Study Guide for Fund. of Cell Biology Chapters 1-3 Labs and Classroom Activities (114 Point Exam) You may use your lab handouts and Powerpoint notes on this exam. This handout or other photocopies of papers belonging to others WILL NOT BE PERMITTED during the lab exam! You will need to mark answers on YOUR personal papers BEFORE taking exam. Dysfunctional flashlight & light-up the bulb activity: Given a single D-cell battery, single wire and flashlight bulb, be able to diagram THREE DIFFERENT ways to get the flashlight bulb to light. Demonstration with cathode ray tube and magnet: The beam produced by the cathode ray tube was composed of what subatomic particles? When the instructor brought the positive end of a magnet near the beam, did the beam bend toward it or away? Be able to explain why it was deflected. Demonstrating a stream of water with a static-charged balloon: I will show you a diagram of water molecules (structural models) within a slow stream of water. You will need to show the cohesion between water molecules (hydrogen bonds) by drawing dash lines. Use “+” and “-” to correctly show slightly charged ends of each water molecule. Know what end of each water molecule is attracted to the negative-charged latex balloon (due to electrons picked up from being rubbed on someone’s hair). Activity with penny, water, sewing needle: Know the water property that allowed the water to bulge as a bubble of water before it collapsed due to gravity. Know what creates surface tension (the same force that allowed the needle to float for some of you on the water surface. Why did I have you apply facial oil to the needle before attempting to float it? What water property allows water to move between the small pores of a paper towel and move like a “wick” into the paper towel? Demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup: Why is one able to boil water in a paper cup? (Please include information about energy transfer and heat of vaporization (hint: Fahrenheit 451 and 212). Demonstration with ice cubes in solvents: What unique property of water allows it to float as a solid in liquid water? Why did the ice sink in the alcohol? Activity of breath into BTB fluid: Explain how BTB is a pH indicator (be very specific on color shift). What is created when water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) combine? Explain how this product (question above) created a change in color of the BTB solution. Demonstration of egg white reacting with acid & heat: What was happening to the protein within the liquid egg white when it was being exposed to 6 M HCl or heat? (technical term) Was this altering its primary or secondary structure? Parts of a Microscope: Know the 12 parts of the light microscope that was on your diagram of a microscope. Field-of-View Calculations: Be able to calculate the total magnification, field-of-view in mm, and field-of-view in microns given the magnification of ocular lens, low power objective, medium power objective, high power objective, and the field-of-view of low power in mm. You will need to use the phrase "the field-of-view is inversely proportionate to the increase in magnification" to perform calculations. Microscope Use Multiple Choice: Multiple choice questions about utilizing the letter "e" as done in the lab and how the field-of- view will change with change in magnification. Additional questions will deal with "how to calculate total magnification". Measuring in microns: Given the following information, estimate the approximate actual size of the organism in each case in microns. Field-of-Views are: Low = 4500; Med. = 1800; and High = 450. Similar as measuring lab, being able to estimate the approximate size of microscopic organisms based on how many stretch across the field-of-view. DNA isolated from strawberries: Know what the meat tenderizer break down. Know if the ethyl alcohol was more dense or less dense than the DNA extract and how to justify your answer. Know what the soap do to the phospholipid membranes. Be able to name at least two (2) locations of phospholipid membranes with cells. Total Acid Content in Citrus Fruits Lab: What was the pH indicator used in this lab? How did this show a change in pH (be specific in your answer)? What were the two types of acids present in the citrus fruits tested? Was sodium hydroxide (NaOH) a strong acid or base? Know how to mix up 100 mL of a one molar solution of KOH (Hint: will want to know how many grams of KOH will need to be added to 100 ml of distilled water to produce 100 mL of 1 M KOH). Be able to list the three fruits from MOST acidic to LEAST acidic and include quantitative evidence (volume of pH indicator NOT pH paper) from your lab to support your sequence Lab-Aids 505: Be able to draw the structural formula for water. Be able to write the molecular formula for a 6-C monosaccharide (i.e. glucose). Be able to describe isomerism among monosaccharides. Know what disaccharide is created by joining together glucose and glucose. Know what disaccharide is created by joining together glucose and fructose. Know what must be removed from the two monosaccharides in order for them to join together. (answer has two parts). Know the proper term for the removal of the molecule in requested in question above to create the disaccharide. A polysaccharide is composed of multiple monosaccharides linked together. If eleven (11) monosaccharides are chemically bonded to form a disaccharide, how many water molecules must be removed? Write down the molecular formula for the polysaccharide that would be created in the question immediately above. C ____ H ____ O ____ What are the two components in a lipid monomer? Know the proper term for (-OH) radical. Know the proper term for (-COOH) group. Know what elements make up lipids. How many water molecules are created as by-products with the production of a single lipid monomer? What is meant by a saturated fatty acid? What do you look for in the structure of fatty acids to recognize an unsaturated fat? Saturated fats normally exist in what state of matter when at room temperature? Plants normally produce unsaturated fats and therefore exist in what state of matter when at room temperature. What is different about the hydrogen to oxygen ratio when comparing carbohydrate with lipids Carbohydrate Identification: What solution was used to detect the presence of monosaccharides? Based on question immediately above, how did the solution indicate a monosaccharide was being tested (give details of particular color shift)? Be able to explain the difference between a disaccharide and a starch using both tests done during the lab exercise: State the status of your five (5) test solutions as being a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or polysaccharide. (solutions of: powered sugar; liquid oats; table sugar; apple juice; & honey). You will use your lab results of Benedict and Iodine with the known mono-, di-, and polysaccharides done during your lab and determine a new list of foods / drinks as mono-, di-, or polysaccharides.