Pres 08 - Introduction To Waste Management

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					Eco-Efficiency Training Course             Waste Minimisation


                                 This is the first presentation covering waste
                                 minimisation.

                                 Of all environmental parameters (energy, COD,
                                 waste, water) then it is typical for waste to be
                                 subject to greater control at a factory site. The
                                 generation of waste is very visible and more often
                                 than not the disposal of waste attracts relatively
                                 high costs.

                                 The reduction in waste or the target to achieve
                                 zero loss is an integral part of TPM which is
                                 conducted at the majority of Unilever factories.




                                 What is Waste Minimisation?

                                  The reduction of waste at source by
                                 understanding and changing processes to
                                 reduce and prevent waste.

                                 Involves any technique, process or activity,
                                 which avoids, eliminates or reduces waste at
                                 its source.




                                 Depicting any process as a Black Box shows us
                                 typically where waste can occur. A text book
                                 definition of waste is waste is anything which
                                 adds cost but not value . Visually, losses from
                                 production lines, packing and product formulating
                                 are usually straightforward to identify and
                                 quantify. Other losses, which are not so visible
                                 however such as heat, power, and losses to
                                 wastewater may require different techniques to
                                 gauge with any real level of accuracy where, how
                                 and why they are occurring.




Page 1 of 5                        Introduction To Waste Management.doc
Eco-Efficiency Training Course             Waste Minimisation


                                 Total Waste (Kgs) for the HPC business
                                 group.




                                 Total Waste (Kgs) for the Foods business.




                                 The 2004 EPR performance for the Asia BG
                                 shows the 5 key areas that are to be addressed
                                 hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste, energy,
                                 CO2 and boiler SOx.

                                 The diagram shows that the Asian BG produces
                                 approximately 20% of the total Unilever
                                 production output. The above mentioned 5
                                 parameters all show a greater contribution of the
                                 total Unilever output when compared with
                                 production.




Page 2 of 5                        Introduction To Waste Management.doc
Eco-Efficiency Training Course            Waste Minimisation


                                 For non-hazardous waste the comparison of
                                 the Asia BG with other Unilever Business
                                 groups is shown here. The graph illustrates
                                 the percentage of Unilever output for non-
                                 hazardous waste against the percentage
                                 contribution to production.

                                 For Asia the amount of non-hazardous waste
                                 generated as a proportion of Unilever output
                                 appears to be well controlled for the region..




                                 This graph is the same as the previous slide
                                 but for hazardous waste.

                                 The volumes of hazardous waste generated
                                 within Unilever are much smaller than for
                                 non-hazardous waste volumes.

                                 The types of waste designated as hazardous
                                 are usually defined at a national scale. So a
                                 waste in one country defined as hazardous
                                 may not be designated hazardous in another
                                 country.




                                 Over the last four years production levels
                                 have steadily increased.

                                 The levels of waste generation in Asia saw a
                                 large reduction from 2001 to 2002. Since then
                                 as production levels have risen the waste
                                 levels appear to be under control.




Page 3 of 5                        Introduction To Waste Management.doc
Eco-Efficiency Training Course            Waste Minimisation



                                 2004 saw a dramatic rise in the hazardous
                                 waste level produced by the Asian BG.

                                 This was due to several reasons:

                                 · GPCB has classified discarded and out of
                                   date products disposed to landfill as
                                   hazardous waste.

                                 · Better reporting

                                 · Sulphonation waste

                                 · Legislation change now classifies ETP
                                   sludge as hazardous waste.


                                 The cost of waste can be easily converted to
                                 say the cost of the product or the raw
                                 materials used to make the product had the
                                 waste not been generated. However, this
                                 analysis only covers one component of the
                                 overall cost.

                                 This slide shows examples of the true cost of
                                 waste in terms of the additional costs involved
                                 over and above the loss of the raw materials
                                 or product.




                                 Waste minimisation techniques are practised in
                                 all factory operations to some extent. TPM
                                 provides an excellent mechanism for waste
                                 minimisation and there are many examples
                                 throughout Unilever of TPM reducing losses
                                 considerably. Reduction in waste generation
                                 reduces raw material losses and reduces
                                 effluent loads. This therefore has two cost
                                 benefits, increasing raw material efficiency and
                                 reducing trade effluent changes.

                                 The cost of trade effluent is obviously easy to
                                 determine, as it is an actual charge. The cost
                                 of lost product or raw material losses is harder
                                 to measure, but can be done in a number of
                                 ways.

Page 4 of 5                        Introduction To Waste Management.doc
Eco-Efficiency Training Course            Waste Minimisation


                                 The waste hierarchy adopted by the many
                                 organisations as providing the best approach
                                 to waste is:

                                 ·   Eliminate
                                 ·   Minimise
                                 ·   Re-use,
                                 ·   Treat
                                 ·   Dispose.

                                 The term waste minimisation means various
                                 things to different people. It covers reducing
                                 both the amount of waste produced and the
                                 hazards associated with waste. Re-use
                                 requires no reprocessing, whereas recycling
                                 returns a finished product to the new material
                                 stage and requires considerable reworking.




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