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BIOFERTILIZERS for Indian Agriculture

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BIOFERTILIZERS for Indian Agriculture Powered By Docstoc
					   NOTES ON
BIOFERTILIZERS
 INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
BIOFERTILIZERS ARE MICROBIAL
  INOCULANTS SUPPORTED ON
     CARRIERS AND MAKE
        AGRICULTURE:

    # environmentally sustainable,
    # economically rewarding,
    # intellectually stimulating.
WHAT ARE BIOFERTILIZERS [BF]?

• Microbial inoculants that are carrier-based
  preparations containing beneficial
  microorganisms in a viable state.
• Intended for seed or soil application.
• Designed to improve soil fertility in N and P
• Provide growth promoter substances.


                                                  3
           Microbial inoculants
• Artificially multiplied cultures of certain
  soil organisms that can improve soil
  fertility and crop productivity.
• Rhizobia were discovered in 1895,
  followed by the Azotobacter and then
  the blue green algae and a host of other
  micro-organisms.
• Azospirillum and Vesicular-Arbuscular
  Micorrhizae (VAM) are fairly recent
  discoveries.
                                            4
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BIOFERTILIZERS: USE IN INDIA

# First commercial production of legume
  Rhizobium symbiosis was done in 1956
# Ninth Plan initiated National Project on
  Development and Use of Biofertilizers
  (NPDB).
# To supplement chemical fertilizers that
  become expensive and deteriorate soil.

                                             6
      Factors affecting Performance of
                biofertilizers:
•   Host plant
•   Soil fertility
•   Cropping practices
•   Biological & environmental factors
    Survival and efficiency of BF are
    affected by the above factors

                                         7
              Rhizobium
• Bacteria that grows in root nodules of
  legumes [soya bean, etc]

• Rhizobium INOCULANTS:
  Use of Rhizobium culture in legumes is
  most promising. On average, its use
  can supply 15-20 kg N/ha to legumes:
  increase yield up to 20 per cent.


                                           8
             Rhizobium
• Rhizobium bacteria in roots of legume
  plants fix atmospheric N2 in nodules
  formed on the roots of plants.
         A pure and efficient strain of
  Rhizobium multiplied in the lab on a
  suitable medium by using shake flask
  technology or fermentation technology
  and inoculated into seed or root.


                                          9
Inoculum Application




                       10
Inoculum Application




                       11
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        Non-legume INOCULANTS
               Azotobacter


# These bacteria enhance the plant
  growth and finally yield. A highly efficient
  strain _
   Azotobacter chrooccocum is grown in
  the lab either as shake culture or using
   fermenter.

                                             13
              Azotobactor:

• Free living micro-organisms, that grow
  in the rhizosphere and fix atmospheric
  nitrogen non-symbiotically
• Makes it available to particularly
  cereals. Promotes seed germination,
  initial vigor of plants- by producing
  growth producing substances

                                           14
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            Azospirillum
• Azospirillum, [ Azospirillum lipoferum,
  biological nitrogen fixing grasses;
  enhance biomass-root system]
• Associative endo-symbiont on roots of
  grasses and similar types of plants.
  Also fixes atmospheric nitrogen and
  benefits host plants by supplying growth
  hormones and vitamins.
                                         17
             Azospirillum
• Commonly used for preparation of
  commercial inoculants on a large
  scale, for cereals and grasses as it
  produces growth promoters in
  addition to fixing N2.
• Has good adaptability to temp, soil
  pH and wide host range.

                                     18
     Cyanobacteria INOCULANTS::

• Biological nitrogen fixing ;

  photosynthetic also; Some free living

  cyanobacteria like Nostoc, Tolypothirix

  etc and other symbiotic like -

  Anabaena-Azolle_ useful for rice

                                            19
             Cyanobacteria

An important group of micro-organisms_ fix
 atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically
 mostly_ in rice fields in heterocysts cells_
 specially known as sites of nitrogen
 fixation.



                                                20
    Cyanobacteria: Preparation

Efficient strains_ used for
 multiplication on a large scale in
 field. Production of inoculum in
 artificially controlled conditions is
 defined but more expensive.
 Open air soil culture_ most
 simple, less expensive_ easily
 adaptable by the farmers.
                                         21
     Cyanobacteria: Preparation
– # Based on use of starter culture that is
  multi-strain inoculum of_ Aulosira,
  Tolypothrix, Scytonema, Nostoc and
  Anabaena.
– # In rural areas, unskilled labour can
  undertake the multiplication of blue green
  algae as a paying industry.


                                               22
      Phosphate SOLUBILIZING
           INOCULANTS
• Phosphate solubilizing
  microorganisms are
  Bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and / or
  fungi (Aspergillus awamorii) -
• Secrete organic acids - dissolve bound
  phosphate in soil

                                            23
Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria / fungi:
Phosphorus_ required for plant growth
 and water yield. It is also essential for
 nodulation by Rhizobium.
– Phospho-micro organism are mostly
 bacteria and fungi. Mycorrhizae have
 high potential of phosphorus
 accummulation in plants.


                                           24
            VAM fungi
  [Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza]

Intracellular, obligate, fungal endo-

  symbiont - glomus etc.- transfers

  phosphorus, zinc & sulfur from soil to

  root.


                                           25
             Mycorrhiza
• Colonise 85% of land plants_ offers
  50 % saving in chemical P fertilizer_
  higher resistance to soil-and-root
  borne pathogens_ helps in
  wasteland reclamation by providing
  extended arm to plant root system.
  # A broad-spectrum mycorrhizal
  biofertilizer is available.
                                     26
  Mycorrhiza Produced by:
# M/s Cadila Pharamaceutical

Ltd., Ahemdabad, and KCP
Sugar and Industries (Pvt.) Ltd.,
Chennai [DBT-TERI, New Delhi’s
technology].
                               27
Award for Producer of Mycorrhiza

• KCP Sugar Industries received
  the All India Biotechnology
  Association Award for
  production and marketing of
  the mycorrhizal bio-fertilizer.


                                28
        Estimated potential Demand for
          Biofertilisers by 2000-2001

•   Type of Biofertiliser   •   Demand (Tonnes)
•   Rhizobium               •   34,999
•   Azotobacter             •   145,953
•   Azospirillum            •   74,342
                            •   251,738
•   Blue green Algae
•   Phosphate solublising   • 255,340
    microorganism
                                762,372
• Total:

                                                  29
     Biofertilizer Production Support:
                           GOI- 1999-2000
• National Biofertilizer Development
  Centre- established at Ghaziabad with 6
  Regional BF Development Centres
  each at Jabalpur, Hissar, Nagpur,
  Bangalore, Bhubaneswar and Imphal.
• Under this scheme 74 BF-production
  units established with central
  assistance having annual production
  capacity of 8475 tonnes.
                                        30
Promoting Bio-fertilizers: Current Situation

• A limited extent of success till date
  (2000).
• There has been no accelerated growth
  in distribution with time.
• Inadequate spatial diffusion.
• Despite entry of small private units into
  the industry there is no clear indication
  of the success of privatization.
                                          31
Progress of the bio-fertilizer Industry

• Based on the data for 1995, 1997
  and 1999, the industry witnessed a
  steady increase in the number of
  units producing the BF ;
• the bulk of the growth took place by
  1992-95 of the sample period and
  stagnated thereafter.

                                      32
   Changes in the share by type of BF

• moderate success in AZT and by
 far the best performance by PSB
• decline in RHZ indicated success in
 groundnut and pulses was below
 expectation.

                                        33
34
35
   Main constraints in spread of
        BF as an Industry:

1. Inadequate production and supply
of efficient cultures of micro-
organisms to farmers well before
sowing.

2. Quality control aspect

3. Lack of publicity, communication.

                                      36
Marketing: Host, soil & climate specific
     BF: Receive user feedback
• To cover the vast areas of legumes,
  pulses and oil seeds cereals and
  horticultural crops- to train users to
  apply and to receive feedback info.
  from them.
• More manufacturer-distributors
  needed_ to prepare the bio-fertilizers in
  particular locality and supply to farmers
  as per farmer’s need, while earning
  profit.

                                          37
        Marketing of BF: Logistics
• # Prepared bio-fertilizers should reach
  farmers prior to sowing.
  # If given free of cost, that lowers down
  the importance of product and farmers
  don’t use them carefully.
  # If bio-fertilizers are supplied after
  expiry date_expected results are not
  obtained.

                                          38
Steps in biofertilizer production

     Strain selection,
        Mass Culture,
   Carrier preparation and
         Inoculation
      Quality testing.
         Packaging
        Distribution

                                    39
       NATURE OF BF INDUSTRY:
•    Indigenous technology
•   Scientific aspects: Standardized by
    Agricultural Universities and Research
    Labs.
•   Machineries and laboratory
    equipments are of BIS standards.


                                         40
           Manufacturing equipments:
•   Laboratory equipments,
•   Autoclaves,
•   Fermenter assembly,
•   Boiler,
•   Broth dispensers,
•   Plant for sterlisation, deminralising
•   Air compressor

                                            41
      The size of a Biofertiliser unit:

• Capacity of production of various types /
  strains of bio-fertilizers per annum.
• The projects so far set up in our county
  vary from 75 TPA to 300 TPA.
• Expandable by adding a few additional
  equipment like a fermenter and / or
  adding another shift.


                                          42
            Requirements of         BF Projects
1 Land

2 Layout and buildings

3 Plant and Machinery

4 Manufacturing process and Source of technology

5 Infrastructural Facilities for raw material, carrier material
and utilities (Power, Water, Compressed air, Vehicles)

6 Manpower Unit Size

7 Business Prospects And Marketing and Selling
                                                              43
Arrangements
44
Dr Bhabani Dikshit




                     45
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  Extension work needed for popularizing BF
• Visits to areas of undivided Puri district
  comprising of Pipli , Khurda and Nayagarh
  belt, showed that a large number of farmer
  of Chandanpur area applied biofertilizer in
  their betel vine crops by using Azatobactor
  and PSB (Phosphates soluble bacteria) and
  yielded good results. A senior Government
  agronomist of the Fertilizer Promotion and
  Agricultural Research Division (FP & ARD)
  based in Puri, Simanchala Panigrahi, said
  that as biofertilizer was a new concept to the
  farmers of Orissa, it needed further vigorous
                                                   52
  extension work for popularizing its use.
53
 BOOKS ABOUT
BIOFERTILIZERS




        CONTINUED
   Indian Books on Biofertilizers-1

• Biofertilizer - Technology, Marketing
  and usage, a source book-cum-
  Glossary by Dr. M R Motsara et al
  (1995) - Fertilizer Development and
  Consultation Organization publishers,
  New Delhi 110048 (India)


                                          55
   Indian Books on Biofertilizers-2
• Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Forestry
  by N S Subba Rao, Oxford & IBH, New
  Delhi.
• Biotechnology of Biofertilizers Edited by
  S. Kannaiyan, Narosa Publishing
  House, N. Delhi, 2002



                                           56
      Indian Books on Biofertilizers -3
• Recent Advances in Biofertilizer Technology/
  Edited by A.K. Yadav, S. Ray Chaudhuri and
  M.R. Motsara, 2001, Society for Promotion
  and Utilisation of Resources and Technology,
  New Delhi. [Vedam Books]
• Phosphatic Biofertilizers / Laxmi Lal. Udaipur,
  Agrotech Pub., 2002.


                                                57
      Handbook of Biofertilizers
• Handbook of microbial biofertilizers, M. K. Rai,
  Routledge, 2006 - 579 pages,

• Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial
  biofertilizers--including emerging options such as
  "Piriformospora indica" and "Matsutake" The Handbook
  of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of
  all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular
  mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacterias well as new and
  emerging growth promoters (endophytes).                    58
It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion,
bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocols
and practical strategies for using microbes in sustainable
agriculture.
An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figures make
complex information easy to access and understand.
In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11
countries and several continents address important
issues surrounding microbial biofertilizers,


                                                         59
… including: the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal"
tripartite relationship, mycorrhiza as a disease suppresser
and stress reducer mycorrhiza helping bacteria the
impact of functional groups of soil microorganisms on
nutrient turnover PBPRs as biofertilizers and
biopesticides the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for use
as a biofertilizers, the expanding role of blue-green algae
in sustainable agriculture, the role of microbial fertilizers
in sustainable plant production new and emerging
endophytes the commercial potential of biofertilizers
                                                            60
In this young century, the use of biofertilizers is already
growing rapidly. It has been recognized that these
environment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, and
remediators are essential for soil / plant health. The
Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit the
expanding information needs of current and future
biotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists,
environmentalists, and others whose work involves
sustained agriculture.
                Handbook of Biofertilizers
                                                          61

				
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