Safety guidelines Passenger and non-passenger vessels by fdh56iuoui

VIEWS: 39 PAGES: 129




Part One:
Specific identified hazardS

1   emergency procedureS and                             4   Watchkeeping
    equipment                                                4.1	 	 Organising	the	navigational	watch		   49
    1.1	 	 General	prevention	strategies	           1        4.2	 	 Duties	and	responsibilities		         50
    1.2	 	 Muster	stations		                        2	       4.3	 	 Navigational	equipment		              52
    1.3	 	 Emergency	training		                     4        4.4	 	 Fitness	for	duty		                    54
    1.4	 	 Fire	on	board		                          6
    1.5	 	 Man	overboard		                          7    5   Safety in machinery SpaceS
    1.6	 	 First	aid		                              8        5.1	 	 Refrigeration	systems		               55
    1.7	 	 Flooding		                              10	       5.2	 	 Compressed	air	systems		              57	
    1.8	 	 Abandon	ship		                          11        5.3	 	 Gas	cylinders	and	installations	      58
    1.9	 	 Emergency	contacts		                    13        5.4	 	 Electrical	systems		                  59
    1.10		 Operating	with	helicopters		            14        5.5	 	 Hydraulic	systems		                   61
                                                             5.6	 	 Hot	work		                            62
2   fire prevention and fire Safety
    2.1	 	 Fire	prevention	and	fire	safety		       15    6   Weather/Sea conditionS
    2.2	 	 General	fire	prevention		               16	       6.1	 	 Weather	conditions		                  63
    2.3	 	 Fire	drills		                           18        6.2	 	 Extreme	sea	conditions		              65
    2.4	 	 Fire	fighting		                         19        6.3	 	 Fog		 	                               66
    2.5	 	 Fire	fighting	equipment		               22        6.4	 	 Bar	crossing		                        67
    2.6	 	 Fire	detection	equipment		              26
                                                         7   human factorS
3   Safety in veSSelS                                        7.1	 	 Fatigue		                             69
    3.1	 	 General	safety		                        27	       7.2	 	 Stress		                              72
    3.2	 	 Personal	protective	equipment		                   7.3	 	 Alcohol	and	other	drugs		             75
         	 and	appropriate	clothing		              29        7.4	 	 Host	responsibilities		               77
    3.3	 	 Machine	guards		                        30
    3.4	 	 Isolation	procedures		                  31
    3.5	 	 Hazardous	substances		
         	 (dangerous	goods)		                     32
    3.6	 	 Lifting	gear		                          33
    3.7	 	 Portable	electric	tools		               34
    3.8	 	 Working	deck	surfaces		                 35
    3.9	 	 Ventilation		                           36
    3.10		 Lighting		                              37
    3.11		 Ropes	and	mooring	lines		               38
    3.12		 Boarding	and	disembarking		             39
    3.13		 Keeping	the	vessel	watertight	          40
    3.14		 Escape	routes		                         41
    3.15		 Machinery	stops		                       42
    3.16		 Fuelling	safety		                       43
    3.17		 General	training		                      44
    3.18		 Trip	planning/pre-sailing	checklist		   46
Part Two:
Specific veSSel operationS

8   roll on/roll off (ro-ro)                           14 hazard management
    ferrieS                                     81        14.1		 What	is	a	hazard?	                     107
                                                          14.2		 When	does	a	hazard	become		
9   high-Speed paSSenger veSSelS                83             	 significant?	                          108
                                                          14.3		 Hazard	identification	                 109
10 paSSenger ferrieS                            85        14.4		 Hazard	assessment	and		
                                                               	 management	                            110
11 Bare Boat/hire and drive                               14.5		 What	does	“all	practicable	steps’’		
   veSSelS                                      87             	 mean?	                                 111
                                                          14.6		 Significant	hazard	management		              	
Part Three:                                                    	 worksheet	                             112
general information on health
and Safety

12 dutieS and reSponSiBilitieS                   89
   12.1		 Employer/vessel	owner		
        	 (person	who	pays	the	wages)	           90	
   12.2		 Skipper	(person	who	controls		
        	 the	place	of	work)		                   91
   12.3		 Crew	(people	who	are	paid	wages)	 92
   12.4		 Self-employed	                         93
   12.5		 Principal	(person	who	hires	self-	
        	 employed	people	(skipper	or	owner))	94
   12.6		 Other	people	who	visit	the	workplace		
        	 in	the	course	of	their	work		
        	 (eg	observers,	compliance	officials,		
        	 contractors)	                          95

13 managing health and Safety
   13.1		 Relevant	legislation	                 97
   13.2		 Developing	a	health	and	safety		
        	 policy		                              98
   13.3		 Providing	information	                99
   13.4		 Selection	and	placement	of	crew	     100
   13.5		 Training	                            101
   13.6		 Induction	for	visitors	and	others	   102
   13.7		 Employee	participation	in	health		
        	 and	safety	                          103
   13.8		 People	who	are	not	employees	        104
   13.9		 System	auditing	                     105

This	manual	has	been	put	together	by	operators	of	commercial	passenger	and	non-passenger	vessels	
to	provide	guidelines	on	the	safe	operation	of	these	types	of	vessels.	This	manual	would	not	have	been	
possible	were	it	not	for	the	earlier	achievements	of	FishSAFE	in	producing	the	Safety guidelines for small
commercial fishing vessels,	which	this	manual	is	based	on.	If	you	are	involved	in	commercial	fishing	you	
should	refer	to	the	Safety guidelines for small commercial fishing vessels,	rather	than	the	information	
contained	here.	Special	mention	must	also	go	to	the	contribution	made	by	the	Marine	Transport	
Association	in	providing	the	expert	knowledge	and	vessel-specific	material	contained	within	this	manual.		

Everyone	working	on	board	is	encouraged	to	regularly	refer	to	this	manual.	It	is	intended	to	help	you	put	
in	place	training,	practices,	and	procedures	that	ensure	you	operate	safely	and	reduce	losses	due	to	
injury,	accidents,	or	incidents.	The	information	in	these	guidelines	is	based	on	practical	experience	and	
hard-earned	knowledge	from	past	accidents	and	incidents.	The	guidelines	offer	information	and	a	“best	
practice”	approach	to	the	normal	hazards	and	dangers	found	on	small	passenger	and	non-passenger	
vessels.	It	is	acknowledged	that	every	passenger	and	non-passenger	vessel	has	commercial	operations	
that	are	unique,	so	there	are	no	easy	“one	size	fits	all”	answers	to	safety	issues.	The	intention	is	for	
owners,	skippers	and	crew	to	use	this	material	as	a	starting	point	and	guide	when	considering	how	to	
make	sure	that	the	processes,	procedures	and	general	operation	of	their	vessel	are	both	safe	and	efficient.

The	guidelines,	while	not	legislative,	are	an	effective	way	of	putting	induction	and	training	processes		
into	place.	They	will	help	owners,	skippers	and	crew	to	meet	their	legal	obligations	under	the	Health		
and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	and	Maritime	Rules	(particularly	Safe	Ship	Management).

The	guidelines	do	not	contain	all	the	answers	to	every	hazard	or	danger.	Likewise,	it	may	be	that	the	
solutions	or	techniques	they	offer	do	not	apply	to	your	vessel	or	operation	for	practical	or	economic	
reasons.	In	these	cases,	it	is	hoped	that	the	guidelines	will	provide	the	framework	and	approach	that		
will	enable	you	to	put	your	own	unique	solutions	into	place.

The	guidelines	are	designed	to	be	an	evolving	document.	They	will	be	updated	and	amended	in		
the	future.	If	you	have	any	questions	or	feedback	on	the	guidelines	contact	the	Manager,	Safety	
Management	Systems,	Maritime	New	Zealand.

                      Part One
1.1	 GENERAL	PREVENTION		 	                                                                           	
This	section	details	the	emergency	procedures	and	equipment	that	should	be	on	every	vessel.	It	also	
covers	what	you	can	do	to	prevent	emergencies:

                                                                                                               1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
•	 if	there	is	a	fire	on	board
•	 when	someone	falls	overboard
•	 when	someone	is	injured	on	board
•	 if	there	is	a	flood	on	board
•	 if	you	have	to	abandon	ship
•	 if	you	have	to	make	a	MAYDAY	call.

Regular	emergency	drills	ensure	all	crewmembers	know	what	to	do	if	something	goes	wrong.	

preventing emergencies
Many	accidents	and	injuries	can	be	avoided,	or	their	effects	reduced,	through	the	knowledge	and	
training	of	the	vessel’s	management	and	crew.	

Everyone	should	do	what	they	can	to	keep	the	vessel	in	good	working	condition.	This	means:
•	 keep	things	tidy	on	and	below	deck
•	 know	where	items	should	be	stored	and	keep	them	there
•	 secure	loose	items
•	 make	sure	safety	gear	is	easy	to	get	to,	and	that	it	is	regularly	checked	and	maintained
•	 report	any	problems	or	gear	defects	to	the	skipper.	

       tipS for SkipperS

 insist on safe working standards at all times.
 •	 Always	discuss	safety	matters	with	your	crew.	Formal	safety	committees	are	only	compulsory	
    where	there	are	30	or	more	employees.	Good	communication	on	safety	matters	keeps		
    everyone	informed.
 •	 Every	crewmember	should	be	encouraged	to	give	feedback	and	report	defects.
 •	 Complete	pre-sailing	safety	checks	every	time	you	sail.
 •	 Follow	the	Safe	Ship	Management	(SSM)	programme	on	board.
 •	 Encourage	your	crew	to	attend	first	aid,	fire	fighting,	survival	and	emergency	training.
 •	 Conduct	regular	safety	exercises	and	discussions	while	at	sea.		

       legal requirementS

 •	 Maritime	Rules	Part	23	lists	“Operating	procedures	and	training	designed	to	cope	with	emergency	
    situations	or	prevent	such	situations	occurring”.
 •	 The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	(HSE	Act)	requires	“every	employer	to	take	all	
    practical	steps	to	ensure	the	safety	of	employees	while	at	work”.
 •	 The	HSE	Act	also	requires	“all	employees	to	participate	in	processes	relating	to	health	and	safety”.

                                                                       Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS              
                                       1.2	 MUSTER STATIONS

                                       Muster	station	and	muster	list	are	terms	typically	used	by	larger	vessels.	However,	they	are	still	relevant	
                                       to	smaller	vessels.	

                                       A	muster	station	is	an	assembly	point	that	every	crewmember	knows	to	go	to	on	hearing	the	vessel’s	
                                       emergency	alarm.	At	the	muster	station/s	details	are	given	to	crew	and	passengers	on	the	type	of	
                                       emergency.	Crew	are	also	given	instructions	on	what	tasks	are	required	of	them.	The	muster	station		
                                       on	a	small	passenger	or	non-passenger	vessel	is	normally	in,	or	behind,	the	wheelhouse.

                                       A	muster	list	is	a	list	that	details	what	duties	each	crewmember	has	in	the	event	of	an	emergency.		
                                       This	should	be	displayed	in	a	prominent	position	on	your	vessel	where	the	crew	will	see	it	often.		
                                       An	example	muster	list	is	shown	on	the	following	page.

                                       everyone should know and follow the muster procedures.

                                               tipS for SkipperS

                                        •	 Place	your	muster	list	in	a	prominent	position	on	the	vessel.	Refer	to	the	legal	section	below	for	
                                           maritime	rule	requirements.
                                        keep your crew “up to speed” by:
                                        •	 having	drills	when	least	expected
                                        •	 changing	crew	emergency	duties	around	between	trips	so	they	become	familiar	with	all	duties,		
                                           and	they	get	into	the	habit	of	regularly	checking	the	muster	list
                                        •	 putting	a	copy	of	the	muster	list	in	places	where	crew	will	read	it,	eg	the	mess	or	the	back	of	the	
                                           toilet	door	
                                        •	 always	initiating	any	drill	with	the	actual	alarm.	

                                               legal requirementS

                                        •	 All	vessels	should	have	a	muster	list.	Refer	to	Maritime	Rules	Part	23	for	details	of	which	passenger	
                                           and	non-passenger	ships	are	required	to	have	a	muster	list.

                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
Muster	list	for	small	passenger	or	non-passenger	vessel.

                                                                                                                  1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
 muSter Station liSt
 (Emergency	Duty	List)

 muSter point	
 When	the	general	alarm	is	sounded	all	crew	muster	behind	the	wheelhouse	next	to	lifejacket	stowage.				

 aBandon Ship	
 This	order	will	only	be	given	by	the	skipper.

 crew            proceed to                  duty
 Skipper         Wheelhouse                  Send	distress	signals
 Mate            Wheelhouse                  Collect	EPIRB	on	way	to	liferaft
 Deckhand        Wheelhouse                  Collect	flares	and	VHF	radio	from	wheelhouse	on	way		
                                             to	liferaft

 fire on Board

 crew            proceed to                  duty
 Skipper         Wheelhouse                  Start	fire/deck	pump	
                                             Start	sending	distress	messages	if	required
 Mate            Wheelhouse                  Fight	fire	with	extinguishers	
 Deckhand        Wheelhouse                  Shut	ventilation,	close	vents	and	prepare	to	boundary	cool


 crew            proceed to                  duty
 Skipper         Wheelhouse                  Monitor	and	control
 Mate            Wheelhouse                  Start	bilge	pumps
 Deckhand        Wheelhouse                  Close	all	watertight	openings

 man overBoard
 All	crew	muster	behind	wheelhouse	(keeping	an	eye	on	person	in	water).

 creW nameS for trip

 crew            proceed to                  duty
 Skipper         Jack	Hook                   Wheelhouse	port	side
 Mate            Bob	Updown                  Forward	cabin	port	bunk
 Deckhand        Fred	Stone                  Forward	cabin	starboard	bunk

                                                                          Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS              
                                       1.3	 EMERGENCY	TRAINING

                                       The	crew	are	the	only	people	who	can	deal	with	an	emergency	at	sea.	As	emergencies	do	not	occur	
                                       often,	regular	training	is	essential.	This	will	mean	your	crew	can	respond	quickly	and	effectively	when	

                                       needed.	Emergency	training	is	practising	safety	drills	on	board	the	vessel	while	it	is	at	sea.	

                                       Ideally	training	should	be	done	at	any	time	and	while	at	sea.

                                       Regular	training,	or	practising,	develops	familiarity	and	familiarity	saves	time.	In	an	emergency	you	don’t	
                                       have	time	to	think.

                                               tipS for SkipperS

                                        •	 Develop	and	use	a	training	exercise	programme	for	your	vessel	and	crew.
                                        •	 Practise	all	drills	regularly	and	often	–	even	the	simple	ones.
                                        •	 Conduct	basic	muster	station	and	man	overboard	drills	at	the	earliest	opportunity	after	leaving	port,	
                                           especially	if	new	crewmembers	are	on	board.
                                        •	 Keep	a	record	of	all	training	and	exercises	undertaken.	An	example	record	is	shown	on	the	next	
                                           page.	Your	SSM	manual	may	have	similar	record	forms.
                                        •	 Never	assume	everyone	remembers	or	already	knows	what	to	do	in	an	emergency.
                                        •	 Conduct	exercises	for	all	types	of	emergencies.	Hold	these	in	different	areas	of	the	vessel		
                                           each	time.
                                        •	 Explain	the	use	of	the	emergency	gear	used	during	each	exercise.
                                        •	 Never	let	your	crew	talk	you	out	of	doing	an	exercise.	Yes	they	have	done	them	before,	yes	they	
                                           can	be	boring,	but	they	must	be	done.
                                        •	 Don’t	assume	that	because	you	only	have	a	very	small	crew	you	don’t	need	to	worry.		
                                           If	an	emergency	occurs,	you	will	have	less	people	to	rely	on.
                                        •	 Use	training	exercises	to	check	your	equipment.	Operate	hydrant	valves	to	ensure	they’re	not	
                                           seized.	Check	hoses	aren’t	perished.	Check	extinguishers	are	in	date.
                                        •	 Work	through	“what	if”	scenarios	with	your	crew	after	an	exercise.	Informal	meetings	are	often		
                                           the	best	way	on	board	smaller	vessels.	

                                               legal requirementS

                                        •	 Under	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	section	13	regulations,	employers	must	
                                           ensure	staff	are	adequately	trained	and	receive	adequate	supervision.	
                                        •	 Maritime	Rules	Part	23	requires	the	skipper	to	ensure	the	crew	are	familiar	with	a	fire	drill	and		
                                           an	abandon	ship	drill.	The	rule	also	requires	the	skipper	of	the	vessel	to	ensure	crew	are	familiar	
                                           with	their	duties	and	the	use	of	emergency	equipment.

                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

                                                                                                              1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
 training and eXerciSe record
                              Jan      Feb     Mar      Apr     May      Jun     Jul      Aug      Sep
 Fire	in	engine	room.         J.B.
 Fire	in	galley/mess.                  Pete
 Fire	in	steering	                             J.B.
 compartment.                                  1/3
 Man	overboard.		             J.B.
 Recover	from	vessel.         9/1
 Man	overboard.		                      Pete
 Recover	by	rescue	vessel.             20/2
 Muster	stations	and	         J.B.
 abandon	ship.                1/1
Keep	a	training	record	like	the	one	above	in	your	SSM	manual.	If	you	make	the	effort	to	do	the	exercises,	
it	just	takes	a	fraction	more	time	to	initial	and	date	the	record.	

                                                                      Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS              
                                       1.4	 FIRE	ON	BOARD

                                       Fire	on	board	a	vessel	at	sea	(or	alongside)	is	extremely	serious.	Fire	can	spread	quickly	and	smoke	
                                       becomes	very	intense	very	quickly.	This	makes	fire	fighting	harder.	Fires	can	start	anywhere	on	a	vessel.	

                                       They	most	often	start	in	the	galley	or	in	the	engine	room.	

                                       action points!
                                       1.	 Raise	alarm!	Shout	FIRE	and/or	sound	the	alarm.
                                       2.	 Attempt	to	put	out	the	fire	using	a	portable	fire	extinguisher.	
                                       3.	 Stop	all	ventilation.	Turn	off	fans.

                                       if unsuccessful:
                                       4.	 Get	out	and	close	up	the	compartment.
                                       5.	 Shut	off	all	power	and	fuel	supplies	to	compartment	on	fire	(if	possible).
                                       6.	 Activate	fixed	fire	extinguishing	system	(if	fitted).
                                       7.	 Close	all	openings,	doors	and	vents	to	the	compartment.	Keep	an	eye	out	for	smoke	escaping.		
                                           Block	holes	so	the	fire	is	starved	of	oxygen.
                                       8.	 Protect	liferafts	from	the	fire.
                                       9.	 Dampen	hot	spots	on	external	bulkheads	(if	applicable)	and	on	the	deck	above	the	compartment		
                                           on	fire	to	stop	it	spreading.	Use	water	sparingly	to	avoid	stability	problems	due	to	free	surface	water.	
                                       10.	Prepare	to	abandon	ship.

                                       See	Section	2	for	more	detail	about	how	to	fight	fires	on	board.		

                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

A	crewmember	can	fall	into	the	sea	at	any	time	while	working	on	deck	–	not	only	during	rough	weather.	

                                                                                                                       1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
The	person	entering	the	water	may	have	been	unconscious	when	they	fell	in,	and	might	not	be	able		
to	keep	their	head	above	the	water.	If	they	are	not	wearing	a	floatation	aid,	they	may	sink	quickly.

it is important to recover the perSon aS faSt aS you can.

action points!
if you hear or see someone fall overboard:
•	 Immediately	throw	a	floatation	device	into	the	water.	The	best	thing	to	use	is	a	life	ring.	If	you	do	not	
    have	a	life	ring	use	a	lifejacket	or	anything	else	that	will	assist	the	person	to	stay	afloat.	At	night,	throw		
    in	a	light	or	reflective	item	as	well.
•	 Raise	alarm!	Shout	MAN	OVERBOARD.
•	 Keep	pointing	at	the	person	in	the	water.
•	 Keep	an	eye	on	the	floatation	device	and	the	person	in	the	water.	Guide	the	wheelhouse	back	to	
    them	without	taking	your	eyes	off	them.
•	 Carefully	manoeuvre	the	vessel	alongside	(upwind)	of	the	person.	
•	 Recover	the	person	being	careful	not	to	be	pulled	into	the	water	yourself.
•	 Make	the	person	warm,	and	conduct	CPR	immediately	(if	required).
•	 Radio	for	assistance	(if	required).

if someone is missing
•	 Mark	your	position	and	start	retracing	your	track.
•	 Raise	MAYDAY	call	immediately	so	other	vessels	in	the	area	can	assist.

good practices
•	 Always	wear	a	personal	floatation	device	whenever	working	on	the	weather	deck	–	not	just	in	bad	
•	 Ensure	life	rings	and	other	safety	devices	are	easy	to	get	to	at	all	times.
•	 If	you	are	the	only	one	on	deck	consider	wearing	a	safety	line.

        tipS for SkipperS

 •	 Conduct	regular	exercises	by	throwing	something	into	the	water	to	recover.
 •	 Make	sure	at	least	two	crewmembers	know	how	to	manoeuvre	the	vessel.	It	may	be	you	in	the	
 •	 Position	life	rings	near	the	main	work	areas	and	near	the	wheelhouse.

                                                                             Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS                
                                       1.6	 FIRST	AID

                                       First	aid	is	the	assistance	given	when	a	person	becomes	ill	or	injured.	Often	a	vessel	is	days	from	shore	
                                       or	hours	from	receiving	help	so	it	is	up	to	the	crew	to	conduct	first	aid.	This	often	results	in	saving	the	life	

                                       of	an	injured	crewmember.

                                       Keep	your	first	aid	kit	well	maintained	and	organised	in	a	dry	location.

                                       Keep	common-use	items	(band-aids	and	hangover	cures)	separate	so	the	first	aid	box	does	not	get	disturbed.

                                       action points!
                                       raise alarm!

                                       PATIENT	UNCONSCIOUS
                                       1.	 Secure	the	scene.
                                       2.	 Make	sure	it	is	safe	for	you	to	assist	the	victim.
                                       3.	 Conduct	a, B, c!
                                       A.	 Turn	the	patient	on	his/her	side	and	clear	airway.	
                                       B.		 Check	that	the	patient	is	Breathing	and	conduct	rescue	breathing	(if	required).
                                       C.	 Check	circulation	(check	carotid	pulse	–	take	no	longer	than	10	seconds)	and	conduct	CPR	(if	required).

                                       PATIENT	BADLY	CUT
                                       1.	 Stem	flow	of	blood	by	wrapping	with	a	clean	bandage	or	material.
                                       2.	 If	an	amputation	has	occurred,	collect	severed	section	in	a	clean	plastic	bag	and	place	“on	ice”.
                                       3.	 Treat	patient	for	shock.

                                       PATIENT	BURNT
                                       1.		 Immerse	burnt	part	of	body	in	cold,	fresh	water.
                                       2.	 Keep	immersed	in	cold	water	for	at	least	20	minutes.
                                       3.		 Do	not	put	any	medication	on	burns.
                                       4.		 Wrap	in	sterile	bandage.
                                       5.		 Treat	patient	for	shock.

                                       If	a	patient	has	been	in	the	water	they	could	be	at	risk	of	hypothermia.	Treat	them	by	doing	the	following:
                                       1.	 Move	the	patient	into	a	sheltered	position.	
                                       2.		 Remove	wet	clothing	and	put	dry	clothes	or	blankets	on	the	patient.
                                       3.		 Make	the	patient	warm	and	then	stabilise	his/her	temperature.
                                       4.		 Give	warm	or	high-energy	food.

                                       If	a	patient	has	suffered	a	moderate	or	major	injury	they	will	suffer	from	shock.	Treat	the	patient	by	doing	
                                       the	following:
                                       1.	 Lie	the	patient	on	their	back	and	raise	their	feet	slightly	higher	than	their	head.	
                                       2.		 Stay	with	the	patient	and	keep	reassuring	him/her.
                                       3.		 Maintain	their	body	temperature	by	keeping	the	patient	warm.	Do	not	overheat.

                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
adult cardio pulmonary reSuScitation (cpr)

                                                                                                               1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
Check	for	any	danger	–	if	danger,	move	the	casualty	to	safety.

Establish	responsiveness	–	shout	at	the	casualty	and	pinch	the	earlobes	hard.

Call	for	help.

If	no	response:	Check	airway,	Breathing	and	circulation


1. airway
•	 Open	the	airway	using	Head	Tilt/Chin	Lift.
•	 Check	for	any	obstruction,	if	found	remove	by	finger	sweeping.

2. check for Breathing
•	 Get	down	close.	Look,	Listen	and	Feel	for	Breathing.
•	 If	breathing	is	absent	or	inadequate	–	start	CPR.
•	 Locate	the	centre	of	the	chest,	place	the	palm	of	the	hand	on	the	lower	half	of	the	sternum,	link	the	
   fingers	and	compress	down	5	cm.
•	 Compress	30	times	at	a	rate	of	100	compressions	per	minute.
•	 Give	2	normal	breaths,	each	breath	of	a	1	second	period	(where	possible	use	a	CPR	Face	Shield).

3.   continue cpr at a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths until:
•	   casualty	recovers
•	   higher	medical	aid	arrives,	or
•	   you	are	told	to	stop.

Every	few	minutes	recheck	the	ABCs,	pulse;	if	no	change	continue	CPR.

Medical	assistance	is	available	via	2182khz	or	on	VHF	Channel	16.

        legal requirementS

 •	 Maritime	Rules	Part	32	requires	every	LLO	and	ILM	certificate	applicant	to	hold	a	valid	first		
    aid	certificate.
 •	 You	must	report	all	accidents	and	incidents	to	Maritime	New	Zealand.	Refer	section	31	of	the	
    Maritime	Transport	Act	1994.
 •	 All	vessels	must	have	a	first	aid	kit	on	board.	The	size	depends	on	the	size	of	vessel	and	operating	
    area.	Refer	Maritime	Rules	Part	50.
 •	 All	vessels	must	have	a	copy	of	a	St John	or Red Cross First Aid Manual	on	board.	Refer	Maritime	
    Rules	Part	50.	

                                                                       Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS              
                                       1.7	 FLOODING

                                       Floods	can	occur	through:

                                       •	 a	collision
                                       •	 structural	failure
                                       •	 a	broken	service	(cooling)	pipe
                                       •	 a	damaged	hull	fitting	or	gland.

                                       Flooding	can	affect	the	stability	of	your	vessel.	You	need	to	watch	out	for	accumulation	of	water	and	
                                       understand	the	free	surface	effect	of	loose	water.

                                       free surface effect
                                       When	a	compartment	has	water	in	it,	that	water	is	free	to	“slop	around”.	The	surface	of	the	water	is	
                                       called	a	“free	surface”.		When	this	water	moves	to	one	side,	the	weight	of	it	moving	will	cause	the	vessel	
                                       to	heel	over.	The	same	effect	occurs	when	cargo	or	passengers	are	allowed	to	move	from	one	side	of	
                                       the	vessel	to	the	other.

                                       action points!
                                       1.	 Raise	alarm!	
                                       2.	 Start	pumps.
                                       3.	 If	you	are	the	wheelhouse	watchkeeper,	send	a	radio	message	to	nearby	vessels	or	ashore.		
                                            Only after	you	have	done	this,	go	to	assist.	Things	may	deteriorate	quickly	once	you	are	assisting		
                                            and	you	may	not	get	another	chance	to	get	a	message	off.
                                       4.	 Turn	vessel	towards	shallower	water	or	port.	Consider	beaching	the	vessel.
                                       5.	 Attempt	to	stem	the	flow	of	water	by	shutting	valves,	or	blocking	the	hole.	
                                       6.	 If	pumps	are	out	of	action,	get	out	and	close	compartment.
                                       7.	 Reduce	the	free	surface	effect	by	making	sure	all	water	or	fuel	tanks	not	in	use	are	pressed	up	full		
                                            or	completely	empty	whenever	possible.
                                       8.	 Make	sure	all	freeing	ports	are	clear	of	obstruction	to	allow	any	collected	water	on	deck	to	be		
                                            drained	quickly.		
                                       9.	 Look	for	holes	that	allow	water	or	fuel	to	leak	into	adjoining	compartments.
                                       10.	Consider	the	stability	affects	of	a	flooded	compartment.	The	vessel	may	heel	over	to	one	side	
                                            because	of	this.	You	may	need	to	transfer	fuel	or	counter	flood	another	compartment	to	get	the	
                                            damaged	part	of	the	hull	out	of	water.
                                       11.	 Prepare	to	abandon	ship.	Remain	on	the	vessel	for	as	long	as	it	is	safe	to	do	so.

  0                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

An	emergency	situation	may	be	so	bad	that	it	is	necessary	to	abandon	the	vessel	in	order	to	save	lives.		
It	is	often	a	difficult	decision	that	should	not	be	made	too	early	or	left	too	late.

                                                                                                                     1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
Someone	who	gets	into	the	liferaft	relatively	dry,	with	warm	clothing,	food,	and	water,	has	a	greater	
chance	of	survival.	If	you	are	dealing	with	an	emergency	(fire	or	flooding)	and	it	seems	likely	that	you		
will	have	to	abandon	ship,	the	skipper	should	dispatch	one	crewmember	to	prepare	to	launch	the	raft	
and	gather	food,	water,	clothing	and	other	things	you	need.

The	order	for	abandon	ship	must only be	given	by	the	skipper	once	it	is	clear	that	continued	presence	
on	the	vessel	will	be	a	risk	to	human	life.

action points!
if there is time:
•	 Radio	a	MAYDAY	call	giving	the	vessel’s	position.
•	 Collect	a	portable	radio.
•	 Collect	warm	clothing	and	blankets.
•	 Activate	EPIRB	(emergency	position	indicating	radio	beacon)	if	possible,	and	tie	this	to	the	raft		
     or	to	your	person.
•	 Collect	food	and	water.	
•	 Collect	extra	flares.
•	 Launch	the	liferaft	and	use	the	painter	line	to	inflate	the	raft,	and	pull	it	to	the	side	of	the	vessel.	

once everyone is in the raft get it clear of the vessel:
•	 Try	to	stay	as	dry	as	you	can	when	you	get	into	the	raft.	This	helps	prevent	the	onset	of	hypothermia.
•	 If	unable	to	get	into	the	raft	dry,	squeeze	the	water	out	of	your	clothing	and	bail	out	as	much	water		
   as	soon	as	you	can.	

once the raft has been cleared of as much water as possible:
•	 Close	all	liferaft	openings	to	reduce	chill.
•	 Stream	the	sea	anchor	to	keep	the	raft	in	the	vicinity	of	the	last	known	position	of	the	vessel.	
•	 If	the	vessel	is	still	afloat,	keep	clear	in	case	it	tips	over	or	a	mast	falls.
•	 Erect	reflector	sheets	(if	fitted).
•	 Take	seasickness	tablets	(if	required).

if there is no time to launch a liferaft:
•	 Swim	clear	of	the	vessel.
•	 Once	you	are	clear	of	vessel	conserve	energy.
•	 Keep	talking	to	each	other	and	huddle	together	in	the	water.	refer illustration 4. 		
     This	will	maximise	body	warmth	and	make	a	bigger	object	for	searchers	to	find.
•	 If	you	are	alone,	pull	your	knees	up	to	your	chest,	into	the	survival	position.	refer illustration 3.
•	 Watch	out	for	the	liferaft	or	other	floating	objects	emerging	from	the	water.

                                                                             Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                               tipS for SkipperS

                                        •	 Maritime	rules	require	all	vessels	to	conduct	an	abandon	ship	drill	once	a	month.
                                        •	 Make	sure	liferafts	are	stowed	properly.	The	painter	line	must	be	secured	to	the	vessel	(via	a	weak	
                                           link)	so	the	raft	stays	close	until	survivors	board	it.
                                        •	 Make	sure	EPIRBs	are	stowed	properly	so	they	float	free	once	the	hydrostatic	release	mechanism		
                                           has	activated.	
                                        •	 Keep	your	liferafts	and	all	hydrostatic	release	mechanisms	serviced	and	in	good	condition.
                                        •	 Ensure	the	crew	know	how	to	up-right	a	liferaft.	refer illustrations 1 and 2. Display	posters	
                                           around	vessel	(if	possible).
                                        •	 Encourage	crew	to	do	a	survival	course.

                                         1                                                               2

                                         3                                                               4

                                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

maritime nz 24-hour emergency number: 0508 472 269 or alternatively 111

                                                                                                               1 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT
This	notice	should	be	displayed	next	to	the	vessel’s	VHF	radio.	Copies	are	available	by	contacting		
Maritime	New	Zealand	on	0508	22	55	22.

Making	a	MAYDAY	call	with	this	information	initiates	a	response	from	the	Rescue	Coordination		
Centre	NZ	(RCCNZ).	

RCCNZ	will	co-ordinate	the	organisations	required	to	send	you	assistance.

You	should	also	know	the	local	frequencies	of	the	NZ	Coastguard.	These	are	available	from	your		
local	coastguard	or	on	their	website:

The	example	below	shows	how	coastguard	frequencies	could	be	displayed.

 coastguard base location                             frequencies available on

                                                                       Part One: SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                       1.10	 OPERATING	WITH		 	                                                              	       	        	
                                       Operating	a	helicopter	over	vessels	presents	a	number	of	problems	for	the	helicopter	pilot.	Rescue	
                                       operations	are	often	conducted	in	poor	weather	and	are	extremely	dangerous.

                                       When transferring to a helicopter:
                                       •	 Select	the	position	where	the	transfer	is	to	take	place,	ie	the	position	where	an	injured	person	is	to	be	
                                          winched	up.	This	may	not	necessarily	be	the	largest	deck	area	but	will	be	the	best	location	to	allow	
                                          the	helicopter	and	winch	to	keep	clear	of	high	obstructions	(ie	masts,	gantries,	derricks	etc).	
                                       •	 Clear	the	deck	of	any	loose	pieces	of	debris	or	equipment	that	may	be	sucked	up	into	the	helicopter’s	
                                       •	 On	sighting	the	helicopter,	set	a	smoke	flare	to	highlight	your	location	and	indicate	the	wind	direction	
                                          to	the	pilot.
                                       •	 The	crew	on	deck	should	be	dressed	as	brightly	as	possible,	and	should	stay	out	of	the	way	until	the	
                                          helicopter	is	in	position.
                                       •	 Maintain	radio	communication	with	the	helicopter	throughout	the	operation.
                                       •	 Never	attach	anything	to	the	helicopter	before	the	pilot	gives	approval	to	do	so.
                                       •	 Remember	the	pilot	may	not	be	able	to	see	the	load,	so	they	may	need	some	guidance.
                                       •	 If	the	rescue	is	at	night,	the	pilot	will	be	accustomed	to	the	darkness	so	avoid	turning	on	very		
                                          bright	lighting.
                                       •	 Know	the	signals	to	communicate	with	the	helicopter	pilot	from	the	deck.
                                       •	 Ensure	the	static	on	the	helicopter	is	earthed	before	you	touch	the	rescue	wire	lowered	from	the	
                                          helicopter.	How	do	you	do	this?	Is	it	common	knowledge?




                                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
Fire	is	very	dangerous	for	vessels	at	sea.	Most	vessels	carry	and	use	a	number	of	highly	flammable	items	
on	board.	Once	a	fire	starts,	it	can	be	very	hard	to	put	out.	You	will	need	to	do	everything	you	can	to	

                                                                                                                          2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
keep	your	vessel	afloat	and	seaworthy.

this section covers:
•	 What	causes	fires.
•	 How	to	prevent	fires	from	starting.
•	 How	to	fight	fires	safely	and	effectively.

Every	vessel	should	have	regular	fire	drills.	Regular	drills	mean	everyone	knows	what	to	do.

important points for all crew:
•	 Know	and	look	out	for	fire	risks.
•	 Know	what	fire	equipment	is	held	on	board.
•	 Know	where	all	fire	fighting	equipment	is	held	on	board.
•	 Know	how	and	when	to	use	all	the	fighting	equipment.
•	 Know	how	to	contain	a	fire	on	board.
•	 Know	the	affects	of	fire	fighting	water	on	the	stability	of	the	vessel.
•	 Know	your	role	in	fighting	a	fire	on	board.

flammable hazards
A	flammable	hazard	is	anything	that	could	ignite	a	fire,	or	anything	that	burns	easily.	On	board	every	
vessel	there	are	a	number	of	flammable	hazards.	These	can	include:	

Things	that	can	ignite	or	start	the	fire	are:
•	 heat	and	sparks	from	electrical	switches,	motors,	tools	or	leads
•	 cooker	flames
•	 sparks	from	grinding	and	welding
•	 generators
•	 cigarettes,	matches	or	lighters.

Things	that	can	give	the	fire	fuel	to	burn	are:	
•	 diesel	fuel
•	 gas
•	 cleaning	chemicals
•	 rags	with	oil	or	chemicals	on	them
•	 hydraulic	oil.

                                                                             Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS      
                                     2.2	 GENERAL	FIRE	PREVENTION

                                     the two main things everyone can do on board a vessel to prevent fires are to:
                                     •	 keep	the	vessel	tidy

                                     •	 identify	fire	risks	during	normal	day-to-day	operation	of	the	vessel.	

                                     Some	specific	flammable	hazards	are	listed	below.	There	may	be	other	fire	risks	that	are	not	on	this	list.	
                                     Consider	what	else	you	can	do	to	prevent	fires.

                                     diesel and petrol fuel and lubricating oils
                                     •	 Ensure	no	one	smokes	on	board	the	vessel	when	taking	on	fuel.
                                     •	 Make	sure	all	leaks	in	pipelines,	fittings	and	engines	are	repaired	immediately.
                                     •	 Store	all	flammable	products	separately	and	tidily.

                                     hydraulic oil
                                     •	 Make	sure	all	leaks	in	pipelines	and	fittings	are	repaired	as	soon	as	possible.
                                     •	 Regularly	check	hoses	for	deterioration.

                                     lp gas
                                     •	 Gas	bottles	must	be	installed	on	the	exposed	weather	deck.	Salt	air	and	water	will	corrode	the	
                                        bottles.	Keep	them	covered	and	ensure	there	is	good	ventilation	to	prevent	fumes	building	up.
                                     •	 Ensure	bottles	are	stowed	where	they	are	least	likely	to	be	damaged.
                                     •	 Regularly	check	hoses	and	fittings	for	deterioration.
                                     •	 Install	a	simple	gas	detector/alarm.

                                     cooking fryers, elements and oils
                                     Fires	often	start	in	the	galley.	
                                     •	 Install	timed	switches	on	galley	equipment	so	it	will	turn	off	if	left	unattended.
                                     •	 Ensure	a	smoke	detector	is	fitted.
                                     •	 Make	sure	gas	bottles	are	locked	shut	when	leaving	the	vessel.

                                     electrical switchboards and connections
                                     On	most	vessels,	there	is	a	range	of	control	boxes,	switches	and	sockets	in	areas	exposed	to	physical	
                                     •	 Ensure	the	flame-proof	and	water-proof	enclosures	are	kept	in	excellent	physical	condition.
                                     •	 Regularly	check	that	contacts	and	connections	inside	are	still	tight.	Remember	a	vessel	is	continually	
                                        vibrating,	so	connections	do	come	loose,	which	can	create	a	hot	spot.

                                     electric motors and generators
                                     These	are	often	in	areas	where	they	are	exposed	to	fumes	and	dust.	The	fumes	and	dust	can	get	into	
                                     the	vents	of	the	machine.	Sparks	from	the	electrics	can	ignite	fumes	or	dust.
                                     •	 Have	a	qualified	person	regularly	check	the	vents	and	remove	grills	to	make	sure	the	internals	of	the	
                                         machine	are	clean.
                                     •	 At	the	same	time	check	that	all	connections	inside	are	still	tight.

                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
portable electric tools
•	 Ensure	tools	(including	leads	and	extension	leads)	are	kept	in	excellent	condition.

                                                                                                                   2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
•	 Turn	power	off	after	use.
•	 Do	not	run	leads	across	deck.

Welding, grinding and gas cutting
Welding	and	cutting	maintenance	work	is	regularly	required	on	board,	and	can	be	a	significant	fire	hazard.	

Fires	resulting	from	this	work	rarely	start	from	where	the	work	is	done	and	often	develop	some	time	after	
the	work	was	done.
•	 Fires	from	welding	usually	start	on	the	other	side	of	the	bulkhead	when	paint	or	insulation	ignites		
    or	where	sparks	and	lose	metal	fall.
•	 Fires	from	cutting	work	happen	when	sparks	fly	over	an	area.	If	these	sparks	fall	into	a	nearby	pile		
    of	rubbish,	on	an	oily	rag,	or	on	a	piece	of	paper	a	fire	could	start.
•	 Always	assign	a	crewmember,	or	make	sure	the	contractor	has	a	worker,	to	check	the	opposite	side	
    to	where	welding	work	is	being	conducted.	This	should	be	done	while	the	work	is	happening	and	for	
    some	time	after	the	welding	has	finished.	The	person	doing	it	should	use	the	back	of	their	hand	and	
    have	a	wet	rag	and	bucket	of	water	to	dab	onto	any	paint	or	panel	that	ignites.
•	 Insulation	on	the	other	side	of	the	face	being	welded	must	be	removed.
•	 Before	allowing	grinding	or	cutting	work	to	proceed	physically	check	the	surrounding	areas.
•	 Make	sure	a	fire	extinguisher	is	close	by.
•	 Ensure	contractors	report	to	you	before	they	start	and	when	they	finish.
•	 Check	the	area	again	one	or	two	hours	after	work	is	completed.

Rags	are	regularly	used	to	wipe	up	oil	or	fuel	spills	and	then	tossed	into	a	nearby	container.	

Dispose	of	oily	rags	in	a	metal	bin	with	a	lid	or	a	sealed	airtight	bag.

•	 Read	the	data	sheets	supplied	with	chemicals.	Certain	chemicals	can	be	extremely	volatile	if	mixed	
   with	other	substances.
•	 Have	chemicals	supplied	in	robust	and	non-corrosive	containers.
•	 Stow	chemicals	in	a	separate	dry	stowage	on	or	immediately	adjacent	to	the	weather	deck.	

                                                                           Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                     2.3	 FIRE	DRILLS

                                     Fire	drills	ensure	everyone	knows	what	to	do	when	there	is	a	fire.	Talking	about	what	to	do	is	important,	
                                     but	a	practical	drill	gives	everyone	a	chance	to	practise	the	required	skills.

                                     Fire	drills	are	just	as	important	for	small	vessels	with	only	one	or	two	crew.	How	you	carry	out	a	fire	drill	
                                     on	a	small	vessel	might	be	different	to	how	you	would	on	a	large	vessel.	For	instance,	on	a	small	vessel	
                                     you	may	“walk	through”	the	drill	together	and	test	each	other.	Whatever	way	you	decide	to	carry	out	fire	
                                     drills	on	the	vessel,	you	must	do	them	regularly.

                                     good fire drills
                                     •	 Start	with	the	alarm	you	normally	use	to	get	crew	to	the	muster	stations.	This	allows	an	immediate	
                                        check	to	confirm	everyone	is	accounted	for	and	doing	their	duty.
                                     •	 Occur	in	different	locations	on	the	vessel	where	a	fire	could	possibly	start.
                                     •	 Have	a	sense	of	urgency.	
                                     •	 Use	the	correct	fire	fighting	equipment	at	the	scene.

                                             tipS for SkipperS

                                      •	 Time	crew	during	the	drill	to	see	how	long	it	takes	them	to	do	certain	tasks.	
                                      •	 Check	your	deck	and/or	fire	hoses	are	long	enough	and	in	good	condition.	Always	open	at	water	
                                         supply	and/or	fire	hydrant	valves	to	keep	them	moving.
                                      •	 Make	sure	crew	know	how	to	use	all	the	different	types	of	extinguishers,	hose	spray/jet	nozzles		
                                         and	pumps	on	the	vessel.
                                      •	 Always	debrief	after	a	fire	drill.	This	can	be	an	informal	discussion	afterwards	where	“what	if”	
                                         scenarios,	as	well	as	deficiencies	in	the	day’s	exercise,	can	be	discussed.
                                      •	 Always	question	crew	on	their	knowledge	but	also	listen	to	their	comments	and	suggestions.
                                      •	 Always	log	your	exercise	in	the	vessel	log	and/or	your	training	record.	
                                      •	 Maritime	New	Zealand	recommends	you	have	one	fire	drill	per	month.

                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Fire	needs	three	components	to	keep	burning:	heat,	fuel	and	oxygen.	It	will	go	out	when	one	of	these	
components	is	removed.

                                                                                                                 2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
Land-based	fire	brigades	fight	house	fires	through	removing	the	heat	by	cooling	the	fire	with	lots	of	water.	
Flooding	a	vessel	at	sea	is	not	a	good	idea,	as	the	vessel	will	become	unstable	with	free	surface	water	
and	flooding.

Hoses	can	still	be	used	for	cooling	at	sea,	but	should	be	used	with	care.	

Fuel	can	often	be	isolated	(say	to	a	main	engine).	However,	this	requires	time	to	take	effect,	and	there	are	
often	other	flammable	things	also	burning	that	keep	the	fire	going.

At	sea	the	primary	method	that	has	to	be	relied	on	to	put	fires	out	is	suffocation,	or	removal	of	the	
oxygen.	This	is	done	in	combination	with	isolation	of	fuel	supplies	and	cooling.

fire fatalities
Most	people	who	die	in	a	fire	suffocate	from	inhaling	smoke	or	fire	gases.	Approximately	twice	as	many	
people	die	in	this	manner	than	those	who	are	burnt.

Vessels	have	a	vast	range	of	materials	that	become	toxic	when	burnt.	These	include	paint,	cables,	
mattresses,	and	even	the	contents	from	a	used	fire	extinguisher.	The	fumes	from	such	materials,		
as	well	as	the	smoke,	are	quickly	concentrated	within	the	confines	of	any	vessel.	

Dense	smoke	and	toxic	gases	mean	there	is	not	much	time	to	fight	a	fire	on	a	smaller	vessel.	

You	must	act	fast.	If	there	is	too	much	smoke,	try	to	seal	the	compartment	and	get	out!

putting out a fire
On	a	small	vessel	fires	must	be	fought	quickly	but	sensibly.	You	can	fight	most	fires	on	small	vessels		
if	you	follow	these	steps.

     attempt to put out fire. raise alarm at same time. if unsuccessful:
            Stop oxygen supply by closing all                                  Prevent spread by boundary
       1    openings to compartment.                                      4    cooling.

            Stop fuel supply to fire                                           Wait for compartment to cool
       2    if possible.                                                  5    before re-entry.

            If a fixed fire fighting system                                    Keep a close eye out for the
       3    is fitted USE IT!                                             6    fire re-flashing.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                     attempt to put out the fire
                                     1.	 Use	a	hose,	extinguisher,	fire	blanket,	or	smother	the	fire.	See	Section	2.5	on	fire	fighting	equipment	

                                         to	find	out	how	to	use	hoses,	extinguishers	and	fire	blankets	correctly.
                                     2.	 Crouch	down	low	to	minimise	smoke	inhalation	and	to	protect	yourself	in	case	a	fireball	develops.	
                                     3.	 If	you	can’t	extinguish	the	fire,	GET	OUT.

                                     Stop the oxygen supply to the fire – close down compartment
                                     If	you	can’t	extinguish	the	fire,	you	must	act	quickly	to	close	the	compartment.	Your	goal	is	stop	all	air	
                                     getting	to	the	fire	so	the	oxygen	supply	will	run	out.

                                     The	following	steps	are	needed:
                                     4.	 Turn	off	all	ventilation	fans	to	the	compartment.	
                                     5.	 Close	all	doors	and	hatches	to	the	compartment.
                                     6.	 Close	all	ventilation	trunk	flaps	to	prevent	air	getting	through.
                                     7.	 Look	for	smoke	escaping	through	any	gaps	or	holes	in	bulkheads.	Use	fire	blankets	or	non-flammable	
                                         material	to	stuff	into	the	holes.

                                     If	you	stop	the	smoke	getting	out	and	air	getting	in,	the	fire	should	suffocate	relatively	quickly.

                                     Stop the fuel supply to fire
                                     Fuel	supplies	for	the	engines	are	usually	outside	the	engine	room.

                                     If	there	is	a	fire	in	the	engine	room,	you	might	need	to	isolate	the	fuel	supply.	This	decision	must	be	made	
                                     by	the	skipper.

                                     When	you	shut	fuel	supplies	to	the	main	engine	or	auxiliary	it	takes	some	time	to	work.	It	will	have	an	
                                     impact	on	vessel	manoeuvrability,	speed,	power	and	fire	fighting	and	pumping	capabilities.	

                                     activate fixed fire fighting systems
                                     Some	vessels	may	have	a	fixed	fire	fighting	system	fitted	in	areas	where	fires	often	occur,	eg	the	engine	
                                     room	and	galley.	Most	of	these	systems	are	CO2	(carbon	dioxide).	Some	of	the	older	vessels	have	
                                     systems	called	vaporising	liquid	(BCF,	Halon)	fitted.	These	work	by	cutting	the	oxygen	supply	to	the	fire.

                                     if there is a fire in a compartment with one of these systems fitted, uSe it.

                                     Before	you	operate	the	system:
                                     8.	 Make	sure	all	ventilation	is	stopped	and	all	openings	are	closed.	This	will	keep	the	extinguishing	agent	
                                         in	the	compartment.
                                     9. Ensure	everyone	is	out	of	the	compartment.
                                     10.	Shut	down	as	much	machinery	as	possible.
                                     11.	You	only	have	one	shot	at	it,	so	get	it	right	first	time.

  0                                 Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
prevent spread of fire
Some	vessels	are	built	of	flammable	materials	such	as	wood.	Closing	down	a	wooden	compartment	

                                                                                                                   2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
may	not	stop	the	fire	spreading.	On	vessels	built	of	steel,	remember	that	steel	conducts	heat	and	the	
paints	and	linings	on	the	other	side	can	start	to	ignite.

You	must	monitor	heat	in	surrounding	compartments	and,	if	they	are	hot,	start	boundary	cooling:	
12.		Monitor	temperature	of	surrounding	bulkheads	with	the	back	of	the	hand.
13.		Dampen	down	hot	spots	with	damp	sponge	or	hose.
14.		Use	water	sparingly.
15.		Cover	all	sides.
16.		Monitor	flooding	from	boundary	cooling	water	and	activate	pumps	accordingly.
17.		Don’t	stop	until	walls	are	cool	and	you	are	satisfied	the	fire	is	out.

re-entry into compartment
Don’t	re-enter	the	compartment	too	soon.	Allow	it	to	cool	down	and	keep	monitoring	the	temperature		
of	the	surrounding	bulkheads	and	the	deck	above.	Wait	twice	as	long	as	you	think	is	necessary!

When	you	decide	to	enter	through	the	door	or	hatch	stay	clear	of	the	opening	in	case	the	rush	of	air		
re-ignites	the	fire.	

Allow	some	ventilation	before	you	enter	as	there	may	be	toxic	gases	within	the	compartment.

Move	into	the	compartment	and	dampen	down	hot	spots.	Break	down	burnt	rubble	and	ensure		
it	is	completely	cool.

re-flash watch
Fires	often	re-ignite.	Check	every	hour	after	a	fire	has	been	extinguished,	until	you	are	sure	it	will	not		

                                                                           Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                     2.5	 FIRE	FIGHTING	EqUIPMENT

                                     Most	extinguishers	identify	what	type	of	fire	they	are	used	for:

                                     •	 Class	A
                                     •	 Class	B
                                     •	 Class	C
                                     •	 Class	E
                                     •	 Class	F.	

                                     Make	sure	you	use	the	correct	extinguisher	for	the	job.	These	are	explained	below:

                                      class a               class B                class c                class e            class f

                                      Wood	                 Flammable	and	         Flammable	gases        Electrically	      Cooking	oils	
                                      Paper	                combustible	                                  energised	         and	fats
                                      Plastics              liquids                                       equipment

                                     foam extinguishers – class a and class B fires
                                     Foam	extinguishers	are	good	for	fuel	and	oil	fires.	They	can	also	be	used	on	wood,	paper	and	fish	bins	

                                     Try	to	direct	the	foam	onto	a	vertical	surface	behind	the	fire.	The	foam	then	runs	down	and	smothers	the	
                                     fire	from	behind.

                                     Another	way	is	to	spray	the	foam	from	a	distance	so	that	it	drops	the	liquid	onto	the	fire.

                                     Foam	is	more	effective	on	liquid	fires	when	the	liquid	(fuel	or	oil)	is	contained.	
                                     foam should not be used on electrical fires.

                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
dry powder extinguishers – class B, c, e and f fires
Dry	powder	extinguishers	are	particularly	good	for	fuel	and	oil	fires	such	as	a	bilge	fire	in	a	vessel’s	

                                                                                                                  2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
engine	room.	The	dry	powder	extinguishes	the	flames	and	is	quicker	acting	than	foam.	Dry	powder	
extinguishers	also	deal	more	effectively	with	large	areas	of	flame.

Dry	powder	is	non-conductive	so	can	be	used	where	there	is	a	risk	of	electric	shock.

Direct	the	dry	powder	in	a	sweeping	motion	to	the	front	edge	of	the	flames.	Then	work	it	back	to	the		
far	edge	of	the	flames	in	a	sweeping	motion.

Beware	of	using	dry	powder	extinguishers	in	a	confined	space	as	their	contents	react	with	the	fire		
and	produce	toxic	gases.	

Note:	The	dry	powder	smothers	the	fire	but	has	no	cooling	action.	Once	the	initial	fire	has	been	
extinguished	it	may	have	to	be	cooled	with	water.

carbon dioxide (co2 ) extinguishers – class B, c, e and f fires
CO2	extinguishers	are	also	good	for	fuel	and	oil	fires.	Carbon	dioxide	is	quicker	acting	than	foam.		
These	extinguishers	are	better	for	fires	that	may	spread	to	larger	areas.

CO2	extinguishers	do	not	leave	a	residue	or	deposit	and	they	will	not	damage	other	equipment	in		
the	vicinity	of	the	fire.

CO2	can	be	used	on	electrical	fires.

When	used,	the	CO2	should	be	directed	in	a	sweeping	motion	starting	from	the	front	edge	of	the	flames	
working	it	back	over	the	flames.

CO2	has	no	cooling	action.	Once	the	initial	fire	has	been	extinguished	it	may	have	to	be	cooled	with	water.

                                                                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                     vaporising liquid (Bcf, Btm, cBm) extinguishers – class B and class c fires
                                     These	are	no	longer	suitable	for	use	as	they	cannot	be	serviced	due	to	the	requirements	of	the	Ozone	

                                     Layer	Protection	Act	1996.	These	should	be	replaced	with	an	alternative	extinguisher	suitable	for	the	
                                     most	likely	use.

                                     fire blankets
                                     There	should	be	a	fire	blanket	on	board	which	you	can	use	on	small	fires,	eg	a	cooking	oil	fire.	
                                     Fire	blankets	are	made	of	fireproof	material.	Carefully	throw	the	blanket	over	the	fire	to	smother	it.	

                                     Fire	blankets	are	also	good	to	wrap	around	people	who	are	on	fire.

                                     hydrants, hoses and nozzles
                                     Most	fires	on	board	vessels	involve	liquid	fuel	of	some	description.	If	you	spray	water	on	a	fuel	fire,	
                                     it	can	spread.	

                                     Some	solid	fuel	(Class	A)	fires	do	need	to	be	extinguished	with	water.	For	example,	a	mattress	has	
                                     porous	but	thick	construction.	When	a	mattress	is	on	fire	an	extinguisher	will	put	out	the	flames,		
                                     but	the	mattress	needs	to	be	soaked	with	water	to	put	out	the	internal	burning	material.

                                     If	you	must	use	a	hose	make	sure	the	spray/jet	nozzle	is	attached.	Always	hit	the	fire	with	a	spray	rather	
                                     than	a	jet	of	water.	This	will	tend	to	smother	the	flames	rather	than	spread	the	liquid	fuel	(and	fire)	
                                     everywhere.	It	will	also	give	the	user	more	protection	from	the	heat	or	fireball	if	one	has	developed.	

                                     On	smaller	vessels,	the	deck	hose	is	also	often	used	as	the	fire	hose.	However,	the	nozzle	is	often	taken	
                                     off	the	hose,	which	makes	it	harder	to	use	for	fire	fighting.

                                     Larger	vessels	often	have	a	dedicated	fire	hose	or	dedicated	fire	hydrant.	

                                     This	equipment	is	vitally	important	for	the	cooling	operations	during	a	fire	on	board.	In	particular,		
                                     a	spray/jet	nozzle	will	minimise	the	water	being	used	as	well	as	ensure	it	opens	as	a	spray,	which	
                                     prevents	a	jet	of	water	being	inadvertently	sprayed	into	the	seat	of	a	fire.

                                     Take	care	of	your	hoses,	make	sure	you	have	one	fitted	with	a	spray/jet	nozzle	at	all	times.	You	should	
                                     regularly	check	to	make	sure	the	nozzle	works.	

                                     Remember	fire	fighting	water	from	the	hose	affects	vessel	stability,	so	it	must	be	drained/pumped	out	
                                     once	the	fire	is	out.

                                     fixed fire fighting systems
                                     Some	vessels	will	have	a	fixed	fire	fighting	(dedicated	extinguishing)	system	fitted	in	their	engine	room.	
                                     The	system	will	have	an	extinguisher	bottle	and	nozzles	around	the	compartment	to	spray	the	
                                     extinguisher	around.

                                     These	systems	can	be	automatically	triggered	by	a	detecting	sensor	or	manually	operated.	An	alarm	
                                     sounds	before	the	vapour	or	gas	is	released	to	allow	people	to	evacuate	the	compartment.

                                     To	look	after	these	systems:
                                     •	 leave	the	spray	nozzles	the	way	they	were	installed
                                     •	 seal	the	compartment	before	you	operate	the	system
                                     •	 make	sure	these	systems	are	regularly	checked	by	service	agents	certified	to	perform	the	task.

                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
fire pump
There	are	a	range	of	different	fire	pumps	on	different	vessels.	Some	vessels	have	a	powered	pump	

                                                                                                                 2 FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE SAFET Y
driven	from	the	main	engine,	others	have	a	hand-operated	pump.	All	of	these	effectively	get	water	to		
the	site	of	the	fire.	Remember,	the	water	is	mostly	used	to	cool	the	area	rather	than	to	fight	the	flames.

fire equipment signs
Signs	must	be	used	to	highlight	the	location	of	equipment	and	to	show	how	the	equipment	operates.	
Signs	are	usually	provided	by	equipment	suppliers.	

Don’t	throw	these	away	on	the	belief	that	“everyone	knows	how	to	use	it”!

Make	sure	the	ventilation	flaps	and	fan	switches	that	need	to	be	turned	off	in	a	fire	are	also	well	marked.

        legal requirementS

 The	requirements	for	fire	appliances	to	be	held	on	board	are	contained	in	Maritime	Rules	Part	40A,	
 40C	and	Part	42B.	The	capacity,	type	and	number	required	all	vary	depending	on	vessel	size	so	it	
 pays	to	check	on	these	rules.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                     2.6	 FIRE	DETECTION	EqUIPMENT

                                     the earlier you get warning of a fire the faster you can respond.

                                     Smoke	or	heat	detection	is	not	required	on	small	vessels.

                                     Vessels	with	less	crew	may	be	less	likely	to	notice	smoke	while	they	are	attending	to	their	duties.

                                     It	is	recommended	that	common	battery-operated	home	smoke	detectors	should	be	fitted	on		
                                     smaller	vessels.

                                     Fire	detectors	come	in	many	forms	but	operate	either	by	detecting	excessive	heat	or	by	detecting	
                                     smoke.	Smoke	detectors	are	normally	more	sensitive	than	heat	detectors	but	are	no	use	if	there		
                                     are	lots	of	fumes.

                                     if an alarm keeps going off – find out why and fix it!

                                   Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

This	section	covers	suggestions	for	keeping	your	vessel	tidy	and	hazard	free.

                                                                                                                3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
•	 Clean	up	slippery	decks.	
•	 Mop	up	spills	as	soon	as	possible.	
•	 Secure	loose	gear	off	the	deck.	No	ropes	or	lines	should	be	left	strewn	on	deck.	
•	 Keep	decks	as	clear	as	possible	at	all	times.	
•	 Keep	equipment,	ropes	and	ladders	tied	or	stowed	up	off	the	deck.	
•	 Heavy	objects	(blocks)	used	aloft	should	not	be	left	loose	or	swinging.	
•	 Rope	off	any	breaks	in	the	deck.	Make	the	rope	visible	by	tying	rags	to	it	and	tie	it	at	a	height		
    so	people	see	it	and	it	does	not	turn	into	a	trip	wire.
•	 Water	hoses	should	be	coiled	and	hung	on	brackets.
•	 Hatch	covers	should	be	neatly	piled	out	of	passageways	when	the	hatches	are	open.	
•	 Hatches	should	not	be	left	partially	opened	or	concealed	with	a	tarpaulin.
•	 Supplies	carried	on	deck	should	be	covered	(if	necessary)	and	securely	lashed.
•	 Make	sure	scuppers	are	not	blocked	by	equipment,	tools	or	debris.	Blocked	scuppers	can	pose		
    a	serious	hazard,	especially	in	rough	seas.
•	 Stow	items	at	main	deck	level	or	below.	Do	not	stow	heavy	items	high	on	the	vessel,	as	it	will	affect		
    the	centre	of	gravity	making	the	vessel	unstable.
•	 Always	place	cargo	on	timber	to	allow	drainage	underneath.
•	 Do	not	store	gear	in	passageways.	Keep	walkways,	passages	and	waists	clear.
•	 Store	sharp	objects	in	the	galley	or	on	deck	safely.
•	 Clean	rags	should	be	kept	in	a	box	or	locker.	Dirty	rags	should	be	disposed	of	in	metal	containers		
    with	lids.
•	 Keep	quarters	neat	and	orderly.
•	 Fire	extinguishers	should	be	properly	located	and	never	used	as	coat	racks.
•	 Keep	a	bolt,	wire	cutter	or	knife	on	board	to	cut	lines	or	gear	that	is	tangled	or	needs	to	be	cut		
    away	quickly.
•	 Do	not	hang	unattended	towels	or	wash	cloths	above	the	stove	to	dry.
•	 Degrease	filters	and	stove	ventilation	trunking	regularly.	
•	 Clearly	labelled	products	and	equipment	reduce	the	risk	of	mistakes.	For	example	mixing	incorrect	
    chemicals,	using	the	wrong	oil,	or	turning	the	wrong	switch	off.	

personal safety
This	section	covers	suggestions	for	keeping	yourself	safe	and	hazard	free.
•	 Always	wear	protective	clothing	in	work	areas.
•	 Always	wear	personal	floatation	equipment	on	board.
•	 Never	stand	in	a	bight	of	rope	or	wire.	It	could	tighten	suddenly	and	cause	a	serious	injury.
•	 Be	careful	where	you	put	your	feet,	especially	where	wires	or	ropes	are	moving	along	the	deck.
•	 Use	the	correct	tool	to	clear	a	line	from	a	sheave	or	block.	Don’t	risk	crushing	your	fingers.
•	 Watch	your	head.	Don’t	stand	under	a	load,	or	in	areas	where	overhead	equipment	may	swing		
    and	cause	serious	injury.
•	 Keep	your	hard	hat	on	at	all	times	when	working	with	overhead	equipment	or	slung	loads.

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       •	 Stow	heavy	gear	in	an	accessible	area	so	“twisting”,	or	strain	on	the	body	(particularly	the	back)	to	
                          access	it,	is	minimal.

                       •	 Stay	fit.	Working	on	vessels	can	be	a	physical	job.
                       •	 Do	stretches	before	you	start	work.

                       Safe use of knives
                       Knives	are	used	for	many	tasks	at	sea	and	are	extremely	hazardous	items,	particularly	when	they	are	
                       used	on	an	unstable	platform	such	as	a	vessel.
                       •	 Knives	must	be	handled	with	care	at	all	times.
                       •	 When	using	a	knife	concentrate	on	what	you	are	doing.
                       •	 Select	the	correct	knife	for	the	work	you	are	doing.
                       •	 Don’t	leave	knives	lying	around	in	work	areas.	Stow	them	in	a	sheath	or	rack	when	not	in	use.
                       •	 Take	care	when	passing	knives	to	another	crewmember.
                       •	 Hold	the	knife	by	the	handle	and	point	it	towards	the	deck	when	you	walk	or	move.
                       •	 Clean	knives	separately	from	other	items.
                       •	 Always	stow	your	knife	if	you	need	your	hands	for	another	task	(even	when	it’s	only	one	hand).
                       •	 Knife	handles	should	be	secure	and	fixed	rigidly	to	the	blade.	If	the	handle	is	loose	tighten	it,		
                           or	replace	the	knife.
                       •	 Keep	the	handles	dry	and	clear	of	grease	and	oils.	Wipe	them	regularly	with	a	rag.
                       •	 Keep	the	knife	sharp.
                       •	 When	using	a	knife	the	action	should	always	be	away	from	your	body	and	your	hand.	The	knife	blade	
                           should	be	angled	away	from	the	work	and	so	away	from	the	fingers.	Keep	out	of	range	of	other	crew.
                       •	 Don’t	attempt	to	catch	a	falling	knife.	Leave	it	to	fall.	Then	you	can	pick	it	up	safely	and	clean	it.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
3.2	 PERSONAL	PROTECTIVE			                                                                           	        	
appropriate clothing
Think	sensibly	about	the	clothes	you	and	your	crew	wear	to	sea,	and	remember	your	personal	protective	

                                                                                                                   3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
equipment	(safety	gear).	
•	 Wear	close-fitting	clothing,	which	is	less	likely	to	be	caught	in	machinery.	
•	 Wear	cotton	or	wool	in	case	there	is	a	fire	or	you	fall	over	board.	
•	 Keep	long	hair	tucked	under	a	hat	or	tied	back.	
•	 Avoid	wearing	rings	and	other	jewellery.	
•	 Wear	good	non-slip	footwear.

personal protective equipment (safety gear)
All	crewmembers	should	have	the	following	personal	protective	equipment	(safety	gear)	to	wear:

1. Safety boots/gumboots/boatshoes
	 Safety	boots,	gumboots,	or	boatshoes	should	be	worn	at	all	times	on	deck	and	in	machinery	spaces.
	 Make	sure	the	soles	of	your	safety	boots	are	still	in	good	condition.	Your	favourite	boots	may	be	
   comfortable	after	years	of	wear,	but	if	the	soles	are	too	smooth	you	could	slip	and	fall.

2. Safety helmets
	 Safety	helmets	must	be	worn	when	loads	are	being	slung.	

3. hearing protection
	 Ear	muffs	must	be	worn	in	engine	room	spaces	as	well	as	in	any	other	compartment	where	a	noisy	
   machine	is	running.

4. eye protection
	 Wear	good	quality	protective	eyewear	when	there	is	a	risk	that	you	could	get	something	in	your	eyes.	
   Always	wear	eyewear	when	grinding	or	cutting.

5. lifejackets
	 Always	wear	a	personal	floatation	device	(lifejacket)	when	working	on	deck	or	at	times	of		
   heightened	risk.

6. gloves
	 Gloves	should	be	appropriate	for	the	hazards	the	wearer	may	encounter,	eg	rubber	gloves	when	
   handling	chemicals.	Gloves	should	fit	snugly	at	the	wrists	but	permit	free	movement	of	the	fingers.	

7. high visibility vests
	 Always	wear	a	high	visibility	vest	when	working	on	cargo	decks	or	during	cargo	operations.	

                                                                       Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS       
                       3.3	 MACHINE	GUARDS

                       No	one	intentionally	puts	their	hand	into	a	chain	sprocket,	or	moving	machinery.	Guards	are	there	to	
                       protect	you	if	your	attention	slips	or	the	vessel	rolls	suddenly.

                       action points!
                       •	 Never	remove	covers	while	machine	is	in	operation.	This	includes	when	clearing	blockages.		
                          If	you	must	remove	covers	for	cleaning	or	maintenance,	make	sure	the	machine	is	isolated	and		
                          tagged,	or	tapped	off.
                       •	 Always	replace	guards.	Never	operate	the	machine	with	the	covers	or	guards	off.
                       •	 Never	bypass	or	short	circuit	safety	cut-out	switches.	

 0                    Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

When	someone	is	going	to	work	on	hydraulic,	fuel,	water	or	electrical	systems:

                                                                                                                 3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
the system must be isolated before work begins, and should not be restarted until work
has finished.

Isolating	the	system	makes	it	safer	to	work	on	and	means	there	is	a	much	lower	chance	of:
•	 electrocution
•	 oil	or	fuel	spills	into	the	sea
•	 a	fire	starting
•	 equipment	damage.

It	is	the	skipper’s	responsibility	to	make	sure	systems	are	isolated.	Legally,	this	responsibility	cannot	be	
delegated	to	contractors.	It	is	always	the	skipper	who	is	responsible	for	the	safety	of	all	workers	on	board	
the	vessel.

If	there	is	an	environmental	incident,	eg	a	fuel	spill,	particularly	one	that	could	have	been	avoided	by	
isolation,	the	owner	and	skippers,	as	well	as	the	contractor,	can	all	be	found	responsible.

action points!
1.	   Turn	the	supply	off	to	the	equipment	that	is	going	to	be	maintained.
	     You	can	then:
2.	   Put	a	piece	of	tape	across	it	and	write	“Do	Not	Turn	On”	and	your	name	on	it.	
3.	   Use	a	designed	tag-out	card.

Before	restarting	equipment:
•	 Before	removing	any	tag,	check	with	the	person	whose	name	is	on	the	tag	or	tape	that	work	has	
   been	completed	and	that	it	is	safe	to	operate.
•	 Always	check	yourself	that	the	system	looks	safe	to	operate	after	it	has	been	worked	on.
•	 If	a	contractor	comes	on	board	for	maintenance	work	when	the	crew	are	not	there,	isolate	the	system	
   before	you	leave.	

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.5	 HAZARDOUS	SUBSTANCES			
                       	    (DANGEROUS	GOODS)
                       Hazardous	substances	have	dangerous	properties.	A	substance	is	hazardous	if	it	has	one	or	more		
                       of	these	properties:

                       •	 explosive
                       •	 flammable
                       •	 oxidising	
                       •	 corrosive
                       •	 toxic	to	people
                       •	 ecotoxic	(toxic	to	the	environment	or	to	animals	and	plants).

                       When	a	supplier	sells	a	hazardous	substance,	it	has	to	be	labelled.

                       When using hazardous substances:
                       •	 Keep	products	in	a	proper	container.
                       •	 Read	the	label.
                       •	 Make	sure	labels	aren’t	damaged	and	can	be	easily	read.
                       •	 Keep	data	sheets	on	file	on	board.
                       •	 Clean	up	spills	quickly.
                       •	 Store	containers	in	a	secure,	dry	and	ventilated	location	where	they	won’t	be	damaged.
                       •	 Dispose	of	containers	and	contents	safely.	Do	not	pour	into	the	sea	or	drains	and	do	not		
                          burn	containers.
                       •	 Take	great	care	with	these	products	and	only	take	the	bare	minimum	to	sea!
                       •	 The	suppliers	of	these	products	must	provide	you	with	data	sheets	detailing:	
                       	 –	 the	type	of	hazard	it	is
                       	 –	 what	type	of	harm	it	can	cause
                       	 –	 how	to	prevent	it	happening
                       	 –	 how	to,	or	how	not	to,	dispose	of	the	product
                       	 –	 what	other	chemicals	not	to	store	with	the	product.

                                      assistance is available on:
                                      0800 poiSon or 0800 764 766

                                 legal requirementS

                           The	requirements	for	carrying	dangerous	goods	on	board	are	contained	in	Maritime	Rules	Part	24A.


                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Lifting	gear	on	board	a	vessel	includes	derricks,	booms,	cranes,	rigging	gear,	rigging	and	cargo	ramps.		
It	includes	both	fixed	and	portable	components	(ie	eyes,	shackles	and	blocks).

                                                                                                                 3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
This	gear	is	subject	to	the	elements	and	can	have	large	forces	exerted	on	it.	Inspect	lifting	gear	regularly	
and	keep	it	well	maintained.

Make	sure	the	gear	fitted	is	of	the	correct	size	and	capacity	to	do	the	job	safely.

carry out inspections to check that:
•	 The	eyes	of	the	lifting	gear	haven’t	elongated.
•	 Shackles	and	pins	aren’t	worn	beyond	safe	working	limits.
•	 There	are	safety	chains	attached	to	blocks.
•	 The	block	sheaves	are	not	worn.	
•	 The	wire	is	not	showing	signs	of	wear	(ie	fraying,	crimped	or	rusting).
•	 The	pins	and	bushes	in	blocks	are	running	smoothly	and	there	is	not	too	much	movement	between	them.

upkeep points
Maintain	equipment	regularly	by:
•	 keeping	moving	parts	well	lubricated	with	salt	water	resistant	grease
•	 keeping	paint	on	exterior	of	blocks	and	hanging	eyes	in	good	condition
•	 lubricating	wire	regularly
•	 keeping	a	record	of	all	maintenance	undertaken	on	gear.

operation points
•	 Make	sure	all	personnel	involved	in	lifting	and	slinging	operations	both	at	sea	and	alongside		
   know	the	correct	signals.
•	 Make	all	movements	smooth	and	gradual.
•	 Avoid	sudden	shocks	or	strains	and	beware	of	side	pulls.	
•	 Avoid	dangerous	positions,	eg	stepping	on	a	taut	mooring	line	or	standing	in	a	bight	or	standing	in		
   the	“line	of	pull”	of	a	taut	rope	or	cable	that	might	give	way.	
•	 Never	walk	or	stand	under	a	load.
•	 Keep	your	load	within	the	safe	working	load	limit.	
•	 Remember	the	load	may	be	low	but	the	force	is	where	the	load	is	slung	from.	this affects stability.
•	 Stay	out	from	under	booms	and	cranes	while	lifting	operations	are	in	progress.	
•	 Avoid	swinging	a	load.
•	 Attach	steady	lines	to	heavy	or	unwieldy	loads.
•	 Don’t	stand	between	the	load	and	fixed	objects.	
•	 Wear	hard	hats	and	safety	shoes.	

        legal requirementS

 The	requirements	for	lifting	gear	can	be	found	in	Maritime	Rules	Part	49.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.7	 PORTABLE	ELECTRIC	TOOLS

                       When using portable electric tools
                       •	 Always	use	tools	with	residual	current	device	(RCD)	protection.

                       •	 Inspect	the	tool	before	you	use	it.	Check	for	damage	either	to	the	cord	or	to	insulation	on	the	body		
                          of	the	tool.	If	there	is	any	damage,	do	not	use	the	tool	and	get	an	electrician	to	repair	it	at	the	earliest	

                               tipS for SkipperS

                        •	 Set	up	a	regular	test	period	for	portable	electric	tools.	Use	the	SSM	system	to	organise	this.
                        •	 Get	an	electrician	to	test	all	your	portable	tools.	These	tests	must	be	repeated	at	regular	intervals	
                           (discuss	with	the	electrician).
                        •	 Keep	logs	of	all	testing.	The	log	can	be	kept	in	a	simple	notebook,	or	some	electrical	contractors	
                           will	keep	the	records	for	you.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Maintain	the	anti-skid	properties	of	the	deck	coating	and	keep	it	free	of	hazards.

                                                                                                               3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
action points!
1. maintain the deck coating so it is anti-skid
	 Crew	need	to	be	sure	of	their	footing	while	working	on	deck.	Make	sure	a	good	dose	of	sand	or	grit		
   is	thrown	on	top	of	the	last	coat	of	paint,	or	some	other	grip	tread	is	applied	to	the	deck.

2. replace deck gratings
	 If	maintenance	work	has	required	the	deck	plates	or	gratings	to	be	removed,	replace	them	as	soon		
   as	possible.	Fasten	them	properly	so	the	edges	and	corners	don’t	rise	up	above	the	deck	level.

                                                                       Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.9	 VENTILATION

                       Small	vessels	often	have	small,	confined	spaces.	The	air	in	these	spaces	can	become	very	stagnant		
                       over	a	short	period	of	time.	This	can	be	a	health	risk	to	crew	working	and	living	in	these	spaces.

                       helpful tips
                       1. regularly clean ventilation fans, grills and filters (if fitted)
                       	 These	all	trap	dirt.	The	dirt	can	become	a	fire	risk,	it	can	reduce	the	quality	and	amount	of	air	being	
                          supplied	and	shorten	the	life	of	fan	motors.

                       2. regularly check ventilation gaps and grills
                       	 If	there	are	small	ventilation	gaps	or	grills	at	the	bottom	of	the	door,	check	them	regularly	to	make		
                          sure	they	are	clear.

                       3. regularly maintain shutters and flaps
                       	 Remember	in	the	case	of	a	fire,	the	compartment	must	be	able	to	be	closed	down.	Regularly	grease	
                          these	and	move	them	through	their	arc-of-travel.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

•	   Lighting	should	be	fit	for	purpose.
•	   Change	light	bulbs,	lamps	and	tubes	as	soon	as	they	fail.

                                                                                                                 3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
•	   Keep	diffusers	and	reflectors	on	light	fittings	clean.	
•	   Replace	switches,	diffusers	and	reflectors	if	they	get	damaged.
•	   Regularly	test	emergency	lighting.
•	   Regularly	check	the	battery	supplying	the	emergency	lighting.	
•	   Lighting	should	allow	people	to	move	around	the	vessel	with	ease	and	do	their	work	safely.		
     In	accommodation	areas,	lighting	should	allow	people	to	read.

night lighting at sea
At	night,	night	vision	is	of	great	importance	to	crew	who	are	moving	around	on	deck	or	on	watch		
on	the	bridge.	

If	you	are	surrounded	by	white	light	your	night	vision	is	seriously	impaired.

Rules	to	improve	night	vision:
•	 Keep	white	lighting	at	sea	to	a	minimum.	Bright	white	light	will	prevent	you	from	seeing	objects	ahead	
    of	you	at	night.
•	 On	the	bridge	of	any	vessel	night	lighting	(blue	or	red)	should	be	used	to	work	with	logs	and	charts.
•	 Do	not	use	white	deck	lighting	forward	of	the	bridge.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.11	 ROPES	AND	MOORING	LINES

                       All	ropes	securing	a	load	need	to	be	safe.

                       action points!
                       •	   Use	the	appropriate	strength	rope	for	the	load.
                       •	   If	the	load	is	dangerous,	heavy	or	expensive	–	double	up.
                       •	   Stow	ropes	and	lines	up	off	the	deck	(if	practical).
                       •	   Stow	ropes	and	lines	in	such	a	way	that	if	they	are	wet,	they	will	dry.
                       •	   Regularly	check	ropes	for	fraying	or	cuts	and	discard	if	they	are	significantly	damaged.
                       •	   Don’t	bend	large	ropes	too	tightly.
                       •	   Never	stand	where	a	recoiling	rope	may	strike	you.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
3.12	 BOARDING	AND		 	                                                             	        	        	
Getting	on	and	off	a	vessel	is	awkward.	The	vessel	size	and	the	tidal	drop	can	sometimes	make	it	
difficult	to	use	a	gangway.

                                                                                                              3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
Sometimes	crew	or	passengers	have	to	step	onto	the	vessel	directly	from	the	wharf	side.	It	is	important	
that	embarking	and	disembarking	is	done	in	the	safest	manner.

don’t take risks when boarding and disembarking.

action points!
•	   Set	mooring	lines	so	the	vessel	lays	parallel	to	the	wharf	and	does	not	swing	too	much.
•	   Use	a	gangway	whenever	possible.
•	   Secure	ladders	or	gangways	to	the	vessel.
•	   Build	permanent	hand	rails/steps	on	side	of	vessel	if	practical.
•	   On	passenger	vessels,	a	crewmember	should	always	stand	near	the	gangway	to	assist	passengers.

                                                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.13	 KEEPING	THE	VESSEL		 	                                                                            	
                       Flooding	can	occur	on	a	vessel	as	a	result	of	an	incident	at	sea.	Flooding	can	also	happen	when		
                       a	vessel	is	alongside.

                       There	are	a	number	of	steps	you	can	take	to	reduce	the	risk	of	a	flood.	There	are	also	things	you	can		
                       do	to	reduce	the	damage	that	a	flood	would	cause.

                       action points!
                       •	   Keep	watertight	opening	clips	and	dogs	well	greased	and	in	good	working	order	at	all	times.	
                       •	   Keep	all	bilge	and	portable	pumps	maintained.	Check	operation	before	sailing	each	trip.
                       •	   Make	sure	bilges	are	clear	of	rags	and	debris	that	may	block	pumps.
                       •	   When	leaving	the	vessel,	ensure	all	sea	cocks	not	required	for	cooling	running	equipment	are	shut	off.
                       •	   Ensure	your	collision	bulkhead	or	any	other	watertight	bulkhead	is	not	compromised	by	drilling	holes	
                            to	install	cabling	or	pipe-work.	Make	sure	the	appropriate	through	bulkhead	watertight	gland	or	fitting	
                            is	used.

 0                    Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Things	happen	extremely	quickly	at	sea	and	often	a	compartment	will	have	to	be	evacuated	rapidly.	
Evacuation	of	crew	and	passengers	is	often	difficult	because	the	vessel	is	moving.	Flooding,	fire	and	

                                                                                                                3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
smoke	make	it	even	harder	to	get	out.	It	is	important	that	further	obstacles	are	not	put	in	the	way	of		
the	person	escaping,	whether	it	is	a	physical	obstruction,	or	the	person’s	lack	of	knowledge	about		
the	vessel.

On	some	vessels,	larger	compartments	have	two	exits.	Often	the	alternative	escape	route	is	not		
used	much,	and	ends	up	with	things	obstructing	it.	Crew	and	passengers	could	be	overcome	by		
smoke	or	they	could	drown	because	they	cannot	escape	through	blocked	exits.	

action points!
•	 Every	ladder	and	door	on	the	vessel	should	be	treated	as	a	possible	escape	route.
•	 Keep	all	openings	clear	and	unobstructed	at	all	times.	This	includes	the	passage	leading	to	them.
•	 Regularly	open	and	close	alternative	escape	route	hatches	and	doors	to	ensure	all	clips	and	hinges	
   are	working	freely	from	both	sides.
•	 Exits	should	be	marked	with	iridescent	signs	both	at	eye	level	and	at	ground	level.	
•	 Keep	ladders	leading	up	to	escape	hatches	clear	(ie	do	not	use	them	as	a	rope	or	tool	stowage).
•	 Show	crew	and	passengers	where	alternative	escape	routes	are	from	all	compartments	when	they	
   arrive	on	board.	This	should	form	part	of	passenger	safety	briefings	before	sailing.	

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.15	 MACHINERY	STOPS

                       There	will	be	a	number	of	machinery	stops	around	any	vessel	on	winches,	cranes,	windlasses		
                       and	conveyors	and	other	pieces	of	machinery.	Some	machines	are	fitted	with	remote	emergency		

                       stops	so	they	can	be	shut	down	from	another	area.	Many	stops	are	installed	for	safety	purposes		
                       so	that	machinery	automatically	stops	if	hazardous	parts	become	exposed	by	the	removal	of	a	safety		
                       cover	or	guard.

                       Stops	may	be	in	many	forms	including	valves,	levers,	switches,	micro-switches,	electronic	sensors		
                       or	buttons.	

                       action points!
                       •	 Do	not	bypass	any	machine’s	stop	button,	even	“just	for	a	short	time”.
                       •	 Make	sure	all	stop	switches,	levers	and	buttons	are	clearly	labelled	in	red.	Labels	or	signs	should		
                          be	large,	clean	and	bright.
                       •	 Crew	must	be	shown	where	emergency	stop	buttons	are	positioned	including	equipment	they		
                          may	not	be	responsible	for	operating.
                       •	 Keep	all	stop	buttons	and	levers	free	from	obstruction.
                       •	 Check	operation	of	stop	arrangements	regularly.	If	there	is	a	remote	emergency	stop	button,		
                          use	it	to	shut	the	machinery	down	occasionally	to	prove	it	is	working.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Fuelling	a	vessel	is	a	potentially	dangerous	situation.	People	on	the	vessel	or	in	the	area	are	at	risk.		
The	environment	could	be	damaged	by	a	fuel	spill.

                                                                                                                  3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
Always	take	care	when	refuelling.

action points!
•	 Make	sure	everyone	on	board	knows	you	are	fuelling.
•	 Make	sure	everyone	knows	there	can	be	no	smoking	during	the	fuelling	operation.
•	 Make	sure	crew	and	contractors	are	not	doing	any	welding,	gas	cutting	or	other	hot	work		
   on	or	near	the	vessel.
•	 Hoist	flag	BRAVO	so	vessels	passing	know	you	are	fuelling.
•	 Keep	constant	communication	with	the	tanker	attendant.
•	 Make	sure	you	attach	bags	or	containers	under	all	vents	so	spills	are	minimised.
•	 Keep	a	watch	on	deck	throughout	the	operation.
•	 Keep	an	oil	spill	kit	near	you	during	the	operation.
•	 Block	scuppers.
•	 There	should	be	no	passengers	on	board	during	fuelling	operations.

                                                                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.17	 GENERAL	TRAINING

                       People	in	key	positions	on	the	vessel	must	have	the	appropriate	qualifications.	Training	is	an	ongoing	
                       requirement,	because	all	vessels	and	their	equipment	are	different	and	people	forget	things.	

                       Don’t	fall	into	the	trap	of	believing	training	is	too	expensive	or	you	haven’t	got	time.	Down	time	and	
                       medical	costs	are	expensive	too.

                       The	level	of	training	will	vary	with	each	crewmembers’	experience	and	capability.	

                       Experienced	crew	will	only	require	induction	training	relating	to	the	operation	and	location	of	equipment	
                       on	a	new	vessel.	Inexperienced	crewmembers	will	need	detailed	and	ongoing	training	to	learn	the	
                       appropriate	skills.

                       action points!
                       •	 Never	let	crewmembers	operate	equipment	until	they	have	been	trained	and	tested	and	can	operate		
                          it	competently.
                       •	 Give	all	new	crewmembers	induction	training.
                       •	 Record	all	training.	The	example	of	an	induction	checklist	that	follows	is	practical	for	small	vessels.		
                          It	serves	to	remind	the	person	training	the	new	crewmember	of	everything	that	should	be	covered.	
                          Keep	records	of	completed	training.	These	records	will	provide	an	audit	trail	to	show	that	the	training	
                          was	done.	If	you	or	your	crew	have	an	accident	you	may	need	this	evidence.

                       An	example	induction	training	record	sheet	is	on	the	following	page.

                       for further information
                       There	is	a	large	range	of	courses	available	from	various	training	suppliers	around	New	Zealand.		
                       Contact	Competenz	Industry	Training	on	0800	2	SKILL	(0800	275	455)	for	more	information.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
induction training record

                                                                                                                 3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
Note:	The	checklist	below	is	not	complete	and	is	provided	to	indicate	the	concept	only.		
Adapt	it	to	include	training	for	your	vessel-specific	equipment.

 induction training record for fv coStalot
 training task                           date                  trainer name/sig         trainee name
 muster stations	–	Sound	alarm.	         1/4/07                J Boggs                  Terry Tee
 Explain	action	required	for	fire,		                           JFB                      TT
 man	overboard,	abandon	ship.
 life raft	–	Show	location	and	          1/4/07                J Boggs                  Terry Tee
 explain	expiry	date	and	hydrostatic	                          JFB                      TT
 release	arrangement.
 epirB	–	Show	location	and	explain	      1/4/07                J Boggs                  Terry Tee
 expiry	date	and	hydrostatic	release	                          JFB                      TT
 lifejackets	–	Show	stowage	and	         1/4/07                J Boggs                  Terry Tee
 explain	light	battery	expiry	date.                            JFB                      TT
 engine room ventilation	–		             1/4/07                J Boggs                  Terry Tee
 Show	how	engine	room	ventilation		                            JFB                      TT
 is	shut	off	in	the	case	of	an	
 emergency.	Show	ventilation		
 flaps	that	must	be	closed.
 anchor and cable	–	Explain	and	         24/7/07               Ian Heart                Terry Tee
 operate	windlass.	Explain	dangers	                            IH                       TT
 involved.	Explain	and	secure	“dead	
 mans	claw”.	Operate	the	brakes.
 cable lockers	–	Show	and	explain	       24/7/07               Ian Heart                Terry Tee
 dangers.                                                      IH                       TT

 Winches	–	Explain	operating	            13/5/07               Ian Heart                Terry Tee
 procedures.	Tools	to	be	used.	                                IH                       TT
 Explain	dangers	associated	with	
 working	with	wire	and	safe	practices	
 that	must	be	adhered	to.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                       3.18	 TRIP	PLANNING/	
                       	     PRE-SAILING	CHECKLIST
                       An	important	part	of	planning	your	trip	is	knowing	what	happens	on	land	if	things	go	wrong	at	sea:

                       •	 Make	sure	someone	on	land	knows	where	you	are	heading,	how	long	you’ll	be	away,	how	many	
                           passengers	are	on	board	(if	appropriate)	and	when	you	are	due	back.
                       •	 Set	up	a	regular	(every	24	hours)	communication/contact	schedule	(cellphone/vessel	radio)		
                           with	someone	on	land	or	maritime	radio.
                       •	 Have	a	plan	in	place	for	the	person	on	land	to	follow	if	you	miss	a	scheduled	contact	or	are	longer		
                           than	expected	at	sea.

                       Remember:	it	is	best	that	someone	knows	your	intended	plan	(even	if	this	changes)	rather	than		
                       no	one	noticing	you	are	missing.

                       Before leaving port, your vessel must be ready and capable to travel:
                       •	 The	vessel	must	be	seaworthy.	It	must	be	watertight	and	equipment	must	be	secured.		
                          Vessel	stability	is	improved	if	fuel	and	water	tanks	are	full,	the	boom	is	down,	and	weights		
                          (such	as	cargo)	are	kept	low.
                       •	 All	cargo,	fuel	containers	and	other	supplies	must	be	safely	stored	and	secured.
                       •	 The	vessel	must	be	securely	and	safely	loaded.
                       •	 Consideration	must	be	given	to	current	and	forecast	weather	conditions.

                       Before	sailing,	check	the	essential	items	and	equipment	every	time.	These	are	included	in	your		
                       SSM	manual	or	logs.	An	example	pre-sailing	checklist	is	shown	on	the	following	page.

                     Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
pre-sailing checklist

 navigation gear
 Compass	operating	and	remote	indicator	aligned                              			   		Yes								   		No
 Radar	operating                                                             			   		Yes								   		No
 Depth	sounder	tested                                                        			   		Yes								   		No
 Necessary	updated	charts	on	board                                           			   		Yes								   		No

                                                                                                          3 SAFET Y IN VESSELS
 Navigation	lights	all	operating	in	normal	and	backup	modes                  			   		Yes								   		No
 Deck	and	cabin	light	working                                                			   		Yes								   		No
 GPS	working                                                                 			   		Yes								   		No
 Weather	fax	working                                                         			   		Yes								   		No
 Radio	check	completed                                                       			   		Yes								   		No
 New	members	shown	basic	safety	equipment                                    			   		Yes								   		No
 Muster	list	up	dated                                                        			   		Yes								   		No
 Water	tank	filled                                                           			   		Yes								   		No
 Food	on	board	and	stowed	away                                               			   		Yes								   		No
 Briefing                                                                    			   		Yes								   		No
 POB                                                                         			   		Yes								   		No
 Reported	ashore	(SAR	contact	person)                                        			   		Yes								   		No
 Batteries	checked	for	water	level	and	charge	                               			   		Yes								   		No
 Deck	lighting	checked                                                       			   		Yes								   		No
 engine room
 Oil	and	water	levels	checked                                                			   		Yes								   		No
 Belt	tensions	checked                                                       			   		Yes								   		No
 Fuel	level	checked	and	confirmed	adequate	for	trip	                         			   		Yes								   		No
 Gearbox	oil	checked                                                         			   		Yes								   		No
 Steering	checked	in	normal	and	emergency	control	                           			   		Yes								   		No
 Stern	tube	oil	checked                                                      			   		Yes								   		No
 emergency equipment
 Liferaft	fitted	and	secured	properly	with	hydrostatic	release	              			   		Yes								   		No
 EPIRB	in	place                                                              			   		Yes								   		No
 Bilge	alarms	working                                                        			   		Yes								   		No
 Bilge	pumps	checked                                                         			   		Yes								   		No
 First	aid	kit	has	been	re-stocked                                           			   		Yes								   		No
 Flares	in	their	stowage                                                     			   		Yes								   		No
 Lifejackets	in	their	correct	stowage	and	in	good	order	                     			   		Yes								   		No

                                                                  Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
4.1	 ORGANISING	THE		 	 	                                                                      	      	
The	watchkeeper’s	main	job	is	to	ensure	the	safe	navigation	of	the	vessel	and	to	prevent	it:
•	 running	aground

                                                                                                               4 WATCHKEEPING
•	 colliding	with	another	vessel	or	moving	object
•	 hitting	a	rock	or	other	hazard.

it is a legal requirement that someone must be on watch at all times.

In	order	to	avoid	collisions	with	land	or	a	floating	object,	sound	and	professional	bridge	watchkeeping	
practices	and	procedures	must	be	put	in	place	on	all	seagoing	vessels	regardless	of	their	size.

Information	and	resources	on	watchkeeping	are	widely	available.	While	there	may	still	be	the	odd	
uncharted	rock	around	the	globe,	the	charts,	radars	and	other	navigational	aids	are	now	very	detailed	
and	reliable.	

This	section	covers:
•	 the	watchkeeper’s	job
•	 using	two	methods	to	check	the	vessel’s	position
•	 lookout	duties
•	 tips	for	using	navigational	equipment
•	 being	fit	for	duty	as	a	watchkeeper.

                                                                       Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   

                 the watchkeeper is directly responsible for the vessel and the lives of all those on board
                 the vessel.

                 The	watchkeeper	must	remain	vigilant	at	all	times	to	ensure	the	safety	of	the	vessel	and	all	who	sail		
                 on	board.

                 Watchkeeping	duties	are	rarely	performed	in	ideal	conditions.	The	weather	may	be	rough	and	make		
                 it	hard	to	do	the	job.	Even	when	the	weather	is	calm	the	watchkeeper	can	sometimes	get	a	bit	bored,	
                 and	not	focus	on	the	job.

                 two watchkeepers on board
                 If	possible,	it	is	a	good	idea	to	have	two	qualified	watchkeepers	at	sea.	

                 Vessel	operators	should	consider	training	all	deckhands	in	watchkeeping	and	encourage	them	to	sit		
                 the	most	basic	qualification	so	the	watchkeeping	duties	can	be	shared.

                 the three main jobs of the watchkeeper are:
                 •	 Avoid collisions	with	other	vessels	or	objects	either	floating	or	submerged.
                 •	 Keep the vessel on track	and	away	from	dangerous	land	and	rocks	and	on	her	intended	track.
                 •	 Manage the vessel on track	and	its	log	books,	charts	and	communications.	Conduct	other	routine		
                    and	training	tasks	professionally.

                 These	are	important	responsibilities.	Navigational	watchkeepers	on	all	vessels	(large	and	small)	have		
                 to	be	alert	and	aware	–	the	vessel’s	safety	depends	on	them.

                 good watchkeeping practices
                 •	 Use	more	than	one	method	to	confirm	your	actual	position.	Use	visual	fixing,	radar	fixing	and		
                    GPS	regularly.
                 •	 Don’t	become	distracted	by	passengers	or	passenger	commentaries.
                 •	 Keep	records	of	incidents,	sea	conditions	and	watch	changes	in	the	log	book.
                 •	 Safe	navigation	should	never	become	second	priority.	Even	when	you	have	to	attend	to	operational	
                    duties	and	take	longer	between	fixes,	complete	thorough	checks	before	you	leave	the	bridge.
                 •	 Keep	yourself	active	throughout	the	watch.	If	you	are	moving	and	working,	you	are	less	likely	to		
                    fall	asleep.	
                 •	 Do	not	have	a	television	in	the	wheelhouse	area.
                 •	 Ensure	by	regular	checks	that	your	own	navigational	equipment,	particularly	navigational	lights,		
                    are	operable	and	switched	on	(or	off)	to	indicate	the	vessel’s	mode	of	operations.
                 •	 Always	maintain	anchor	watches.	Make	sure	your	position	is	checked	regularly.	In	adverse	weather	
                    keep	a	bridge	watch	while	at	anchor.

•	 Keep	a	good	lookout.	To	do	this:
	  –	 regularly	go	outside	and	scan	the	sea	around	the	vessel

                                                                                                               4 WATCHKEEPING
	  –	 use	binoculars	to	scan	the	horizon	
	  –	 regularly	check	the	radar	for	new	contacts
	  –	 keep	note	of	the	water	depth	under	the	vessel
	  –	 listen	for	sounds	that	are	different	or	unusual
	  –	 check	the	faxes	and	radio	for	changing	weather
	  –	 make	sure	you	know	the	shapes	and	light	configurations	of	different	signals.		
   	 This	will	help	you	to	know	what	other	vessels	are	doing.
•	 It	is	very	important	to	remain	vigilant.	Listen	and	look	for	things	that	may	endanger	the	vessel	and	the	
   crew.	“All	available	means”	includes	using	your	navigational	equipment	such	as	depth	sounders	and	
   radars	that	provide	lookout	information
•	 When	you	finish	your	watch,	conduct	a	good	handover.	Explain	what	has	happened	during	your	
   watch.	Point	out	the	vessel’s	current	position,	intended	track	and	any	immediate	hazards.	Tell	the	next	
   watchkeeper	about	any	other	points	of	concern	you	have.

        legal requirementS

 Maritime	Rules	Part	22	states	that	vessels	“must	at	all	times	maintain	a	proper	lookout	by	sight	and	
 hearing	as	well	as	by	all	available	means	in	the	prevailing	circumstances	…”

                                                                       Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                 4.3	 NAVIGATIONAL	EqUIPMENT	

                 navigational charts
                 Charts	are	an	essential	navigational	tool,	and	are	especially	useful	when	you	need	to	plot	a	course		

                 for	a	longer	trip.	Charts	should	be	kept	up-to-date	at	all	times.	Refer	to:	for	updates.

                 Charts	show	depths,	hazards,	land	and	deviation	figures	for	all	navigational	areas.

                 Even	if	you	have	electronic	chart	software	on	your	vessel,	keep	in	the	habit	of	using	the	paper	charts.		
                 If	a	power	failure	or	surge	causes	the	computer	to	fail,	you’ll	still	be	able	to	access	the	information.

                 It	is	good	practice	to	get	into	the	habit	of	using	the	magnetic	compass.	It	helps	to:
                 •	 confirm	electronic	devices	are	operating	correctly
                 •	 show	less	experienced	watchkeepers	the	true	position	of	hazards	on	charts	when	they	calculate	
                       deviation	and	variation	corrected	headings
                 •	 ensure	that	watchkeepers	can	perform	their	duties	if	GPS	and	radar	fail
                 •	 break	the	monotony	of	the	watch.

                 The	radar	set	on	your	vessel	is	critical	when	visibility	is	poor,	for	example	in	poor	weather,	fog,	or	at	night.	
                 The	radar	will	also	often	be	the	first	indicator	that	there	is	something	small	ahead.

                 The	watchkeeper	must	keep	an	eye	on	the	radar	set	at	all	times.	Small	objects	or	vessels	can	appear		
                 on	the	radar	very	quickly.	The	time	between	the	radar	detecting	something	and	the	vessel	colliding	with	
                 that	thing	can	also	be	very	short.

                 Radars	need	to	be	checked	regularly.	Radars	do	get	out	of	sync	and	may	need	to	be	calibrated	to	give	
                 accurate	readings.	You	can	check	your	radar	accuracy	by	cross	checking	against	visual	fixing	and	GPS.	

                 action points!
                 •	 Ensure	the	range	is	set	correctly	for	the	operation	you	are	performing	and	the	associated	hazards		
                    in	the	area.	
                 •	 Make	sure	the	gain	and	clutter	settings	are	set	appropriately	for	the	weather	conditions	you	are	
                    working	in.
                 •	 Remember	the	magnetron	in	your	radar	has	a	finite	life	and	the	radar’s	performance	will	deteriorate		
                    so	it	is	important	that	you	have	it	checked	and	serviced	regularly.

                 navigational lighting
                 Your	vessel’s	navigational	lights	show	others	where	you	are	and	what	you	are	doing.	At	night,	in	fog,		
                 or	in	adverse	weather,	the	lights	will	be	the	first	warning	other	vessels	may	have	of	your	presence.	
                 Navigation	lights	help	other	vessels	work	out	your	vessel’s	approximate	course	and	indicate	if	you	are	
                 towing,	or	carrying	out	other	activities.	

action points!

                                                                                                                4 WATCHKEEPING
•	 Always	turn	the	appropriate	lights	on	and	off.	
•	 Always	run	a	quick	visual	check	that	the	lights	are	shining	after	you	have	turned	them	on	(you	should	
   do	this	even	if	you	have	an	alarm	fitted).

Shapes	are	used	during	daylight.	They	show	that	your	vessel	is	performing	a	specific	task,	such	as	
vessel	not	under	command	or	vessel	at	anchor.	This	indicates	to	other	vessels	that	your	manoeuvrability	
may	be	restricted	and	they	should	give	you	plenty	of	room.	The	shapes	on	other	vessels	tell	you	what	
they	are	doing.		

eyes and ears
Your	eyes	and	ears	are	the	most	valuable	navigational	aids	you	have.	Even	though	you	may	have	good	
and	reliable	technology,	what	you	see	and	hear	at	sea	is	very	important.

•	   Keep	background	noise	on	the	bridge	to	a	minimum	(ie	stereos,	CDs).
•	   Have	the	maritime	radio	on,	and	listen	to	it.
•	   Regularly	put	your	head	outside	to	look	out	and	listen.
•	   Listen	for	changes	of	sound.

Weather faxes and broadcasts
These	provide	valuable	information	about	the	environment.	Get	into	a	routine	of	using	or	listening		
to	them.

depth sounders
In	shallower	waters	the	depth	sounder	provides	useful	information	that	you	can	compare	with	the	charts.	
It	helps	to	clarify	position	as	well	as	warn	of	an	immediate	danger	of	grounding.

global positioning System (gpS)
Most	vessels	have	a	GPS	on	board	now.	GPS	is	a	useful	tool,	but	it	must	not	be	used	as	the	sole	
navigational	tool.

action points!
•	   GPS	can	become	inaccurate	due	to	electronic	or	satellite	malfunctions.
•	   GPS	does	not	show	other	vessels’	positions	or	warn	of	an	imminent	collision.
•	   GPS	does	not	show	the	vessel’s	position	relative	to	adjacent	shoreline.
•	   You	have	other	navigational	aids	you	can	use.

         legal requirementS

 Maritime	Rules	Part	22	gives	details	on	the	lights	and	shapes	all	vessels	are	required	to	display.

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                 4.4	 FITNESS	FOR	DUTY

                 are you fit to be on watch?
                 The	following	things	can	affect	your	ability	do	your	work:

                 •	 if	you	are	tired	or	haven’t	had	enough	sleep
                 •	 if	you	are	under	the	influence	of	drugs	or	alcohol
                 •	 if	you	are	ill	or	drowsy
                 •	 if	you	are	stressed
                 •	 if	you	have	other	concerns	that	distract	you	from	the	task.

                 a person may not be fit for duty if they are:
                 •	 more	irritable	or	bad	tempered	than	normal
                 •	 anxious
                 •	 bored	or	lethargic
                 •	 lacking	energy.

                 if you do not think you are able to do watchkeeping duty effectively, you need to tell the

                         tipS for SkipperS

                  •	 Often	the	first	time	you	can	assess	that	a	crewmember	is	fit	or	unfit	for	duty	is	when	they	appear		
                     in	the	wheelhouse	to	take	up	their	duty.	As	you	discuss	the	handover	watch	for	any	signs	of	stress,	
                     uncertainty,	or	fatigue.	If	you	think	the	person	is	unfit	for	duty	you	must	tactfully	rearrange	the	watch	
                     to	make	it	shorter,	or	divert	and	anchor	up	for	a	few	hours	if	possible.
                  •	 Keep	your	vessel	free	of	alcohol	and	drugs.	
                  •	 After	busy	periods	make	sure	you	take	the	time	to	talk	informally	and	casually	to	the	crew	and	
                     attempt	to	assess	“how	they	are	handling”	the	pressure.
                  •	 Adjust	the	planning	of	your	watches	to	suit	the	workload,	area	of	operations	and	the	fitness	for	duty	
                     of	the	individuals.
                  •	 Check	that	log	entries	and	charts	have	been	completed	properly	and	show	each	watchkeeper		
                     is	keeping	busy	and	conducting	their	watch	in	a	professional	manner.

                         legal requirementS

                  Maritime	Rules	Part	31	requires	procedures	and	systems	to	be	put	in	place	by	the	skipper	and	owner	
                  that	ensures	the	watchkeeper	is	fit	for	duty.	It	also	requires	crewmembers	to	consider	if	they	are	fit		
                  for	their	duty.


Many	small	vessels	are	fitted	with	refrigeration	systems.	Refrigerant	gas	or	liquid:	

                                                                                                                 5 SAFET Y IN MACHINERY SPACES
•	 is	poisonous	to	humans

                                                                                                                                                 5 SAFET Y IN MACHINERY SPACES
•	 affects	running	machinery	
•	 is	harmful	to	the	environment	if	leaked.	

There	are	a	range	of	refrigerant	gases	used	and	all	are	hazardous.	For	this	reason	these	systems	have		
to	be	well	maintained.	Crew	need	to	be	aware	of	the	dangers	and	action	required	in	the	event	of	a	leak.

In	the	past	chlorofluorocarbon	(CFC)	refrigerants	R-11,	R-12	and	R-502	were	common.	The	Ozone	Layer	
Protection	Act	1996	meant	that	CFCs	could	no	longer	be	used	in	refrigeration	systems.	New	refrigeration	
systems	use	more	environmentally	friendly	hydrochlorofluorocarbon	(HFC)	refrigerants.	

These	days,	the	most	common	refrigerants	used	on	small	vessels	are	Freon	R-22	and	Freon	134a.		
Freon	is	actually	a	trade	name,	so	the	number	is	the	important	identifier.

refrigerant hazards
•	 Freon	cannot	be	seen	or	smelt.
•	 Freon	is	heavier	than	air	so	it	will	“fall”	and	stay	sitting	in	the	bottom	of	compartments.
•	 Freon	is	extremely	harmful	if	it	comes	into	contact	with	the	eyes.
•	 Freon	is	suffocating	as	it	displaces	air.	
•	 If	you	inhale	high	concentrations	of	Freon,	it	attacks	the	nervous	system.
•	 When	Freon	comes	into	contact	with	hot	surfaces	and	starts	to	burn,	it	can	give	off	poisonous	gases.
•	 Freons,	if	released	into	the	air,	may	cause	environmental	damage.	Refrigerants	should	never	be	
   released	into	the	atmosphere.	They	must	be	drawn	into	the	condenser/receiver	or	into	a	separate	
•	 Most	refrigerants	mix	with	oil	so	oil	drained	from	a	refrigeration	system	must	be	clearly	labelled	and	
   disposed	of	separately.
•	 Refrigerants	must	not	be	mixed.

If	you	start	feeling	faint	or	dizzy	as	you	enter	a	compartment	–	don’t	think	twice	–	evacuate!

if a refrigerant leak occurs
•	 Evacuate	compartment	immediately.
•	 Sound	alarm!	Get	crew	in	an	up-wind	position.
•	 If	leak	is	in	engine	room	shut	down	machinery.
•	 Turn	vessel	into	wind	if	still	possible.
•	 Do	not	enter	compartment	without	ventilating	it	first.

Freon	sinks	to	the	bottom	of	the	compartment	and	is	very	hard	to	remove.	Try	to	force	airflow	down	into	
the	bottom	of	the	compartment	to	force	the	Freon	upwards.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS                                   
                                maintenance points

                                •	 Refrigerant	pipes	are	lagged	and	constantly	damp.	This	means	that	pipe	coatings	and	surfaces		
                                   can	deteriorate	relatively	quickly.	Check	pipes	regularly	and	make	sure	the	coating	is	maintained.
                                •	 Where	flexible	hoses	are	used	only	use	refrigerant	tolerant	hoses.	Try	to	avoid	using	flexible	hoses	
                                   wherever	possible.
                                •	 Maintain	fittings	such	as	valves	and	gauges	in	good	order.
                                •	 Mark	pipes	to	show	what	type	of	refrigerant	they	have	in	them.
                                •	 Refrigerants	are	supplied	in	metal	cylinders	which	will	corrode	in	the	salt	environment.	Make	sure	
                                   these	are	left	in	dry	storage	(preferably	ashore).

                              Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Some	smaller	vessels	have	a	compressed	air	system	on	board.	These	are	often	“off-the-shelf”	units		
from	the	local	hardware	shop.	

                                                                                                                5 SAFET Y IN MACHINERY SPACES
All	compressed	air	systems	have	a	pressurised	bottle	that	contains	the	high-pressure	air.	These	must		
be	kept	in	excellent	condition.	

action points!
•	   Always	wear	safety	glasses	when	you	are	using	compressed	air.	
•	   If	you	use	compressed	air	to	dry	something,	never	point	the	hose	directly	at	the	object	you	are	drying.
•	   Make	sure	whatever	the	compressed	air	is	being	used	on	is	secure.
•	   Never	use	compressed	air	as	an	air	supply	for	breathing.
•	   Never	use	compressed	air	near	hot	work,	ie	welding	and	gas	cutting.
•	   Do	not	use	compressed	air	to	clean	or	dry	clothing	while	you	are	still	wearing	it.

maintenance points
•	   Air	storage	bottles	must	be	kept	in	a	clean	and	dry	compartment.
•	   The	paint	coating	on	the	bottle	must	be	kept	in	good	condition.
•	   Fittings,	gauges,	valves	and	relief	valves	must	be	kept	in	good	condition	with	regular	maintenance.
•	   Hoses	used	on	portable	air	equipment	must	be	regularly	checked	for	damage	and	replaced	if	found.
•	   Air	bottles	must	be	firmly	secured	to	the	vessel	and	tested	regularly.

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                5.3	 GAS	CYLINDERS	AND		 	                                                                 	           	
                                Vessel	cooking	systems	are	usually	small.	They	can	be	very	dangerous	if	not	installed,	maintained		
                                and	operated	safely.	LPG	is	often	used	on	board	vessels	for	cooking.

                                action points!
                                •	 Always	turn	gas	off	immediately	after	use.
                                •	 Bottles,	regulating	and	relief	valves	must	be	installed	outside.
                                •	 Bottles,	valves,	pipelines	and	hoses	must	be	protected	from	physical	damage	and	kept	out	of		
                                   direct	sunlight.
                                •	 Abide	by	the	New	Zealand	Standard	for	installation	and	maintenance	of	LPG	cylinders	on	boats		
                                   and	caravans.
                                •	 The	space	in	which	the	gas	is	being	used	should	be	well	ventilated.	Run	the	fans	before	ignition.
                                •	 LPG	is	heavier	than	air	so	will	settle	in	the	lower	regions	of	the	compartment.
                                •	 A	gas	detector	should	be	fitted.
                                •	 Have	all	repairs	and	maintenance	done	by	a	qualified	gas-fitter.

                              Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

All	vessels,	whether	large	or	small,	have	numerous	electrical	systems	fitted	including	crucial	alarm		
and	navigational	equipment,	as	well	as	battery	systems.

                                                                                                                5 SAFET Y IN MACHINERY SPACES
Electrical	systems	that	are	badly	operated	or	poorly	maintained	can:
•	 black-out	the	vessel	rendering	it	without	steerage	or	power	at	sea
•	 cause	serious	disruption	to	navigational	aids	on	board
•	 electrocute	a	crewmember
•	 seriously	burn	a	crewmember
•	 start	a	fire	on	board.

All	of	the	above	can	lead	to	death	of	one	or	more	crewmembers.

Make	sure	all	crew	are	familiar	with	the	following:

•	   Get	all	electrical	maintenance	and	repair	work	done	by	a	certified	person.
•	   Keep	all	guards	and	covers	on	electrical	gear.
•	   Regularly	check	all	terminals	and	connectors	for	tightness,	cleanliness	and	for	excessive	heat.
•	   Keep	all	electrical	gear	away	from	water.
•	   Keep	all	grills	and	vents	of	electrical	gear	clean.
•	   Use	marine-rated	equipment	of	the	correct	rating.
•	   Keep	earth	straps	and	bonding	straps	on	equipment	connected	and	in	good	condition.
•	   Regularly	check	for	earth	faults	on	your	distribution	board	and	remove	faults	when	found.
•	   Regularly	check	battery	packs	and	chargers.
•	   Regularly	check	alternative	supplies	to	important	equipment	such	as	radars,	radios,	steering	etc.
•	   Keep	batteries	well	ventilated	and	dry.

•	 Don’t	hose	down	electrical	gear.
•	 Don’t	fiddle!
•	 Don’t	run	electrical	cables	through	bulkheads	or	into	boxes	without	using	the	correct	watertight	glands.
•	 Don’t	work	on	electrical	equipment	without	first	isolating	it!
•	 Don’t	use	under-rated	parts	in	electrical	systems.
•	 Don’t	overload	circuits.
•	 Don’t	leave	leads	and	other	portable	electrical	appliances	lying	around.
•	 Never	bypass	stop	switches.

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                        tipS for SkipperS

                                 Keep	a	separate	electrical	toolbox	on	board	with:
                                 •	 	electrical	testers	up	to	440v
                                 •	 	hydrometer
                                 •	 	insulated	tools
                                 •	 	spare	fuse	wire	(“for	home	use	only”)
                                 •	 	insulation	tape
                                 •	 	connectors.

  0                            Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

It	is	often	easy	to	find	a	potential	fault	in	hydraulic	systems.	You	can	normally	see	a	fault	which	is	about		
to	become	a	hazard.	The	fault	will	usually	be	a	leak	of	some	description.	

                                                                                                                  5 SAFET Y IN MACHINERY SPACES
Don’t	just	wipe	up	the	leak	and	leave	it.	Leaks	in	hydraulic	systems	can	result	in:

•    larger leaks, catastrophic failure
	    Small	leaks	may	warn	you	of	a	bigger	weakness	or	a	fault.

•	 endangering the vessel
	 Leaks	cause	a	drop	in	pressure	which	can	lead	to	system	failure.	This	can	affect	things	like	gear	
   recovery	and	steering,	and	endanger	the	vessel.

•	 fire
	 If	a	significant	leak	suddenly	appears	it	may	spray	over	electrical	equipment	or	a	hot	surface.		
   In	both	cases	a	fire	is	likely	to	occur.

•	 injury
	 A	leak	on	the	deck,	day	or	night,	can	cause	a	crewmember	to	lose	their	footing	and	either	fall	
   overboard	or	suffer	an	injury.

Hydraulic	systems	are	very	powerful	and	can	cause	fatalities	if	not	treated	with	due	respect.		
Hydraulic	fluid	is	a	pollutant	and	it	is	illegal	to	spill	it	into	the	sea.

action points!
•	   Attend	to	leaks	as	soon	as	possible.	
•	   If	the	leak	can’t	be	fixed	until	the	vessel	is	alongside,	contain	the	leak	so	it	doesn’t	spread.
•	   Don’t	leave	temporary	containment	arrangements	in	place	for	longer	than	necessary.
•	   Never	bypass	limit	switches	on	hydraulic	gear.	Test	these	regularly.
•	   Make	sure	guards	are	used	to	protect	people	from	the	hydraulic	system	wherever	possible.	If	guards	
     are	not	practical	use	a	warning	sign.	Hydraulic	fluid	under	pressure	can	puncture	skin	and	cause	
     blood	poisoning.
•	   Isolate	electrical	and	oil	supplies	to	hydraulic	systems	before	you	start	work	on	them.
•	   Store	hydraulic	fluids	in	the	vessels’	tanks.	Don’t	leave	drums	and	containers	of	hydraulic	fluid	on	
     board	if	not	absolutely	necessary.
•	   Make	sure	you	have	an	oil	spill	kit	adjacent	to	where	hydraulic	maintenance	work	is	being	conducted.
•	   If	working	on	hydraulics	on	deck	equipment	place	rags	in	front	of	scuppers	to	prevent	oil	spilling	into	
     the	sea.

                                                                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                                5.6	 HOT	WORK

                                Hot	work	is	any	work	that	may	generate	a	spark	or	significant	heat.	Sparks	and	heat	can	ignite	nearby	
                                gases	or	materials.

                                The	most	common	hot	work	on	vessels	involves	welding,	grinding	and	cutting	operations.	Electricians,	
                                upholsterers	and	other	trades	also	use	appliances	that	could	ignite	surrounding	materials	and	gases	
                                through	heat	or	sparks.

                                Hot	work	has	led	to	numerous	fires	on	board	vessels	and	has	also	caused	explosions	in	some	cases.	
                                Treat	it	seriously.

                                        legal requirementS

                                 •	 All	vessels	are	to	ensure	the	local	harbourmaster	is	informed	of	any	hot	work	that	is	to	be	
                                    conducted	on	board	a	vessel	in	the	port.
                                 •	 If	the	contractor	is	a	regular	marine	repairer	they	will	be	familiar	with	this	requirement.	The	contractor	
                                    will	usually	inform	the	harbourmaster.	Once	the	harbourmaster	issues	a	hot	work	permit,	work		
                                    can	start.
                                 •	 It	is	the	vessel’s	responsibility	to	make	sure	there	is	a	hot	work	permit.	The	skipper	must	check	that	
                                    the	contractor	has	the	permit	before	allowing	work	to	commence.

                                danger to nearby flammable goods
                                Some	hot	work	operations,	such	as	grinding	and	cutting,	generate	sparks	which	spray	over	a	wide	area.	
                                These	sparks	can	ignite	nearby	rubbish	bags,	rags,	cartons	etc.

                                Make	sure	you	check	both	sides	of	the	bulkhead	or	deck.	Clear	such	items	out	of	the	way	or	cover		
                                them	with	a	flameproof	blanket.	Remember	to	keep	the	vessel’s	fire	blanket	aside,	in	case	you	need		
                                it	to	fight	a	fire.

                                danger with fumes and gases
                                Sparks	can	ignite	fumes	coming	from	fuel	tanks,	gas	bottles,	paint	and	other	solvents.

                                Never	allow	hot	work	to	be	conducted:
                                •	 during	fuelling	operations
                                •	 if	there	is	a	fuel	tank	lid	off
                                •	 if	there	are	solvents,	oils,	paints	or	other	flammable	liquids	in	open	or	plastic	containers		
                                   (open	or	closed)	nearby.

                                always have a fire extinguisher nearby!

                              Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Smaller	vessels	can	be	placed	in	danger	when	caught	in	extremely	bad	weather.	A	large	proportion	of	
accidents	involving	small	vessels	are	weather	related.	Bad	weather	makes	the	work	environment	on	board	

                                                                                                                6 WEATHER /SEA CONDITIONS
the	vessel	extremely	hazardous.	It	also	places	a	lot	of	strain	on	the	vessel’s	structure	and	equipment.

Vessel	operators	should	always	know	and	understand	what	the	weather	is	forecast	to	do.

marine weather information
Marine	weather	forecasts	state	what	the	weather	is	expected	to	do.	This	is	done	using	a	series		
of	measures.	These	are	outlined	below.

Wave height
Wave	height	used	in	forecasts	refers	to	the	waves	that	are	generated	by	the	wind	in	the	area	that	is	being	
reported.	The	measures	used	are:

calm		       approx.	wind	wave	height	0.1	m
Smooth		     approx.	wind	wave	height	0.5	m
Slight		     approx.	wind	wave	height	1.0	m
moderate		   approx.	wind	wave	height	2.0	m
rough		      approx.	wind	wave	height	3.0	m
very rough		 approx.	wind	wave	height	4.5	m
high		       approx.	wind	wave	height	6.5	m
very high		  approx.	wind	wave	height	8.5	m
phenomenal		 approx.	wind	wave	height	11.0	m

Swell	is	also	forecast.	Swell	comes	from	either	a	distant	disturbance,	such	as	a	cyclone	or	depression,	or	
the	swell	develops	from	wind	waves	that	have	been	blowing	from	the	same	direction	for	a	length	of	time.

Swell	height	can	be	given	in	metres	or	named	as	follows:

low		           Under	2.0	m
moderate		      2–4	m
heavy		         Over	4	m

average sea and swell
The	heights	of	both	sea	and	swell	refer	to	the	average	from	the	trough	to	the	crest	of	the	highest	one-	
third	of	waves	present.

Occasional	waves	may	be	much	higher.	About	one	wave	in	a	hundred	is	likely	to	reach	half	as	high	again,	
and	one	in	a	thousand	twice	the	quoted	average.

Wind speed
Wind	speed	is	given	in	knots	and	the	direction	given	is	where	the	wind	comes	from.

Warnings	are	issued	as	follows:
Wind		         The	wind	is	expected	to	exceed	33	knots	(either	steady	or	in	gusts).
gale	          Expect	to	be	about	45	knots	as	a	steady	wind,	gusts	can	be	50%	higher.
Storm	         To	about	60	knots	as	a	steady	wind,	gusts	can	be	50%	higher.
tropical	      Cyclone	is	over	60	knots	but	is	only	used	for	“hurricane’’	type	tropical	storms.

                                                                        Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                            visibility distance
                            fog	            less	than	1.0	nautical	mile	                fair	          3–6	nautical	miles

                            poor		          1–3	nautical	miles	                         good		         Over	6	nautical	miles

                            Average	visibility	in	New	Zealand	is	about	15	nautical	miles.

                            Sources of weather information
                            The	two	easiest	ways	of	getting	a	marine	forecast	are	by	VHF	radio	and	telephone.

                            vhf radio
                            Marine	weather	forecasts	are	announced	on	Channel	16	at	0533,	0733,	1033,	1333,	1733	and	2133	hours.


                               MetPhone Coastal
                               dial 000  + map area number
                               Brett	         60	    Chalmers	            69	                        76               61
                               Colville	      61	    Foveaux	             70	
                               Plenty	        62	    Puysegur	            71	                                              62
                               Portland	      63	    Milford	             72	                             75
                               Castlepoint	   64	    Grey	                73	
                               Cook	          65	    Stephens	            74	
                               Abel	          66	    Raglan	              75	                          74                       63
                               Conway	        67	    Kaipara	             76	             66
                               Rangitata	     68	    Chatham	Islands	     78
                                Special Recreational Marine Forecasts                                                 65
                                                                                                            67                       78
                                Bay	of	Islands	             0900	999	98	
                                Auckland	Marine	            0900	999	99	
                                                                                   72                                   Islands
                                Lake	Rotorua	               0900	999	18	                            68
                                Lake	Taupo	                 0900	999	13	
                                Kapiti	Coast		              0900	999	17	
                                Wellington	Marine	          0900	999	22	
                                Christchurch	Marine	        0900	999	44            71      70

                                For	futher	information	or	assistance:	                   Or	write	to	MetService,	PO	Box	722,		
                                please	call	the	MetPhone	helpline	toll	free	on:	         Wellington.	Or	visit	their	website
                                0800	WEATHER	(932	843)	                        	

                            other sources of forecasts
                            •	 Local	coastguard	stations	on	VHF	radio.
                            •	 Teletext.
                            •	 Local	newspapers	(remember	information	can	be	relatively	old).
                            •	 Local	radio	stations.
                            •	 National	Radio	at	0500	hours.
                            •	 Auckland	area	has	continual	forecasts	on	Channels	20	or	21.
                            •	 Whitianga	area	has	continual	forecasts	on	Channel	23.
                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

dangers in extreme seas

                                                                                                                 6 WEATHER /SEA CONDITIONS
Severe	seas	of	any	kind	are	dangerous	if	you	are	not	prepared.	You	should	take	special	care	in	the	
following	situations.

In	beam	seas,	excessive	roll	can	cause	cargo	to	shift,	creating	a	dangerous	list.	This	could	cause		
the	vessel	to	capsize.	Strong	breaking	waves	could	also	capsize	the	vessel.		

In	following	seas,	a	vessel	may	lose	stability	on	a	wave	crest.	If	the	vessel	is	overtaken	by	a	wave	crest,	
broaching	may	occur.		

In	quartering	seas,	the	problems	of	beam	and	following	seas	are	combined.	quartering	seas	represent	
the	most	dangerous	situation	in	severe	weather.		

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                            6.3	 FOG

                            When	encountering	fog,	and	before	you	enter	it,	you	must:

                            •	 plot	a	fix	on	your	chart	or	mark	your	position	on	the	electronic	plotter
                            •	 reduce	speed	(so	you	can	stop	in	half	the	visible	distance)
                            •	 turn	navigation	lights	on
                            •	 post	extra	watchkeepers	–	by	sight	and	hearing	–	preferably	in	the	bow
                            •	 start	sounding	one	long	blast	(4–6	seconds)	every	2	minutes	while	making	way	through	the	water		
                               and	two	long	blasts	every	2	minutes	when	stopped.

                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS

Bars	around	the	coast	of	New	Zealand	are	notorious	for	accidents	and	require	special	care.

                                                                                                              6 WEATHER /SEA CONDITIONS
Below	are	important	safety	tips	you	should	follow	Before	you	cross	the	bar.

Before you cross the bar
•	 Check	the	weather,	tide	and	bar	conditions.
•	 Contact	coastguard	or	maritime	radio	immediately	prior	to	crossing.
•	 Ensure	adequate	stability.
•	 Batten	down.
•	 Lifejackets	must	be	worn	and	all	crew	must	be	awake.
•	 Approach	at	moderate	speed.
•	 Post	a	lookout	to	monitor	sea	conditions	astern.
•	 Communicate	your	successful	crossing	to	coastguard	or	maritime	radio.
•	 If	in	doubt	–	don’t	cross.
•	 Avoid	ebb	tide.

for more information
Refer	Maritime	New	Zealand	Boat Notice 10/2001.	This	contains	the	National code of practice
for bar crossings.	Copies	of	the	Boat Notice	are	available	on	the	Maritime	New	Zealand	website:	or	by	phoning	0508	22	55	22.

The	Seafood	Industry	Training	Organisation	(SITO)	distributes	a	video/DVD	Crossing the Bar	which	
illustrates	best	practice	on	bar	crossings.	Contact	SITO	on	(04)	385	4005	to	obtain	copies.

                                                                      Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   

This	section	covers:

                                                                                                                      7 HUMAN FACTORS
•	 what	fatigue	is
•	 how	to	know	if	someone	is	fatigued
•	 things	to	do	to	manage	fatigue
•	 fatigue	management	plans.

If	you	are	suffering	from	fatigue	you	will	not	be	able	to	do	your	work	properly	and	safely.	Sometimes	
people	do	not	realise	they	are	fatigued.

Fatigue	happens	when	people:
•	 don’t	get	enough	sleep
•	 work	very	hard,	either	physically	or	mentally,	and	don’t	have	time	to	recover	
•	 work	for	too	long
•	 work	when	the	body	is	programmed	to	sleep	(eg	in	the	middle	of	the	night)
•	 can’t	sleep	when	they	have	the	chance
•	 have	poor	quality	sleep	(eg	sleep	might	be	interrupted,	or	there	might	be	something	wrong	with	the	
    sleep	environment	–	too	much	light,	noise,	etc).

Most	people	need	7–8	hours	of	sleep	a	night	to	be	fully	rested.	Most,	but	not	all,	can	get	by	on		
6	hours	of	unbroken	sleep	a	night	for	a	few	nights	until	the	pressure	for	sleep	increases	to		
dangerous	levels.

With	less	than	6	hours	sleep	a	night	the	pressure	for	sleep	increases	rapidly.	The	risk	of	falling	asleep		
or	making	a	mistake	also	increases.	With	lack	of	sleep	the	brain	takes	“micro	sleeps”,	turning	itself	off	
from	the	outside	world	for	a	short	time.	Eventually	this	will	turn	into	continuous	sleep.	If	people	go	for	
several	days	without	enough	sleep,	they	are	more	likely	to	be	affected	by	fatigue	and	to	take	longer		
to	recover	from	the	lack	of	sleep.	This	is	called	“sleep	debt”.

is fatigue a significant hazard on my vessel?
If	the	answer	to	any	of	the	following	questions	is	yes,	fatigue	is	likely	to	be	a	hazard	on	your	vessel:
•	 Does	anyone	on	the	vessel	usually	start	work	before	0700	or	finish	after	2200?
•	 Is	the	work	day	usually	longer	than	12	hours?
•	 Is	it	a	demanding	work	environment	(eg	lots	of	noise,	vibration,	heat	or	cold,	rough	sea	conditions)?
•	 Are	work	demands	unpredictable?
•	 Is	working	on	the	boat	constantly	physically	or	mentally	demanding?
•	 Do	people	working	on	the	boat	say	they’re	tired	a	lot	or	at	particular	times	of	trips?
•	 Does	the	crew	report	feeling	excessively	tired,	or	have	health	problems	that	affect	their	sleep?
•	 Do	employees	commute	long	distances	to	work?

The	use	of	alcohol	and	drugs	can	also	lead	to	people	falling	asleep	or	becoming	fatigued	when	they	
normally	wouldn’t.

how can i tell if someone is fatigued?
Someone	who	is	fatigued	won’t	always	look	or	feel	fatigued.	It	helps	to	think	about	the	amount	of	sleep		
a	person	had	recently,	and	what	kind	of	work	they	have	been	doing.	This	“history”	helps	to	identify	if	
someone	is	at	risk	of	being	fatigued.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS      
                  People	who	are	fatigued	might:

                  •	 be	very	irritable	(more	than	usual)
                  •	 be	uncommunicative,	or	unclear	when	they	talk
                  •	 forget	things	quickly
                  •	 be	unable	to	stay	focused	on	a	task
                  •	 be	preoccupied	with	parts	of	a	problem,	missing	warning	signs	and	losing	“the	big	picture”
                  •	 cut	corners	to	get	the	job	finished
                  •	 take	unusual	risks
                  •	 make	poor	judgements	about	distance,	speed	and/or	time
                  •	 have	slow	reactions	to	things	that	happen,	or	people	talking	to	them
                  •	 have	slurred	or	muddled	speech
                  •	 be	clumsy
                  •	 be	obviously	sleepy.

                          legal requirementS

                   •	 Fatigue	is	a	hazard	under	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992.	
                   •	 Employers	have	to	take	all	practicable	steps	to	manage	fatigue	as	a	hazard,	and	need	to	involve	
                      employees	in	identifying	fatigue	problems	and	how	to	control	them.	
                   •	 Maritime	New	Zealand	requires	every	vessel	owner	to	develop	an	approved	fatigue	management	
                      plan	as	part	of	their	SSM	manual	(if	fatigue	is	a	significant	hazard	on	their	vessel).

                  how can i manage fatigue on our vessel?
                  If	people	on	your	vessel	are	at	risk	of	fatigue,	the	skipper	will	need	to	write	a	fatigue	management	plan.		
                  More	information	on	fatigue	management	plans	is	at	the	end	of	this	section.

                  If	fatigue	is	not	an	issue	for	people	on	your	vessel,	everyone	involved	(owner,	skipper	and	crew)	should	
                  agree	that	fatigue	does	not	need	to	be	actively	managed.	The	skipper	needs	to	document	the	reasons	
                  for	this	in	the	vessel	SSM	manual.

                  action points!
                  •	 There	is	no	right	way	to	manage	fatigue	–	the	solutions	need	to	fit	your	vessel,	its	operation,		
                     and	your	skipper	and	crew.
                  •	 Owners,	skippers,	crew,	partners	and	safety	advisors	should	be	involved	in	developing	fatigue	
                     management	plans.
                  •	 Everyone	should	learn	about	fatigue.	It’s	a	good	idea	for	everyone	to	attend	a	training	session	about	
                     fatigue	management.
                  •	 Make	sure	all	crew	regularly	have	time	off	for	sleep.	A	minimum	of	6	hours	continuous	sleep	in	every	
                     24	hours	is	recommended	(time	sleeping	is	not	the	same	as	time	off).
                  •	 Take	short	naps	wherever	possible	(40	minute	and	2	hour	naps	are	the	best	timing,	if	you	want		
                     to	work	soon	after	waking	up).	

 0               Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS
       tipS for SkipperS

                                                                                                                 7 HUMAN FACTORS
 •	 Assess	whether	fatigue	is	a	significant	hazard	and	develop	a	fatigue	management	plan.
 •	 Regularly	review	levels	of	fatigue	and	how	well	your	fatigue	management	plan	is	working.		
    Any	time	you	monitor	or	review	the	plan,	make	a	note	in	your	SSM	manual.	
 •	 Make	sure	all	crew	have	somewhere	dry	and	dark	to	sleep.
 •	 Talk	about	fatigue	with	the	crew.	Make	sure	they	know	it	is	human	to	get	tired	and	that	it	is	better		
    to	admit	it	than	hide	it.
 •	 Provide	healthy	food	and	plan	“rest	days’’	so	that	cumulative	fatigue	doesn’t	become	a	problem.
 •	 Install	watchkeeper	alarms	(if	appropriate).
 •	 Make	sure	people	on	watch	at	night	have	activities	to	keep	them	active.
 •	 Provide	caffeine	and	energy	drinks	which	can	help	keep	people	alert	for	short	periods	of	time.
 •	 Make	sure	watchkeepers	feel	comfortable	waking	someone	else	if	they	get	tired.

fatigue management plans
A	fatigue	management	plan	is	an	organised	way	of	managing	fatigue	as	a	hazard.	In	practice,	a	good	
fatigue	management	plan	has	two	major	parts:
•	 what	to	do	on	the	vessel	to	manage	fatigue
•	 what	the	owner	or	skipper	has	to	do	to	keep	an	eye	on	how	the	plan	is	implemented	and	ensure		
     it’s	up	to	date.

The	owner,	skipper	and	crew	should	work	together	to	develop	the	fatigue	management	plan.		
Everyone	has	different	job	demands,	and	experiences	fatigue	differently.

Your	plan	needs	to	show	that	you	have	thought	about:
•	 why	people	are	getting	fatigued	
•	 how	you	can	stop	it	happening
•	 how	you	can	minimise	or	eliminate	it.	

You	also	need	to	consider	how	you	will	deal	with	someone	who	is	fatigued	and	document	this	in		
your	plan.

The	fatigue	management	plan	should	be	put	up	where	everyone	can	see	and	read	it.	A	laminated	sheet	
on	the	bridge	and	in	the	crew	mess	is	a	good	way	to	do	this.	Details	on	how	the	plan	will	be	monitored	
and	kept	up	to	date	should	go	in	your	SSM	manual.

                                                                         Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                  7.2	 STRESS

                  This	section	covers:

                  •	 what	stress	is
                  •	 what	causes	stress
                  •	 how	to	know	if	someone	is	stressed
                  •	 things	to	do	to	manage	stress.

                  Some	stress	is	good	for	us.	However,	if	we	have	too	many	challenges,	we	may	become	stressed	and		
                  not	cope	well.	We	need	the	right	balance.	Whether	stress	is	“good’’	or	“bad’’	depends	on	the	individual.	
                  As	a	general	rule,	stress	which	continues	for	a	long	time	will	be	bad	for	most	people.

                  Workplace	stress	is	when	someone	becomes	aware	that	they	are	not	able	to	cope	with	the	demands		
                  of	their	work,	and	they	have	a	negative	emotional	response	to	that	awareness.	

                  Stressors	are	things	that	lead	to	someone	feeling	they	are	unable	to	cope	with	either	physical		
                  or	psychological	demands.	Stressors	can	arise	because	of:
                  •	 the	nature	of	the	job
                  •	 the	way	the	work	is	organised.	This	can	include	physical	factors	(such	as	cold,	wetness,	noise	etc)		
                      as	well	as	physiological	factors	(such	as	shift	work,	lack	of	time	to	rest	etc)
                  •	 excessive	work	demands	such	as	unrealistic	deadlines
                  •	 personal	factors	such	as	health	status,	relationships,	ability	to	cope	with	difficult	situations	etc.

                  is stress a significant hazard on my vessel?
                  Legally	an	employer	is	required	to	take	all	practicable	steps	only	for	those	circumstances	that	they		
                  know	or	ought	reasonably	to	know	about.	If	someone	says	they	are	stressed,	or	are	acting	in	such		
                  a	way	that	most	people	would	agree	they	were	stressed,	then	you	need	to	do	something.

                  The	situation	on	each	vessel	will	be	different.	To	decide	if	stress	is	a	significant	hazard,	you	should	
                  consider	the	following	questions:
                  •	 Is	the	work	emotionally	draining	or	unpleasant?
                  •	 Does	the	work	require	intense,	prolonged	concentration?
                  •	 Would	a	mistake	have	major	consequences?
                  •	 Is	the	work	inherently	hazardous?
                  •	 Is	the	workload	unrealistic?
                  •	 Is	the	work	too	hard	for	the	person?
                  •	 Are	there	factors	such	as	persistent	bullying	in	the	workplace?
                  •	 Are	people	separated	from	their	families	and/or	friends	for	long	periods	of	time?
                  •	 Are	people	forced	to	both	live	and	work	in	close	confines	with	people	they	may	not	necessarily		
                     get	along	well	with?

                  how can i tell if someone is stressed?
                  Stress	is	a	complex	issue.	No	two	people	will	react	in	exactly	the	same	way	to	situations.	Owners	and	
                  skippers	need	to	watch	for	signs	of	stress	in	people	who	are	working	on	their	vessel.	Crew	need	to		
                  tell	the	skipper	or	owner	when	they’re	feeling	stressed,	and	know	that	everything	possible	will	be	done		
                  to	deal	with	the	situation.

People	who	are	stressed	might	show	some	of	these	signs:
•	 not	being	aware	of	safety	issues	or	putting	themselves	into	harm’s	way

                                                                                                                   7 HUMAN FACTORS
•	 being	“down’’,	anxious,	irritable	or	clinically	depressed
•	 losing	confidence,	talking	about	sleeping	badly,	having	slow	reactions	or	behaving	oddly
•	 not	being	able	to	get	along	with	people	they	used	to	work	well	with
•	 being	irritable	or	indecisive,	or	performing	poorly	and	making	more	mistakes
•	 drinking	more	alcohol	than	usual	or	using	recreational	drugs
•	 complaining	about	their	health,	eg	having	frequent	headaches.

        legal requirementS

 •	 Stress	is	a	hazard	under	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	and	must	be	managed		
    like	any	other	hazard.	
 •	 The	law	only	requires	employers	to	manage	work	stressors	or	the	individual’s	stressed	situation	
    when	they	can	be	reasonably	expected	to	know	about	the	stress.	
 •	 Crew	should	be	involved	in	identifying	stress	problems	and	suggest	ways	to	control	them.
 •	 There	need	to	be	systems	in	place	to	assess	and	deal	with	identified	stress,	whatever	the	source.
 •	 Employees	must	have	confidence	that	if	they	report	stress	something	will	be	done	about	it.
 •	 Employers	have	no	direct	control	over,	nor	responsibility	for,	non-work	factors.	However,	if	an	
    employer	knows	about	non-work	sources	of	stress,	steps	may	need	to	be	taken	to	prevent	harm	
    where	the	safety	of	people	in	the	workplace	–	the	employee	included	–	may	be	an	issue.

how do i manage stress as a hazard?

for all crew
•	 Identify	areas	of	the	work	that	are	inherently	stressful.	Refer	to	the	list	of	stressors	at	the	beginning		
   of	this	section.
•	 Work	with	the	skipper	to	figure	out	how	to	eliminate	or	reduce	the	impact	of	those	stressors.
•	 Learn	ways	that	help	you	to	manage	your	own	stress	levels.
•	 Tell	your	skipper	when	stress	levels	get	too	high.

for the skipper
•	 Make	sure	work	practices	on	the	vessel	do	not	cause	unnecessary	stress.	Have	systems	in	place	to	
   deal	with	crewmember	stress.	You	are	not	required	to	monitor	all	your	crewmembers’	stress	levels	all	
   the	time.	You	are	required	to	put	things	in	place	to	minimise	stress	and	if	a	crewmember	says	they	are	
   stressed	you	need	to	take	this	seriously.
•	 Where	possible,	create	clear	work	routines	and	operating	procedures	so	there	is	a	more	predictable	
   work	environment.
•	 If	a	crewmember	is	consistently	unable	to	carry	out	their	work	because	of	non-work	stress	factors,	
   manage	this	as	you	would	any	performance	issue.	Talk	to	the	crewmember	about	your	concerns	and	
   work	out	a	way	to	resolve	the	situation	if	possible.	Remember	you	only	have	to	take	“all	practicable	
   steps’’	to	deal	with	the	hazard.
•	 Be	aware	that	someone	who	is	suffering	from	stress	may	be	a	danger	to	themselves	or	to	others		
   while	working.

                                                                           Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                  •	 Work	out	how	you	will	handle	a	situation	where	a	crewmember	tells	you	they	are	stressed.		
                     Document	this	and	make	sure	the	crew	know	there	is	a	system	in	place	for	dealing	with	stress		

                     and	that	everything	possible	will	be	done	to	deal	with	the	situation	in	a	confidential	manner.
                  •	 Consider	how	you	will	decide	whether	a	crewmember	is	coping	with	their	work	or	whether	they	are	
                     affected	by	stress.	Make	sure	you	treat	each	person	as	an	individual,	as	different	people	cope	with	
                     things	in	different	ways.
                  •	 Ensure	there	are	different	activities	available	on	board	to	allow	people	to	relax	on	their	off		
                     duty	hours.
                  •	 Make	sure	there	is	adequate	time	available	for	rest.
                  •	 Work	to	create	a	supportive	environment	on	board	the	vessel.	Recognise	people’s	different	needs		
                     for	space	and	time	to	themselves.
                  •	 Carefully	investigate	any	crew	claims	of	feeling	stressed	and	put	in	place	any	necessary	measures	
                     to	reduce	their	stress	levels.
                  •	 Make	sure	you	identify	the	things	in	the	job	that	are	inherently	stressful,	and	talk	about	them	with	
                     potential	employees	before	you	offer	them	the	job.		


Drug	and	alcohol	abuse	on	vessels	can	cause	serious	problems.	This	makes	it	a	serious	health	and	
safety	issue.

                                                                                                                  7 HUMAN FACTORS
Alcohol	and	drug	use	affects:
•	 the	ability	to	make	good	decisions
•	 co-ordination
•	 motor	control
•	 concentration	and	alertness.

This	section	covers	the	use	of	alcohol	and	illegal	drugs	on	board	the	vessel.

Some	crewmembers	may	use	prescribed	drugs	for	health	conditions.	The	skipper	needs	to	know		
about	this,	and	how	to	manage	any	side	effects	from	medication	or	from	the	health	condition	requiring	
the	medication.

Why is the use of alcohol and other drugs on board vessels a hazard?
The	following	may	occur	when	people	use	alcohol	and	other	drugs	on	board:
•	 misuse	of	machinery	or	equipment
•	 increased	risk	of	causing	harm	of	injury	to	self	or	other	employees
•	 falling	from	heights,	into	holds,	overboard,	while	boarding	and	when	leaving	the	vessel
•	 decreased	skills,	poor	judgement,	slower	reaction	times
•	 inappropriate	behaviour,	like	fighting	or	abusive	language
•	 increased	risk	of	fatigue.

          legal requirementS

    •	 Alcohol	and	drugs	are	defined	in	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	as	hazards.
    •	 The	Misuse	of	Drugs	Act	1975	makes	it	an	offence	for	anyone	to	procure	(buy	or	receive),		
       or	have	in	their	possession,	or	consume,	smoke	or	otherwise	use,	any	controlled	drug.	It	is	also		
       an	offence	to	supply	or	offer	to	supply	or	administer	a	Class	C	controlled	drug	to	any	other	person.	
    •	 It	is	illegal	to	bring	controlled	drugs	onto	a	vessel.
    •	 It	is	also	illegal	to	possess	instruments	(pipes,	bongs,	syringes	etc)	for	the	purpose	of	taking		
       illegal	drugs.
    •	 Parents	and	guardians	are	the	only	people	who	can	supply	alcohol	to	people	under	the	age	of	18.
    •	 If	you	have	an	accident	or	are	injured	while	under	the	influence	of	alcohol	or	other	drugs	this	may	
       affect	your	ability	to	claim	insurance.


                                                                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                  action points!

                  •	 If	there	is	a	no	alcohol	and	drug	policy	for	the	vessel,	follow	it.
                  •	 Do	not	bring	illegal	drugs	on	board	the	vessel.
                  •	 Do	not	use	illegal	drugs	on	board	the	vessel.
                  •	 If	you	are	allowed	to	drink	alcohol	on	the	vessel,	don’t	drink	too	much	or	too	close	to	when	you	need	
                     to	be	ready	for	work.
                  •	 Don’t	use	machinery	or	steer	the	boat	when	you	are	under	the	influence	of	alcohol	or	drugs.

                          tipS for SkipperS

                   •	 Develop	a	policy	on	the	use	of	alcohol	and	other	drugs	at	work.	The	policy	should	apply	to	
                      everyone.	It	should	be	developed	in	consultation	with	crew	and	given	to	each	new	crewmember.	
                   •	 Make	sure	everyone	who	works	on	the	boat	is	regularly	reminded	of	the	policy	on	the	use		
                      of	alcohol	and	other	drugs	at	work	and	the	consequences	of	not	complying	with	it.	
                   •	 It	is	strongly	recommended	that	the	use	of	alcohol	and	other	drugs	be	banned	on	board	the	vessel.		

                  how do i develop an alcohol and drug policy?
                  An	alcohol	and	drug	policy	is	a	way	to	set	out	what	you	expect	of	all	those	working	on	the	vessel.		
                  The	policy	should	aim	to	eliminate	or	minimise	the	hazards	associated	with	the	use	of	alcohol	and		
                  other	drugs	in	the	workplace.	Develop	the	policy	in	consultation	with	all	those	who	are	going	to	be	
                  affected	by	it.	

                  The	policy	should	cover	the	following	areas:
                  •	 why	a	policy	is	needed	–	the	importance	of	preventing	harm	and	managing	hazards
                  •	 scope	–	that	the	policy	covers	everyone	who	comes	on	board	the	boat,	including	visitors
                  •	 infringements	–	what	is	an	infringement,	and	what	will	happen	if	someone	doesn’t	follow	the	policy
                  •	 how	to	tell	when	someone	is	affected	by	drugs	and	alcohol	–	list	the	common	signs	and	symptoms		
                     of	being	under	the	influence
                  •	 how	to	deal	with	an	intoxicated	person
                  •	 information	and	training	–	explain	what	training	and	information	around	managing	the	hazards		
                     of	alcohol	and	drug	use	will	be	given	and	what	it	will	cover
                  •	 workplace	induction	–	how	skippers/crew/visitors	will	be	made	aware	of	the	policy
                  •	 confidentiality	–	make	sure	everyone	understands	that	any	action	taken	under	the	policy	will		
                     be	confidential	and	how	you	will	ensure	this	happens
                  •	 screening/testing	–	if	applicable,	explain	the	company’s	screening	and	testing	procedures.

                  It	is	strongly	recommended	that	the	use	of	alcohol	and	other	drugs	on	board	the	boat	be	prohibited.

                  If	alcohol	is	used	on	board	the	boat,	an	alcohol	policy	also	needs	to	cover:
                  •	 when	it	is	considered	appropriate	to	drink	alcohol
                  •	 acceptable	standards	of	work	performance
                  •	 a	prohibition	on	being	drunk	on	the	vessel.


This	section	reminds	vessel	owners	and	skippers	that	they	need	to	have	policies	in	place	when	they		
are	enhancing	the	passenger	experience	and	comfort	by	providing	food	and	alcoholic	beverages.	

                                                                                                                  7 HUMAN FACTORS
Example	policies	follow	below.

Liquor	Licence	On	Board	Host	Responsibility	Policy	and	Statement
NB This is not a template for your liquor licence policies. It is simply an example of the type of policies
you may implement on your vessel. Your policies should be drafted to reflect your vessel and the specific
requirements pertaining to your individual vessel and operation.

        The	management	and	staff	on	board	the	XYC	vessel	believe	that	we	have	a	
        responsibility	to	provide	an	environment	that	is	not	only	comfortable	and	welcoming		
        but	also	where	alcohol	is	served	responsibly.	Because	of	this	the	following	Host	
        Responsibility	Policy	has	been	implemented.

        We	provide	and	actively	promote	a	range	of	non-alcoholic	drinks,	including	low-alcohol	beer,	
        fruit	juices,	soft	drinks,	tea	and	coffee.	Water	is	also	available	free	of	charge	at	all	times.

        A	good	range	of	snack	food	is	always	available.	Menus	are	visible	at	all	times.

        It	is	against	the	law	to	serve	minors.	If	we	are	in	doubt	as	to	your	age,	we	will	ask		
        for	identification.	Acceptable	forms	of	proof	of	age	are	the	NZ	driver	licence,		
        the	HANZ	18+	card	or	a	current	passport.

        Patrons	who	are	visibly	intoxicated	will	not	be	served	alcohol,	will	be	asked	to	leave		
        the	premises	and	encouraged	to	take	advantage	of	safe	transport	options.

        We	will	promote	transport	options	to	get	you	safely	home.

        We	will	encourage	more	people	to	have	a	lifesaver	(designated	driver).	We	will	make		
        the	lifesaver’s	job	more	attractive	by	providing	an	interesting	range	of	low-alcohol		
        and	alcohol-free	drinks.

        We	will	make	sure	all	these	services	are	well	promoted	and	will	display	signage		
        required	under	the	Sale	of	Liquor	Act	1989.

        We	will	maintain	a	training	and	management	policy	to	give	our	staff	the	skills	and	
        support	they	need	to	do	their	job	responsibly.

        Please	be	our	guest	and	take	advantage	of	the	services	we	offer.

        Host	responsibility	makes	sure	that	everyone	has	a	good	time,	and	leaves	in	safe		
        shape	for	the	road	home.	It	could	save	our	licence,	and	it	could	save	your	life.

        We’re	Responsible	Hosts.


        XYC	Company	Limited

                                                                          Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   
                          HOST	RESPONSIBILITY	POLICY
                          XYC	COMPANY	LIMITED

                          At XYC we are a responsible company and want to ensure that our clients or
                          passengers enjoy their sojourn on the XYC vessel. This policy sets down our
                          guidelines, which we ask all our staff to read and be familiar with, and to implement.

                          Our	policy	statement	is:

                          a safe, memorable and enjoyable experience
                          for all who board the Xyc vessel.

                          In	order	to	enhance	the	passengers’	and/or	guests’	experience	on	the	vessel,		
                          the	following	services	and	guidelines	are	provided.

                          (Detail	here	the	full	range	of	food	available	on	the	vessel	and	any	menus	provided.)

                          low/non alcoholic drinks
                          Coffee,	tea	and	water	are	also	available,	with	fresh	coffee	and	its	wonderful	aroma		
                          always	to	be	at	the	forefront.	Also	orange	juice	is	always	offered	on	client	functions	as		
                          an	alternative	to	alcohol.	Splits	are	also	sold	by	the	bottle	and	are	on	view	at	the	front		
                          of	the	bar.

                          Always	be	alert	to	younger	drinkers.	If	in	any	doubt	at	all,	ask	politely	for	identification,		
                          and	if	not	forthcoming,	politely	inform	them	that	although	they	may	well	be	18,	without	
                          proof	we	are	legally	and	morally	obliged	to	decline	to	serve	them.	Identification	will		
                          include	photo	identification	as	in	passport,	NZ	driver	licence	or	HANZ	18+	card,	but	if	in	
                          further	doubt,	check	their	signature	against	this	identification.	If	in	doubt,	decline!

                          All	staff	on	embarkation	of	passengers,	and	throughout	the	duration	of	the	sailing,	should	
                          be	alert	for	potentially	intoxicated	passengers.	If	in	any	doubt,	contact	the	captain	prior		
                          to	allowing	them	to	board.

                          The	Wellington	Police	definition	of	intoxication	is:

                          “A	person	should	be	considered	to	be	intoxicated	if	at	the	time	the	person	is	observably
                          affected	by	alcohol	and	or	drugs	to	the	extent	that	their	speech,	co-ordination	or	
                          behaviour	is	clearly impaired.”



                                                                                                          7 HUMAN FACTORS
indicators of intoxication

For	a	person	to	be	considered	slightly,	moderately	or	extremely	intoxicated,	the	Wellington	
Police	consider	the	following	indicators:

(Please note: these are a guide so all of these indicators may not be present and
other factors may also be considered.)

Slight intoxication	–	Occasional	slurring	or	stumbling	of	words,	becoming	loud,		
clumsy,	slow	or	delayed	reactions,	glassy	eyes,	vacant	expression/blank	stare,	
inappropriate	actions	or	language	(eg	annoying/obnoxious).

moderate intoxication	–	Slurred	speech,	loud/repetitive,	difficulty	concentrating		
or	forming	words,	occasional	stagger	or	stumble	when	walking,	sways	when	standing	still,	
bumping	into	or	knocking	over	things,	loss	of	eye	contact,	inability	to	focus,	tired/sleepy	
looking,	decreased	concern/awareness	of	appearance	(eg	drink/food	spilt	on	clothing),	
strong	smell	of	alcohol	on	breath,	argumentative/belligerent,	inappropriate	actions	or	
language	(eg	sexual	advances).

extreme intoxication	–	Very	slurred	speech,	loses	train	of	thought,	speech	is	
nonsensical	or	unintelligible,	significant	staggering	or	stumbling,	very	unsteady	on	feet		
(eg	can’t	remain	still/uses	wall	for	support),	falling	asleep,	very	disheveled,	very	strong	
smell	of	alcohol	on	breath,	very	aggressive,	acting	irrationally.

the most important indicators to consider when making this assessment
are speech and co-ordination.

If	a	passenger	appears	to	be	slightly	intoxicated,	a	close	eye	should	be	kept	on	them.

If	a	passenger	appears	to	be	moderately/extremely	intoxicated	they	should	not	be	allowed	
on	board	the	vessel.	If	they	become	moderately/extremely	intoxicated	during	the	voyage,	
they	should	not	be	served	any	further	alcohol.

If	the	intoxicated	person	is	with	a	group,	talk	to	the	group	co-ordinator	or	a	friend	of	the	
intoxicated	person	and	explain	your	actions,	asking	them	for	assistance	etc.	Whether	it		
be	refusing	to	allow	further	drinks	or	suggesting	a	cup	of	coffee	alternative	or,	if	all	else		
fails,	requesting	and	assisting	the	intoxicated	person	to	disembark	the	ferry	at	the	earliest	
possible	opportunity	and	arranging	safe	transport	home	etc.

                                                                  Part One:	SPECIFIC IDENTIFIED HAZARDS   

                  Part Two
ro-ro vehicular ramp

                                                                                                             8 ROLL ON /ROLL OFF ( RO-RO ) FERRIES
Key	points	to	ensure	when	working	with	a	forward	ramp	door	on	a	vehicular	ferry:
•	 Lifting	wires	are	checked	daily	for	fraying.
•	 Wires	are	greased	to	keep	out	elements	such	as	salt.
•	 Lifting	blocks	are	greased	through	grease	nipples.
•	 Ramp	pins	and	hinges	are	checked	for	thickness	and	metal	fatigue.
•	 Lifting	shackles	are	checked	for	metal	fatigue	and	wear.
•	 Hydraulic	lifting	rams	and	oil	seals	are	checked.
•	 Lifting	switch	is	isolated	from	the	public	by	means	of	a	covered	box.
•	 Travelling	vehicles	are	aware	of	axle	loading	maximums,	eg	maximum	axle	loading	10	tonne	per	axle,	
   this	is	to	be	posted	on	forward	bulwarks	and	in	operational	manual.
•	 Passengers	are	kept	away	from	forward	ramp	when	working	through	segregation	lines	on	deck		
   or	ropes	across	vehicular	deck.

ro-ro vehicular deck passenger and vehicle segregation
Key	points	to	ensure	passenger	and	crew	safety	on	vehicular	deck:
•	 Vehicles	are	moved	onto	or	off	the	vehicle	deck	prior	to	embarking	and	disembarking	passengers.		
   Use	the	PA	system	and	deck	crew	to	ensure	everyone	complies	with	this.
•	 All	deck	crew	are	wearing	hi-visibility	jackets	and	appropriate	footwear.
•	 When	carrying	dangerous	goods	(ie	petrol	tankers)	no	more	than	25	persons	shall	be	carried		
   on	board.	Ensure	that	crew,	passengers	and	management	are	aware	of	the	legal	requirements		
   for	maintaining	the	specified	distance	between	the	dangerous	goods	and	the	passengers.
•	 Crew	are	to	ensure	that	when	guiding	vehicles	onto	the	deck	eye	contact	is	kept	with	drivers		
   of	vehicles	at	all	times.
•	 Ensure	appropriate	safety	signage	is	posted,	ie	“no	smoking	on	vehicular	deck”,		
   “beware	of	slippery	deck	when	wet”,	and	“mind	your	step”	when	moving	from	vehicular	deck		
   to	passenger	lounge.

action points!
•	 When	ramp	is	up	ensure	safety	chains	are	on.
•	 In	the	event	of	heavy	weather,	ensure	the	ramp	is	hard	up	against	forward	bulwarks	and	fastened		
   with	safety	catches	or	rigging	screws.

                                                                      part two:	SPECIFIC	VESSEL	OPERATIONS   
9.	 HIGH-SPEED	PASSENGER		 	                                                                         	
This	section	covers	high-speed	adventure	vessels	where	the	nature	of	the	trip	exposes	passengers		
to	the	potential	hazard	of	being	tossed	around	violently	in	the	seat.	

                                                                                                              9 HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER VESSELS
•	 Passenger	comfort	levels	and	expectations	will	differ	on	trips	involving	these	types	of	vessels.		
   It	is	important	to	get	an	idea	of	these	expectations	by	talking	with	passengers	prior	to	departure.		
   They	may	then	be	seated	in	the	boat	accordingly.
•	 Supply	wind/spray	jackets.	Passengers	are	usually	dressed	according	to	the	weather,	but	at	speed	
   the	wind	chill	factor	can	be	a	problem.
•	 Inform	passengers	of	conditions	to	expect.	If	it’s	rough	tell	them	it	is	better	to	reschedule	than		
   to	put	passengers	through	undue	discomfort.
•	 Advise	passengers	of	the	best	position	in	the	boat	to	sit,	eg	forward	moves	around	more	while	aft		
   has	less	movement	but	more	spray.
•	 If	the	vessel	has	only	the	skipper	and	no	crewmember	sitting	amongst	passengers	to	provide	
   assistance,	passenger	body	language	should	be	observed	closely	by	the	skipper	prior	to	
   commencing	the	trip.	Include	in	departure	briefing	a	hand	signal	for	ok	and	not	so	good.
•	 If	crewed,	the	crewmember	can	walk	the	aisle,	chat	with	passengers,	and	check	if	they	are	enjoying	
   themselves.	You	can	slow	down	and	move	people	to	suit.
•	 It	is	important	that	the	crew	know	the	characteristics	of	the	vessel	in	different	conditions,		
   eg	different	angles	to	the	sea	suit	different	boats	better.
•	 Where	possible	have	back	up	transport	available	from	a	destination	such	as	a	bus	or	larger	slower	
   boat.	A	passenger	with	a	bad	experience	on	your	boat	is	the	one	thing	you	don’t	want.	Most	will	
   appreciate	a	company	that	looks	after	its	passengers.
•	 Remember	you	are	doing	the	trip	day	in,	day	out,	and	for	some	passengers	this	may	be	their	first		
   time	in	a	boat.
•	 Lifejackets	should	be	worn	at	all	times	during	the	trip.
•	 Seatbelts	should	be	provided	and	used	for	the	safety	of	passengers.	Seatbelts	should	be	of	the		
   type	which	can	be	released	easily	even	in	a	capsized	position.

                                                                       part two:	SPECIFIC	VESSEL	OPERATIONS   

•	 Particular	attention	should	be	paid	to	the	safe	use	of	gangways	including	tying	down	and	moving		
   them	across	open	spaces.	Crew	should	always	use	the	correct	lifting	techniques	when	moving	

                                                                                                               10 PASSENGER FERRIES
   awkward	and	heavy	objects	such	as	gangways	quickly.
•	 Crew	should	always	be	mindful	of	their	hands	and	trunk	when	berthing	vessels.	They	should	always	
   be	aware	of	getting	themselves	caught	between	the	vessel	and	wharf.	Crew	can	be	tying	up	a	vessel	
   up	to	30	times	a	day	and	need	to	be	aware	of	complacency.
•	 Vessel	housekeeping	is	highly	important.	Lines	and	deck	equipment	need	to	be	kept	secure	and		
   tidy	at	all	times	to	ensure	the	safety	of	passengers.
•	 Crew	need	to	be	constantly	aware	of	trip	hazards	and	should	inform	passengers	of	loose	matting,		
   wet	decks,	bulwarks	etc.
•	 Correct	procedures	should	be	adhered	to	when	handling	lines	and	tying	and	untying	vessels.
•	 Crewmembers	should	carry	out	frequent	rounds	while	the	vessel	is	under	way	to	ensure	the	safety		
   of	passengers.	Particular	attention	should	be	paid	to	the	cabin	area	and	outside	decks	to	ensure		
   passengers	are	not	running	or	climbing.
•	 Keep	a	constant	watch	for	unusual	or	dangerous	behaviour	of	passengers	who	may	harm	themselves	
   or	others.

                                                                   part two:	SPECIFIC	VESSEL	OPERATIONS      
These	are	vessels	in	SSM	that	can	be	hired	out	by	skippers	who	will	use	the	vessel	as	a	pleasure	vessel.	
The	skipper	is	not	required	to	hold	the	qualification	required	by	Maritime	Rules	Part	31B.

                                                                                                                 11 BARE BOAT/HIRE AND DRIVE VESSELS

                                                                                                                                                       11 BARE BOAT/HIRE AND DRIVE VESSELS
•	 It	is	important	to	establish	the	level	of	experience	of	the	client,	whether	they	are	trained	to	skipper		
   a	vessel	or	whether	they	are	crew,	and	whether	they	have	any	formal	qualifications.	This	can	be		
   done	by	simply	getting	the	client	to	complete	a	particulars	form	prior	to	hiring	the	vessel.
•	 It	is	important	to	determine	whether	the	client	is	experienced	in	the	local	weather	and	sea	conditions.
•	 Any	staff	members	that	are	hired	out	with	the	vessel	should	wear	the	appropriate	safety	equipment		
   at	all	times	while	on	the	vessel	including	a	lifejacket	and	proper	footwear.
•	 An	extensive	safety	briefing	should	be	conducted	before	the	client	leaves	the	marina.	An	example		
   of	a	briefing	checklist	is	on	the	next	page.
•	 Ensure	the	skipper	who	hires	the	boat	is	aware	of	their	responsibility	for	safety	and	pollution	
   prevention	and	is	aware	of	the	safety	management	system	designed	for	the	vessel.	

                                                                         part two:	SPECIFIC	VESSEL	OPERATIONS                                        
                                      Safety	briefing	checklist

                                      Safety Briefing
                                      All that you are briefed on is in the BOAT MANUAL, which is to be read
                                      before you leave the marina.
                                      Location	and	use	of:                                       	 Morse	controls	(put	in	neutral)
                                          	 Lifejackets                                          	 Emergency	steering	(if	applicable)
                                          	 Harnesses                                            	 Winches,	boom	and	rope	handling	safety
                                          	 Flares                                               	 Water	and	diesel	filler	location
                                          	 First	aid	kit                                        	 Anchoring	procedure	and	winch	use
                                          	 Tool	box                                             	 Outboard	(if	applicable)
                                          	 Fire	extinguishers                                   	 Appropriate	disposal	of	rubbish
                                          	 Fire	buckets                                         	 Weather	awareness	of	current	conditions
                                          	 EPIRB                                                	 Double	Cove/Long	Island	Marine	Reserve-	
                                        	 VHF	(call	in	between	3pm–5pm,	call	when		          	     No	Fishing	zones	–	check	charts	B4	fishing!
                                      	 10	min	out,	channel	01,	weather	forecast)                  (You could be fined, have tackle confiscated,
                                      	    –	 Life	rings	and	M.O.B	light                           and the boat could be seized)
                                      	    –	 Boat	hook	and	fenders                              	 Health	and	Safety	on	vessel	–	BE	AWARE
                                      	    –	 Battery	switches	location                      	     –	 All	vessel	surfaces	are	slippery	when	wet.
                                      	    –	 Use	of	domestic	power                          	     –	 Lifejackets	and/or	safety	harnesses	may		
                                      	    –	 Control	panel                                  	     	 be	required	at	any	time	depending	on	the		                                  	
                                          	 Use	of	gas	system
                                                                                             	     –	 Be	careful	when	moving	about	inside	and		
                                      	    –	 Sniffer	(what	to	do	if	alarm	comes	on)
                                                                                             	     	 on	deck.	Use	the	handhold,	handrails	and		
                                      	    –	 Light	stove                                    	     	 safety	lines.
                                      	    –	 Light	caliphont                                	     –	 Be	careful	of	your	head	when	moving	around		
                                      	    –	 Remember	to	turn	bottle	off	after	use          	     	 the	vessel,	inside	and	out,	eg	doorways,	boom.
                                      	    –	 No	cigarette	smoking	while	in	use!             	     –	 When	berthing	or	pulling	along	side	another			
                                                                                             	     	 vessel,	ensure	fenders	are	tied	prior.
                                          	 Bilge	usage	and	location	(manual	and	electric)
                                                                                             	     –	 Make	certain	all	persons	are	briefed	on	the		 	
                                          	 Use	of	toilet
                                                                                             	     	 appropriate	procedure	and	to	keep	hands	and		
                                      	    –	 What	not	to	put	down	it                        	     	 all	limbs	safely	inside	the	perimeter	of	the	boat.
                                      	    –	 Holding	tank	(if	applicable)	                  	     –	 We	recommend	wearing	boat	shoes	to	avoid		
                                        	 Water	tank	change	over	valves	(if	applicable)		    	     	 slipping	and	damage	to	feet.
                                      	 and	filter                                               	 Rules	of	the	road	at	sea.
                                        	 Familiarity	with	the	Sounds	and	charts		           	     –	 Give	way	to	ferry	at	all	times	and	if	passing		 	
                                      	 (prior	experience?)                                  	     	 ALWAYS	pass	astern.
                                      	    –	 Survey	limits,	eg	Tory	Ch	Exit
                                      	    –	 Location
                                      	    –	 How	to	pick	up
                                      	    –	 Usage	(only	Charter	Link	charterers)
                                        	 Starting	the	engine	(check	fridge	is	off)		
                                      	 and	charging	the	batteries                           The skipper is legally responsible for the safety of the
                                                                                             vessel and all people on board.
                                          	 Fridge	operation	and	how	long	to	have	on
                                          	 Stopping	the	engine	(stop	knob	location		
                                      	     and	start	battery	off)                           Signed:	...............................................................................

                                          	 Warning	alarms	on	the	boat	(eg	bilge	etc),		
                                      	     what	to	do	if	they	sound                         Signed:	...............................................................................

                                    part two:	SPECIFIC	VESSEL	OPERATIONS

                       Part Three

Everyone	who	works	on	board	a	vessel	needs	to	make	sure	things	are	safe,	and	the	things	they	are	
doing	(or	not	doing)	do	not	hurt	other	people.	The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	makes	this	

                                                                                                            12 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
a	legal	requirement.	

This	section	explains	the	responsibilities	of	each	person	on	board	a	vessel	and	provides	some	examples.	

                                                     part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 12.1	 EMPLOYER/VESSEL	OWNER		
                                 	     (PERSON	WHO	PAYS	THE		 	 	
                                 The	employer	is	the	person	who	pays	the	wages.	This	might	be	the	owner,	or	it	might	be	the	skipper.		
                                 If	you	pay	the	wages,	you	need	to	take	all	practicable	steps	to	make	sure	the	vessel	is	safe	and	that	the	

                                 people	who	work	on	or	visit	the	vessel	are	safe.	This	means	you	need	to:
                                 •	 regularly	go	through	a	process	for	identifying	hazards	
                                 •	 make	sure	any	hazards	are	eliminated,	isolated	or	minimised
                                 •	 provide	suitable	protective	equipment	and	clothing	to	all	your	employees
                                 •	 provide	safety	information	to	all	your	employees
                                 •	 provide	training	or	supervision	to	make	sure	the	work	is	done	safely
                                 •	 keep	an	eye	on	your	employees	to	make	sure	their	work	isn’t	causing	them	health	problems
                                 •	 provide	ways	for	your	employees	to	contribute	to	health	and	safety
                                 •	 maintain	a	register	of	hazards.

  0                             part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY
	     OF	WORK)
The	skipper	is	normally	the	person	who	controls	the	place	of	work	(the	vessel).	The	skipper	is	
responsible	for	the	safety	of	the	vessel,	equipment	and	crew.	This	means	taking	all	practicable		

                                                                                                              12 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
steps	to	ensure	any	hazards	do	not	harm	any	people	who	are:
•	 lawfully	at	work	on	the	vessel	(as	employees,	contractors	etc)
•	 there	as	customers	or	to	undertake	an	activity
•	 in	the	vicinity	of	the	vessel.

The	skipper	also	needs	to	make	sure	visitors	to	the	vessel	are	told	about	any	significant	hazards		
on	board.

                                                       part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 12.3	 CREW	(PEOPLE	WHO	ARE		
                                 	     PAID	WAGES)
                                 Crew	who	are	paid	wages	are	defined	as	employees	under	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	
                                 1992.	As	an	employee,	you	can	expect	that	your	employer	will	make	sure	the	vessel	is	safe.	You	also	

                                 have	things	you	need	to	do.		
                                 These	are:
                                 •	 Make	sure	you	do	everything	you	can	to	ensure	the	vessel	is	safe	for	working	on.
                                 •	 Make	sure	nothing	you	do,	or	don’t	do,	harms	anyone	else.
                                 •	 Use	the	protective	equipment	and	clothing	that	either	you	or	your	employer	provides.
                                 •	 Don’t	do	work	which	is	unsafe	or	involves	unsafe	practices.
                                 •	 Make	unsafe	work	safe	or,	if	you	can’t,	tell	your	supervisor	or	the	skipper.
                                 •	 Know	about	and	follow	the	boat’s	health	and	safety	practices	and	procedures.
                                 •	 Co-operate	in	the	monitoring	of	hazards	and	of	your	health.
                                 •	 Report	all	hazards.

                               part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

If	you	are	self-employed,	you	must:
•	 make	sure	nothing	you	do	at	work	harms	yourself	or	anyone	else

                                                                                                          12 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
•	 make	sure	you	take	health	and	safety	into	account	when	you	plan	your	work	activities
•	 keep	a	record	of	accidents	and	incidents	caused	by	your	work	that	harmed	or	might	have	harmed	
     either	yourself	or	someone	else.	Report	these	to	Maritime	New	Zealand	within	7	days.

                                                   part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 12.5	 PRINCIPAL	(PERSON	WHO	
                                 	     HIRES	SELF-EMPLOYED	
                                 	     PEOPLE	(SKIPPER	OR	OWNER))
                                 If	you	hire	self-employed	people,	you	still	have	to	make	sure	they	are	safe	on	the	vessel.	You	should	
                                 include	health	and	safety	issues	in	your	contracts	and	make	sure	you	talk	about	health	and	safety		

                                 with	your	contractors.	You	also	need	to:
                                 •	 make	sure	no	contractor,	subcontractor,	or	employee	of	those	people,	is	harmed	while	doing		
                                      the	work	you	hired	them	to	do
                                 •	 keep	accident	registers
                                 •	 report	accidents	involving	serious	harm	to	Maritime	New	Zealand	as	soon	as	practicable.

                               part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

                                                                                                              12 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

If	you	visit	the	vessel	in	the	course	of	your	work,	you	are	treated	the	same	as	a	self-employed	person.	
You	must:
•	 make	sure	nothing	you	do	at	work	harms	yourself	or	anyone	else
•	 make	sure	you	take	health	and	safety	into	account	when	you	plan	your	work	activities
•	 keep	a	record	of	accidents	and	incidents	caused	by	your	work	that	harmed	or	might	have	harmed	
     either	yourself	or	someone	else.	Report	these	to	Maritime	New	Zealand	as	soon	as	practicable
•	 follow	the	instructions	of	the	skipper	as	the	person	in	control	of	the	place	of	work.	

action points!
•	 Know	which	category	of	duties	and	responsibilities	applies	to	you	and	any	people	working	on	board	
   your	vessel.	Seek	advice	on	this	if	necessary.
•	 Develop	a	checklist	for	your	duties	and	obligations.	Record	on	a	regular	basis	your	understanding		
   of	how	you	are	fulfilling	those	duties	and	responsibilities.
•	 Seek	advice	from	Maritime	New	Zealand	or	your	lawyer.

        legal requirementS

 •	 The	duties	of	employers	to	ensure	the	safety	of	employees	are	contained	in	section	6	of	the		
    Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	(HSE	Act).
 •	 The	duties	of	employers	in	relation	to	training	and	supervision	of	employees	are	contained	in		
    section	13	of	the	HSE	Act.
 •	 The	duties	of	a	skipper	as	a	person	who	controls	the	place	of	work	are	contained	in	section	16		
    of	the	HSE	Act.
 •	 The	duties	of	self-employed	people	are	contained	in	section	17	of	the	HSE	Act.
 •	 The	duties	of	principals	are	contained	in	section	18	of	the	HSE	Act.
 •	 The	duties	of	employees	are	contained	in	section	19	of	the	HSE	Act.

                                                       part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 Where can i find out more?
                                 For	more	information	on	your	roles	and	responsibilities	under	the	HSE	Act	go	to	the	Maritime		

                                 New	Zealand	website	–	–	or	contact	Maritime	New	Zealand	on		
                                 freephone	0508	22	55	22.

                                 The	Inland	Revenue	Department	has	advice	on	its	website	about	how	to	decide	whether	someone		
                                 is	an	employee	or	self-employed	–	check

                                 A	booklet	for	the	maritime	industry	Health & safety: a guide	is	available	from	Maritime	New	Zealand.		
                                 This	booklet	provides	detailed	information	on	your	obligations	under	the	HSE	Act.	Copies	are	available	
                                 by	phoning	Maritime	New	Zealand	on	0508	22	55	22.

                               part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

The	health	and	safety	systems	for	your	vessel	outline	how	you	plan	to	meet	your	responsibilities	under	
the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	(HSE	Act).	This	section	provides	further	information	on	

                                                                                                               13 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFET Y
developing	and	implementing	your	systems.

Since	2003,	Maritime	New	Zealand	has	been	responsible	for	administering	the	HSE	Act	for	work		
on	board	vessels	and	for	vessels	as	places	of	work.	Maritime	New	Zealand	also	administers	the		
Maritime	Transport	Act	1994	(MT	Act).	Maritime	and	marine	protection	rules	are	statutory	instruments		
(or	secondary	legislation)	made	by	the	Minister	of	Transport	pursuant	to	the	MT	Act.	While	the	MT	Act	
stipulates	broad	principles	of	maritime	law,	the	rules	contain	detailed	technical	standards	and	procedures.	

Generally	speaking,	the	MT	Act	and	the	rules	made	under	that	Act	focus	on	vessel-related	safety,		
while	the	HSE	Act	focuses	on	the	safety	of	operations	and	people	on	board	the	boat.	There	is	a	degree	
of	overlap.	

health and Safety in employment act 1992
The	purpose	of	the	HSE	Act	is	to	make	work	activities	safe	and	healthy	for	everyone	connected		
with	them.	

The	HSE	Act	reinforces	that	employers,	or	other	people	responsible	for	the	work,	have	the	primary	
responsibility	for	health	and	safety	at	work.	The	HSE	Act	also	recognises	that	everyone	within	a	
workplace	has	responsibilities	to	themselves	and	others.	Effective	health	and	safety	in	the	workplace	
requires	co-operation	between	everyone	involved.

Safe Ship management Systems (SSm)
SSM	makes	vessel	owners	and	operators	responsible	for	the	day-to-day	safe	operation	of	their	vessels.	
SSM	ensures	the	safety	of	a	vessel	and	its	crew	is	maintained	throughout	the	year	instead	of	just	on	an	
annual	“survey	day’’.

SSM	covers	construction,	stability,	equipment,	operating	limits,	operating	parameters,	qualifications		
and	training	of	crew,	vessel	maintenance	and	emergency	procedures.	The	system	is	reflected	in	
documentation	which	is	customised	for	each	individual	vessel	according	to	which	particular	system		
it	fits	within.	The	documentation	also	contains	information	about	how	you	are	meeting	your	health		
and	safety	obligations	under	the	HSE	Act.

       legal requirementS

 •	 The	HSE	Act	doesn’t	replace	any	duties	you	may	have	under	other	pieces	of	legislation.		
    The	exception	to	this	is	Part	II	of	the	MT	Act	which	was	replaced	by	the	HSE	Act	in	2003.
 •	 You	are	still	required	to	comply	with	other	legislation.	The	requirements	of	the	HSE	Act	have	been	
    developed	in	order	to	interact	consistently	with	other	legislative	requirements.	In	the	maritime	sector	
    this	means	you	are	still	required	to	comply	with	the	MT	Act	and	all	relevant	Maritime	Rules.
 •	 Some	Maritime	Rules	already	address	health	and	safety	issues.	These	rules	exist	alongside	the		
    HSE	Act	and	are	designed	to	work	with	other	health	and	safety	systems	and	requirements	to		
    make	a	safer	workplace.

                                                        part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 13.2	 DEVELOPING	A	HEALTH		
                                 	     AND	SAFETY	POLICY
                                 Although	not	a	legal	requirement,	it’s	a	good	idea	to	develop	a	health	and	safety	policy	statement	that		
                                 is	specific	to	the	vessel,	its	operations,	management	and	crew.	This	document	sets	the	tone	for	the	

                                 commitment	to	health	and	safety,	and	should	be	included	as	part	of	your	SSM	manual.	A	health	and	
                                 safety	policy	could	cover	some	(or	all)	of	the	following:
                                 •	 A	commitment	to	achieving	the	highest	standards	of	health	and	safety	in	all	aspects	of	operations.
                                 •	 Seeking	continuous	improvement	in	health	and	safety	performance	taking	into	account	evolving	
                                     employee	expectations,	management	practices,	scientific	knowledge	and	technology.
                                 •	 Complying	with	all	applicable	legislation	and	standards	and,	where	these	do	not	exist,	adopting		
                                     and	applying	standards	that	reflect	commitment	to	health	and	safety.
                                 •	 Involving	management,	skippers,	crew	and	contractors	in	the	improvement	of	health	and	safety	
                                 •	 Holding	skippers	responsible	for	safety	in	their	areas	of	supervision	in	the	same	way	that	they	are	
                                     responsible	for	quality,	efficiency,	maintenance,	etc.
                                 •	 Training	skippers	to	carry	out	their	responsibilities	effectively	so	they	have	an	understanding	of	health	
                                     and	safety.
                                 •	 Training	and	holding	individual	employees/crew	accountable	for	their	area	of	responsibility.
                                 •	 Managing	risk	by	implementing	management	systems	to	identify,	assess,	monitor	and	control	hazards	
                                     and	by	reviewing	performance	on	a	regular	basis.
                                 •	 Ensuring	all	employees	are	informed	of	and	understand	their	obligations	in	respect	of	the	health	and	
                                     safety	policy.

                               part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

People	on	board	the	vessel	need	to	know	how	to	do	their	work	safely.	The	employer	is	required	to	
provide	easily	accessible	information	to	the	crew	about:

                                                                                                            13 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFET Y
•	 hazards	on	the	vessel
•	 hazards	that	might	arise	from	the	type	of	work	the	employee	is	doing
•	 the	steps	to	be	taken	to	minimise	the	chances	anyone	will	be	harmed	by	the	hazards
•	 where	to	find	safety	clothing	and	equipment
•	 how	to	deal	with	any	emergencies.

Information	needs	to	be	provided	in	a	way	that	employees	can	understand.	This	might	be	by	talking	to	
people,	or	it	might	include	printed	information	using	easily	understood	words,	and	may	include	diagrams.	

                                                     part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                                 13.4	 SELECTION	AND	PLACEMENT		
                                 	     OF	CREW
                                 Safety	starts	with	selecting	the	“right”	person	to	crew	on	the	vessel.	

                                 It	is	important	to	note	that	you	cannot	discriminate	against	someone	on	the	grounds	of	a	disability/
                                 medical	condition.	However,	it	may	also	be	unlawful	under	the	provisions	of	the	Health	and	Safety	in	
                                 Employment	Act	1992,	for	a	person	to	be	placed	in	a	position	where	they	are	likely	to	cause	harm	to	
                                 themselves	or	others.	If	in	doubt,	get	legal	advice.

  00                            part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

One	way	of	ensuring	crew	can	carry	out	work	safely	is	making	sure	they	have	adequate	knowledge,	
experience	and	training	to	do	what	they	need	to	do.

                                                                                                             13 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFET Y
Employers	must	do	what	is	reasonably	practicable	to	ensure	crew	have	knowledge	and	experience		
of	relevant	similar	workplaces,	work,	equipment	or	substances,	or	that	they	are	supervised	by	someone	
who	has	that	knowledge	and	experience.

Employers	must	also	ensure	crew	are	adequately	trained	in	using	the	types	of	objects,	substances	and	
protective	clothing	and	equipment	they	are	required	to	work	with.

                                                     part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   0
                                 13.6	 INDUCTION	FOR	VISITORS	
                                 	     AND	OTHERS	
                                 Everyone	who	comes	on	board	the	vessel	needs	to	know	about	the	hazards	they	might	come	across		
                                 on	board	and	how	they	are	managed.	You	should	develop	a	standard	induction	checklist	for	visitors	that	

                                 lists	the	hazards	and	any	action	required	of	the	visitor.	This	would	include	letting	them	know	where	they	
                                 can’t	go	on	the	vessel.	Tick	off	the	items	on	the	list	as	you	talk	about	them	with	the	visitor.	Get	them	to	
                                 sign	the	list	as	proof	that	you’ve	gone	through	it	with	them.

  0                            part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY
Everyone	needs	to	work	co-operatively	and	in	good	faith	to	establish	effective	health	and	safety	
arrangements	in	the	workplace.	

                                                                                                              13 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFET Y
Good	faith	requires	being	open	and	honest,	and	understanding	that	all	involved	have	a	legitimate	interest	
in	a	safe	and	healthy	workplace.

People	who	carry	out	work	are	in	a	good	position	to	identify	actual	or	potential	hazards	that	arise	in		
the	course	of	that	work	and	suggest	ways	those	hazards	could	be	managed.	All	employers	have	a	duty	
to	provide	reasonable	opportunities	for	the	crew	to	participate	effectively	in	processes	for	improving	
health	and	safety	at	work.

                                                      part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   0
                                 13.8	 PEOPLE	WHO	ARE	NOT			                                                                          	
                                 Employers	also	have	a	duty	to	people	who	aren’t	their	employees.	The	employer	must	take	all	
                                 practicable	steps	to	ensure	the	actions	or	inaction	of	an	employee	while	at	work	doesn’t	harm	any		

                                 other	person.	That	includes	a	duty	to	stop	anyone	being	harmed	through	“skylarking’’	or	other	actions		
                                 or	inaction	where	it	is	reasonably	foreseeable	that	harm	will	be	caused	to	another.	It	isn’t	enough	to		
                                 just	have	rules	or	procedures	–	they	need	to	be	enforced.	Where	someone	not	following	the	rules	or	
                                 procedures	could	have	serious	consequences,	there	needs	to	be	back-up	plans	in	place	–	just	in	case.

  0                            part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

Any	system	that	is	put	in	place	needs	to	be	regularly	reviewed	to	make	sure	it	is	effective	and	
comprehensive.	It	needs	to	fully	meet	the	requirements	of	the	law	to	have	a	safe	and	healthy	workplace.	

                                                                                                                 13 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFET Y
You	should	do	this	in	a	systematic	way	–	perhaps	have	a	list	of	the	parts	of	the	system	and	review	one	
each	month.	You	need	to	write	down	the	details,	the	results	of	the	review,	and	any	action	that	is	taken.	
Keep	this	with	your	Safe	Ship	Management	(SSM)	manual.

        legal requirementS

 •	 The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	specifies	in	some	detail	the	requirements	for	
    maintaining	a	healthy	and	safe	workplace.
 •	 The	Maritime	Transport	Act	1994	and	the	Maritime	Rules	contain	requirements	which	are	specific		
    to	the	maritime	sector.
 •	 Your	SSM	manual	also	contains	requirements	which	are	relevant	to	health	and	safety	and	therefore	
    must	be	followed.

action points!
•	 Develop	a	health	and	safety	policy	that	makes	clear	to	everyone	on	board	the	vessel	what	your	
   commitment	to	a	healthy	and	safe	vessel	is.
•	 Your	health	and	safety	system	is	the	detail	of	how	you	plan	to	meet	your	obligations	to	provide	a	safe	
   and	healthy	workplace.	You	should	write	down	how	this	is	going	to	happen	and	make	sure	you	are	
   doing	what	has	been	documented.
•	 Make	sure	you	regularly	audit	the	system	to	check	that	it	is	effective,	and	all	your	responsibilities	are	
   being	met.	Write	down	the	results	of	the	audit	in	your	SSM	manual.
•	 Decide	how	you’re	going	to	make	sure	people	on	the	vessel	follow	your	rules	and	procedures,		
   and	what	you’re	going	to	do	if	they	aren’t	followed.
•	 Make	sure	everyone	has	enough	information	and	training	to	be	working	safely.
•	 Choose	the	right	people	to	be	part	of	your	crew.
•	 Develop	a	standard	induction	checklist	for	use	with	visitors.	Get	it	signed	by	the	visitors	once	you’ve	
   gone	through	it	with	them.
•	 Make	sure	the	owner,	skipper	and	crew	all	have	opportunities	to	be	involved	in	the	development		
   and	ongoing	implementation	and	maintenance	of	your	health	and	safety	systems.
•	 Make	sure	you	know	your	legal	obligations	in	relation	to	health	and	safety.

Where can i find out more?
For	further	information	about	the	Maritime	Transport	Act	and	the	associated	maritime	and	marine	
protection	rules	contact	the	Manager,	Rules	and	International	Standards,	at	Maritime	New	Zealand,		
or	email

For	further	information	about	SSM	contact	the	Nautical	Advisor,	Safe	Ship	Management,	at	Maritime	
New	Zealand,	or	email

If	you	need	assistance	in	agreeing	on	a	system	for	employee	participation	in	managing	health	and	safety	
matters,	mediation	services	are	provided	by	the	Employment	Relations	Service.	Contact	them	through	
WorkInfo	on	0800	20	90	20.

                                                        part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY    0

Hazard	management	–	identifying	hazards	and	making	sure	their	potential	or	actual	impacts	are	
eliminated,	isolated	or	minimised	–	is	an	important	way	of	meeting	the	obligations	of	the	Health	and	

                                                                                                               14 HAZ ARD MANAGEMENT
Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	(HSE	Act).	It	is	also	a	legal	requirement.

This	section	provides	an	overview	of	the	process	you	need	to	go	through	to	ensure	you’re	customising	
the	management	of	hazards	to	your	vessel	and	operation.

A	hazard	is	any	activity,	situation	or	substance	that	can	cause	harm.	This	includes	a	situation	where		
a	person’s	behaviour	may	be	an	actual	source	of	harm	to	themselves	or	others.	Hazards	can:
•	 be	actual	or	potential
•	 be	physical,	biological	or	behavioural,	including	temporary	conditions	that	can	affect	a	person’s	
    behaviour,	such	as	fatigue,	shock,	alcohol	or	drugs
•	 arise	or	be	caused	within	or	outside	a	place	of	work.

Hazards	also	include	events	that	mean	crew	are	at	a	greater	risk	of	causing	themselves	or	others		
on	board	harm.	These	events	could	occur	when	on	board	or	elsewhere	ashore.	Examples	of	these	
events	are:
•	 the	design	of	shifts	and	rosters
•	 jobs	with	inherent	stress	or	pressure
•	 seasonal	peak	workflows
•	 jobs	that	regularly	include	long	days	because	of	travel	before,	after	or	during	work
•	 being	part	of,	or	witness	to,	an	accident.

Physical	or	mental	fatigue,	drugs,	alcohol	and	traumatic	shock	are	specifically	mentioned	in	the		
HSE	Act	as	hazards.

                                                       part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   0
                        14.2	 WHEN	DOES	A	HAZARD	
                        	     BECOME	SIGNIFICANT?
                        The	legal	definition	of	a	significant	hazard	is	given	in	the	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992:

                        A	significant	hazard	is	one	that	is	an	actual	or	potential	cause	or	source	of	one	or	more	of:

                        •	 Serious harm
                        	 The	definition	of	serious	harm	is	as	follows:
                              	 .	 Any	of	the	following	conditions	that	amounts	to	or	results	in	permanent	loss	of	bodily	function,		
                              	 or	temporary	severe	loss	of	bodily	function:	respiratory	disease,	noise-induced	hearing	loss,		
                              	 neurological	disease,	cancer,	dermatological	disease,	communicable	disease,	musculosketal		
                              	 disease,	illness	caused	by	exposure	to	infected	material,	decompression	sickness,	poisoning,		
                              	 vision	impairment,	chemical	or	hot-metal	burn	of	eye,	penetrating	wound	of	eye,	bone	fracture,	      	
                              	 laceration,	crushing.
                              	 .	 Amputation	of	a	body	part.
                              	 .	 Burns	requiring	referral	to	a	specialist	registered	medical	practitioner	or	specialist	out		
                              	 patient	clinic.
                              	 .	 Loss	of	consciousness	from	a	lack	of	oxygen.
                              	 .	 Loss	of	consciousness,	or	acute	illness	requiring	treatment	by	a	registered	medical		        	
                              	 practitioner,	from	absorption,	inhalation,	or	ingestion,	of	any	substance.
                              	 .	 Any	harm	that	causes	the	person	harmed	to	be	hospitalised	for	a	period	of	48	hours	or	more		
                              	 commencing	within	7	days	of	the	harm’s	occurrence.

                        •	 harm, the severity of which may depend on how often or how long a person is exposed
                           to the hazard
                        	 This	harm	must	be	“more	than	trivial”	and	includes	such	things	as	occupational	overuse	syndrome.

                        •	 harm that cannot be detected until a significant time after exposure
                        	 This	includes	diseases	caused	by	exposure	to	hazardous	substances,	such	as	asbestosis,	
                           neurotoxicity,	emphysema,	and	other	occupational	diseases.

                        	   This	definition	is	important	as	significant	hazards	are	required	to	be	managed	in	a	set	way.		
                            Hazards	that	aren’t	significant	need	to	be	noted	and	re-examined	in	the	future	as	necessary,	to		
                            re-assess	whether	they	have	become	significant	as	time	has	passed.	They	also	need	to	be	managed	
                            as	appropriate	–	if	there	are	easy	or	obvious	things	that	can	be	done	to	reduce	the	hazard,	you	
                            should	do	them.	

                        	   Assessing	if	a	hazard	is	significant	is	a	matter	for	the	judgement	of	the	employer	(and	should	involve	
                            discussion	with	the	crew	and	others	on	board	the	vessel).	If	you	identify	a	hazard	and	then	decide		
                            it	isn’t	significant,	you	should	record	the	reasons	why	you	believe	it	is	not	significant.	You	should	also	
                            write	down	when	you	will	re-look	at	the	hazard	to	ensure	it	hasn’t	become	significant	over	time.	

 0                    part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

Hazard	identification	means	working	out	and	then	writing	down	the	hazards	on	your	vessel.

                                                                                                               14 HAZ ARD MANAGEMENT
Everything	on	the	vessel	and	that	happens	when	working	on	the	vessel	needs	to	be	looked	at	as	a	
potential	hazard.	A	regular	process	for	hazard	identification	needs	to	be	followed.	The	process	must	be	
systematic	and	thorough.	How	you	have	identified	and	assessed	hazards	should	be	written	down	and	
kept	as	a	record	in	your	SSM	manual	to	show	you	are	meeting	your	obligations.	Ways	of	identifying	
hazards	include:
•	 going	around	and	inspecting	the	vessel	and	equipment
•	 analysing	the	work	that	needs	to	be	done	on	the	vessel	and	how	it’s	being	done
•	 reviewing	previous	accidents	(including	near	misses)	and	looking	at	what	happened	and	why.

The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	requires	employers	to	give	employees	(eg	the	skipper	
and	crew)	reasonable	opportunities	to	be	involved	in	all	parts	of	the	hazard	management	process,	
including	identification	of	hazards.

You	need	to	review	your	hazard	identification	methods	regularly	to	make	sure	they’re	effective.		
For	example,	if	an	accident	happens	as	the	result	of	a	hazard	you	hadn’t	identified,	think	about	why		
your	system	didn’t	pick	it	up	and	how	you	can	make	sure	there	isn’t	anything	else	that	hasn’t	been	
picked	up.

                                                       part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   0
                        14.4	 HAZARD	ASSESSMENT		
                        	     AND	MANAGEMENT
                        Where	hazards	are	potentially	harmful	to	people	on	the	vessel,	the	employer	is	required	to	take	all
                        practicable steps	to	provide	a	safe	and	healthy	environment.	The	employer’s	responsibility	only	

                        extends	to	matters	they	can	reasonably	be	expected	to	recognise	or	be	aware	of.

                        Everyone	on	board	the	vessel	shares	in	the	responsibility	to	recognise	and	manage	problems	themselves	
                        and	this	includes	handling	non-work	issues	sensibly.

                        Hazards	need	to	be	assessed	to	determine	whether	or	not	they	are	significant.

                        The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	describes	a	hierarchy	of	actions	for	managing	significant	
                        hazards.	Hazards	that	are	not	significant	must	still	be	managed,	and	this	process	may	be	useful	for	
                        managing	those	hazards	also.

                        The	preferred	action	is	to	eliminate	the	hazard,	by	changing	things	so	that	the	hazard	no	longer	exists.	
                        This	might	include,	for	example,	relocating	equipment	or	instruments	which	restrict	forward	visibility,		
                        or	replacing	a	hazardous	substance	with	one	that	is	harmless.

                        If	this	can’t	be	reasonably	done,	you	should	isolate	the	hazard,	by	putting	in	place	a	process	or	
                        mechanism	that	keeps	employees	away	from	the	hazard.	This	might	include:
                        •	 permanently	fixing	a	guard	to	cover	a	dangerous	part	of	a	particular	machine
                        •	 fitting	an	acoustic	enclosure	around	noisy	machinery
                        •	 putting	a	releasable	door	catch	inside	a	freezer.

                        If	this	can’t	reasonably	be	done,	the	hazard	must	be	minimised,	by	doing	what	can	reasonably	be		
                        done	to	lessen	the	likelihood	of	harm	being	caused	by	the	hazard	and	to	protect	employees.		
                        This	might	include:
                        •	 providing	employees	with	suitable	protective	clothing	or	equipment
                        •	 monitoring	employees’	exposure	to	the	hazard
                        •	 with	their	informed	consent,	monitoring	employees’	health	in	relation	to	the	hazard.

                        This	process	is	set	out	in	a	two-page	form	at	the	end	of	this	section.	

                        Not	all	hazard	management	methods	are	“physical”.	There	can	be	rules	or	policies	designed	to	reduce	
                        the	risk	from	the	hazard	(eg	the	development	of	a	fatigue	management	plan).

 0                    part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY
Employers,	employees,	self-employed	people,	people	in	control	of	workplaces,	and	principals,		
are	required	to	take	all	reasonably	practicable	steps,	in	circumstances	they	know	or	should	reasonably	

                                                                                                               14 HAZ ARD MANAGEMENT
know	about,	to	ensure	their	own	safety	and	the	safety	of	others.

all practicable steps	means	those	steps	that	it	is	reasonably	practicable	to	take.	A	step	is	practicable		
if	it	is	possible	or	capable	of	being	done.

The	word	reasonable	means	that	not	everything	that	is	humanly	possible	needs	to	be	done.	Instead,		
it	is	only	necessary	to	do	what	a	reasonable	and	prudent	person	would	do	in	the	same	situation.	

When	assessing	if	a	step	is	reasonable	the	following	needs	to	be	taken	into	account:
•	 the	nature	and	severity	of	any	injury	or	harm	that	may	occur
•	 the	degree	of	risk	or	probability	of	injury	or	harm	occurring
•	 how	much	is	known	about	the	hazard	and	the	ways	of	eliminating,	isolating	or	minimising	the	hazard
•	 the	availability	and	cost	of	safeguards.

The	costs	of	dealing	with	a	hazard	are	only	one	factor	in	deciding	if	a	step	is	reasonably	practicable.		
Costs	should	be	measured	against	other	factors,	including	the	risk	and	seriousness	of	harm	that	might	
occur	if	nothing	is	done.	If	there	is	a	risk	of	serious	or	frequent	injury	or	harm,	spending	a	greater		
amount	of	money	to	deal	with	the	hazard	is	considered	reasonable.

                                                       part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                        14.6	 SIGNIFICANT	HAZARD		 	
                        	     MANAGEMENT	WORKSHEET
                        See	the	two-page	form	provided	in	this	section.

                                legal requirementS

                         •	 The	Health	and	Safety	in	Employment	Act	1992	(HSE	Act)	requires	employers	to	systematically	
                            identify	hazards	and	to	systematically	manage	significant	hazards	by	either	eliminating,	isolating		
                            or	minimising	them	and	then	developing	and	maintaining	emergency	procedures.
                         •	 Hazards	that	aren’t	significant	still	need	to	be	managed	to	make	sure	the	vessel	is	safe	and	working	
                            on	the	vessel	is	safe.
                         •	 The	HSE	Act	requires	employers	to	give	employees	(eg	the	crew)	reasonable	opportunities	to	be	
                            involved	in	all	parts	of	the	hazard	management	process.
                         •	 Where	appropriate,	employers	must	provide	suitable	protective	clothing	and	equipment	to	protect	
                            people	from	hazards.	They	also	need	to	provide	training	in	its	use	and	make	sure	it	is	worn	or	used.
                         •	 Maintain	a	hazard	register.

                        action points!
                        •	 Set	up	a	regular	system	for	identifying	hazards.	Schedule	this	into	your	work	routines,	including	
                           regularly	looking	at	whether	the	ways	in	which	you’re	controlling	hazards	is	working.
                        •	 Emphasise	to	everyone	on	board	the	vessel	that	it	is	their	responsibility	to	advise	the	skipper	of	any	
                           hazards	they	find	on	the	vessel.
                        •	 Set	up	regular	meetings	with	the	crew	to	talk	about	hazards	and	how	they	can	be	managed.
                        •	 Set	up	emergency	processes	for	hazards	in	case	things	go	wrong.
                        •	 Regularly	review	accidents	and	near	misses	to	help	you	identify	any	hazards	you	might	have	missed.
                        •	 When	you	identify	things	that	need	to	be	done	to	manage	a	hazard,	make	sure	responsibility	for	the	
                           action	is	clear,	and	someone	checks	that	it	has	been	done.
                        •	 Make	sure	you	regularly	check	that	policies	and	procedures	are	being	followed	and	that	your	
                           management	of	hazards	is	effective.
                        •	 Make	sure	everyone	on	board	has	enough	training	and	information	around	how	hazards	are	managed	
                           on	the	vessel,	and	how	to	work	safely,	and	that	they’re	supervised	when	necessary.
                        •	 Information	needs	to	be	provided	in	a	way	that	will	be	understood.	This	might	be	through	talking	to	
                           people,	or	it	might	mean	making	sure	written	material	is	in	different	languages,	simple	to	understand,	
                           and	includes	diagrams	or	pictures.
                        •	 Keep	a	register	of	all	hazards	that	are	identified	on	the	vessel.

                        Where can i find out more?
                        Maritime	New	Zealand	has	a	booklet	for	the	maritime	industry	Health & Safety: A Guide	which		
                        outlines	your	obligations	under	the	HSE	Act,	and	the	associated	hazard	management	processes.		
                        Copies	are	available	from	Maritime	New	Zealand	on	freephone	0508	22	55	22	

                        To	find	out	more	about	how	to	identify	and	manage	hazards,	contact	Maritime	New	Zealand,		
                        on	freephone	0508	22	55	22,	or	email	

                     part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY
Section one: Background

                                                                                                                   14 HAZ ARD MANAGEMENT

Is	this	hazard	significant?		          Yes	         No

Why	is	the	hazard	significant	or	not	significant?

Section two: elimination

Can	the	hazard	be	eliminated?	         Yes	         No

If	yes,	list	the	steps	to	achieve	this,	allocate	responsibility,	then	go	to	Section	Five:

 Step                                  timeline                               responsible

If	no,	why	not?

Test	your	reasons	against	the	“all	practicable	steps”	requirement.

Section three: isolation

Can	the	hazard	be	isolated?		          Yes	         No

If	yes,	list	the	steps	to	achieve	this,	allocate	responsibility,	then	go	to	Section	Five:

 Step                                  timeline                               responsible

If	no,	why	not?

Test	your	reasons	against	the	“all	practicable	steps”	requirement.

                                                           part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY   
                        Section four: minimise

                        List	the	steps	you	will	take	to	minimise	the	likelihood	of	harm	from	the	hazard:

                         Step                                 timeline                           responsible

                        List	the	equipment	and	clothing	that	are	required	to	protect	employees	from	the	harm:

                         equipment/clothing                   timeline for provision             responsible

                        Section five: review and monitoring

                        Have	you	tested	your	answers	against	the	“all	practicable	steps”	requirement?		      Yes	    No

                        How	will	the	employees’	exposure	to	the	hazard,	and	their	health	in	relation	to	the	exposure,		
                        be	monitored?

                         monitoring step                      timeline                           responsible

                        How	and	when	will	you	review	the	success	of	your	control	measures?

                         review step                          timeline                           responsible

                        Were	employees	involved	in	this	hazard	management	process?		                         Yes	    No

                        If	no,	why	not?

                        Section Six: Sign-off

                        Vessel	Name:

                        Name	of	person	filling	out	this	sheet:	

                        Position:	                                             Date:

                     part three:	GENERAL INFORMATION ON HEALTH AND SAFETY

Published by:
Maritime New Zealand
PO Box 27006
Wellington 6141
New Zealand

2007 Maritime New Zealand

ISBN – 978-0-478-18852-3

Maritime New Zealand acknowledges the assistance
of the NZ Marine Transport Association in the development
of this publication.

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