Theory X and Theory Y in Human Resource Management from

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   Theory X and Theory Y have been
    propounded by Douglas McGregor who was
    an American social psychologist. He
    presented his theory in his 1960 book, ‘The
    Human Side of Enterprise’.

   The Theories X – Y are used extensively in
    management and motivation. The theory has
    been used by management to formulate and
    develop motivation and positive management
    styles, strategies and techniques. It remains
    central to the organizational development
    and in improving organizational culture.

   Theory X assumes autocratic management.
    The theory says that managers under Theory
    X assume that most people are naturally lazy
    and need to be controlled and supervised.
    They think that people need to be motivated
    all the time. One of the notions that Theory X
    managers have toward their people is that
    they are not very smart and they need good
    encouragement to do good work.

   Some of the most noticeable characteristics
    of Theory X managers are autocratic
   The managers are results-driven. They are
    concerned with the completion of a given
    task. They issue deadlines for the completion
    of work.

   The managers lack tolerance. They are very
    intolerant in nature.
    Most of the theory X managers distances
    themselves from workers. They do not have
    much of an attachment to with their

   Theory X managers issue threats and
    warnings to make people follow their
   They do not participate in the process of
    team building.
   They are unconcerned about the welfare or
    morale of the employees.

   They are one-way communicators and poor
    They withhold rewards and suppress pay and
    remuneration levels.

   They are poor at delegating responsibilities
    and think giving orders is delegating
   They hold on to responsibility but shift
    accountability to subordinates.

   Conversely, Theory Y assumes democratic
    management. The theory says that managers
    under Theory Y assume that most people like
    to work. The managers assume that they have
    self-control. They assume that people can
    motivate themselves and want to do a good
    job. One of the important notions that Theory
    Y managers have about their people is that
    they are smart.

   Some of the characteristics of Theory Y
    managers can be seen. Theory Y managers
    are quite opposite to that of Theory X.
   Even Theory Y managers are results-oriented,
    after all, but they are also concerned with not
    just the completion of work, but they assist
    their subordinates in doing things.

   Theory Y managers are very tolerant in
    nature. They tolerant mistakes and try to
    rectify them by explaining what should not be
    done and what needs to be done.
   Theory Y managers do not distance out from
    their employees. They think it is all one team
    including oneself and move along providing
    motivation and encouragement to the team.

   They do not threat employees for non-
    compliance. Instead, they explain them about
    the norms and compliance issues and make
    them realize that instructions are for the
    betterment of work.

   They actively participate in the team building
    process and make sure that every employee
    in the team is more than a better performer.
   They are very much concerned about the
    welfare and morale of employees. They try to
    know the grievances of their employees, if
    any and try to solve them, if possible.

   They are good communicators and good
    listeners and take suggestions and
    constructive criticism seriously.
   They do not withhold any rewards and
    compensations to threat the employees. They
    also praise their employees for their good

   They are very good at delegating
    responsibilities. They not only give orders but
    also give directions and suggestions to
    complete the work.
   They hold on to responsibility and also
    accountability to themselves.

   These are the fundamental differences in the
    views of Theory X and Theory Y. The theories
    are used extensively in the management
    school of thought for the betterment of work,
    productivity and organizational culture in the
    long run.

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