 Computer 4                         12.0         4.9       8.4
 Toys                               8.0          8.4       8.2
 CD player/discman 5                5.0         10.8       8.0
 Bicycle 6                          10.5         4.9       7.7
 Pet 7                              3.5         11.8       7.7
 TV                                 6.5          6.9       6.7
 Books/magazines 8                  2.0         10.3       6.3
 Accessories/jewellery 9            1.5          7.4       4.3
 House                              4.0          4.9       4.3
 Makeup 10                           0           8.9       4.4
 Car                                6.0          3.0       4.5
 DVD player                         5.5          2.5       4.0
 Roller blades                      3.0          4.9       4.0
 Skateboard 11                      6.0          2.0       4.1
 Concert tickets                    2.0         4.9        3.5
 Miscellaneous other vehicles 12    5.0          1.5       3.2
 VCR                                2.5          3.4       3.1
 Snowboard 13                       5.0           0        2.5
 Trading cards 14                   4.5          0.5       2.5
 Games/gameboy                      2.5          1.0       1.8
 A horse                            0.5          2.5       1.5
 Cell phone                         1.0         2.0        1.5
 Candy/ice cream                    1.0          1.0       1.0
 Other sport equipment              1.5           0       0.8
 Furniture/bed                       0           1.0       0.5
 Trip/cruise                        1.0           0        0.4
 Stereo equipment                   0.5          0.5       0.5
 Go-kart                            1.0           0        0.4
 pool                                0           1.0       0.5
 Cable TV                           0.5          0.5       0.5
 Video camera                       0.5          0.5       0.5
 Miscellaneous store mentions       0.5           0        0.3
 Beanie babies                       0           0.5       0.3
 Other                              5.0          6.4       5.8
 N                                  200         203       403

1    X2=52.024, df=1, p<0.001            12       X2=4.004, df=1, p<0.05
2    X2=11.322, df=1, p<0.001            13       X2=10.408, df=1, p<0.01
3    X2=28.199, df=1, P<0.001            14       X2=6.686, df=1, p<0.01
4    X2=6.526, df=1, p<0.05
5    X2=4.696, df=1, p<0.05
6    X2=4.408, df=1, p<0.05
7    X2=9.828, df=1, p<0.01
8    X2=12.057, df=1, p<0.001
9    X2=8.189, df=1, p<0.01
10   X2=18.563, df-1, p<0.001
11   X2=4.291, df=1, p<0.05
                                                               83


     Table B12: Age by items would like to buy right now
Items that would like to buy           Age             Total
right now                       9-10   11-12   13-14
Clothes/shoes 1                17.3%   24.1%   41.8%   27.7%
CDs                             12.8    20.6    12.8    15.5
Video game equipment            14.3    16.2    15.7    15.5
Computer 2                       5.3    14.6     5.2     8.4
Toys 3                          12.8     7.4     4.5     8.2
CD player/discman                5.2    10.3     8.3     8.0
Bicycle                          9.8     7.3     6.0     7.7
Pet 4                           13.5     6.6     3.0     7.7
TV                               6.8     8.1     5.2     6.7
Books/magazines                  6.0     8.1     4.5     6.3
Accessories/jewellery            2.3     5.1    6.0     4.3
House                            6.7     2.9     3.7     4.3
Makeup                           2.2     3.7     7.5     4.4
Car                              2.3     3.7     7.5     4.5
DVD player                       1.5     4.4     6.0     4.0
Roller blades                    3.8     4.4     3.8     4.0
Skateboard                       3.0     4.4     4.5     4.1
Concert tickets                  3.0     3.7     3.7     3.5
VCR                              2.3     5.1     2.2     3.2
Miscellaneous other vehicles     2.3     3.7     3.7     3.1
Snowboard                        1.5     2.9     3.0     2.5
Trading cards                    3.8     2.2     1.5     2.5
Games/gameboy                    2.3     2.9      0      1.8
Cell phone                        0      2.9    1.5      1.5
A horse                          1.5     2.2     0.8     1.5
Candy/ice cream                  1.5     1.5      0      1.0
Other sport equipment            1.5      0     1.5     0.8
Furniture/bed                    1.5      0       0      0.5
Trip/cruise                       0      0.7     0.7     0.4
Stereo equipment                  0      0.7     0.8     0.5
Cable TV                          0      0.7     0.8     0.4
Video camera                     0.8     0.7      0      0.5
Go-kart                          1.5      0       0      0.5
Pool                             0.8     0.7      0      0.5
Beanie babies                    0.8      0       0      0.3
Miscellaneous store mentions      0       0      0.8     0.3
Other                            8.3     5.1     3.8     5.8
N                               133     136     134     403
1 X2=21359, df=2, p<0.001
2 X2=10.281, df=2, p<0.01
3 X2=6.313, df=2, p<0.05
4 X2=10.794, df=2, p<0.01
                                                                        84


              Table B13: Gender by use of Internet
      Use of Internet              Gender                Total
                              Male      Female
      At home                56.0%       61.1%           58.4%
      At school               61.0        65.5            63.1
      Somewhere else          26.5        26.6            27.6
      Never heard of          16.5        15.3            15.7
      Internet
      N                       200        203              403


                Table B14: Age by use of Internet
     Use of Internet                   Age                  Total
                              9-10    11-12      13-14
     At home                 52.6%    56.6%      65.7%     58.4%
     At school 1              47.4     68.6       73.7      63.1
     Somewhere else           22.4     25.0       32.8      27.6
     Never heard of           24.1     15.4        7.5      15.7
     Internet 2
     N                      133        136        134       403
    1 X2=22.363, df=2, p<0.001
    2 X2=13.775, df=2, p<0.01


Table B15: Gender by how they feel about time spent on Internet
     How they feel about             Gender                Total
    time spent on Internet      Male     Female
    More time on internet      44.0%      46.5%           45.3%
    About the same time         35.2       31.8            33.4
    Less time                   20.8       21.8            21.3
    N                           160        171             331
    X2=0.441, df=2, N.S.



 Table B16: Age by how they feel about time spent on Internet
   How they feel about                 Age                      Total
   time spent on Internet      9-10   11-12      13-14
   More time on internet      36.5%   45.0%      52.5%          45.3%
   About the same time         34.4    32.4       33.6           33.4
   Less time                   29.2    22.5       13.9           21.3
   N                            97     111        123            331
     X2=9.080, df=4, N.S.
                                                              85


    Table B17: Gender by activities while “surfing the Net”
 Activities while “surfing the           Gender       Total
 Net”                               Male     Female
 Look of information               75.0%      74.0%   74.6%
 Research school projects           66.5       73.4    70.0
 Just explore                       63.5       66.5    65.0
 Play online games by myself 1      66.7       55.8    61.3
 Send e-mail 2                      53.6       66.5    60.1
 Listen to music                    51.8       52.3    52.0
 Play online games with others 3    51.5       33.7    42.5
 Chat in chat rooms                 36.9       34.3    35.7
 Download music                     31.5       33.1    32.3
 Instant messaging                  26.9       34.9    31.1
 Download games 4                   42.5       16.3    29.3
 Enter contests                     23.8       25.0    24.5
 Download TV/video clips 5          19.2        9.3    14.2
 Burn CDs from music on the Net     13.1       12.7    12.8
 Download software 6                15.5        6.9    11.0
 Check out advertising              10.8        7.0     8.9
 Buy stuff                           1.2        3.5     2.3
 Check out betting sites             1.8        2.9     2.4
 Bet on websites                     1.8        1.7     1.8
 Other                                0         0.6     0.3
 N                                  102        239     341
1 X2=4.215, df=1, p<0.05
2 X2=5.918, df=1, p<0.05
3 X2=10.958, df=1, p<0.001
4 X2=28.209, df=1, p<0.001
5 X2=6.777, df=1, p<0.01
6 X2=6.277, df=1, p<0.05
                                                                            86


              Table B18: Age by activities while “surfing the Net
  Activities while “surfing the Net”             Age                Total
                                        9-10   11-12      13-14
  Look of information                  70.3%   75.7%      76.6%     74.6%
  Research school projects 1            58.4    70.7       78.9      70.0
  Just explore                          66.3    66.1       62.6      65.0
  Play online games by myself 2         72.3    60.9       52.0      61.3
  Send e-mail 3                         49.5    60.9       68.3      60.1
  Listen to music 4                     44.6    47.8       61.8      52.0
  Play online games with others 5       53.5    37.9       38.2      42.5
  Chat in chat rooms 6                  18.8    33.6       51.6      35.7
  Download music 7                      19.8    30.2       44.7      32.3
  Instant messaging 8                   15.8    27.8       47.2      31.1
  Download games                        21.8    31.0       33.9      29.3
  Enter contests                        20.8    26.1       26.0      24.5
  Download TV/video clips 9              5.0    15.7       20.3      14.2
  Burn CDs from music on the Net 10      5.9    14.7       17.1      12.8
  Download software                      7.9     8.7       16.3      11.0
  Check out advertising                  7.9     7.8       10.6       8.9
  Buy stuff                              3.0     0.9        3.3       2.3
  Check out betting sites                1.0     2.6        3.3       2.4
  Bet on websites                        3.0     0.9        1.6       1.8
  Other                                  1.0      0          0        0.3
  N                                     102     115        124       341
1 X2=11.080, df=2, p<0.01
2 X2=9.563, df=2, p<0.01
3 X2=8.204, df=2, p<0.05
4 X2=7.766, df=2, p<0.05
5 X2=6.877, df=2, p<0.05
6 X2=26.420, df=2, p<0.001
7 X2=16.111, df=2, p<0.001
8 X2=26.262, df=2, p<0.001
9 X2=11.105, df=2, p<0.01
10 X2=6.560, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                               87



                  Table B19: Gender by perception of gambling
 Gambling activities                           Gender                 All
                                        Male            Female   respondents
 Slot machines1                        79.5%             88.1%      83.9%
 Cards or board games for money         61.1              69.1       65.1
 Internet                               62.4              64.9       63.8
 Sport events (other then pro-line)2    57.1              68.9       63.0
 Pro-line                               53.4              59.3       56.3
 Outcome of games3                      47.9              58.8       53.4
 Lottery tickets                        41.6              45.4       43.5
 Scratch tickets                        41.1              43.3       42.1
 Bingo                                  37.4              42.3       39.9
 Pull tabs                              28.6              36.1       32.4
 Raffle tickets                         24.9              29.9       27.3
 N                                      190               194        384
1 X2=5.330, df=1, p<0.05
2 X2=5.680, df=1, p<0.05
3 X2=4.556, df=1, p<0.05
                                                                                        88


                     Table B20: Age by perception of gambling

 Gambling activities                                  Age                      All
                                            9-10     11-12      13-14     respondents
 Slot machines                             80.8%     84.0%      86.5%        83.9%
 Cards or board games for money             68.1      65.6       62.1         65.1
 Internet 1                                 52.5      69.7       68.2         63.8
 Sport events (other then pro-line)         55.8      67.4       65.2         63.0
 Pro-line 2                                 50.8      52.7       65.2         56.3
 Outcome of games                           53.8      50.4       56.4         53.4
 Lottery tickets                            47.5      42.0       41.4         43.5
 Scratch tickets                            40.8      43.2       42.1         42.1
 Bingo                                      41.7      37.4       40.6         39.9
 Pull tabs                                  31.7      29.0       36.4         32.4
 Raffle tickets                             28.3      24.4       29.3         27.3
 N                                          120       131        133          384
  1 X2=9.770, df=2, p<0.001
  2 X2=6.369, df=2, p<0.05

 Table B21: Gender by whether respondent has seen students betting in their
                                  school
           Seen Students                       Gender
           betting in school            Male        Female            Total
           Yes                         52.8%          55.6%           54.2%
           No                           47.2           44.4            45.8
           N                            193            189             382
             X2=.282, df=1, N.S.

Table B22: Age by whether respondent has seen students betting in their school
     Seen Students                               Age                          Total
     betting in school              9-10        11-12         13-14
     Yes                           52.0%        49.2%         60.9%           54.1%
     No                             48.0         50.8          39.1            45.9
     N                              125          128           128             381
     X2=3.859, df=2, N.S.

Table B23: Gender by whether responded has been asked to bet on something
          Asked to bet                         Gender
          something                     Male        Female            Total
          Yes                          41.2%          39.8%           40.5%
          No                            58.8           60.2            59.5
          N                             194            186             380
     X2=.083, df=1, N.S.
                                                                                         89


    Table B24: Age by whether responded has been asked to bet on something
       Asked to bet                                Age                           Total
       something                   9-10           11-12          13-14
       Yes                        36.2%           32.8%          52.4%           40.5%
       No                          63.8            67.2           47.6            59.5
       N                           130             125            126             381
X2=11.482, df=2, p<0.01

      Table B25: Gender by whether respondent asked to gamble for money
            Asked to gamble for                  Gender
            money                         Male        Female             Total
            Yes                          57.5%          56.8%            57.1%
            No                            42.5            43.2            42.9
            N                              80             74              154
       X2=.009, df=1, N.S.

        Table B26: Age by whether respondent asked to gamble for money
       Asked to gamble for                         Age                           Total
       money                      9-10            11-12          13-14
       Yes                        48.9             47.5           68.2           56.9%
       No                         51.1            52.5            31.8            42.9
       N                           47              40              66             153
X2=6.081, df=2, p<0.05

  Table B27: Gender by whether respondent asked to gamble for something else
            Asked to gamble for                  Gender
            something else                Male        Female             Total
            Yes                          48.8%          45.9%            47.4%
            No                            51.3           54.1             52.6
            N                              80             74              154
       X2=.121, df=1, N.S.

    Table B28: Age by whether respondent asked to gamble for something else
       Asked to gamble for                         Age                           Total
       something else              9-10           11-12          13-14
       Yes                        53.2%           62.5%          34.3%           47.4%
       No                          46.8            37.5           65.7            52.6
       N                            47              40             67             154
       X2=8.882, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                                      90


                   Table B29: Gender by betting location
     Betting location                    Gender
                                  Male        Female                  Total
     School                      48.8%          45.9%                 47.7%
     Friend’s home                30.0           30.7                  30.4
     Home                         34.6           24.3                  29.7
     Arcade                       7.4             1.4                   4.4
     Convenience store            6.3             1.4                  3.9
     Other                         3.8            2.7                   3.2
     N                             81             74                   155



                    Table B30: Age by betting location
Betting location                             Age                              Total
                            9-10            11-12            13-14
School                     36.2%            50.0%            54.5%            47.7%
Friend’s home               23.4             22.0             40.9             30.4
Home                        31.9             29.3             27.3             29.7
Arcade                       2.1              2.4              7.5              4.4
Convenience store            4.3             2.4               4.5              3.9
Other                         0               2.4              6.0              3.2
N                            47               41               67              155



  Table B31: Age by overall gambling participation in the past year
     Participation in at least 1 gambling              Age
                                                                       Percent
     activity in the past year                9-10   11-12    13-14
     Yes                                      39.1    37.2     57.1     44.4%
     No                                       60.9    62.8     42.9      55.6
     N                                        133     137      133       403



Table B32: Gender by overall gambling participation in the past year
       Participation in at least 1 gambling        Gender
                                                                      Percent
       activity in the past year                Male Female
       Yes                                     48.0% 40.9%            44.4%
       No                                       52.0   59.1            55.6
       N                                        200     203            403
                                                                                     91



                   Table B33: Gender by gambling participation
        Gambling activities                          Gender              Total
                                              Male           Female
        Raffle                               16.0%           19.7%       17.8%
        Scratch                               18.0            13.8        15.8
        Card/board games with family          15.0             9.4        12.0
        Card/board games with friends 1       15.5             7.4        11.5
        Other then pro-line 2                 14.5             6.9        10.8
        Outcome of sporting events 3          13.0             6.4         9.7
        Lottery                                8.0             6.4         7.3
        Bingo                                  5.0             7.9         6.3
        Pull tabs                              3.0             3.4         3.2
        Slots                                  4.5             1.5         3.0
        Pro line                               4.0             2.0         3.0
        Websites                               2.5             2.0         2.2
        N                                     200             203         403
1     X2=6.554, df=1, p<0.05
2     X2=6.111, df=1, p<0.05
3     X2=5.015, df=1, p<0.05



                     Table B34: Age by gambling participation
    Gambling activities                               Age                    Total
                                           9-10      11-12       13-14
 Raffle                                   16.5%      16.9%       20.1%      17.8%
 Scratch                                   15.0       11.8        20.3       15.8
 Card/board games with family              10.4       11.8        14.2       12.0
 Card/board games with friends 1            3.8        8.0        22.6       11.5
 Other then pro-line                        9.8        8.1        14.3       10.8
 Outcome of sporting events 2               4.5        6.6        18.0        9.7
 Lottery                                    4.5        6.6        10.5        7.3
 Bingo                                      3.8        5.8         9.7        6.3
 Pull tabs                                  1.5        3.6         4.5        3.2
 Slots                                      3.8        2.9         2.3        3.0
 Pro line                                   2.3        2.2         4.5        3.0
 Websites                                   2.3        2.9         1.5        2.2
 N                                         133        136         133        403
1 X2=25.589, df=2, p<0.001
2 X2=16.229, df=2, p<0.001
                                                                                                      92



                          Table B35: Tween gambling participation
Gambling activities                            Atlantic   Ontario   West     Quebec           Total
                                                                                            Population
Raffle tickets *                               25.0%       19.3%    22.3%     7.9%            17.8%
Scratch tickets                                 21.9        16.1     17.4     10.9             15.8
Card or board games for money with              18.8        12.1     12.4      8.9             12.0
family
Card or board games for money with              21.9       10.7     13.2       6.9             11.5
friends
Sports events (other than pro-line)              6.3       11.4     14.0       6.9             10.8
Outcome of sporting events you are               9.4        9.4     14.9       4.0              9.7
playing
Lottery tickets                                  6.1        9.4      6.6       5.9             7.3
Bingo ***                                       25.0        3.4      6.6       4.0             6.3
Pull tabs ***                                   18.2        4.0      0.8        0              3.2
Pro-line*                                       6.1         5.4       0        2.0             3.0
Slot machines                                   3.1         2.0      1.7       5.9             3.0
Websites                                        6.1         2.0      2.5       1.0             2.2
N                                                40         141      120       102             403
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001



           Table B36: Gender by feeling its fun to bet with friends at school

               It is fun to bet with friends             Gender             Total
               at school                            Male     Female
               Disagree strongly                   39.9%      42.6%         41.3%
               Disagree somewhat                    11.1       20.3          15.6
               Neither agree or disagree            13.6       10.4          12.1
               Agree somewhat                       26.8       18.3          22.5
               Agree strongly                        8.6        8.4           8.4
               N                                    198         202          400
                 X2=9.583, df=4, p<0.05


             Table B37: Age by feeling its fun to bet with friends at school
        It is fun to bet with friends                      Age                      Total
        at school                           9-10          11-12     13-14
        Disagree strongly                  55.0%          39.0%     30.1%           41.3%
        Disagree somewhat                   15.3           20.6      11.3            15.6
        Neither agree or disagree            9.9           11.8      14.3            12.1
        Agree somewhat                      13.0           18.4      36.1            22.5
        Agree strongly                       6.9           10.3       8.3             8.4
        N                                   131            136       133             400
        X2=33.109, df=8, p<0.001
                                                                                          93


             Table B38: Gender by feeling its cool to bet with friends
            It is cool to bet with friends            Gender             Total
                                                 Male     Female
            Disagree strongly                   43.4%      47.8%         45.5%
            Disagree somewhat                    18.2       20.2          19.2
            Neither agree or disagree            14.1       14.3          14.3
            Agree somewhat                       18.2       11.3          14.7
            Agree strongly                        6.1        6.4           6.3
            N                                    198         202          400
             X2=3.846, df=4, N.S.

               Table B39: Age by feeling its cool to bet with friends
      It is cool to bet with friends                    Age                      Total
                                         9-10          11-12     13-14
     Disagree strongly                  54.2%          49.3%     33.3%           45.5%
     Disagree somewhat                   18.3           21.3      17.4            19.2
     Neither agree or disagree           13.0           9.6       20.5            14.3
     Agree somewhat                       9.2           11.8      23.5            14.7
     Agree strongly                       5.3            8.1       5.3             6.3
     N                                   131            136       133             400
     X2=24.760, df=8, p<0.01




Table B40: Gender by feeling making money/winning things from gambling is fun
        Making money/winning things                        Gender           Total
        from gambling is fun                          Male     Female
        Disagree strongly                            36.9%      41.8%      39.3%
        Disagree somewhat                             16.2       18.9       17.4
        Neither agree or disagree                      9.1       11.9       10.7
        Agree somewhat                                21.2       17.9       19.6
        Agree strongly                                16.7        9.5       13.1
        N                                             198         201       399
     X2=6.351, df=4, N.S.


 Table B41: Age by feeling making money/winning things from gambling is fun

    Making money/winning things                          Age                      Total
    from gambling is fun                      9-10      11-12      13-14
    Disagree strongly                        46.2%      41.9%      30.1%          39.3%
    Disagree somewhat                         19.2       17.6       15.8           17.4
    Neither agree or disagree                  8.5       13.2        9.8           10.7
    Agree somewhat                            16.9       16.2       25.6           19.6
    Agree strongly                             9.2       11.0       18.8           13.1
    N                                         130        136        133            399
      X2=15.618, df=8, p<0.05
                                                                                         94

              Table B42: Gender by how respondents pay for their bets
         How respondents pay for their bets            Gender            Total
                                                  Male     Female
         Money you get as your allowance         31.1%      32.4%        32.2%
         Money you have earned from a job         21.6       19.1         20.4
         Gift money                               13.5       11.8         12.7
         Other                                     2.7        4.4          3.5
         N                                         74         68          142



                Table B43: Age by how respondents pay for their bets
   How respondents pay for their bets                  Age                       Total
                                             9-10     11-12      13-14
   Money you get as your allowance          31.7%     33.3%      31.7%           32.2%
   Money you have earned from a job          12.2      18.4       27.0            20.4
   Gift money                                19.5      12.8        8.1            12.7
   Other                                      0         7.7        3.2             3.5
   N                                          41        39         62             142


                    Table B44: Gender by age of onset of gambling
                Age of onset                      Gender       Total
                                             Male     Female
                Less then 9 years of age    27.7%      28.3%     28.0%
                9-10                         46.2       38.3      42.4
                11-12                        20.0       23.3      21.6
                13-14                         6.2       10.0       8.0
                N                             65         60       125
X2=1.192, df=3, N.S.
                                                                                      95



                             APPENDIX C
                       Focus Group Questionnaire
                           RGC Qualitative Youth Research



SCREENERS:
Participant Requirements
    Between the ages of 9/10 or 11/12 or 13/14
    Parental consent


Mix of Groups
    Mix of groups – male/female

INTRODUCTION: 10 minutes

•   Welcome - explain purpose of focus group
•   No right wrong answers, everything is confidential (not identified with you
    individually), incentive?
•   Explain taping/mirror/viewers/parents’ role
•   Around the table introductions

TOP-OF-MIND/AWARENESS: 30 minutes

•   First of all, what are some of the problems facing people your age? What concerns
    do you or your friends have?
•   What about gambling? Is that a concern or worry for people your age?
•   Is gambling the same thing as betting?
•   Have you ever gambled or bet on something?
•   Describe the types of betting that takes place at school? How does it happen?
    Where? When? Who has the idea? Are there things that you don’t do anymore
    because of gambling/betting?
•   What was the first thing that you ever gambled or bet on?
•   How do you feel about gambling/betting? Is it a good thing/bad thing? Cool?
    Fun/exciting? Would you rather do it than play other games or sports etc.
•   What are things that you consider risky? Is gambling risky?
•   Is all gambling the same? Why? Why not?
•   If a person was having problems with gambling, what would that mean? Describe the
    type of person your age that you have seen, or believe to be, the most likely to have
    problems with gambling.
•   I am going to read you some questions and I want you to tell me what the question
    means to you:

    a) In the past 12 months, how often have you gone back another day to try and win
       back the money you lost (from gambling/betting)?
                                                                                   96

   b) In the past 12 months, has your betting money ever caused any problems for you
      such as arguments with family or friends, or problems at school?
   c) In the past 12 months, have you ever gambled more than you intended?
   d) In the past 12 months, have you ever felt bad about the amount you bet, or what
      happens when you bet money?
   e) In the past 12 months, have you ever hidden from family or friends any betting
      slips, IOUs, lottery tickets, money that you’ve won, or other signs of gambling?


KEY INFLUENCES
  • Where did you learn what you know about gambling?
  • IF NOT MENTIONED) Have you seen any ads about gambling? Which ones?
      What was the main message? What did these ads tell you?
  • If you wanted to encourage your friends not to gamble, what do you think would
      be most convincing for them? What would you say?
  • Have you ever seen or heard anything that made you not want to participate in
      dangerous behaviour? What were they? Why were they convincing for you?
                                                                                        97



                                   APPENDIX D
                 Telephone Interview Questionnaire

                                                                Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario)
                                                                              Youth Questionnaire Final
                                                                                      October 2nd, 2002
                                                                                   Target Length: 10 minutes

Hello, my name is ______________ and I am calling from Ipsos-Reid, a national public
opinion and market research organization. We assure you we are not selling anything.
As part of our Ipsos-Reid Panel your household is selected from time to time to answer
questionnaires over the phone.

Today, we are conducting a survey with youth between the ages of 11 and 16 years old.

Is there anyone in your household that fits this description?

Yes
No

[IF YES CONTINUE, OTHERWISE THANK AND CONCLUDE CALL]

We would like to first speak with the parent/guardian of the youth(s) that is between the
ages of 11 and 16 in your household. Would that be you?

Yes
No

[IF YES CONTINUE, OTHERWISE READ: Could I please speak to that person – IF
YES, REPEAT INTRODUCTION IF NO, RESCHEDULE OR THANK AND TERMINATE]

Today we are conducting a short telephone survey with youth between the ages of 11
and 16. The survey is being sponsored by the Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario)
in an effort to find creative and effective programs to help youth deal with gambling
situations and prevention in general. In order to develop these programs, the
Responsible Gambling Council needs to know how youth think about gambling.
Questions will ask about gambling attitudes and behaviours. The survey will last for
about 10 minutes and youth participating in the survey will not be asked to gamble or
encouraged in any way to gamble.

All of the opinions your child provides are strictly confidential and their name will not
appear on any reports. The only people who will have access to the data from this study
are researchers. Again, no names will be attached to the information collected. Since the
person in your household I would like to speak with is 16 years of age or younger, I need
to ask you if it would be all right for him/her take part in the survey?

Yes
No
                                                                                          98

[IF YES, ASK FIRST NAME OF PARENT FOR CONFIRMATION

RECORD NAME____________________________, OTHERWISE THANK AND
CONCLUDE CALL]

Now, I would like to speak to your child to tell them about the study and obtain their
consent to participate (If youth is unavailable, make arrangements to call back).

Hello, my name is ______________ and I am calling from Ipsos-Reid, a research
company. We are conducting a study for an organization called the Responsible
Gambling Council to learn more about how people your age think about gambling. To do
this, we are conducting a short survey in which you will be asked your opinions and
attitudes on gambling. The survey will last roughly 10 minutes. All of the opinions you
give will be confidential, that means that we are only interested in what is being said, but
not who said it. Your name will not be linked to anything that you tell us. Your parents will
not be able to listen.

[IF NECESSARY parents are not permitted to listen in on their child’s interview because
doing so may influence the child’s responses]

Would you be willing to participate?

Yes
No

[IF YES CONTINUE, OTHERWISE THANK AND CONCLUDE]
                                                                                        99




1.     What would you say are the top two trends among youth your age these days?
       That is, something that’s popular right now or that you and your friends like to do
       [ACCEPT TWO RESPONSES].
Video Games
Movies
Smoking
Candies
Cartoons
Sports
Parties
Picnics

PERCEPTION and PREVALENCE

2.     How about gambling, would you say that gambling or betting on things is very
       popular, somewhat popular, not very popular or not popular at all among people
       your age?
Very popular
Somewhat popular
Not very popular
Not popular at all
3.     When you think about gambling what kinds of activities first come to mind?
       [ACCEPT UP TO THREE MENTIONS, RECORD FIRST MENTION] Any others?
       [OTHERS SPECIFY (NONE)]
Scratch tabs or pull-tabs
Pro Line
Lottery tickets
Sports teams or events
Cards or board games
Bingo
Physical activities such as who can run the fastest
Who knows what, like who is smarter than whom
Games on the internet
4.     When you think about betting what kinds of activities first come to mind?
       [ACCEPT UP TO THREE MENTIONS, RECORD FIRST MENTION] Any others?
       [OTHERS SPECIFY (NONE)]
Scratch tabs or pull-tabs
Pro Line
Lottery tickets
Sports teams or events
Cards or board games
Bingo
Physical activities such as who can run the fastest
Who knows what, like who is smarter than whom
Games on the internet
                                                                                       100

5.      In the past 12 months, have you done any of the following activities? [READ AND
        RANDOMIZE] YES/NO FOR EACH
Bet on Scratch tabs or pull tabs
Played Pro Line
Bet on Lottery tickets
Bet on sports teams or events
Bet on cards or board games
Played Bingo
Bet on physical activities such as who can run the fastest
Bet on who knows what, like who is smarter than whom
Bet on games on the internet

Yes
No

[For each activity that the person has done, ask Q6 to Q13] IF DK/REF SKIP 14]

6.      How often do you [INSERT RESPONSE TO Q5]?
(READ LIST)
A few times a year
About Once a month
A few times a month
About Once a week
About Once a day
7.      Would you consider this activity gambling, betting, both or neither? (REPEAT
        ACTIVITY IF NECESSARY)
Gambling
Betting
Both
Neither
8.      What level of skill is required to play this game? Would you say that there
        is…(READ LIST)
No skill required
Some skill required
A lot of skill required
9.      How often would you win this game – that is, what are your chances of winning?
        [READ LIST]
Rarely or never
Not very often
About half the time
More than half the time
Most of the time

[If lottery/scratch/pull IN Q5 ASK Q10, OTHERWISE SKIP TO 13]
                                                                                            101

10.     Where did you purchase the ticket?
Convenience store
Grocery store
Other: specify
11.     Did you personally buy the ticket, or did a parent, friend or someone else buy the
        ticket for you?
Personally bought the ticket
Parent bought the ticket
Friend bought the ticket
Someone bought the ticket

If Internet:

12.     Did you use your credit card or a credit card belonging to your parents, your
        friends or someone else, or did the site not require a credit card?
Used my credit card
Used my parent’s card
Used my friend’s card
Used someone’s card
Site did not require a credit card

[If lottery/scratch/pull OR INTERNET IN Q5 ASK Q13, OTHERWISE SKIP TO 14]

13.     Do you have approval from your parents for these activities (lottery/scratch/pull or
        Internet)?
Yes
No

ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR
For the rest of the survey, we are going to be talking about gambling. Gambling can
include many of the activities we just talked about such as betting with friends or others
on games or sports events, buying lottery tickets or playing ProLine.

[IF YES TO ANY OF THE ACTIVITIES IN Q5 ASKE Q14 TO 21 OTHERWISE SKIP TO
Q20] :
14.     Do you think that it is possible for these activities to lead to problems such as
        problem gambling?
Yes
No
15.     And, have you personally experienced any problems as a result of your
        gambling?
Yes
No
                                                                                   102

[IF YES, ASK Q16 OTHERWISE SKIP TO Q17]

16.    What was the problem or incident? [OPEN-END ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]
17.    Sometimes people make a bet, but if they lose they don’t pay the bet. When you
       make a bet, how often do you pay the bet? [READ LIST]
Rarely or never
Sometimes
Most of the time
All of the time
18.    Have you ever faced any problems or consequences because you didn’t pay a
       bet?
Yes
No

IF YES, ASK Q19 OTHERWISE SKIP TO Q20]:

19.    What problems or consequences did you face? [OPEN-END ACCEPT ONE
       RESPONSE]
ASK ALL:

20.    Have your friends experienced any problems directly as a result of their
       gambling?
Yes
No

[IF YES, ASK Q21 OTHERWISE SKIP TO Q22]

21.    What was the problem or incident? [OPEN-END ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]


ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR

22.    Does your Father, your Mother or both gamble, such as betting on games,
       playing lotteries or games such as bingo?
Yes, Father
Yes, Mother
Yes, Both
No

IF DK/REF SKIP TO Q27

23.    In your opinion, do they gamble too much or is their gambling reasonable?
Too much
Reasonable
Don’t know
                                                                                       103

24.    How often do your parent(s) do each of the following? How often do
       they…[INSERT RESPONSE – RANDOMIZE] (READ LIST)
Play bingo
Play casino tables games such as blackjack or poker
Play slot or video machines
Make wagers at the horse-racing track
Play Pro-line
Bet on cards or board games
Bet on the Internet
Buy lottery tickets
Buy scratch tickets
Buy pull-tab tickets

Rarely or Never
Sometimes
Often
All the time

25.    Have there been any problems for you as a result of their gambling?
Yes         IF YES ASK Q26 OTHERWISE GO TO Q27
No
26.    What problems have there been? [OPEN-END, ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]


ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR

27.    Have you read, seen or heard any advertising for gambling?
Yes
No

[IF YES, ASK Q28 OTHERWISE SKIP TO Q30]

28.    Where was the ad? [ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]
29.    What was the message of the ad? [OPEN-END ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]
30.    What do you think of when you hear the phrase “responsible gambling?”
       [ACCEPT ALL MENTIONS]
31.    And specifically, have you read, seen or heard any advertising for problem or
       responsible gambling, not including advertising by a casino or lottery?
Yes
No

[IF YES, ASK Q32 OTHERWISE SKIP TO Q34]

32.    Where was the ad? [ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]
33.    What was the message of the ad? [OPEN-END ACCEPT ONE RESPONSE]
                                                                                          104

34.    To what extent do you think each of the following is a warning sign that someone
       your age has a gambling problem? Please tell me whether you strongly agree,
       somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree that each of the
       following is a warning sign [READ AND RANDOMIZE]. How about…?
They take money from parents/relatives/friends to make bets or gamble
Borrows money from others to make bets or gamble
Buys scratch tickets
Buys lottery tickets
His or her parents gamble regularly
Bets at school
Feels bad about their gambling
Gambles more money than they intended
Gambles for a longer time than they intended
Drinks alcohol while gambling
Gambles on the Internet

Strongly agree
Somewhat agree
Somewhat disagree
Strongly disagree
35.    Any others you can think of?


ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR

36.    I am now going to read you a series of statements and I would like you to tell me
       whether you agree or disagree with each. Do you agree or disagree with the
       statement… [IS THAT STRONGLY OR SOMEWHAT AGREE/DISAGREE]
       [RANDOMIZE] How about…? [IF NECESSARY REPEAT THE QUESTION]
Betting is a cool thing to do at my school.
Gambling is a cool thing to do at my school
I sometimes feel pressured to gamble with my friends, even though I don’t want to.
I think gambling is okay for most people, but I don’t think I will ever be much of a
gambler.
Success in life is more about luck than anything else.
I haven’t been very lucky in the past with gambling, but that just means I’m due for a win.
I think of myself as a lucky person when it comes to gambling or betting.
Gambling is okay as long as you stick to the limit you want to spend.
Someone who gambles for a longer period of time than they planned to probably has a
problem.
Gambling is a problem when you have to borrow money to gamble.
Staying at the same slot machine improves your chances of winning.
Betting the same number for every lottery draw will help you win.
If you flip a coin and get heads 5 times in a row you are most likely to get tails if you flip
the coin again.
You have a better chance of becoming rich by gambling than working hard.
In a lottery, all numbers have the same chance of winning.
A random series of numbers such as 12-5-23-17 is more likely to win than a series of
numbers in a sequence, like 1-2-3-4.
                                                                                    105

You have a better chance of winning the lottery than getting struck by lightning.

Strongly agree
Somewhat agree
Somewhat disagree
Strongly disagree
37.    Here are some statements describing people who gamble. Please tell me
       whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly
       disagree with each. [READ AND RANDOMIZE] How about…?
Cool kids gamble more than kids who aren’t cool
People who gamble are not as smart as people who don’t
People who gamble lose more money than they win
Adults are more likely to have a gambling problem than people my age

Strongly agree
Somewhat agree
Somewhat disagree
Strongly disagree

PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND DEMOGRAPHICS

38.    I am now going to read you some words and phrases and I would like to you to
       tell me to whether each of the following describes you. Please indicate your
       response on a scale from ‘1’ to ‘5’, where ‘1’ means the words or phrase does not
       describe you at all and ‘5’ means the phrase describes your perfectly. [READ
       AND RANDOMIZE]. How about…? (REPEAT QUESTION IF NECESSARY)
Competitive
Happy
Hard-working
Laid back
Leader
Lucky
Organised
Outgoing
Popular
Quiet
Risky
Selfish
Stubborn
Trusting
Impulsive
39.    I am now going to read you some words and phrases and I would like to you to
       tell me for each whether it sounds positive or negative to you [READ AND
       RANDOMIZE]. Is that very or somewhat positive/negative? How about…?
Driving fast
Drinking
Smoking
Gambling
                                                                                      106

Staying out all night
Tattoos
Betting

Very positive
Somewhat positive
Somewhat negative
Very negative
Neither (volunteered)

I am now going to read you some words and phrases and I would like you to tell me to
whether each of the following describes someone who gambles. Does it describe them
perfectly, partially describes them or does not describe them at all [READ AND
RANDOMIZE] How about…?

39.a

Competitive
Happy
Hard-working
Laid back
Leader
Lucky
Organised
Outgoing
Popular
Quiet
Risky
Selfish
Stubborn
Trusting
Impulsive

(REPEAT QUESTIONS)

Perfectly
Partially describes them
Does not describe them at all

40.      Do you play a sport or play on a sports team?
Yes
No

41.     Do you have any brother or sisters who are close to you in age, say 3 years
       younger or 3 years older?
Yes
No
                                                                                    107

42.    Would you say you have a few very close friends or a lot of friends that you know
       only fairly well?
Few very close friends
A lot of friends you know fairly well
Don’t have many friends (Volunteered)
43.    How old are you? [RECORD AGE] [AGE RANGE: 11-16]

RECORD GENDER

Those are all the questions that I have for you today. Thank you very much for
participating in our survey.
                                                                                    108



                                   Appendix E

 Table E1: Gender by whether gambling or betting on things is a popular activity
                           among people their age
                 Whether gambling or                Gender          Total
                 betting is popular             Male    Female
                 Yes                           34.0%     28.1%      31.0%
                 No                             66.0      71.9       69.0
                 N                              253        249       502
X2=2.025, df01, N.S.

   Table E2: Age by whether gambling or betting on things is a popular activity
                            among people their age
         Whether gambling or                        Age                     Total
         betting is popular            11-12      13-14     15-16
         Yes                           21.6%      31.0%     41.1%           31.0%
         No                             78.4       69.0      58.9            69.0
         N                              171        168       163             502
       X2=14.767, df=2, p<0.001
                                                                      109


Table E3: Gender by whether tween considers an activity as gambling
        Consider an activity as         Gender      Total
        gambling                    Male   Female
        Card/board games 1         48.8%    33.9%   41.4%
        Casino 2                    21.8     31.3    26.5
        Slot machines               22.1     19.4    20.7
        Sport teams/events          15.5     12.5    14.0
        Other                       7.1       6.9    7.0
        Blackjack                   5.6       6.8     6.2
        Horse racing                6.3       6.0    6.3
        Dice                        6.7       4.4    5.6
        Gambling/betting (unsp)     5.2       5.6    5.4
        Poker                       5.6       4.4     5.2
        Lottery                     5.5       4.0     4.7
        None                        3.6       5.6    4.5
        Roulette 3                  6.3       2.0    4.2
        Dare                        1.6       2.8    2.2
        Money                       1.2       2.8    1.9
        Bingo                       1.2       2.4    1.8
        Internet                    1.6       1.6    1.7
        Race track (unsp)           1.2      1.6     1.4
        Win money                   1.2       1.6    1.3
        Scratch                     0.8       2.0    1.5
        Physical activities         1.2       1.2    1.1
        Las Vegas                   1.2       1.2    1.1
        Who knows what              0.8       1.2    1.0
        Lose money                  1.2       0.8     1.0
        Pro line                    0.4       0.8     0.6
        Dog races                    0        0.4     0.2
        N                           253      248     501
       1 X2=11.497, df=1, p<.001
       2 X2=5.797, df=1, p<.05
       3 X2=5.788, df=1, p<.05
                                                                   110


Table E4: Age by whether tween considers an activity as gambling
      Consider an activity as              Age            Total
      gambling                    11-12   13-14   15-16
      Card/board games            41.5%   45.2%   37.4%   41.4%
      Casino1                      19.4    27.4    33.1    26.5
      Slot machines2               23.4    25.1    13.5    20.7
      Sport teams/events3           5.3    14.3    23.3    14.0
      Other                         7.1     6.0     8.0    7.0
      Blackjack                     6.5     4.8     7.4     6.2
      Horse racing                 3.5      7.2     8.0    6.3
      Dice                          5.8     3.6     8.0    5.6
      Gambling/betting (unsp)       7.0     4.2     5.5    5.4
      Poker                         5.3     6.0     3.7     5.2
      Lottery                       5.3     4.2     4.9    4.7
      None 4                        8.2     4.8     0.6    4.5
      Roulette                      7.0     3.0     2.5    4.2
      Dare                          2.9     2.4     1.2    2.2
      Money                         1.8     3.0     1.2    1.9
      Scratch                       1.8      0      2.5    1.8
      Bingo                         2.4     1.8     1.2    1.7
      Internet                      1.2     3.0     1.2    1.4
      Race track (unsp)            0.6      1.8    1.8     1.3
      Win money                     2.3     0.6     1.2    1.5
      Physical activities            0      1.8     1.8    1.1
      Las Vegas                    1.2      1.2     1.2    1.1
      Who knows what               1.2      1.2    0.6     1.0
      Lose money                    1.2     1.2     0.6    1.0
      Pro line5                      0       0      1.8    0.6
      Dog races                      0      0.6      0     0.2
      N                            170     168     163     501
  1    X2=8.120, df=2, p<.05
  2    X2=7.904, df=2, p<0.05
  3    X2=22.394, df=2, p<0.001
  4    X2=11.053, df=2, p<0.01
  5    X2=6.277, df=2, p<.05
                                                                     111


Table E5: Gender by whether tween consider an activity as betting.
          Consider an activity as         Gender      Total
          betting:                   Male    Female
          Sports teams/events       30.4%     25.7%   28.1%
          Horse racing               17.9      15.3    16.6
          Cards/board games          19.4      13.3    16.4
          None                       11.9      18.1    15.0
          Other                       7.9      10.5    9.2
          Physical activity           5.5       6.8     6.2
          Casino                     5.1        4.4    4.8
          Who knows what             4.8        4.8    4.8
          Gambling/betting (unsp)    3.6        4.0    3.8
          Dare                        2.4       4.4    3.4
          Money                       2.8       3.2    3.0
          Slot machines               2.4       1.6    2.0
          Dice                        2.0       1.2    1.6
          Lottery tickets             0.4       2.0     1.2
          Auctions                    1.6       1.6    1.6
          Lose money                  1.6       1.6     1.6
          Poker                       2.4       0.4     1.4
          Race track (unsp) 1         2.4        0      1.2
          Blackjack                   2.4        0      1.2
          Roulette                    1.6       0.4    1.0
          Dog races                   0.8       1.2     1.0
          Scratch                    0.8        .08    0.8
          Win money                   0.8       0.8    0.8
          Pro line                    0.8       0.4     0.6
          Internet                    1.2        0     0.6
          N                          253       248     501
         1 X2=5.953, df=1, p<.05
                                                                  112


Table E6: Age by whether tween considers an activity as betting
     Consider an activity as            Age            Total
     betting:                  11-12   13-14   15-16
     Sports teams/events 1    15.2%    29.8%   39.9%   28.1%
     Horse racing               15.9    16.8    17.2    16.6
     Cards/board games          17.0    19.8    12.3    16.4
     None                       15.8    15.6    13.5    15.0
     Other                      11.8    4.8     10.4    9.0
     Physical activity           7.6     4.2     6.1     6.0
     Who knows what             4.1     4.8     5.5     4.8
     Casino                     4.7     4.2     5.6      4.8
     Gambling/betting (unsp)     4.1    3.6     3.1     3.6
     Dare                        5.8     3.0    2.5     3.8
     Money                       2.9     4.2     1.8     3.0
     Slot machines               1.8     3.0    1.2     2.0
     Lose money                  1.8     1.8     1.2     1.6
     Auctions                    2.9     1.2      0     1.4
     Dice                        0.6     1.2     3.1    1.6
     Poker                       1.2     1.2     2.5     1.6
     Lottery tickets             0.6     1.8     1.2     1.2
     Blackjack                   2.4     0.6     0.6     1.2
     Race track (unsp)          0.6     1.2     1.8     1.2
     Dog races                   1.2     1.2     0.6     1.0
     Roulette 2                  2.9      0       0     1.0
     Scratch                    0.6     1.2     0.6      0.8
     Win money 3                  0      2.4      0     0.8
     Pro line 4                   0       0     1.8     0.6
     Internet                     0      1.2    0.6     0.6
     N                          170     168     163     501
        1 X2=25.501, df=2, p<.001
        2 X2=9.776, df=2, p<0.01
        3 X2=8.016, df=2, p<0.05
        4 X2=6.277, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                                       113


                  Table E7: Gender by tween gambling participation
    Bet on:                                                  Gender           Total
                                                        Male       Female
    Physical activities                                37.5%        38.6%     38.0%
    Bingo                                               36.8         35.5      36.1
    Sports team/events                                  30.2         25.8      28.0
    Who know what, like who is smarter than whom        26.7         29.0      27.9
    card/board games 1                                  31.3         18.5      25.0
    Scratch tickets                                     11.2          7.7       9.4
    Internet                                             7.9         10.5       9.2
    Lottery tickets                                      7.5          7.6       7.6
    Pro line 2                                           3.6          .8        2.2
    N                                                   253          248       501
1   X2=10.923, df=1, p<.001
2   X2=4.384, df=1, p<.05


                    Table E8: Age by tween gambling participation
     Bet on:                                                   Age             Total
                                                      11-12   13-14   15-16
     Physical activates                               36.3%   41.7%   36.2%   38.0%
     Bingo 1                                           45.3    31.0    31.9    36.1
     Sports team/events                                24.6    28.0    31.9    28.1
     Who know what, like who is smarter than whom 2    17.8    30.4    36.8    28.2
     card/board games                                  19.4    29.9    25.8    25.0
     Internet                                           9.9    10.7     7.4     9.4
     Scratch tickets                                    5.9     8.4    14.7     9.6
     Lottery tickets 3                                  6.4     4.8    11.7     7.6
     Pro line                                           1.2     1.2     4.3     2.2
     N                                                 170     168     163     501
1   X2=9.401, df=1, p<0.01
2   X2=15.466, df=1, p<0.001
3   X2=6.100, df=1, p<0.05

Table E9: Gender by whether tween had parental approval to buy tickets or bet on
                                   Internet
                 Having parental approval           Gender         Total
                                                 Male   Female
                 Lottery tickets                94.7%    88.2%    91.7%
                 Scratch/pull tickets            89.3     94.7     91.5
                 Internet                        57.9     80.8     71.1
                                                                                               114


    Table E10: Age by whether tween had parental approval to buy tickets or bet on
                                      Internet
             Having parental approval                    Age                  Total
                                           11-12        13-14      15-16
             Lottery tickets 1             66.7%       100.0%     100.0%     91.7%
             Scratch/pull tickets           90.0         92.3       91.7      91.5
             Internet                       76.5         77.8       54.5      71.7
         1   X2=9.818, df=2, p<0.01

      Table E11: Gender by whether respondent believes that the activities they
                   participate in may lead to gambling problems
           Activities that respondent participates           Gender            Total
           in may lead to gambling problems               Male   Female
           Yes                                           85.7%    85.0%       85.4%
           No                                             14.3     15.0        14.6
           N                                              189       187        376
         1 X2=.036, df=1, N.S.

Table E12: Age by whether respondent believes that the activities they participate
                      in may lead to gambling problems
      Activities that respondent participates                    Age                   Total
      in may lead to gambling problems               11-12      13-14      15-16
      Yes                                            79.8%      89.4%      86.2%      85.1%
      No                                              20.2       10.6       13.8       14.9
      N                                               123        123        130        376
1    X2=4.652, df=2, N.S.
                                                                                               115


                   Table E13: Gender by gambling beliefs and practices
Gambling beliefs and practices:                                                  Gender       Total
                                                                              Male Female
Gambling is a problem when you have to borrow money to gamble                90.9% 91.9%     91.4%
Gambling is okay as long as you stick to the limit you want to spend 1        89.7    79.0    84.4
Someone who gambles for a long period of time than they planned to            84.6    82.7    83.6
probably has a problem
I think gambling is okay for most people, but I don’t think I will ever be   78.7    81.7     80.2
much of a gambler
I think of myself as a lucky person when it comes to gambling or             38.5    28.5     33.5
betting 2
Success in life is more about luck than anything else                        24.1    22.7     23.4
I sometimes feel pressured to gamble with my friends, even though            24.1    16.1     20.2
don’t want to 3
Betting is a cool thing to do at my school                                   16.2    12.5     14.4
Gambling is a cool thing to do at my school                                  12.3    9.7      11.0
N                                                                            253     248      501
  1 X2=10.768, df=1, p<0.001
  2 X2=5.595, df=1, p<0.05
  3 X2=4.957, df=1, p<0.05

                     Table E14: Age by gambling beliefs and practices
 Gambling beliefs and practices:                                             Age             Total
                                                                   11-12     13-14   15-16
 Gambling is a problem when you have to borrow money                85.9      92.2    96.9   91.6%
 to gamble 1
 Gambling is okay as long as you stick to the limit you            81.9      86.8    84.7    84.4
 want to spend
 Someone who gambles for a long period of time than they           82.4      86.3    82.2    83.6
 planned to probably has a problem
 I think gambling is okay for most people, but I don’t think I     77.8      80.8    81.5    80.0
 will ever be much of a gambler
 I think of myself as a lucky person when it comes to              30.6      40.1    30.1    33.6
 gambling or betting
 Success in life is more about luck than anything else             24.7      24.0    21.5    23.4
 I sometimes feel pressured to gamble with my friends,             27.1      17.9    15.3    20.2
 even though don’t want to 2
 Betting is a cool thing to do at my school                        10.6      14.9    17.8    14.4
 Gambling is a cool thing to do at my school                        7.6      10.7    14.7    11.0
 N                                                                 171       167     163     501
 1 X2=13.329, df=2, p<0.001
 2 X2=7.936, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                                           116


                     Table E15: Gender by knowledge of randomness
Knowledge of randomness:                                                    Gender       Total
                                                                         Male   Female
In a lottery, all numbers have the same chance of winning               64.0%   65.1%    64.5%
A random series of numbers such as 12-5-23-17 is more likely to          57.3    58.0     57.6
win than a series of numbers in sequence, like 1-2-3-4
If you flip a coin and get heads 5 times in a row you are most likely   54.9     55.8     55.4
to get tails if you flip the coin again
You have a better chance of winning the lottery then getting struck     47.4     45.2     46.3
by lightning
Staying at the same slot machine improves your chances of               38.7     32.9     35.9
winning
Betting the same number for every lottery draw will help you win        31.1     34.4     32.7
I haven’t been very lucky in the past with gambling, but that means     20.9     17.3     19.2
that I am due for a win
You have a better chance of becoming rich by gambling than               8.7     5.3      7.0
working hard
N                                                                        253     248      501



                       Table E16: Age by knowledge of randomness
Knowledge of randomness:                                                 Age             Total
                                                                11-12   13-14   15-16
In a lottery, all numbers have the same chance of winning       63.5%   65.5%   65.0%    64.7%
A random series of numbers such as 12-5-23-17 is more            52.4    58.4    62.3     57.6
likely to win than a series of numbers in sequence, like 1-
2-3-4
If you flip a coin and get heads 5 times in a row you are        61.8    56.9    47.2    55.4
most likely to get tails if you flip the coin again 1
You have a better chance of winning the lottery then             45.0    49.7    44.2    46.3
getting struck by lightning
Staying at the same slot machine improves your chances           24.7    41.1    42.2    35.9
of winning 2
Betting the same number for every lottery draw will help         32.9    34.3    30.9    32.7
you win
I haven’t been very lucky in the past with gambling, but         22.2    24.6    10.4    19.2
that means that I am due for a win 3
You have a better chance of becoming rich by gambling            11.2     3.0    6.2      6.8
than working hard 4
N                                                                171     167     163      501
1 X2=7.330, df=2, p<0.05
2 X2=14.023, df=2, p<0.01
3 X2=12.189, df=2, p<0.01
4 X2=9.038, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                                                117


             Table E17: Gender by warning signs of gambling problems
Warning signs:                                                        Gender                 Total
                                                                  Male    Female
Gambles more money then they intended                            78.2%     76.9%             77.6%
They take money from parents/relatives/friends to make bets       75.9       75.4             75.6
or gamble
Borrows money from others to make bets or gamble                     73.5           75.1     74.3
Gamblers for a longer time than they intended                        75.1           71.4     73.3
Drinks alcohol while gambling                                        65.5           68.1     66.8
Feels bad about their gambling                                       63.2           69.0     66.1
Gambles on internet                                                  60.9           67.2     64.0
His or her parents gamble regularly                                  55.7           54.8     55.3
Bets at school                                                       54.5           56.0     55.3
Buys lottery tickets                                                 50.8           55.6     53.2
Buys scratch tickets                                                 51.4           52.4     51.9
N                                                                    253            248      501



               Table E18: Age by warning signs of gambling problems
Warning signs:                                                              Age               Total
                                                          11-12             13-14    15-16
Gambles more money then they intended 1                    64.7              82.1     86.4   77.6%
They take money from parents/relatives/friends to make     60.0              76.8     91.4    75.8
bets or gamble 2
Borrows money from others to make bets or gamble 3            57.9          78.4      87.7    74.5
Gamblers for a longer time than they intended 4               61.8          75.6      82.8    73.3
Drinks alcohol while gambling 5                               58.6          71.7      70.6    66.9
Feels bad about their gambling 6                              55.9          66.7      76.1    66.1
Gambles on internet 7                                         55.3          67.1      70.2    64.1
Bets at school                                                53.5          56.5      56.4    55.5
His or her parents gamble regularly                           52.6          54.8      58.9    55.4
Buys lottery tickets                                          51.5          56.3      52.1    53.3
Buys scratch tickets                                          54.1          53.9      47.9    52.0
N                                                             170           168       163     501
1 X2=25.504, df=2, p<0.001
2 X2=44.940, df=2, p<0.001
3 X2=41.152, df=2, p<0.001
4 X2=15.540, df=2, p<0.001
5 X2=7.978, df=2, p<0.05
6 X2=18.173, df=2, p<0.001
7 X2=8.953, df=2, p<0.05
                                                                                                118


              Table E19: Gender by definition of responsible gambling
         Responsible gambling:                                  Gender          Total
                                                           Male     Female
         Not betting more than you can afford to lose     32.8%     32.7%       32.7%
         Not gambling too frequently/in moderation         32.5      32.3        32.4
         Knowing when to stop/walk away                     7.5      12.0         9.8
         There is no such thing as responsible              7.1      10.0         8.6
         gambling
         Set a dollar limit before gambling                6.7       9.3         8.0
         Other                                             7.1       3.2         5.2
         Gambling just for fun                             4.7       4.8         4.8
         Knowing how to gambling/gambling wisely           2.8       4.0         3.4
         None                                              3.2       2.0         2.6
         Repaying debts                                    3.6       1.6         2.6
         Honesty/always keeping your word/being fair       3.2       1.2         2.2
         Being responsible when gambling                   0.8       2.4         1.6
         N                                                 253       248         501



                Table E20: Age by definition of responsible gambling

  Responsible gambling:                                           Age                   Total
                                                        11-12    13-14       15-16
 Not betting more than you can afford to lose            28.7     33.9        35.6      32.7%
 Not gambling too frequently/in moderation               32.7     34.5        30.1       32.5
 Knowing when to stop/walk away 1                         3.5      8.3        17.8        9.8
 There is no such thing as responsible gambling           7.1      6.0        12.3       8.4
 Set a dollar limit before gambling                       5.3      9.5         9.2        8.0
 Other                                                    7.6      4.2         3.1        5.0
 Gambling just for fun                                    5.3      4.8         3.7        4.6
 Knowing how to gambling/gambling wisely                  3.5      3.0         3.7        3.4
 None 2                                                   5.8      1.8         0.6        2.8
 Repaying debts                                           4.1      3.0         0.6        2.6
 Honesty/always keeping your word/being fair              5.3      0.6         1.2       2.4
 Being responsible when gambling                          1.8      2.4         0.6        1.6
 N                                                       171      168         163        501
1 X2=19.782, df=2, p<0.001
2 X2=4.371, df=2, p<0.01
                                                                                       119


Table E21: Gender by whether tween experienced any problems as a result of their
                                  gambling
             Experienced any problems                   Gender             Total
             as result of their gambling           Male       Female
             Yes                                   5.8%        2.7%        4.2%
             No                                    94.2        97.3        95.8
             N                                      190         187         377
X2=2.251, df=1, N.S.

 Table E22: Age by whether tween experienced any problems as a result of their
                                  gambling
          Experienced any problems as                     Age                  Total
          result of their gambling             11-12      13-14    15-16
          Yes                                  6.5%       4.1%     1.5%        4.0%
          No                                    93.5       95.9     98.5       96.0
          N                                     124        123      130         377
X2=4.005, df=2, N.S.

      Table E23: Gender by whether friends experienced gambling problems
                 Friends experienced any            Gender             Total
                 problems from gambling         Male     Female
                 Yes                           17.7%     14.8%         16.2%
                 No                             82.3       85.2         83.8
                 N                              249        244          493
X2=.771, df=1, N.S.

        Table E24: Age by whether friends experienced gambling problems
        Friends experienced any                         Age                    Total
        problems from gambling             11-12       13-14      15-16
        Yes                                9.7%        17.0%      22.1%        16.2%
        No                                  90.3        83.0       77.9         83.8
        N                                   165         165        163          493
       X2=9.359, df=2, p<0.01

								
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