The Mysterious Liquid from Area 51 Background Area 51 is a secret military base in Southern Nevada supposedly used as a testing and training location for new military aircraft and weapons. The location is strictly closed off to visitors, and trespassing and photography are prohibited. Even the air space above Area 51 is restricted. Unmarked vehicles watch and wait with M16’s from the entrance to the secret location while surveillance cameras monitor the entire area. The location is referred to by the CIA under code names Paradise Ranch, Dreamland, and Area 51. The government barely recognizes that the area exists. The Air Force and the Department of Defense completely deny the existence of Area 51. It cannot be found on any US government map. Satellite pictures that were taken of the area have been seized and edited to remove the contents and structures on the ground. When a NASA astronaut accidently photographed the area from space in 2006, an unnamed CIA official sent NASA a memo and began a struggle between NASA and the CIA concerning the existence of the space and the alterations of the astronaut’s photos. This intense secrecy and denial has led to several conspiracy theories surrounding Area 51 and unusual phenomena has been linked to the area. It is thought by many that the location actually serves as an underground lab site for the storage and examination of alien space craft, a meeting place for extraterrestrials, and a place to study and autopsy the dead alien bodies from Earth crashes. AREA 51~TOP SECRET LOCATION AREA 51~DREAMLAND th On the 7 of July, 1947, the public information office at Roswell Army Air Field (in Roswell New Mexico) reported “the crash and recovery of a flying disc”. The very next day Roger Ramey of the 8 th Air Force announced that the remains found were actually of a weather balloon, not a flying disc. However, the public believed that the government removed the remains to Area 51 where they began study on the craft and the alien bodies found within, and that this national secret was the root of the conspiracy surrounding the Area. AREA 51 ~ WHAT IS IT? Bob Young was an engineer for the Department of Defense and was transferred to Area 51 in the late 1940’s. He was among the men chosen to collect the remains of the flying disc, and the dead body of the alien on board, and transport both to an underground facility at Area 51. Once in the secret underground lab, Bob began his work investigating the body of the alien. As he worked he noticed a thin film of green liquid oozing from the body. Not wanting to contaminate his lab area, he wiped away the liquid and went back to work. Soon after, he noticed this liquid film had returned on the surface of the alien. Again he wiped it off, and again it mysteriously returned. Intrigued, he collected this mysterious liquid and sealed it in an unmarked contained in his lab to be studied later. Bob told his story to some friends and family members later that week, and the tale quickly spread. Bob’s wife Vivian recalls her husband receiving a threatening memo from an unnamed CIA official questioning his findings and demanding to be given the jarred liquid. Vivian claims her husband went to work in the early morning of July 16th, 1947 and never returned. Strangely, there is no record of a Bob Young ever working for the department of defense at Area 51, and the government denies ever having employed anyone named Bob Young. His social security number and birth certificate are both nonexistent. Years later, Vivian Young found the jar of green liquid hidden in her basement. She never returned it to the CIA. Materials Needed: Test 1 Test 2 Area 51 liquid * Remaining Area 51 liquid from Test 1 25 mL of H2O * Remaining H2O from Test 1 25 mL of Alc * Remaining Oil from Test 1 25 mL of Oil * Celsius Thermometer Microscope Slide (1) * Test Tube (1) Capillary Tube (1) * Remaining Alcohol Red Crayon Paper Towel Pipet Test 3 Test 4 Remaining Area 51 liquid * Remaining Area 51 liquid Remaining H2O * Remaining H2O Remaining Oil * Remaining Oil Remaining Alcohol * Remaining Alcohol 12 test tubes * 12 test tubes from test 3, cleaned and dried Small graduated cylinder * Small graduated cylinder Labeling tape * Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 0.4g of sugar * Milk 0.4g of salt * Pipette 0.4g of baking soda * Sodium Hydroxide Test 5 Test 6 250 mL Beaker * 1 Penny Heating Element * Paper Towel Small graduated cylinder * Pipet Remaining H2O * Remaining Water Remaining Oil * Remaining Oil Remaining Alcohol * Remaining Alcohol Remaining Area 51 liquid * Remaining Area 51 liquid Thermometer Laboratory Process for Analysis of Area 51 Liquid Test 1: Capillary Action 1. Place a microscope slide on the lab table. Use a pipet to place 5 drops of Area 51 liquid on the center of the slide. 2. Insert a capillary tube into the center of the liquid on the slide. Observe what happens to the liquid. Mark the level of the liquid in the capillary tube with a red crayon. 3. Remove the tube from the liquid and measure the distance from the bottom of the tube to the mark in millimeters. Record this in the Data Table. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 with alcohol, oil, and water. *To remove the liquid from the capillary tube, touch the end of the tube to a paper towel. The towel will “wick” the liquid out of the tube. Test 2: Vaporization 1. Read the temperature in Celsius on a thermometer. Record the temperature in the Data Table. 2. Measure 5mL of the Area 51 liquid in a graduated cylinder and pour it into a test tube. 3. Insert the thermometer into the tube with the liquid and then remove it. Record the temperature in the Data Table. 4. Hold the thermometer at eye level and wait for the liquid to evaporate. Read the lowest temperature that is reached and record it on your Data Table. 5. Repeat the procedure with water and alcohol. Do not repeat it with oil, it will not evaporate. Test 3: Solubility of compounds 1. Obtain 12 test tubes and divide them into 4 groups with 3 test tubes in each group. 2. Designate one set of test tubes for water. Number each tube #1, #2, and #3 and add 1 mL of water to each. Repeat for alcohol, oil, and Area 51 liquid 3. In all tubes marked #1, ad 0.1g of sugar. In all tubes marked #2, add 0.1g of salt, and in all tubes marked #3, add 0.1g of baking soda. 4. Swirl each tube and observe how well each substance dissolves. Rate the solubility of the substances from 1-10 (10 if it is completely dissolves, 1 if it didn’t dissolve at all) and record this in the Data Table. Test 4: Acid/Base Properties 1. Obtain 12 clean and dry test tubes and divide them into four groups with three test tubes in each group. 2. Designate one set of test tubes for water. Number each tube #1, #2, and #3 and add 1mL of water to each. Repeat for alcohol, oil, and Area 51 liquid. 3. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the test tubes marked #1, 5 drops to the test tube marked #2, and nothing to the test tubes marked #3. 4. Using a pipet, add 3 drops of milk to each tube. 5. Swirl each tube around and look for any changes in appearance of the milk. Record what you see in the Data Table. 6. Dispose of the contents down the drain and rinse the tubes. 7. Repeat step number 2 8. Add 10 drops of sodium hydroxide to test tubes marked #1, 5 drops to test tubes marked #2, and nothing to the test tubes marked #3. 9. Using a pipet, add 3 drops of milk to each tube. 10. Swirl each tube around and look for any changes in appearance of the milk. Record what you see in the Data table. Test 5: Specific Heat Complete this using only one liquid at a time. 1. Place 2 mL of oil in a test tube. 2. Fill a 250mL beaker ¾ of the way full with water and heat it, bringing it to a boil. 3. While you’re waiting for the water to boil, add 2 mL of water from the faucet to another test tube. 4. Place the test tube with the water in the water bath made from the 250 mL beaker and allow its temperature to come to 70oC. Use a thermometer. 5. CAREFULLY pour the warmed 2mL water into the oil test tube and stir. Record the highest temperature reached by the mixture on the Data Table. 6. Repeat steps 1-5, substituting the water, alcohol, and Area 51 liquid in the place of the oil. Test 6: Surface Tension 1. Place a paper towel on the table and a penny on the paper towel. 2. Use a pipet to add drops of the Area 51 liquid in the surface of the penny, one drop at a time, counting the number of drops used. 3. Keep track of the number of drops used until the water surface tension breaks and the water flows over the edge of the penny. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 with water, alcohol, and oil. Data table for the Analysis of the Mysterious Liquid from Area 51 Name __________________________ Date ________________ Test 1: Capillary Action Water Area 51 Liquid Alcohol Oil Height in Capillary tube Test 2: Vaporization Water Area 51 Liquid Alcohol Starting temperature (room temp.) Ending temperature (after mixing) Change in temperature Test 3: Solubility of Compounds (1=didn’t dissolve at all, 10=completely dissolved) Water Area 51 Liquid Alcohol Oil Sugar Salt Baking Soda Test 4: Acid/Base Properties (milk added) 10 dr. acid 5 dr. acid No acid 10 dr. NaOH 5 dr. NaOH No NaOH Water Area 51 Liquid Alcohol Oil Test 5: Specific Heat Water Alcohol Oil Area 51 Liquid Starting Temperature Ending Temperature Change in Temperature Test 6: Surface Tension Water Oil Alcohol Area 51 Liquid Number of drops added to penny Capillary Action 1. What is the significance of the height of a capillary column? Analysis of the 2. What characteristics do a liquid have to have in order to rise higher in the column? Mysterious Liquid from Area 51 Vaporization 3. Which liquid evaporated the fastest? 4. Which liquid has the highest heat of vaporization? 5. The amount of heat necessary for a given amount of liquid to vaporize is called the heat of vaporization. Of what significance is the heat of vaporization? Solubility of compounds 6. A compound which has an area of positive charge separated from an area of negative charge is called a polar compound. Compounds, which have no charge separation, are non-polar. Which of the liquids you used are polar? Which is non-polar? 7. Which liquid dissolves more compounds? 8. Why is it important in living things for compounds to be soluable? Acid/Base Properties 9. Milk is a mixture of several substances. Which material dissolved in milk was affected by a change in pH? 10. In which solution did the milk retain most of its original physical properties? 11. What other important biological compounds would be affected by a pH change in a solution? 12. Does pH change in all the liquids equally? Specific Heat 13. In which combination of liquids did the temperature change the most? 14. Which test substance had the greater specific heat?(see the definition of specific heat in question #5) Surface tension 15. What is the importance of surface tension in plants? 16. How is surface tension related to capillary action? 17. What determines the surface tension of a liquid? 18. Why is surface tension important in living systems?
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