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					                                            Chapter
                                      Vegetables
                                                         20

                                  I. Beans, Snap           2
                                 II. Beets                 3
                               III. Broccoli               4
                                IV. Brussels Sprouts       5
                                 V. Cabbage                7
                                VI. Cantaloupes            8
                               VII. Carrots                9
                              VIII. Cauliflower           10
                                IX. Cucumber              12
                                 X. Eggplant              13
                                XI. Kohlrabi              14
                               XII. Lettuce               15
                              XIII. Onions                16
                              XIV. Peas                   18
                               XV. Peppers                19
                              XVI. Pumpkin                20
                             XVII. Radish                 21
                             XVIII.Summer Squash          22
                              XIX. Sweet Corn             24
                               XX. Swiss Chard            25
                              XXI. Tomatoes               26
                             XXII. Turnips                27
                             XXIII.Watermelon             29
                             XXIV. Winter Squash          30
                             Further Reading              31




Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                       20 - 1
                                          Chapter 20

                                       Vegetables
                                             G. F. Gardner
                George F. Gardner, Former Extension Educator, Bannock County, Pocatello

I. Beans, Snap                                                 the top 7 to 8 inches of soil, destroy current
                                                               weed growth, and provide a granular soil
    A. Food Value
                                                               bed for seeding. Overcultivation causes the
       A pound of raw green bean pods broken                   soil to become powdery or to crust.
       into 1- or 2-inch lengths yields about 3 2/3
                                                            E. Seed Time
       cups of cooked beans. They are composed
       of 90.1 percent water, 145 calories, 8.6                The best time to seed beans is after the last
       grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat, and 32.2             killing frost in the spring, when day tem-
       grams of carbohydrates.                                 perature is 65°F and the night is expected to
                                                               average above 55°F. Select early maturing
    B. Description
                                                               varieties that ripen in 55 to 70 days.
       Snap beans grown from the immature pod
                                                            F. Planting Specifications:
       originated in Central America and were
       widely distributed by the Indians, basically            Seed per foot           6 to 8
       as bush and pole beans. Bush beans ripen                Row width               18 to 30 inches
       earlier, but pole bean yields are higher.               Germination             6 to 14 days
                                                               Seed depth              1 1/2 to 2 inches
    C. Yield Per Person
                                                               Ounce per foot          0.13
       It is estimated that each person will con-              Plant spacing           2 to 4 inches
       sume 6 to 12 pounds of garden fresh beans
                                                            G. Planting Suggestions
       and 12 to 14 pounds of canned or frozen
       beans per year. Each foot of row space                  Beans need a warm soil to grow and good
       planted to beans produces an average of                 spacing for sunlight. Some gardeners are
       0.35 to 0.5 pound of snap beans. A 20- to               tempted to soak their seeds before planting.
       30-foot row of beans produces enough                    This practice injures many of the bean vari-
       beans for one person.                                   eties, and could result in poor germination
                                                               and diseased, weak plants.
    D. Seedbed
                                                            H. Fertilizer
       Beans do best on sandy loam soil that
       warms up early in the spring and has a soil             Beans are a legume and can produce some
       pH from 7.0 to 7.5 but can tolerate a soil pH           of their own nitrogen (N) because of their N
       near 8.0. Cultivate the soil for planting               fixation ability. The seed may be inoculated
       when the moisture in the soil allows the for-           with rhizobium to stimulate additional fixa-
       mation of a soil ball that crumbles into                tion. To supplement this, add a preplant fer-
       pieces under finger pressure. Cultivate to              tilizer of 0.2 pound of N for each 100 square
       mix crop residues and organic matter into               feet. After the first heavy bloom and set of
                                                               pods, sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammo-
                                                               nium sulfate.
              Acknowledgment
                                                               The amount of fertilizer applied should be
The author compiled information for Chapters 19                based on a soil test report from the Univer-
and 20 from the Virginia, Utah, Oregon, and Wash-              sity of Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a pri-
ington Master Gardener handbooks and adapted it to             vate testing laboratory. Plants are easily
Idaho conditions.                                              over- or under-fertilized.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 2
    I. Cultivation                                                protein, 0.5 gram of fat, 23.7 grams of carbo-
       Cultivate (shallow) when necessary to re-                  hydrates, and 145 calories.
       move other plant competition. Deep cultiva-           B.   Description
       tion close to the plants destroys much of the              Beets are native to the Mediterranean area
       root system and reduces yield and quality.                 of north Africa, Europe, and west Asia.
    J. Watering                                                   They are cool weather biennials that are
       Beans have a water stress point of 60 per-                 grown as annuals for their leaves and roots.
       cent. When the percentage of water in soil                 The roots may be round, flat, or elongated.
       drops below this level, the plant will start to            They are usually red in color, but there are
       dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down                  several golden varieties.
       or stopped. To estimate water percentage,             C.   Yield Per Person
       take a handful of soil at the 6-inch depth and             On the average, each person consumes 7 to
       squeeze it into a ball in your hand. If it                 12 pounds of fresh beets during a growing
       forms a ball and your hand feels like it has a             season, and an additional 12.5 to 30 pounds
       film of water on it, the soil moisture will be             of canned and frozen beets. Each foot of
       60 percent or higher. If the soil moisture is              row space should produce approximately
       below 60 percent, you will not feel the film               1.25 pounds of beets.
       of water on your hand, and it is time to wa-          D.   Seedbed
       ter again. Plant growth can suffer from too
                                                                  Beets grow best in sandy loam and peat
       much or too little water. The symptoms will
                                                                  soils. Heavy clay soils can be improved by
       be the same. As the percentage of soil mois-
                                                                  the addition of organic matter. Seedbed
       ture drops the oxygen level in the soil in-
                                                                  preparation should start when the soil has
       creases.
                                                                  sufficient moisture to form a ball that
    K. Insects                                                    crumbles into medium-sized fragments.
       Lygus bugs, nitidulid beetles, aphids includ-              Cultivate to mix crop residues and organic
       ing the bean aphid, army worms and cut-                    matter into the top 7 to 8 inches of soil, de-
       worms, grasshoppers, pea leaf weevil, corn                 stroy current weeds, and provide a small
       maggot, slug, spider mites, cucumber                       granular-type bed for planting. Overculti-
       beetles, and wireworms create problems in                  vated soil becomes powdery and has a ten-
       beans.                                                     dency to crust. The ideal pH for beets is
    L. Diseases                                                   from 6.0 to 7.5, although a pH value near
       Common diseases include brown spot, curly                  8.0 is acceptable.
       top, halo blight, mosaics, necrosis, root rot,        E.   Seed Time
       rust, sclerotinia disease, white mold, seed                The best time to seed beets is 2 to 4 weeks
       rot, and seedling blight.                                  before the last killing frost in the spring
    M.Harvesting                                                  when soil temperature is 50°F or above. Se-
       Beans can be harvested when pods are 3                     lect early maturing varieties that ripen in 55
       inches long but before the seed is much                    to 65 days.
       larger than the diameter of a pencil lead.            F.   Planting Specifications:
       Harvest every 3 to 4 days to prevent over                  Ounce per foot          0.01
       maturity. Frequent picking stimulates the                  Seed per foot           15 to 20
       plants to produce new pods and helps to en-                Row width               2 to 18 inches
       sure a heavy harvest. Disturbing wet vines                 Germination             10 to 15 days
       spreads rust and other diseases.                           Seed depth              1/2 to 1 inch
                                                                  Plant spacing           2 to 3 inches
II. Beets                                                         Row spacing             12 inches
    A. Food Value                                            G.   Planting Suggestions
       A pound of raw, peeled, common red beets                   Beets need a cool soil to grow and good
       consists of 90.9 percent water, 5.0 grams of               spacing for sunlight. Their frost tolerance is

                      Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                    20 - 3
     moderate. They are not harmed by spring                M.Harvesting
     and fall frosts, but their roots may become              Beets can be harvested as soon as the roots
     tough during hot weather. The seed of beets              are large enough to use. Early thinning is
     is actually a dried fruit or seed ball contain-          critical for beets to develop large, tender
     ing several tiny true seeds. Heat, drought, or           roots. Leave 2 inches between plants. The
     crusting of the soil surface interferes with             tops of beets removed during thinning can
     seed germination and emergence. Make suc-                be used for “greens.” Beets are ready to be
     cessive plantings 3 weeks apart to ensure a              pulled up for their roots 8 to 9 weeks after
     continuous supply of young beets.                        seeds are sown. Roots are most tender when
H.   Fertilizer                                               less than 2 inches across. Harvest for stor-
     Preplant fertilizer is a recommended 0.2                 age before roots become woody. Pull the
     pound of N for each 100 square feet. No                  beet and cut off the tops, but leave 1 to 1 1/2
     sidedressing is required. The amount of fer-             inches of top above the crown. To see if
     tilizer applied should be based on a soil test           roots are ready for use, push the soil away
     report from the University of Idaho Analyti-             from the top of the beet and check its size.
     cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-
     tory. Plants may be over- or under-fertil-
                                                        III. Broccoli
     ized.                                                  A. Food Value
I.   Cultivation                                               A pound of broccoli stalks (head or bud
     Use shallow cultivation when necessary to                 clusters, stem, and leaves) consists of 89.1
     remove other plant competition. Deep culti-               percent water, 16.3 grams of protein, 1.4
     vation close to the plants destroys much of               grams of fat, 26.8 grams of carbohydrates,
     the root system and reduces yield and quality.            and 145 calories.
J.   Watering                                               B. Description
     Beets have a water stress point of 50 per-                Broccoli is a member of the cabbage family
     cent. When the percentage of water in soil                with similar requirements and problems. It
     drops below this level, the plants will start             was developed in southern Europe and
     to dehydrate, and growth will be slowed                   brought to America by immigrants. The
     down or stopped. To estimate the water per-               plant has a loose flower head on a tall,
     centage take a handful of soil at the 6-inch              green, branching stalk. The flower heads are
     depth and squeeze it into a ball in your                  formed both terminally and laterally. The
     hand. If it forms a ball but feels dry, the soil          plant may grow to 3 to 5 feet tall.
     moisture will be 50 percent or higher. If the          C. Yield Per Person
     soil moisture is below 50 percent, the ball               It is estimated that each person consumes 3
     will be fragile and break apart with slight               to 5 pounds of fresh broccoli during a grow-
     pressure, and it is time to water again. Plant            ing season and an additional 5 to 6 pounds
     growth can suffer from too much or too little             of frozen broccoli each year. Each foot of
     water. The symptoms will be the same. Plants              row space produces about 0.75 pound of
     need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.                broccoli.
K.   Insects                                                D. Seedbed
     Alfalfa looper, army worm, cutworms, flea                 Broccoli will grow in most soils from sand
     beetles, two-spotted mite, variegated cut-                to clay. Seedbed preparation should start
     worm, zebra caterpillar, and nematodes are                when the soil has sufficient moisture to
     common beet pests.                                        form a ball that crumbles into medium-sized
L.   Diseases                                                  fragments. Cultivate mix crop residues and
     Disease problems include boron deficiency,                organic matter into the top 7 to 8 inches of
     curly top, damping-off, downy mildew, and                 soil, destroy weed growth, and provide a
     leaf spot.                                                small granular-type bed for transplanting.
                                                               Overcultivated soil becomes powdery and


                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 4
     has a tendency to crust. The ideal pH for                a ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and
     broccoli is from 6.0 to 7.0, but values near             your hand feels like it has a film of water on
     8.0 are acceptable.                                      it, the soil moisture will be 60 percent or
E.   Seed Time                                                higher. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-
     The best time to seed broccoli is 6 to 8                 cent, you will not feel the film of water on
     weeks before transplanting when soil tem-                your hand, and it is time to water again.
     perature is 50°F or above. The variety                   Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     should have an early maturity date and be                too little water. The symptoms will be the
     suitable for weather conditions in the area              same. As the percentage of soil moisture
     planted. The maturity date should be 60 to               drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
     80 days after transplanting. Plant in contain-           Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
     ers inside for early crops and transplant after          grow.
     last frost.                                           K. Insects
F.   Planting Specifications:                                 Aphids, cabbage maggots, cabbage worm,
     Seed per foot           3 to 4                           cabbage looper, diamond back moth, flea
     Row width               24 to 30 inches                  beetles, spider mites, and wireworms are
     Germination             3 to 10 days                     common broccoli pests.
     Seed depth              1/2 inch                      L. Diseases
     Plant spacing           20 to 24 inches                  Diseases include bacterial soft rot, club root,
G.   Planting Suggestions                                     and downy mildew.
     Broccoli needs a cool soil to grow and good           M.Harvesting
     spacing for sunlight. If transplants are pur-            Broccoli should be harvested when the cen-
     chased, they should be stocky and from 4 to              ter head is 4 to 6 inches across, but before
     6 inches tall.                                           the buds separate or open. Lateral buds will
H.   Fertilizer                                               develop into smaller heads after the terminal
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for              head is removed. When a head is ready for
     each 100 square feet is recommended. Three               use, cut the stem 3 inches below the flower
     weeks after transplanting, sidedress with                buds.
     1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate (south-
     ern Idaho) or ammonium nitrate (northern          IV. Brussels Sprouts
     Idaho) per 10 feet of row. The amount of              A. Food Value
     fertilizer applied should be based on a soil             A pound of Brussels sprouts consists of 85.2
     test report from the University of Idaho                 percent water, 22.2 grams of protein, 1.8
     Analytical Laboratory or a private testing               grams of fat, 37.6 grams of carbohydrates,
     laboratory. Plants may be over- or under-                and 204 calories.
     fertilized.                                           B. Description
I.   Cultivation                                              Brussels sprouts originated in Europe, the
     Use shallow cultivation when necessary to                principal location being Brussels, Belgium.
     remove other plant competition. Deep culti-              They resemble small cabbages but require a
     vation close to the plants destroys much of the          longer growing season. Each plant grows to
     root system and reduces yield and quality.               about 2 1/2 feet tall, bearing small cabbage
J.   Watering                                                 like buds along its stem. Each stem may
     Broccoli has a water stress point of 60 per-             bear as many as 100 1- to 2-inch ball-like
     cent. When the percentage of water in soil               sprouts.
     drops below this level, the plant will start to       C. Yield Per Person
     dehydrate and growth will be slowed down                 On the average, each person eats from 1.5 to
     or stopped. The percentage of water in the               3.75 pounds of fresh Brussels sprouts during
     soil can be estimated by taking a handful of             a growing season and uses an additional
     soil at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into           3.75 to 6 pounds of canned or frozen sprouts

                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 5
     during the year. Each foot of row space pro-              row. The amount of fertilizer applied should
     duces about 0.5 pound of Brussels sprouts.                be based on a soil test report from the Uni-
     From 3.5 to 8.5 feet of row space per person              versity of Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a
     should be planted for fresh use during the                private testing laboratory. Plants may be
     growing season and an additional 3.5 to 14                over- or under-fertilized.
     feet for canning or freezing.                        H.   Cultivation
D.   Seedbed                                                   When necessary, cultivation should be shal-
     Brussels sprouts are adaptable to different               low to remove other plant competition.
     soils as long as the soils are fertile, have              Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
     good texture, and are moist. Brussels                     stroy much of the root system and reduce
     sprouts mature less rapidly than cabbage.                 yield and quality. Hilling soil up around the
     Seedbed preparation should start when the                 main stem of the cabbage may stimulate
     soil has sufficient moisture to form a mud                early heading.
     ball that you can crumble into medium-               I.   Watering
     sized fragments. Cultivation should mix                   Brussels sprouts have a stress point of 55
     crop residues and organic matter in the top 7             percent. When the percent of water in soil
     to 8 inches of soil, destroy current weed                 drops below this level, the plant will start to
     growth, and provide a small granular-type                 dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
     bed for transplanting. Overcultivated soil                or stopped. The percent of water in the soil
     becomes powdery and has a tendency to                     can be estimated by taking a handful of soil
     crust. The ideal pH for Brussels sprouts is               at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a
     from 6.0 to 7.5; they do well in Idaho’s soil,            ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your
     which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.                             hand feels like it is moist but does not leave
E.   Seed Time                                                 a film of water on it, the soil moisture will
     The best time to plant Brussels sprouts seed              be 55 percent or above. If the soil moisture
     in containers is 4 to 6 weeks before trans-               is below 55 percent, the moisture will not be
     planting in the garden, when soil tempera-                felt on your hand, and it is time to water
     ture is 40°F or above. Seed planted in the                again.
     garden for later maturing plants should be                Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     inserted into the soil as soon as the soil can            too little water. The symptoms will be the
     be cultivated, 6 to 8 weeks before the last               same. As the percentage of soil moisture
     killing frost. The variety of Brussels sprouts            drops the oxygen level in the soil increases.
     planted should have an early maturity date                Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
     and be suited for weather conditions in the               grow.
     area planted. The maturity date should be 80         J.   Insects
     to 90 days after transplanting.
                                                               Aphids, flea beetles, cabbage looper, garden
F.   Planting specifications—                                  symphylans, slugs, thrips, and cauliflower
     Seed per foot           3 to 4                            head maggot are common pests.
     Row width               24 to 30 inches              K.   Diseases
     Germination             3 to 10 days
                                                               Brussels sprouts diseases are minimal in
     Seed depth              1/4 to 1/2 inch
                                                               Idaho but may include bacterial soft rot,
     Planting space          18 to 24 inches
                                                               blackleg, club rot, and sprout rot.
G.   Fertilizer
                                                          L.   Harvesting
     Brussels sprouts require good fertility and
                                                               Remove lower leaves as sprouts start to en-
     moisture. A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound
                                                               large. Harvest sprouts as they become solid
     of N for each 100 square feet is recom-
                                                               at about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The low-
     mended. When the plants are one-third
                                                               est sprouts will mature first. To speed up
     grown, sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of am-
                                                               sprout maturity pinch off the tip of each
     monium sulfate in high pH soils or ammo-
                                                               plant in late August or early September,
     nium nitrate in low pH soils per 10 feet of
                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 6
     however, this may reduce the total yield of            E. Seed Time
     the plant by as much as one third. Break the              The best time to plant cabbage seed is 5 to 7
     sprouts from the stalk. The tastiest sprouts              weeks before transplanting in containers.
     will be those that mature after the first fall            Large cabbage transplants may produce
     frost.                                                    seed stalks if subjected to 3 to 4 weeks of
   M.Storage                                                   40° to 50°F weather. To help prevent this
     When night temperatures drop to 20°F on a                 problem, plant out transplants when the
     regular basis, dig up the plants with a little            stem is about the size of a pencil lead when
     soil remaining around the roots. Put them                 soil temperature is 50°F or higher. Seeds
     into a deep cold frame or in an unheated                  planted in the garden for later maturing
     dark garage. They will continue to grow un-               plants should be inserted into the soil as
     til all the sprouts mature.                               soon as the soil can be cultivated, 6 to 8
                                                               weeks before the last killing frost. Select
V. Cabbage                                                     cabbage varieties suited to weather condi-
   A. Food Value                                               tions in the area planted. Maturity dates
                                                               should be 65 to 95 days after transplanting.
      A pound of cabbage consists of 92.4 percent
      water, 5.9 grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat,         F. Planting Specifications:
      24.5 grams of carbohydrates, and an aver-                Seed per foot           8 to 10
      age of 109 calories.                                     Row width               24 to 30 inches
   B. Description                                              Germination             4 to 10 days
                                                               Seed depth              1/4 to 1/2 inch
      Cabbage ranks as one of the most important
                                                               Plant spacing           4 to 6 inches
      homegrown crops. It may be globular, flat,
      or flowery and green, red, or purple. It was          G. Fertilizer
      developed from wild leafy nonheading                     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
      plants native to Europe.                                 each 100 square feet is recommended.
   C. Yield Per Person                                         When the plants are one-third grown,
                                                               sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium
      On the average each person eats 4 to 5
                                                               sulfate in alkaline soils and ammonium ni-
      pounds of fresh cabbage during a growing
                                                               trate in acid soils per 10 feet of row. The
      season, and an additional 6 to 12 pounds of
                                                               amount of fertilizer applied should be based
      canned or frozen cabbage during the year.
                                                               on a soil test report from the University of
      Each foot of row space produces about 1.5
                                                               Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a private
      pounds of cabbage. Plant 5 to 6 feet of row
                                                               testing laboratory. Plants may be over- or
      space per person for fresh use during the
                                                               under-fertilized.
      growing season and an additional 7.5 to 15
      feet for canning.                                     H. Cultivation
   D. Seedbed                                                  Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
                                                               sary, to remove other plant competition.
      Cabbage is adaptable to different soils as
                                                               Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
      long as they are fertile, have good texture,
                                                               stroy much of the root system and reduce
      and are moist. Start seedbed preparation
                                                               yield and quality. Hilling soil up around the
      when the soil has enough moisture to form a
                                                               main stem of the cabbage may stimulate
      mud ball that will crumble into medium-
                                                               early heading.
      sized fragments. Mix crop residues and or-
      ganic matter into the top 7 to 8 inches of            I. Watering
      soil, destroy current weed growth, and pro-              Cabbages have a water stress point of 55
      vide a small granular-type bed for trans-                percent. When the percent of water in soil
      planting. Overcultivated soil is powdery and             drops below this level, the plant will start to
      has a tendency to crust. The ideal pH for                dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
      cabbage growth is 6.0 to 7.5, and they do well           or stopped. To estimate water percentage,
      in Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.             take a handful of soil at the 6-inch depth and

                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 7
      squeeze it into a ball in your hand. If it                 gram of fat, 34.0 grams of carbohydrates,
      forms a ball and your hand feels like it is                and an average of 136 calories.
      damp but does not have a film of water on             B.   Description
      it, the soil moisture will be 55 percent or                Cantaloupes are native to India. The plants
      above. If the soil moisture is below 55 per-               have separate male and female flowers on
      cent, the dampness of water will not be felt               the same vine and are cross-pollinated. They
      on your hand, and it is time to water again.               do not cross-pollinate with cucumbers,
      Plant growth can suffer from too much or                   gourds, watermelons, squash, or pumpkins.
      too little water. The symptoms will be the                 Cantaloupes may develop a bitter flavor be-
      same. As the percentage of soil moisture drops             cause of cloudy weather, excessively high
      the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants             temperatures, or too much or too little water
      need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.                 during the ripening period. They need a lot
   J. Insects                                                    of heat and a long growing season to ma-
      Aphids, flea beetles, cabbage looper, blister              ture.
      beetles, diamond back moth, wireworms,                C.   Yield Per Person
      and the imported cabbage worm are com-                     Each person eats about 8 to 10 cantaloupes
      mon cabbage pests.                                         during the growing season. Each foot of row
   K. Diseases                                                   space produces about 1 pound of canta-
      Cabbage diseases, minimal in Idaho, may                    loupe, and 8 to 10 feet of row will supply
      include bacterial soft rot, blackleg, club rot,            one person.
      damping off and wire stem, downy mildew,              D.   Seedbed
      drop or watery soft rot, leaf spot, and oedema.            Cantaloupes are adapted to most soils but
   L. Harvesting                                                 grow best in a fertile mellow soil with large
      Cabbage is ready to harvest 50 to 65 days                  amounts of compost. Seedbed preparation
      after transplanting. The heads should be                   should start when the soil has sufficient
      solid but must be picked before they crack.                moisture to form a mud ball that will
      Soft heads have poor quality. Heads may                    crumble into medium-sized fragments. Mix
      split during hot weather if there is an over               crop residues and organic matter into the top
      supply of water. Reducing irrigation or                    7 to 8 inches of soil, destroy current weed
      twisting the mature heads part of the way                  growth, and provide a small granular-type
      around to sever half the roots will allow ma-              bed for transplanting. Overcultivated soil
      ture cabbage to stay in the garden longer                  becomes powdery and has a tendency to
      without losing quality. Plants harvested                   crust. The ideal pH for cantaloupe growth is
      early in the summer and left with as many                  from 6.0 to 7.5, but the fruit does well in
      leaves as possible will often develop small                Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
      heads on the stem next to the base of the             E.   Seed Time
      leaves. These heads are edible and should                  The best time to transplant cantaloupes in
      be picked when firm.                                       Idaho is 3 weeks after the last killing frost.
   M.Storage                                                     When transplanting, soil temperature should
      Cabbage freeze at about 30°F. For storage,                 be 65°F or above, and night temperature
      place mature cabbages in a pit, trench, or                 should average above 55°F. Select varieties
      outdoor cellar. The temperature should be as               that ripen in 75 to 85 days after transplanting.
      near 32°F as possible but at least 40°F or            F.   Planting Specifications:
      below. Humidity should be high. Stored                     Seed per foot           1
      cabbages will last into early winter.                      Ounce per foot          0.05
                                                                 Row width               60 to 72 inches
VI. Cantaloupes                                                  Germination             3 to 5 days
   A. Food Value                                                 Seed depth              1 inch
      A pound of raw cantaloupe consists of 91.2                 Plant spacing           36 to 72 inches
      percent water, 3.2 grams of protein, 0.5
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 8
G. Planting Suggestions                                   M.Harvesting
   Cantaloupes need warm soil to grow and                   Cantaloupes must ripen on the vine for
   good spacing for sunlight to ensure high                 maximum quality. Ripe fruit forms an ab-
   sugar content and flavor. If transplants are             scission layer, and the stem loosens from
   used, they should be stocky. Soils should be             the fruit. When the stem is nearly loose, the
   well drained and contain large amounts of                cantaloupe is said to be at the full slip stage.
   compost or well-rotted manure. Clear plas-               Softening of the blossom end, a change in
   tic mulch can be used around the plants to               color of the base of the pedicel from green
   warm the soil.                                           to waxy, and a strong cantaloupe smell are
H. Fertilizer                                               indications of ripeness. Cantaloupe har-
   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for              vested before the full slip stage do not in-
   each 100 square feet is recommended. One                 crease in sugar after picking.
   week after blossoming begins, sidedress            VII. Carrots
   with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate per
   10 feet of row. The amount of fertilizer ap-           A. Food Value
   plied should be based on a soil test report               Carrots are a good source of vitamins A, B,
   from the University of Idaho Analytical                   B2, and C, sugar, and iron. A pound of car-
   Laboratory or a private testing laboratory.               rots consists of 88.2 percent water, 5.0
   Plants may be over- or under-fertilized.                  grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat, 44.0
I. Cultivation                                               grams of carbohydrates, and an average of
   Cultivate no more than 1 inch deep to con-                191 calories.
   trol weeds.                                            B. Description
J. Watering                                                  Carrots are related to the wild flower Queen
   Cantaloupes have a water stress point of 60               Anne’s Lace. They have bright green feath-
   percent. When the percent of water in soil                ering foliage 10 to 12 inches tall and de-
   drops below this level, the plant will start to           velop an orange yellow root.
   dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down              C. Yield Per Person
   or stopped. The percent of water in the soil              Each person eats about 5 to 10 pounds of
   can be estimated by taking a handful of soil              fresh carrots and an additional 10 to 15
   at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a               pounds of canned or frozen carrots per year.
   ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your            Each foot of row space should produce
   hand feels like it has a film of water on it,             about 1 pound of carrots.
   the soil moisture will be 60 percent or                D. Seedbed
   above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-              Carrots grow best in sandy loam and peat
   cent, the film of water will not be felt on               soils. Heavy clay soils can be improved by
   your hand and it is time to water again.                  the addition of organic matter. If you apply
   Plant growth can suffer from too much or                  manure, do so sparingly and use only well-
   too little water. The symptoms will be the                rotted manure to avoid rough, branching
   same. As the percentage of soil moisture                  carrots. Seedbed preparation should start
   drops the oxygen level in the soil increases.             when the soil has sufficient moisture to
   Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to               form a mud ball that will crumble into me-
   grow.                                                     dium-sized fragments. Cultivation should
K. Insects                                                   mix crop residues and organic matter in the
   Aphids, cucumber beetle, and squash bug                   top 7 to 8 inches of soil. It should destroy
   are common pests.                                         current weed growth and provide a small
L. Diseases                                                  granular-type bed for transplanting. Over-
                                                             cultivated soil becomes powdery and has a
   Diseases include Fusarium wilt, leaf blight,
                                                             tendency to crust. The ideal pH for carrot
   and powdery mildew.
                                                             growth is from 6.0 to 7.0, but it does well in
                                                             Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
                  Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 9
E. Seed Time                                               I. Cultivation
   Plant carrots after the last killing frost in the          Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
   spring when soil temperature is 40°F or                    sary, to remove other plant competition.
   above. Their frost tolerance is moderate.                  Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
   Low temperature carrots grow long and                      stroy much of the root system and reduce
   have pointed tips. High temperature carrots                yield and quality.
   have blunt tips. For an extended harvest,               J. Watering
   you can continue planting throughout the                   Carrots have a water stress point of 55 per-
   summer until about 70 days before the last                 cent. When the percent of water in soil
   expected frost. Most varieties mature in 60                drops below this level, the plants will start
   to 70 days.                                                to dehydrate, and growth will be slowed
F. Planting Specifications:                                   down or stopped. The percent of water in
   Ounce per foot         0.02                                the soil can be estimated by taking a handful
   Seed per foot          15 to 20                            of soil at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it
   Row width              14 to 24 inches                     into a ball in your hand. If it forms a ball,
   Germination            10 to 17 days                       and your hand feels damp, but does not have
   Seed depth             1/2 inch                            a film of water on it, the soil moisture will
   Plant spacing          1 to 2 inches                       be 55 percent or above. If the soil moisture
G. Planting Suggestions                                       is below 55 percent, the dampness will not
   Carrots prefer warm soil and need good                     be felt on your hand, and it is time to water.
   spacing for proper root development. A salt                Plant growth can suffer from too much or
   or pepper shaker can be used to scatter                    too little water. The symptoms will be the
   seeds in the row. For small gardens, try                   same. As the percentage of soil moisture
   growing carrots in raised beds at least 12                 drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
   inches deep. A mixture of one-fifth garden                 Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
   soil, two-fifths sand, and two-fifths compost              grow.
   or peat moss works well. Carrot seedlings               K. Insects
   are tiny. Some gardeners mix a few radish                  The following insects may cause problems:
   seeds with the carrot seeds so they can see                aphids, carrot rust fly, garden symphylan,
   the row.                                                   wireworm, six-spotted leafhopper, and slug.
   To prevent the soil from forming a crust that           L. Diseases
   would inhibit the seedling’s growth, cover                 Diseases include aster yellows, cottony soft
   the seeds with a light layer of compost,                   rot, damping-off, leaf spot, deaf blight, mot-
   (sifted) grass clippings, and sawdust of ver-              ley dwarf virus, phytophthora root rot, and
   miculite. A film of clear plastic over the                 nematode soft rot.
   seedbed will speed up germination by
                                                           M.Harvesting
   warming the soil, prevent crusting, and keep
   the soil moist. Remove the plastic as soon as              Carrots can be harvested as soon as the
   the seedlings emerge. Thin seedlings to 2                  roots are the size of your little finger. Har-
   inches apart.                                              vest carrots before they become woody.
H. Fertilizer                                              N. Storage
   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for                Carrots can be stored throughout the fall and
   each 100 square feet is recommended. No                    winter in a pit, storage cellar, or covered
   sidedressing is required. The amount of fer-               row. Storage temperature should be as near
   tilizer applied should be based on a soil test             32°F as possible. Humidity should be high.
   report from the University of Idaho Analyti-
                                                       VIII. Cauliflower
   cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-
   tory. Excessive N causes carrots to split into          A. Food Value
   forks in the top half.                                     A pound of cauliflower with head and 4 to 6
                                                              inches of stem consists of 91 percent water,
                   Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 10
     23.2 grams of protein, 1.7 grams of fat, 44.7         F. Planting Specifications:
     grams of carbohydrates, and an average of                Seed per foot           3 to 4 per hill
     232 calories.                                            Row width               30 to 36 inches
B.   Description                                              Germination             4 to 10 days
     The most delicate member of the cabbage                  Seed depth              1/2 inch
     family, cauliflower has similar requirements             Plant spacing           18 to 20 inches
     and problems. It was developed in southern            G. Planting Suggestions
     Europe and is grown for its flower buds,                 Cauliflower needs cool soil and good spac-
     which are clustered together in a head or                ing. If transplants are used they should be
     curd. It may be difficult to grow because it             stocky and from 4 to 6 inches tall. Trans-
     requires cool temperatures, constant mois-               plant about the same time as the last killing
     ture, and frequent fertilizing. Cauliflower              frost.
     does not head up well in hot weather and is           H. Fertilizer
     less tolerant of cold temperatures than cab-
                                                              A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
     bage. It grows about 2 feet high and has
                                                              each 100 square feet is recommended.
     blue green leaves.
                                                              When the plants are grown, sidedress with
C.   Yield Per Person                                         1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate in high
     It is estimated that each person eats from 3             pH areas or ammonium nitrate in low pH
     to 5 pounds of fresh cauliflower and 8 to 12             areas per 10 feet of row. The amount of fer-
     pounds of canned or frozen cauliflower each              tilizer applied should be based on a soil test
     year. Each foot of row space produces about              report from the University of Idaho Analyti-
     1 pound of cauliflower.                                  cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-
D.   Seedbed                                                  tory. Plants may be over- or under-fertil-
     Cauliflower grows in most soils from sand                ized.
     to clay. Seedbed preparation should start             I. Cultivation
     when the soil has sufficient moisture to                 Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
     form a mud ball that will crumble into me-               sary, to remove other plant competition.
     dium-sized fragments. Cultivation should                 Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
     mix crop residues and organic matter in the              stroy much of the root system and reduce
     top 7 to 8 inches of soil. It should destroy             yield and quality. Hill the soil up around
     current weed growth and provide a small,                 each plant.
     granular bed for transplanting. Overcultivated        J. Watering
     soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
                                                              Cauliflower has a water stress point of 60
     crust. The ideal pH for cauliflower is from
                                                              percent. When the percent of water in soil
     6.0 to 7.5. It is a plant that does well in
                                                              drops below this level, the plant will start to
     Idaho’s soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
                                                              dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
E.   Seed Time                                                or stopped. The percent inches of water in
     The best time to seed cauliflower is 6 to 8              the soil can be estimated by taking a handful
     weeks before transplanting when soil tem-                of soil at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it
     perature is 50°F or above. The variety of                into a ball in your hand. If it forms a ball,
     cauliflower planted should have an early                 and your hand feels like it has a film of wa-
     maturity date and should be developed for                ter on it, the soil moisture will be 60 percent
     weather conditions in the area planted. Ma-              or above. If the soil moisture is below 60
     turity date should be 60 to 80 days after                percent, a film of water will not be felt on
     transplanting. For transplants, start seeds              your hand, and it will be time to water
     indoors 5 to 7 weeks before the last ex-                 again.
     pected frost. Seed directly into the garden as           Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     early as 4 weeks before the last expected                too little water. The symptoms will be the
     frost. Allow 50 to 85 days for maturity, de-             same. As the percentage of soil moisture
     pending upon variety.                                    drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 11
   K. Insects                                                    will crumble into medium-sized fragments.
      Aphids, cabbage maggot, cauliflower head                   Cultivation should mix crop residues and
      maggot, diamond back moth, flea beetles,                   organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of
      spider mites, and wireworms are common                     soil. It should destroy current weed growth
      pests.                                                     and provide a small granular-type bed for
   L. Diseases                                                   transplanting. Overcultivated soil becomes
                                                                 powdery and has a tendency to crust. The
      Diseases include bacterial soft rot, club root,
                                                                 ideal pH for cucumber growth is from 5.5 to
      downy mildew, blackleg, black rot, damp-
                                                                 7.0, but it does well in Idaho soil, which
      ing-off, wirestem drop or watery soft rot,
                                                                 ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
      leaf spot, and oedema.
                                                            E.   Seed Time
   M.Harvesting
                                                                 The best time to seed cucumbers in Idaho is
      To prevent discolored heads, tie the plant
                                                                 3 weeks before transplanting when soil tem-
      leaves above the head to shade it when the
                                                                 perature is 65°F or above and night tem-
      head reaches golf ball size. Cut the head 4
                                                                 perature is expected to average above 55°F.
      to 6 days later. Make your decision based on
                                                                 The variety of cucumbers planted should
      the temperature, but be sure to cut it before
                                                                 have an early maturity date and should be
      the curd starts to separate. Leave 4 to 6
                                                                 developed for weather conditions in the area
      inches of stem with the head.
                                                                 planted. Maturity date should be 55 to 65
   N. Storage                                                    days after transplanting. Cucumbers may be
      Cauliflower freezes at 30°F. Store in a cellar             seeded directly into the soil. They are killed
      with a temperature as near 32°F as possible.               by very light frosts. Cucumbers love warm
      Humidity should be moderately high. Stored                 soil, and the use of plastic mulches is com-
      under ideal conditions, cauliflower may last               mon.
      up to 6 to 8 weeks.                                   F.   Planting Specifications:
IX. Cucumber                                                     Seed per foot           6 to 8
                                                                 Ounce per foot          0.05
   A. Food Value                                                 Row width               75 to 72 inches
      A pound of raw, whole cucumbers with                       Germination             6 to 10 days
      skins consist of 95.7 percent water, 2.7                   Seed depth              1 inch
      grams of protein, 0.5 gram of fat, 14.5                    Planting spacing        12 to 24 inches
      grams of carbohydrates, and provide an                G.   Planting Suggestions
      average of 64 calories.
                                                                 Cucumbers need a warm soil to grow and
   B. Description                                                good spacing for sunlight. If transplants are
      Native to Asia and Africa, cucumbers do                    purchased, they should be stocky.
      not cross-pollinate with muskmelons or wa-            H.   Fertilizer
      ter melons, and the flavor of cucumbers is
                                                                 A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
      not affected by the pollen from these plants.
                                                                 each 100 square feet is recommended. One
   C. Yield Per Person                                           week after blossoming begins, sidedress
      It is estimated that each person eats from 2.5             with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate in
      to 4 pounds of cucumbers per year, requir-                 high pH soils or ammonium nitrate in low
      ing a row of cucumbers 2 to 3 feet long.                   pH soils. The amount of fertilizer applied
      Each foot of row space should produce about                should be based on a soil test report from
      0.8 pound of cucumbers.                                    the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-
   D. Seedbed                                                    tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants
      Cucumbers grow in most soils, but they                     may be over- or under-fertilized.
      grow best in a fertile soil with 5 percent or         I.   Cultivation
      more organic matter content. Seedbed                       When necessary, cultivation should be shal-
      preparation should start when the soil has                 low to remove other plant competition.
      sufficient moisture to form a mud ball that                Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 12
      stroy much of the root system and reduce                    of protein, 0.9 gram of fat, 18.6 grams of
      yield and quality. If it becomes necessary to               carbohydrates, and an average of 86 calo-
      cultivate, penetrate the soil no deeper than 1              ries.
      inch.                                                  B.   Description
   J. Watering                                                    Native to India, eggplants grow from 2 to 3
      Cucumbers have a water stress point of 60                   feet tall. The fruit is generally large and
      percent. When the percent of water in soil                  purple or white in color, with smooth, shiny
      drops below this level, the plant will start to             skin. The seeds are embedded in the flesh.
      dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down              C.   Yield Per Person
      or stopped. The percent of water in the soil                Each person eats about 3 to 5 pounds during
      can be estimated by taking a handful of soil                a growing season and will use 2 to 3 pounds
      at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a                 for canning, storage, or freezing. This will
      ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your              require a row of eggplants 6 to 10 feet long.
      hand feels like it has a film of water on it,               Each foot of row space should produce
      the soil moisture will be 60 percent or                     about 1 pound of fruit.
      above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-
                                                             D.   Seedbed
      cent, the film of water will not be felt on
      your hand, and it is time to water again.                   Eggplants grow in fertile, sandy loam soil.
                                                                  Seedbed preparation should start when the
      Plant growth can suffer from too much or
                                                                  soil has sufficient moisture to form a mud
      too little water. The symptoms will be the
                                                                  ball that will crumble into medium-sized
      same. As the percentage of soil moisture
                                                                  fragments. Cultivation should mix crop resi-
      drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
                                                                  dues and organic matter in the top 7 to 8
      Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
                                                                  inches of soil. It should destroy current
      grow.
                                                                  weed growth and provide a small granular-
   K. Insects                                                     type bed for transplanting. Overcultivated
      The following insects may cause problems:                   soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
      aphids, cucumber beetle, cabbage looper,                    crust. The ideal pH for eggplant growth is
      thrips, slugs, spider mites, garden                         from 5.5 to 6.4, but it does well in Idaho
      symphylans, and wireworms.                                  soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
   L. Diseases                                               E.   Seed Time
      Diseases include Alternaria leaf spot, angu-                Plant seeds in containers 10 weeks before
      lar leaf spot, bacterial wilt, curly top mo-                transplanting in soil with a 65°F tempera-
      saic, powdery mildew, root knot, nematode                   ture or above. The variety should have an
      root rot, scab, and white mold.                             early maturity date and should be developed
   M.Harvesting                                                   for weather conditions in the area planted.
      Cucumbers may be harvested any time after                   The maturity date should be 75 to 95 days
      they have reached the desired size, but be                  after transplanting.
      sure to do so before the cucumbers turn yel-           F.   Planting Specifications:
      low and the seeds become hard. For slicing,                 Seed per foot            6 to 8
      the fruits should be 6 to 10 inches long.                   Row width                24 to 36 inches
      Harvest when 2 1/2 to 6 inches in length for                Germination              8 to 12 days
      pickles. Cucumbers are of the highest qual-                 Seed depth               1/4 to 1/2 inch
      ity when they are dark green in color, firm,                Plant spacing            18 to 24 inches
      and crisp.                                             G.   Planting Suggestions
X. Eggplant                                                       Eggplants need a warm soil to grow and
                                                                  good spacing for sunlight. If transplants are
   A. Food Value                                                  purchased, they should be stocky and from
      A pound of cooked (boiled) drained egg-                     4 to 6 inches tall. A plastic mulch can be
      plant contains 94.3 percent water, 4.5 grams                used to increase soil temperatures.

                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 13
H. Fertilizer                                        XI. Kohlrabi
   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for            A. Food Value
   each 100 square feet is recommended.
                                                             A pound of kohlrabi contains of 92.2 per-
   When the first fruits set, sidedress with
                                                             cent water, 7.7 grams of protein, 0.5 gram
   1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate in high
                                                             of fat, 24.0 grams of carbohydrates, and will
   pH areas or ammonium nitrate in low pH
                                                             provide an average of 109 calories.
   areas. The amount of fertilizer applied
   should be based on a soil test report from             B. Description
   the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-                Developed in northern Europe, kohlrabi is a
   tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants              member of the cabbage family with similar
   may be over-fertilized.                                   requirements and problems. The edible por-
I. Cultivation                                               tion is an above-ground enlargement resem-
                                                             bling a mild turnip in shape and flavor. An
   Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
                                                             excellent raw addition to relish dishes, it
   sary, to remove other plant competition.
                                                             also may be boiled, stuffed, or baked.
   Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
   stroy much of the root system and reduce               C. Yield Per Person
   yield and quality.                                        Each person will eat from 2 to 4 pounds of
J. Watering                                                  fresh kohlrabi a season, and 4 to 8 pounds
                                                             for canning or freezing. A foot of row space
   Eggplants have a water stress point of 65
                                                             produces about 0.75 pound of kohlrabi.
   percent. When the percent of water in soil
   drops below this level, the plant will start to        D. Seedbed
   dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down                 Kohlrabi grows in most soils from sand to
   or stopped. The percent inches of water in                clay. Seedbed preparation should start when
   the soil can be estimated by taking a handful             the soil has sufficient moisture to form a
   of soil at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it              mud ball that will crumble into medium-
   into a ball in your hand. If it forms a ball              sized fragments. Cultivation should mix
   and your hand feels like it has a film of wa-             crop residues and organic matter in the top 7
   ter on it, the soil moisture will be 65 per-              to 8 inches of soil. It should destroy current
   cent, the film of water will not be felt on               weed growth and provide a small, granular-
   your hand, and it is time to water again.                 type bed for transplanting. Overcultivated
   Plant growth can suffer from too much or                  soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
   too little water. Symptoms will be the same.              crust. The ideal pH for kohlrabi is from 6.0
   As the percentage of soil moisture drops,                 to 7.5, and the plants do well in Idaho soil,
   the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants            which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
   need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.             E. Seed Time
K. Insects—The following insects may cause                   Seed kohlrabi in container 6 weeks before
   problems: aphids, Colorado potato beetle,                 transplanting in soil with 65°F or above. The
   spider mites, western potato flea beetle, and             variety should have an early maturity date
   wireworms.                                                and should be developed for weather condi-
L. Diseases—Common diseases include an-                      tions in the area planted. The maturity date
   thracnose, cercospora leaf spot, root rot fun-            should be 60 to 70 days after transplanting.
   gus, and verticillium wilt.                            F. Planting Specifications:
M.Harvesting                                                 Seed per foot           8 to 12
   Eggplant can be harvested any time after the              Row width               18 to 24 inches
   fruits reach egg size, but be sure to do so               Germination             3 to 10 days
   before the fruit reaches full maturity and the            Seed depth              1/2 inch
   seeds harden. The quality of young fruit is               Plant spacing           18 to 24 inches
   better than older fruit. Leave a short stem on         G. Planting Suggestions
   the fruit when harvesting. The stems are                  Kohlrabi needs a cool soil to grow and good
   woody, so harvest with pruning shears.                    spacing for sunlight. If transplants are pur-
                  Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                20 - 14
     chased, they should be stocky, from 4 to 6        XII. Lettuce
     inches tall.
                                                            A. Food Value
H.   Fertilizer
                                                               A pound of lettuce contains 95.1 percent
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for               water, 5.4 grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat,
     each 100 square feet is recommended.                      11.3 grams of carbohydrates, and will pro-
     When the plants are one-third grown,                      vide an average of 64 calories.
     sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium
                                                            B. Description
     sulfate in high pH areas or ammonium ni-
     trate in low pH areas per 10 feet of row. The             Lettuce is the most extensively grown and
     amount of fertilizer applied should be based              important of all salad crops. Common let-
     on a soil test report from the University of              tuce comes in three types: head, leaf, and
     Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a private                  butterhead. It is native to Mediterranean and
     testing laboratory. Plants may be over- or                Near East. It grows best at low temperatures
     under-fertilized.                                         and is sensitive to high temperatures.
I.   Cultivation                                            C. Yield Per Person
     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-                Each person will eat about 4 to 5 pounds of
     sary, to remove other plant competition.                  fresh lettuce during a growing season. Each
     Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-             foot of row space should produce about 0.5
     stroy much of the root system and reduce                  pound of lettuce. About 10 feet of row space
     yield and quality.                                        per person should be planted for fresh use
                                                               during the growing season.
J.   Watering
                                                            D. Seedbed
     Kohlrabi has a water stress point of 50 per-
     cent. When the percent of water in soil                   Lettuce is adaptable to different soils as
     drops below this level, the plant will start to           long as they are fertile, of good texture, and
     dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down                 moist. The plants grow quickly. Seedbed
     or stopped. The percent of water in the soil              preparation should start when the soil has
     can be estimated by taking a handful of soil              sufficient moisture to form a mud ball that
     at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a               will crumble into medium-sized fragments.
     ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and feels           Cultivation should mix crop residues and
     damp, but fails to leave a film of water on               organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of
     your hand, the soil moisture will be 50 per-              soil. It should destroy current weed growth
     cent or above. If the soil moisture is below              and provide a small, granular-type bed for
     50 percent, the film of water will not feel               transplanting. Overcultivated soil becomes
     damp, and it is time to water again.                      powdery and has a tendency to crust. The
                                                               ideal pH for lettuce growth is from 6.0 to
     Plant growth can suffer from too much or
                                                               7.0, but lettuce does well in Idaho soil,
     too little water. Symptoms will be the same.
                                                               which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
     As the percentage of soil moisture drops the
     oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants             E. Seed Time
     need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.                The best time to seed lettuce is 4 to 6 weeks
K.   Insects                                                   before transplanting when soil temperature
                                                               is 50°F or above. Transplant lettuce into the
     The following insects may cause problems:
                                                               garden when it is 2 to 3 inches tall and night
     aphids, flea beetles, cabbage looper, and
                                                               temperature is 25°F or above. For garden-
     wireworms.
                                                               planted lettuce, plant as soon as the ground
L.   Harvesting                                                can be worked and 6 to 8 weeks before the
     Kohlrabi is ready to harvest 50 to 60 days                last killing frost. To spread out the lettuce
     after transplanting. It has the best flavor               season, make subsequent plantings every 2
     when it is 2 to 4 inches in size, and the flesh           weeks. Early plantings should be placed
     is still tender. The leaves of the young plant            where they get full sunlight, and later
     may be used like spinach.                                 plantings in partial shade for hot summer

                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 15
     growth. The variety should have an early                 beetles, wireworms, cutworms, army
     maturity date and should be developed for                worms, and slugs.
     weather conditions in the area planted. The           L. Diseases
     maturity date should be 55 to 80 days after              Lettuce diseases include anthracnose, aster
     transplanting.                                           yellows, big vein virus, bottom rot fungus,
F.   Planting Specifications:                                 downy mildew, drop or watery soft rot, mo-
     Seed per foot          4 to 8                            saic, and red rib.
     Row width              18 to 24 inches                M.Harvesting
     Germination            4 to 8 days                       Lettuce thinnings can be used for early sal-
     Seed depth             1/4 to 1/2 inch                   ads. The lettuce heads should be solid but
     Plant space, leaf      6 to 12 inches                    not overly mature when harvested. Butter-
     Plant space, head      8 to 15 inches                    head lettuce can be harvested as soon as the
G.   Planting Suggestions                                     heads form. Leaf lettuce can be harvested
     Lettuce needs light to germinate and may                 any time before it sends up seed stalks.
     not germinate at temperatures of 80°F or
     above. During hot weather, lettuce bolts,        XIII. Onions
     produces seed stakes, and develops internal           A. Food Value
     tip scorching and a bitter taste.                        A pound of onions contains 89.4 percent
H.   Fertilizer                                               water, 7.8 grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat,
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for              37.2 grams of carbohydrates, and an aver-
     each 100 square feet is recommended.                     age of 16.3 calories.
     When the plants are 4 weeks old, sidedress            B. Description
     with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate per                Onions are native to North America. They
     10 feet of row. The amount of fertilizer ap-             are cold hardy and adaptable to Idaho.
     plied should be based on a soil test report              There are more than 300 species of onions
     from the University of Idaho Analytical                  in the world. In Idaho, onions are grown as
     Laboratory or a private testing laboratory.              green onions for table use and bulbs for
     Plants may be over- or under-fertilized.                 storage. The bulbs for harvest come in yel-
I.   Cultivation                                              low, white, and red. They may be round,
     Lettuce must be thinned to produce good                  flat, or long.
     plants. For head lettuce, thin to 12 to 15            C. Yield Per Person
     inches between plants. For leaf lettuce, thin            Each person will eat about 3 to 5 pounds of
     to 4 to 6 inches between plants in the first             onions during a growing season and another
     thinning and 6 to 12 inches in the final thin-           30 to 50 pounds per person may be desired
     ning. Cultivation should be shallow to re-               for storage. Each foot of row space should
     move other plant competition. Deep cultiva-              produce about 0.74 pound of onions. Plant
     tion close to the plants will destroy much of            from 3 to 5 feet of row per person for use
     the root system and reduce yield and quality.            during the growing season and an additional
     Lettuce has a shallow, meager root system.               30 to 50 feet for storage.
J.   Watering                                              D. Seedbed
     Lettuce has a shallow root system, and the               Onions grow well in a wide range of soils
     plant requires frequent watering to support              and climates, but they develop best in a
     rapid leaf development. Too much water on                loose, crumbly soil with high fertility. Seed-
     heavy soils may lead to leaf scorch and dis-             bed preparation should start when the soil
     ease. Don’t wet the foliage any more than                has sufficient moisture to form a mud ball
     necessary when watering.                                 that will crumble into medium-sized frag-
K.   Insects                                                  ments. Cultivation should mix crop residues
     The following insects may create problems:               and organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches
     aphids, flea beetles, looper, cucumber                   of soil. It should destroy current weed

                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 16
     growth and provide a small, granular-type                 Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
     bed for transplanting. Overcultivated soil                stroy much of the root system and reduce
     becomes powdery and has a tendency to                     yield and quality. Onions have a shallow
     crust. The ideal pH for onion growth is from              root system and cannot compete with
     5.5 to 7.0, but onions do well in Idaho soil,             weeds.
     which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.                          J. Watering
E.   Seed Time                                                 Onions have a water stress point of 70 per-
     The best time to seed onions is 6 to 8 weeks              cent. When the percent of water in soil
     before the last killing frost in the spring               drops below this level, the plant will start to
     when soil temperature is 50°F or above. The               dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
     variety of onion planted should have an                   or stopped. The percent of water in the soil
     early maturity date and should be developed               can be estimated by taking a handful of soil
     for weather conditions in the area planted.               at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a
     The maturity dates should be 95 to 120 days               ball in your hand. If it forms a hard ball and
     for sets, and 95 to 120 days for plants (trans-           your hand feels like it has a film of water on
     plant to maturity and seed, 100 to 165 days).             it, and the soil is sticky, the soil moisture
F.   Planting Specifications:                                  will be 70 percent or above. If the soil mois-
     Ounce per foot          0.02                              ture is below 70 percent, the film of water
     Seed per foot           10 to 15                          will not be felt on your hand, and it is time
     Row width               12 to 14 inches                   to water again.
     Germination             7 to 12 days                      Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     Seed depth              1/2 inch                          too little water. The symptoms will be the
     Sets depth              2 to 3 inches                     same. As the percentage of soil moisture
     Plant space             3 to 4 inches                     drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
G.   Planting Suggestions                                      Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
                                                               grow.
     Onion sets should be separated into two
     sizes: sets smaller than 3/4-inch and 3/4- inch        K. Insects
     and above. The large sets are used for green              The following insects may create problems:
     onions, as they frequently form seed stalks               brown wheat mite, onion thrips, onion mag-
     instead of a bulb. The smaller sets are used              got, pea leaf miner, and wireworms.
     for mature dry bulbs. Seeds for mature dry             L. Diseases
     bulbs should be sown indoors and trans-                   Disease problems include basal rot, downy
     planted into your garden.                                 mildew, neck rot, pink rot, purple blotch,
H.   Fertilizer                                                smut, and white rot.
     Preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for              M.Harvesting
     each 100 square feet worked into the top 2                Green bunch onions can be harvested as
     inches of soil is recommended. Fertilizers                soon as desired. Thinnings from bulb onions
     should be applied to the soil before seeding.             can be used as green onions. Bulb onion
     Sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium                   maturity is determined by softening of the
     sulfate in high pH areas and ammonium ni-                 neck tissues, falling over of the tops, and
     trate in low pH areas per 10 feet of row. Do              dying of the roots. At maturity bulbs enlarge
     so when onions are 12 inches tall or the                  rapidly and are ready for harvest when two-
     bulbs begin to form. The amount of fertil-                thirds of the top has fallen over or after a
     izer applied should be based on a soil test               light frost in Idaho’s short growing season.
     report from the University of Idaho Analyti-              If the onions are slow to mature, it may be
     cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-               necessary to bend the tops over to speed up
     tory. Plants may be over- or under-fertilized.            the maturity process before heavy frosts.
I.   Cultivation                                               Onions should then be pulled and, if the
     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-                weather permits, left in the garden until tops
     sary, to remove other plant competition.                  and outer scales are completely dry. The
                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 17
       tops can be spread over the bulbs to prevent     E. Seed Time
       sunburn. After the bulbs are cured they             Plant peas as soon as the ground can be
       should be topped.                                   worked in the spring, about 6 to 8 weeks
    N. Storage                                             before the last killing frost. Soil temperature
       With a freezing point of 30°F, you should           for planting should be 50°F or above. Peas
       store onions as near 32°F as possible in any        are a cool climate crop, and their quality is
       cool dry (humidity, 70 percent) place. They         greatly influenced by cool soil and air tem-
       keep well through the fall and winter in a          perature. It is suggested that planting suc-
       cool dry cellar or attic.                           cessions should be arranged at 10-day inter-
                                                           vals to spread harvest over a longer period
XIV. Peas                                                  of time.
   A. Food Value                                        F. Planting Specifications:
      A pound of English peas contains 78.0 per-           Seed per foot            6 or 7
      cent water, 381 calories, 28.6 grams of pro-         Row width                18 to 30 inches
      tein, 1.8 grams of fat, and 65.3 grams of car-       Germination              6 to 15 days
      bohydrates. A pound of edible podded peas            Ounce per foot           0.16
      contains 84.8 percent water, 259 calories,           Seed depth               2 inches
      15.4 grams of protein, 1.4 grams of fat, and         Plant spacing            3 inches
      47.2 grams of carbohydrates.                      G. Planting Suggestions
   B. Description                                          Some gardeners make a double planting of
      Garden peas originated in eastern Europe             peas in each row with approximately a
      and western Asia. They are one of the earli-         6-inch space between the plantings.
      est vegetables picked in the spring. Peas are     H. Fertilizer
      classified smooth or wrinkled according to           This plant is a legume and is able to draw N
      how the seed looks when dry. The wrinkled            from the air. Excessive N can cause the plants
      seed is normally the sweetest.                       to produce large vines, but fewer peas are pro-
   C. Yield Per Person                                     duced. It is suggested that 0.2 pound of N be
      It is recommended that 15 to 20 feet of row          broadcasted over a 100 square foot area. The
      space be planted per person for fresh use            amount of fertilizer applied should be based
      during the garden season and an additional           on a soil test report from the University of
      40 to 60 feet for storage and canning. About         Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a private soil
      0.28 pound of English peas is produced per           testing laboratory.
      foot of row space. Each person consumes           I. Cultivation
      about 4 pounds of fresh and about 10                 Cultivation should be conducted only when
      pounds of frozen and canned peas.                    necessary to remove other plant competi-
   D. Seedbed                                              tion. Pea roots are easily damaged by hoe-
      Soil types for pea production range from a           ing and shallow cultivation.
      light sandy loam for early pea harvest to a       J. Watering
      heavy clay soil for later or main harvest            Peas have a water stress point of 50 percent.
      crop. The ideal pH for pea production is 6.0         When the percent of water in soil drops be-
      to 7.5. The soil should be well drained and          low this level, the plant will start to dehy-
      moderately fertile. Cultivate the soil when          drate, and growth will be slowed down or
      the soil moisture will allow formation of a          stopped. The percent of water in the soil can
      mud ball that will crumble into pieces under         be estimated by taking a handful of soil at
      finger pressure. It should mix crop residue          the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a ball
      and organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches          in your hand. If it forms a ball and your
      of soil, destroy current weed growth, and            hand feels moist without a film of water on
      provide a granular-type bed for seeding.             it, the soil moisture will be 50 percent or
      Overcultivated soil becomes powdery and              above. If the soil moisture is below 50 per-
      has a tendency to crust.                             cent, the moist condition will not be felt on
                      Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 18
      your hand, and it will be time to water                     dues and organic matter in the top 7 to 8
      again. Plant growth can suffer from too                     inches of soil. It should destroy current
      much or too little water. The symptoms will                 weed growth and provide a small, granular-
      be the same.                                                type bed for transplanting. Overcultivated
   K. Insects                                                     soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
      The following insects may cause problems:                   crust. The ideal pH for pepper growth is
      looper, cutworms, army worms, grasshop-                     from 5.5 to 7.0, but the pepper does well in
      pers, pea aphids, pea leaf weevil, pea moth,                Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
      pea weevil, and wireworms.                             E.   Seed Time
   L. Diseases                                                    The best time to seed peppers is 6 to 8
      Diseases that may be a problem include bac-                 weeks before transplanting when soil tem-
      terial blight, basal stem rot, downy mildew,                perature is 65°F or above. The variety of
      enation mosaic virus, leaf and pod blight,                  peppers planted should have an early matu-
      root rots, seed rot, damping off, seed borne                rity date and should be developed for
      mosaic virus, viruses, and wilt.                            weather conditions in the area planted. The
                                                                  maturity date should be 60 to 80 days after
   M.Harvesting
                                                                  transplanting.
      English peas can be harvested when pods
                                                             F.   Planting Specifications:
      are nearly full but before pods begin to
      wrinkle. Edible podded peas should be har-                  Seed per foot           6 to 8
      vested while the pods are still flat and the                Row width               24 to 36 inches
      peas are hardly discernible. These peas need                Germination             10 to 20 days
      to be picked every other day to prevent over                Seed depth              1/4 inch
      maturity. If they do become over mature the                 Plant spacing           14 to 18 inches
      pea seed inside can be eaten. Pick peas from           G.   Planting Suggestions
      the vine during the cool part of the day.                   Peppers need a warm soil to grow and good
   N. Storage                                                     spacing for sunlight. If transplants are pur-
      Edible podded peas can be stored 10 days in                 chased, they should be stocky, from 4 to 6
      plastic bags in the refrigerator without a loss             inches tall.
      of quality.                                            H.   Fertilizer
                                                                  A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
XV. Peppers                                                       each 100 square feet is recommended.
   A. Food Value                                                  When the first fruits set, sidedress with
      A pound of immature, sweet, green, raw                      1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate for high
      peppers contain 93.4 percent water, 5.4                     pH soils and ammonium nitrate for low pH
      grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat, 21.8                     soils. The amount of fertilizer applied
      grams of carbohydrates, and provides an                     should be based on a soil test report from
      average of 100 calories.                                    the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-
                                                                  tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants
   B. Description
                                                                  may be over- or under-fertilized.
      Peppers are native to the warmer parts of
                                                             I.   Cultivation
      America and were cultivated more than
      2,000 years ago. They are classified as                     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
      sweet, mild, or hot, and are excellent for sal-             sary, to remove other plant competition.
      ads, seasoning in other foods and for baking.               Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
                                                                  stroy much of the root system and reduce
   D. Seedbed
                                                                  yield and quality.
      Peppers grow best in a sandy loam soil.
                                                             J.   Watering
      Seedbed preparation should start when the
      soil has sufficient moisture to form a mud                  Peppers have a water stress point of 60 per-
      ball that will crumble into medium-sized                    cent. When the percent of water in soil
      fragments. Cultivation should mix crop resi-                drops below this level, the plant will start to

                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                   20 - 19
      dehydrate and growth will be slowed down                   hot, growing season. They do not cross with
      or stopped. The percent of water in the soil               cucumbers, or watermelon, but will cross
      can be estimated by taking a handful of soil               with plants of the same species. Their flesh
      at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a                is coarse but can be baked, pureed, or used
      ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your             to thicken soups.
      hand feels like it has a film of water on it,         C.   Yield Per Person
      the moisture will be 60 percent or above. If               Each person will eat about 3 to 6 pounds of
      the soil moisture is below 60 percent, the                 pumpkin during a growing season and use 3
      film of water will not be felt on your hand,               to 6 pounds for canning, freezing, or stor-
      and it is time to water again.                             age. This will require a row of pumpkins 2
      Plant growth can suffer from too much or                   to 3 feet long for garden use and 2 to 3 feet
      too little water. The symptoms will be the                 for storage, canning, or freezing. Each foot
      same. As the percentage of soil moisture                   of row space should produce about 1 pound
      drops the oxygen level in the soil increases.              of pumpkin.
      Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to           D.   Seedbed
      grow.
                                                                 Pumpkins are adapted to most soils, but
   K. Insects                                                    they grow best in a fertile soil rich in hu-
      The following insects may cause problems:                  mus. Seedbed preparation should start when
      green peach aphid, garden symphylan, flea                  the soil has sufficient moisture to form a
      beetles, spider mites, and wireworms.                      mud ball that will crumble into medium-
   L. Diseases                                                   sized fragments. Cultivation should mix
      Pepper diseases include alfalfa mosaic virus,              crop residues and organic matter in the top 7
      tomato ring spot virus, anthracnose,                       to 8 inches of soil. It should destroy current
      cercospora leaf spot, common mosaic, root                  weed growth and provide a small, granular-
      rot, and verticillium wilt.                                type bed for transplanting. Overcultivated
   M.Harvesting                                                  soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
                                                                 crust. The ideal pH for pumpkin growth is
      Peppers can be harvested at any time after
                                                                 from 5.5 to 7.0, but the pumpkin does well
      they are large enough to use. Bell types usu-
                                                                 in Idaho soil. Pumpkins grow best in full
      ally are harvested when they are 3 to 4
                                                                 sunlight, but they will do equally well in
      inches long. When picking peppers, cut
                                                                 light shade. For huge exhibition pumpkins,
      them from the plant rather than pulling them
                                                                 allow one fruit to develop per vine and wa-
      off. The branches are extremely brittle and
                                                                 ter heavily.
      will break easily if pulled.
                                                            E.   Seed Time
   N. Storage
                                                                 Seed pumpkins in Idaho 3 weeks before
      The freezing point of peppers is 30°F. Store
                                                                 transplanting when soil temperature is 65°F
      in unheated basement or room at 45° to
                                                                 or above. They also may be seeded directly
      50°F. Humidity should be moderately high.
                                                                 into the garden soil when the soil tempera-
      Storage may be 2 to 3 weeks.
                                                                 ture is 65°F or above. The pumpkin variety
XVI. Pumpkin                                                     planted should have an early maturity date
                                                                 and be developed for weather conditions in
   A. Food Value                                                 the area planted. The maturity date should
      A pound of pumpkin contains 90.2 percent                   be 70 to 110 days after transplanting. Pump-
      water, 4.5 grams of protein, 1.4 grams of                  kins are killed by very light frosts. Pump-
      fat, 35.8 grams of protein, 35.8 grams of                  kins love warm soil. The use of plastic
      carbohydrates, and an average of 150 calories.             mulches is common.
   B. Description                                           F.   Planting Specifications:
      Pumpkins are native to America. They are                   Seed per foot           2
      sensitive to frost but tolerant of cool moist              Ounce per foot          0.5
      environments. They need a warm but not a                   Row width               72 to 120 inches
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 20
     Germination             6 to 10 days              L. Diseases
     Seed depth              1 to 1 1/2 inches            Disease problems include aster yellows,
     Plant spacing           40 to 60 inches              root rot, and storage rot.
G.   Planting Suggestions                              M.Harvesting
     Pumpkins need a warm soil to grow but not            Pumpkins can be harvested any time after
     extremely hot days. They are sensitive to            their rinds are hard and their skins turn gold
     frost.                                               in color. Harvest before they are injured by
H.   Fertilizer                                           hard frost. Some types have the best quality
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for          if they are harvested after their vines are
     each 100 square feet is recommended. One             killed by frost. When pumpkins are cut from
     week after blossoming begins, sidedress              the vine, leave 3 or 4 inches of stem at-
     with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate if             tached to the fruit. Pumpkins without stems
     the soil pH is high or ammonium nitrate if it        do not store well.
     is low. The amount of fertilizer applied          N. Storage
     should be based on a soil test report from           Cure pumpkins after a light frost kills the
     the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-           vines or by cutting the stems and allowing
     tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants         them to lie in the garden for a week to 10
     may be over- or under-fertilized.                    days. Pumpkins can cure inside a house for
I.   Cultivation                                          the same period at 75°F. They may then be
     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-           stored in a home cellar or basement at an
     sary, to remove other plant competition.             average temperature of 55°F with a moder-
     Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-        ately high humidity. High quality cured
     stroy much of the root system and reduce             pumpkins will store in good condition
     yield and quality. If it becomes necessary to        through the fall and early winter months.
     cultivate, penetrate the soil no deeper than 1
     inch.                                          XVII. Radish
J.   Watering                                          A. Food Value
     Pumpkin roots are shallow. Their water               A pound of radishes contains 94.5 percent
     stress point is 60 percent. When the percent         water, 4.5 grams of protein, 0.5 gram of fat,
     of water in soil drops below this level, the         15.3 grams of carbohydrates, and 77 calories.
     plant will start to dehydrate, and growth will    B. Description
     be slowed down or stopped. The percent of            Radishes are native to Europe and Asia.
     water in the soil can be estimated by taking         They are cold hardy but will not withstand
     a handful of soil at the 6-inch depth and            high heat. During hot weather the roots be-
     squeezing it into a ball in your hand. If it         come pungent, and the plants produce seed
     forms a ball and your hand feels like it has a       stalks.
     film of water on it the soil moisture will be     C. Yield Per Person
     60 percent or above. If soil moisture is below
                                                          It is estimated that each person will eat from
     60 percent, the film of water will not be felt
                                                          2 to 3 pounds of radishes during a growing
     on your hand, and it is time to water again.
                                                          season. Each foot of row space should pro-
     Plant growth can suffer from too much or             duce approximately 0.67 pound of radishes.
     too little water. The symptoms will be the           Plant about 3 to 5 feet of row per person.
     same. As the percentage of soil moisture
                                                       D. Seedbed
     drops the oxygen level in the soil increases.
     Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to          Radishes grow best in sandy loam and peat
     grow.                                                soils. Heavy clay soils can be improved by
                                                          the addition of organic matter. Seedbed
K.   Insects
                                                          preparation should start when the soil has
     The following insects may create problems:           sufficient moisture to form a mud ball that
     aphids, cucumber beetle, slugs, spider mites,        will crumble into medium-sized fragments.
     and squash bugs.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                              20 - 21
   Cultivation should mix crop residues and                Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
   organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches soil.           stroy much of the root system and reduce
   It should destroy current weed growth and               yield and quality.
   provide a small granular-type bed for trans-         J. Watering
   planting. Overcultivated soil becomes pow-              Radishes have a water stress point of 60
   dery and has a tendency to crust. The ideal             percent. When the percent of water in soil
   pH for radish growth is from 6.0 to 7.0, but            drops below this level, the plant will start to
   radishes do well in Idaho soil, which ranges            dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
   from 7.0 to 8.0.                                        or stopped. The percent of water in the soil
E. Seed Time                                               can be estimated by taking a handful of soil
   The best time to seed radishes is 6 to 8                at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a
   weeks before the last killing frost in the              ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your
   spring when soil temperature is 50°F or                 hand feels like it has a film of water on it,
   above. The variety planted should have an               the soil moisture will be 60 percent or
   early maturity date and be developed for                above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-
   weather conditions in the area planted.                 cent, the film of water will not be felt on
   Maturity date should be 20 to 50 days.                  your hand, and it is time to water again.
F. Planting Specifications:                                Plant growth can suffer from too much or
   Ounce per foot        0.02                              too little water. Symptoms will be the same.
   Seed per foot         14 to 16                          As the percentage of soil moisture drops,
   Row width             6 to 12 inches                    the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants
   Germination           3 to 10 days                      need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.
   Seed depth            1/2 inch                       K. Insects
G. Planting Suggestions                                    The following insects may cause problems:
   Radishes need a cool soil to grow in and                cabbage aphid, turnip aphid, cabbage mag-
   good spacing for sunlight. Their frost toler-           got, cutworms, army worms, black cut-
   ance is good. Make successive plantings ev-             worms, diamond back moth, flea beetles,
   ery 10 to 14 days, beginning in the spring as           and wireworms.
   soon as the soil can be worked and a month           L. Diseases
   before frost in the fall. Radishes can be               Radish disease problems include black rot.
   mixed with carrot, beet, and parsnips to             M.Harvesting
   mark the row of these vegetables that grow              Radishes can be harvested as soon as the
   slower.                                                 roots reach edible size (1 to 2 inch) and be-
H. Fertilizer                                              fore becoming tough and pithy. They nor-
   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for             mally mature in 20 to 30 days.
   each 100 square feet is recommended. Fer-            N. Storage
   tilizers should be applied to the soil before           Storage life of radishes is limited to 5 to 6
   seeding to ensure its availability to plants            days in the refrigerator if stored in plastic
   during the short growing season. Over-fer-              bags with holes punched for air circulation
   tilization can result in excessive top growth           space. Remove tops at 1/2 inch from radish
   with no root enlargement. The amount of                 and clean root before storage.
   fertilizer applied should be based on a soil
   test report from the University of Idaho        XVIII. Summer Squash
   Analytical Laboratory or a private testing
                                                        A. Food Value
   laboratory. Plants may be over- or under-
   fertilized.                                             A pound of immature raw summer squash
                                                           contains 94.0 percent water, 5 grams of pro-
I. Cultivation
                                                           tein, 0.05 gram of fat, 19.1 grams of carbo-
   Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-              hydrates, and 81 calories.
   sary, to remove other plant competition.

                  Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                              20 - 22
B. Description                                                Seed depth              1 inch
   Summer squash are native to Central                        Plant spacing           6 to 24 inches
   American and were used extensively by In-             G.   Planting Suggestions
   dians for food. Summer squash have whitish                 Summer squash needs a warm soil to grow
   or yellow flesh and are picked in the sum-                 and good spacing for sunlight. If transplants
   mer while immature. They may be vining,                    are purchased, they should be stocky. Bees
   semivining, or bush types. Squash will                     are needed for pollination.
   cross-pollinate with other squash, pumpkin,           H.   Fertilizer
   or gourds within the same species, but don’t
                                                              A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
   cross-pollinate with cucumbers or water-
                                                              each 100 square feet is recommended.
   melon. They grow well in Idaho.
                                                              When the plant begins to spread out,
C. Yield Per Person                                           sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium
   It is estimated that each person will eat from             sulfate for high pH soils and ammonium ni-
   6 to 9 pounds of squash during a growing                   trate for low pH soils. The amount of fertil-
   season and need an additional 6 to 9 pounds                izer applied should be based on a soil test
   for storage, canning, or freezing. This will               report from the University of Idaho Analyti-
   require a row of squash 4 to 6 feet long.                  cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-
   Each foot of row space should produce                      tory.
   about 1.5 pounds of summer squash.                    I.   Cultivation
D. Seedbed                                                    Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
   Summer squash grow best on fertile, well-                  sary, to remove other plant competition.
   drained soil, well supplied with organic                   Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
   matter. Seedbed preparation should start                   stroy much of the root system and reduce
   when the soil has sufficient moisture to                   yield and quality.
   form a mud ball that will crumble into me-            J.   Watering
   dium-sized fragments. Cultivation should
                                                              Summer squashes have a water stress point
   mix crop residues and organic matter in the
                                                              of 65 percent. When the percent of water in
   top 7 to 8 inches of soil. It should destroy
                                                              soil drops below this level, the plant will
   current weed growth and provide a small
                                                              start to dehydrate, and growth will be
   granular-type bed for transplanting. Over-
                                                              slowed down or stopped. The percent of wa-
   cultivated soil becomes powdery and has a
                                                              ter in the soil can be estimated by taking a
   tendency to crust. The ideal pH for summer
                                                              handful of soil at the 6-inch depth and
   squash growth is 6.0 to 7.5, but it does well
                                                              squeezing it into a ball in your hand. If it
   in Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
                                                              forms a ball and your hand feels like it has a
E. Seed Time                                                  heavy film of water on it, the soil moisture
   The best time to seed summer squash in a                   will be 65 percent or above. If the soil mois-
   container is 3 to 4 weeks before transplant-               ture is below 65 percent, the film of water
   ing. Seed direct into soil or transplant when              will not be felt on your hand, and it will be
   temperature is 65°F or above. The variety of               time to water again.
   squash planted should have an early matu-                  Plant growth can suffer from too much or
   rity date and be developed for weather con-                too little water. The symptoms will be the
   ditions in the area planted. Maturity date                 same. As the percentage of soil moisture
   should be 50 to 60 days after transplanting.               drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
   Sow squash outdoors when night tempera-                    Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to
   ture no longer falls below 55°F.                           grow.
F. Planting Specifications:                              K.   Insects
   Seed per foot          4 to 6                              The following insects may create problems:
   Row width              26 to 60 inches                     bean aphid, melon aphid, potato aphid,
   Germination            3 to 12 days                        nitidulid beetles, squash bug, and wireworms.

                  Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                               20 - 23
   L. Diseases                                                   does well in Idaho soils, which have a pH of
      Diseases include aster yellows, black rot,                 7.0 to 8.0.
      curly top, and root rot.                              E.   Seed Time
   M.Harvesting                                                  The best time to seed corn is in May when
      Summer squash can be harvested any time                    soil temperature is 50°F or above and air
      the fruits reach a desired size but before the             temperature averages 65°F or above. Corn is
      squash forms hard seed or rinds. Break fruit               a tender crop and should be planted after the
      from the vine, leaving a piece of stem with                last frost. The warmer the temperature, the
      the fruit.                                                 faster the corn grows and matures. The vari-
                                                                 ety planted should have an early maturity
XIX. Sweet Corn                                                  date and be developed for weather condi-
   A. Food Value                                                 tions in the area planted.
      A pound of raw, white, or yellow sweet                F.   Planting Specifications:
      corn consists of about 45 percent cob and 55               Seed per foot           4 to 6 inches
      percent edible. The kernels contain about                  Row width               30 to 36 inches
      72.7 percent water and provide an average                  Germination             6 to 10 days
      of 240 calories, 8.7 grams of protein, 2.5                 Ounce per foot          0.16
      grams of fat, and 55.1 grams of carbohy-                   Seed depth              1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches
      drates.                                                    Plant space             10 to 12 inches
   B. Description                                           G.   Planting Suggestions
      Corn is an annual grass, native to the                     Sweet corn needs a warm soil and good
      Americas and differing from other types of                 spacing for sunlight. It is wind-pollinated so
      corn by the retention of large amounts of                  plants should be in 3 or more short rows,
      sugar in the kernels during the milk stage of              rather than one long row. Varieties should
      maturity. Its skin is slightly thinner than                be separated because cross-pollination be-
      other types. Kernel color ranges from white                tween low-sugar plants and high-sugar
      to yellow. There are about 2,000 sweet corn                plants reduces the sweetness of the high-
      varieties in existence.                                    sugar corn.
   C. Yield Per Person                                      H.   Fertilizer
      It is estimated that each person will require              Corn has a high N requirement. The princi-
      from 10 to 15 feet of plants in a row for                  pal application of N and other fertilizers
      fresh use and an additional 30 to 50 feet for              should be broadcast before planting with, if
      storage, canning, or freezing. Each foot of                necessary, a sidedressing 3 inches from the
      row space should produce about 0.3 pound                   plant at the corn four-leaf stage. The amount
      of corn.                                                   of fertilizer applied should be based on a
   D. Seedbed                                                    soil test report from the University of Idaho
                                                                 Analytical Laboratory or a private soil test-
      Soil texture can vary for sweet corn produc-
                                                                 ing laboratory. Plants stunted by a lack of
      tion. A sandy loam is best, but corn can be
                                                                 nutrients seldom recover or produce up to
      grown in clay or loam soils also. The soil
                                                                 their potential.
      cultivation should be conducted when the
      moisture in the soil will allow formation of          I.   Cultivation
      a mud ball that will crumble into pieces un-               Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
      der finger pressure. Cultivation should mix                sary, to remove other plant competition.
      crop residues and organic matter in the top 7              Deep cultivation will destroy much of the
      to 8 inches of soil, destroy current weed                  root system and reduce yield and quality.
      growth, and provide a granular-type bed for                The number of suckers a sweet corn plant
      seeding. Overcultivated soil becomes pow-                  produces depends on the variety of the corn.
      dery and has a tendency to crust. The ideal                Suckers should not be removed. Their re-
      pH for corn growth is from 6.0 to 7.0, but it              moval does not increase yields but may re-
                                                                 duce them.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 24
    J. Watering                                        B. Description
       Corn has a water stress point of 60 percent.       Chard is native of the Mediterranean area. It
       When the percent of water in soil drops be-        is a relative of the beet and is grown for its
       low this level, the plant will start to dehy-      tender vitamin rich leaves. The leaves and
       drate and growth will be slowed down or            petioles are cooked to provide a pot herb
       stopped. The percent of water in the soil can      similar to spinach.
       be estimated by taking a handful of soil at     C. Yield Per Person
       the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a ball      It is estimated that each person will eat from
       in your hand. If it forms a ball and your          1.5 to 3 pounds of fresh chard during a
       hand feels like it has a film of water on it,      growing season and will use an additional 3
       the soil moisture will be 60 percent or            to 4.5 pounds for canning or freezing. Each
       above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-       foot of row space should produce about 0.85
       cent, the film of water will not be felt on        pound of chard. From 2 to 4 feet of row
       your hand, and it is time to water again.          space per person should be planted for fresh
       Plant growth can suffer from too much or too       use during the growing season and an addi-
       little water. Symptoms will be the same.           tional 4 to 6 feet for canning or freezing.
    K. Insects                                         D. Seedbed
       The following insects may be a problem in          Chard is widely adapted to different soils as
       sweet corn: corn ear worm, cutworm, army           long as they are rich, of good texture, and
       worm, wireworm, root worm, slug, aphids,           well drained. Seedbed preparation should
       spider mites, earwigs, and cucumber beetles.       start when the soil has sufficient moisture to
    L. Diseases                                           form a mud ball that will crumble into me-
       Root stock, ear rot, maize dwarf mosaic,           dium-sized fragments. Cultivation should
       seed rot, seedling blight, and smut are com-       mix crop residues and organic matter in the
       mon diseases of corn.                              top 7 to 8 inches of soil, destroy current
    M.Harvesting                                          weed growth, and provide a small granular-
       Depending on temperatures, sweet corn              type bed for transplanting. Overcultivated
       generally ripens in 22 to 24 days after            soil becomes powdery and has a tendency to
       silking. For eating, the silks are brown, and      crust. The ideal pH for chard growth is from
       the ear fills the husk. The liquid squeezed        6.0 to 7.5, and it does well in Idaho soil,
       from a ripe kernel is milky; from an imma-         which is 7.0 to 8.0.
       ture kernel it is watery; and from an           E. Seed Time
       overmature kernel, solid or creamy. Prime          The best time to seed chard is as soon as the
       eating quality lasts about 4 to 5 days before      soil can be cultivated in the spring, 2 to 4
       the sugar starts to turn to starch. Pick corn      weeks before the last killing frost. Minimum
       when the sugar is at its maximum. Canning          soil temperature for planting is 50°F or
       corn can be picked when it is in the cream         above. The variety of chard planted should
       stage. Sweet corn loses quality quickly after      have an early maturity date and be devel-
       picking, especially at high temperatures.          oped for weather conditions in the area
       Process as soon as possible after harvesting.      planted. Maturity date should be 55 to 65
       Pull cobs from the stocks with a downward          days after planting.
       motion and a twist to the side.                 F. Planting Specifications:
    N. Storage                                            Seed per foot           6 to 10
       Refrigerate at 35° to 40°F for 2 to 3 days.        Row width               18 to 24 inches
                                                          Germination             7 to 10 days
XX. Swiss Chard                                           Seed depth              1 inch
   A. Food Value                                          Plant spacing           4 to 8 inches
      A pound of chard contains about 3.7 percent      G. Planting Suggestions
      water, 8.2 grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat,       Chard can be planted in the garden or in a
      15.0 grams of carbohydrates, and 82 calories.       greenhouse for later transplanting.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 25
H. Fertilizer                                        N. Storage
   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for          Before the first hard freeze, plants can be
   each 100 square feet is recommended.                 transplanted into containers. Store the con-
   When the plants are one-third grown,                 tainerized plants in a cool place, and water
   sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium              lightly to prevent wilting. Leaves can be
   sulfate per 10 feet of row. Amount of fertil-        harvested into the winter months.
   izer applied should be based on a soil test
   report from the University of Idaho Analyti-   XXI. Tomatoes
   cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-       A. Food Value
   tory. Plants may be over- or under-fertilized.       A pound of tomatoes contains about 93.5
I. Cultivation                                          percent water, 4.5 grams of protein, 0.8
   Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-           gram of fat, and 19.4 grams of carbohy-
   sary, to remove other plant competition.             drates. The fruits are high in vitamin A, B1,
   Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-        B2, and C, and provide an average of 91
   stroy much of the root system and reduce             calories per pound.
   yield and quality.                                B. Description
J. Watering                                             Tomatoes are native to the Andes Moun-
   Chard has a water stress point of 55 percent.        tains in South America. They are a warm
   When the percent of water in soil drops be-          season crop and rank second in popularity
   low this level, the plant will start to dehy-        among the vegetable crops grown in the
   drate, and growth will be slowed down or             United States. They are classified according
   stopped. The percent of water in the soil can        to their growth patterns into three groups:
   be estimated by taking a handful of soil at          Determinant, semideterminant, and
   the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a ball        indeterminant. Determinant plant vines
   in your hand. If it forms a ball, and your           grow 12 to 18 inches long, and stop fruiting
   hand feels like it has a film of water on it,        when the vines stop growing. Semideter-
   the soil moisture will be 55 percent or              minant plants are similar but grow 18 to 24
   above. If the soil moisture is below 55 per-         inches. The vines of indeterminant plants
   cent, the soil will not feel moist on your           continue to grow and fruit is set indefinitely.
   hand, and it is time to water again.              C. Yield Per Person
   Plant growth can suffer from too much or             Tomatoes grow best in a fertile, sandy, well-
   too little water. Symptoms will be the same.         drained, loam soil. Seedbed preparation
   As the percentage of soil moisture drops,            should start when the soil has sufficient
   the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants       moisture to form a mud ball that will
   need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.           crumble into medium-sized fragments. Cul-
K. Insects                                              tivation should mix crop residues and or-
   The following insects may cause problems:            ganic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of soil.
   aphids, blister beetles, looper, lygus bugs,         It should destroy current weed growth and
   cutworms, serpentine leaf miner, western             provide a small granular-type bed for trans-
   spotted cucumber beetles, and wireworms.             planting. Overcultivated soil becomes pow-
L. Diseases                                             dery and has a tendency to crust. The pH for
   Top virus is the main chard disease.                 tomato growth is from 5.5 to 7.5, but it does
                                                        well in Idaho soil, which ranges from 7.0 to
M.Harvesting
                                                        8.0.
   Chard can be harvested throughout an entire
                                                     E. Seed Time
   3-month growing season. Plants removed at
   thinning time can be used in salads. Cut             The best time to seed tomatoes is 6 to 8
   outer leaves first about 1 inch from the soil        weeks before transplanting when soil tem-
   surface with a sharp knife. Care should be           perature is 65°F or above. The variety of
   taken to ensure the new inner stems and              tomatoes planted should have an early ma-
   growing point are not damaged.                       turity date and be developed for weather
                   Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                            20 - 26
     conditions in the area planted. Maturity date             dehydrate and growth will be slowed down
     should be 60 to 80 days after transplanting.              or stopped. The percent of water in the soil
     Two or three different varieties can be                   can be estimated by taking a handful of soil
     planted to obtain ripening at different times.            at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a
     One series of plants could be early bearers               ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your
     and another series that mature later could be             hand feels like it has a film of water on it,
     used for the main crop.                                   the soil moisture will be 65 percent or
F.   Planting Specifications:                                  above. If the soil moisture is below 65 per-
     Seed per foot           Use transplants                   cent, the film of water will not be felt on
     Row width               36 to 60 inches                   your hand, and it will be time to water again.
     Germination             6 to 14 days                      Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     Seed depth              1/4 to 1/2 inch                   too little water. Symptoms will be the same.
     Plant spacing           18 to 36 inches                   As the percentage of soil moisture drops,
G.   Planting Suggestions                                      the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants
                                                               need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.
     Tomatoes need a warm soil to grow and
     good spacing for sunlight. If transplants are          K. Insects
     purchased, they should be stocky and from                 The following insects may cause problems:
     4 to 6 inches tall. If you plan to grow your              green peach aphid, garden symphylan, flea
     own transplants, seed in your greenhouse or               beetles, spider mites, wireworms, and to-
     house 5 to 7 weeks before transplanting. Put              mato horn worm.
     plants in the garden 10 days after the last            L. Diseases
     expected killing frost. Hot caps or other pro-            Tomato diseases include anthracnose, yel-
     tection devices may allow earlier transplant-             low aster, bacterial canker, blossom end rot,
     ing. Tomatoes normally do not set fruit be-               curly top, early blight, fruit rot, late blight,
     low 58°F or above 85°F and must have 6 or                 leaf mold mosaic, root-rot nematode, spot-
     more hours each day of direct sunlight.                   ted wilt virus (tip blight), streak, and wilt.
     Transplants should not have fruit on them              M.Harvesting
     when planted out as the fruit will stunt the
                                                               For best flavor tomato fruits should be har-
     plants’ growth and development.
                                                               vested when they are fully ripe and firm.
H.   Fertilizer                                                The best ripening temperature is 65°F. To-
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for               matoes will ripen to high quality indoors if
     each 100 square feet is recommended.                      picked as the red color first shows. Remove
     When the first fruits set, sidedress with                 stems from harvested tomatoes.
     1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate for high              N. Storage
     pH soils and ammonium nitrate for low pH
                                                               The freezing point of tomatoes is 30°F.
     soils. The amount of fertilizer applied
                                                               Store in unheated basement or room tem-
     should be based on a soil test report from
                                                               perature of from 55° to 70°F. Humidity
     the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-
                                                               should be moderately low. Tomatoes may
     tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants
                                                               be stored for 4 to 6 weeks. For fall storage,
     may be over- or under-fertilized.
                                                               pick all green fruit that is nearly full size
I.   Cultivation                                               and wrap individually in newspaper and
     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-                store at 50° to 60°F. They will ripen slowly
     sary, to remove other plant competition.                  providing a longer eating season. Green
     Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-             fruit will ripen more quickly when enclosed
     stroy much of the root system and reduce                  in a bag or box with an apple or banana.
     yield and quality.
J.   Watering                                          XXII. Turnips
     Tomatoes have a water stress point of 65         A. Food Value
     percent. When the percent of water in soil          A pound of turnips contains about 93.6 per-
     drops below this level, the plant will start to     cent water, 3.6 grams of protein, 0.9 gram
                    Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 27
     of fat, 22.2 grams of carbohydrates, and 104               gested that successive plantings be made
     calories.                                                  every 10 to 14 days beginning in spring as
B.   Description                                                soon as the soil can be worked and before the
     Turnips are native to western Asia. They are               daytime temperature is expected to average
     cold hardy but will not withstand heat, and                80°F or above. Turnips can be mixed with
     during hot weather roots become bitter and                 seed for carrots, beets, and parsnips to mark
     pithy. Turnips are grown for their tender,                 the row of these vegetables that grow slower.
     crisp roots, but the leaves or greens of tur-         H.   Fertilizer
     nips are also good cooked.                                 A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
C.   Yield Per Person                                           each 100 square feet is recommended.
     It is estimated that each person will eat from             Sidedress the plants with 1.5 ounces of am-
     3 to 6 pounds of turnips during a growing                  monium sulfate for high pH soils or ammo-
     season. Each foot of row space should pro-                 nium nitrate for low pH soils per 10 feet of
     duce approximately 0.5 to 1 pound of turnips.              row when plants are about one-third grown.
     Plant from 5 to 10 feet of row per person.                 Over fertilization can result in excessive top
                                                                growth with no root enlargement. The
D.   Seedbed
                                                                amount of fertilizer applied should be based
     Turnips grow best in sandy loam and peat                   on a soil test report from the University of
     soils. Heavy clay soils can be improved by                 Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a private
     the addition of organic matter. Seedbed                    testing laboratory. Plants may be over- or
     preparation should start when the soil has                 under-fertilized.
     sufficient moisture to form a mud ball that
                                                           I.   Cultivation
     will crumble into medium-sized fragments.
     Cultivation should mix crop residues and                   Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
     organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of                 sary, to remove other plant competition.
     soil. It should destroy current weed growth                Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
     and provide a small granular-type bed for                  stroy much of the root system and reduce
     transplanting. Overcultivated soil becomes                 yield and quality. Thin by leaving 1 to 2
     powdery and has a tendency to crust. The                   inches between plants. Plants removed dur-
     ideal pH for turnip growth is 5.5 to 7.0, but              ing thinning can be eaten.
     it does well in Idaho soil, which ranges from         J.   Watering
     7.0 to 8.0.                                                Turnips have a water stress point of 60 per-
E.   Seed Time                                                  cent. When the percent of water in soil
     The best time to seed turnips is 6 to 8 weeks              drops below this level, the plant will start to
     before the last killing frost in the spring                dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down
     when soil temperature is 50°F or above. The                or stopped. The percent of water in the soil
     variety planted should have an early matu-                 can be estimated by taking a handful of soil
     rity date and be developed for weather con-                at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a
     ditions in the area planted. Maturity date                 ball in your hand. If it forms a ball, and your
     should be 45 to 60 days.                                   hand feels like it has a film of water on it,
                                                                the soil moisture will be 60 percent or
F.   Planting Specifications:
                                                                above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-
     Ounce per foot          0.01                               cent, the film of water will not be felt on
     Seed per foot           10 to 15                           your hand, and it is time to water again.
     Row width               15 to 18 inches
                                                                Plant growth can suffer from too much or
     Germination             3 to 10 days
                                                                too little water. The symptoms will be the
     Seed depth              1/2 inch
                                                                same. As the percentage of soil moisture
     Plant space             4 to 6 inches
                                                                drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.
G.   Planting Suggestions
                                                           K.   Insects
     Turnips need a cool soil to grow in. They
                                                                The following insects may cause problems:
     have excellent frost tolerance. It is sug-
                                                                cabbage aphid, turnip aphid, cabbage root
                   Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                 20 - 28
      maggot, cutworms, army worms, black cut-                   crumble into medium-sized fragments. Cul-
      worms, diamond back moth, flea beetles,                    tivation should mix crop residues and or-
      and wireworms.                                             ganic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of soil.
   L. Diseases                                                   It should destroy current weed growth and
      Turnip disease problems include black root                 provide a small, granular-type bed for trans-
      rot, club root, and powdery mildew.                        planting. Overcultivated soil becomes pow-
                                                                 dery and has a tendency to crust. The ideal
   M.Harvesting
                                                                 pH for watermelon growth is from 6.0 to
      Turnips can be harvested as soon as the                    7.5, but it does well in Idaho soil, which
      roots reach edible size (2 to 3 inches) and                ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
      before becoming bitter and pithy. They nor-
                                                            E.   Seed Time
      mally mature in 45 to 60 days. Pull or cut
      off tops above the crown.                                  The best time to seed watermelons in Idaho
                                                                 is 3 weeks after the last killing frost. When
   N. Storage
                                                                 transplanting, the soil temperature should be
      Storage life of turnips can be extended into               65°F or above. The variety of watermelons
      the fall and winter by leaving them in the                 planted should have an early maturity date
      ground and covering them with a mulch to                   and be developed for weather conditions in
      prevent them from freezing in the ground.                  the area planted. The maturity date should
      For pit storage the temperature should be as               be 80 to 100 days after transplanting.
      near 32°F as possible under moist air condi-
                                                            F.   Planting Specifications:
      tions.
                                                                 Seed per foot           2 to 3
XXIII. Watermelon                                                Ounce per foot          0.05
                                                                 Row width               72 to 84 inches
   A. Food Value
                                                                 Germination             3 to 12 days
      A pound of raw watermelon contains 92.6                    Seed depth              1 inch
      percent water, 2.3 grams of protein, 0.9                   Plant spacing           12 to 24 inches
      gram of fat, 29.0 grams of carbohydrates,
                                                            G.   Planting Suggestions
      and 118 calories.
                                                                 Watermelons need a warm soil to grow and
   B. Description
                                                                 good spacing for sunlight for high sugar
      Watermelons are a native of Africa. The                    content and flavor. If transplants are pur-
      plants have separate male and female flow-                 chased, they should be stocky.
      ers on the same vine and are cross-polli-
                                                            H.   Fertilizer
      nated. They do not cross-pollinate with cu-
      cumbers, squash, or pumpkins. Watermelon                   A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for
      are difficult to grow in many parts of Idaho.              each 100 square feet is recommended. One
      They need high temperatures and a long                     week after blossoming begins, sidedress
      growing season.                                            with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate for
                                                                 pH soils or ammonium nitrate for low pH
   C. Yield Per Person
                                                                 soils per 10 feet of row. The amount of fer-
      It is estimated that each person will eat from             tilizer applied should be based on a soil test
      3 to 6 pounds of watermelon during a grow-                 report from the University of Idaho Analyti-
      ing season. This will require a row of mel-                cal Laboratory or a private testing labora-
      ons 6 to 12 feet long. Each foot of row                    tory. Plants may be over- or under-fertilized.
      space should produce about 0.5 pound of
                                                            I.   Cultivation
      watermelons.
                                                                 Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-
   D. Seedbed
                                                                 sary, to remove other plant competition.
      Watermelons are adapted to most soils but                  Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-
      grow best in a fertile, light, sandy soil with             stroy much of the root system and reduce
      large amounts of compost. Seedbed prepara-                 yield and quality. If it becomes necessary to
      tion should start when the soil has sufficient             cultivate, penetrate the soil no deeper than 1
      moisture to form a mud ball that will                      inch.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                  20 - 29
   J. Watering                                                     types: vining, semivining, and bush. Squash
      Watermelons have a water stress point of 65                  will cross-pollinate with other squash,
      percent. When the percent of water in soil                   pumpkins, and gourds within the same spe-
      drops below this level, the plant will start to              cies. They have separate male and female
      dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down                    flowers on the same plant. The fruits, which
      or stopped. The percent of water in the soil                 vary widely in shape and color, may be
      can be estimated by taking a handful of soil                 baked, boiled, or used for pie filling.
      at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a             C.   Yield Per Person
      ball in your hand. If it forms a ball, and your              Each person will eat about 6 to 9 pounds of
      hand feels like it has a film of water on it,                squash during a growing season and need 6
      the soil moisture will be 65 percent or                      to 9 pounds for canning or freezing. This
      above. If the soil moisture is below 65 per-                 will require a row of squash 12 to 18 feet
      cent, the film of water will not be felt on                  long. Each foot of row space produces about
      your hand, and it is time to water again.                    1 pound of squash.
      Plant growth can suffer from too much or                D.   Seedbed
      too little water. The symptoms will be the                   Squash is adapted to most soils but grows
      same. As the percentage of soil moisture                     best in a fertile soil rich in humus. Seedbed
      drops, the oxygen level in the soil increases.               preparation should start when the soil has
      Plants need water, oxygen, and nutrients to                  sufficient moisture to form a mud ball that
      grow.                                                        will crumble into medium-sized fragments.
   K. Insects                                                      Cultivation should mix crop residues and
      The following insects may cause problems:                    organic matter in the top 7 to 8 inches of
      aphids, cucumber beetle, cabbage looper,                     soil. It should destroy current weed growth
      spider mites, and wireworms.                                 and provide a small, granular type bed for
   L. Diseases                                                     transplanting. Overcultivated soil becomes
      Diseases include curly top, leaf spot, and wilt.             powdery and has a tendency to crust. The
                                                                   ideal pH for squash growth is 6.0 to 7.5.
   M.Harvesting
                                                                   Squash does well in Idaho soil, which
      Watermelon is ripe when the vine tendril                     ranges from 7.0 to 8.0.
      next to the fruit yellows and dries, when the
                                                              E.   Seed Time
      underside of the melon next to the ground
      takes on a yellow tinge, and when thumping                   The time to seed squash in Idaho is 3 weeks
      with a finger causes a dull rather than a                    before transplanting when soil temperature
      sharp sound. Cut the melon off the vine,                     is 65°F. The variety of squash planted should
      leaving a short stem on the fruit. Pulling the               have an early maturity date and be developed
      stem from the fruit may damage the fruit.                    for weather conditions in the area planted.
      Most melon cultivates form an abscission                     Maturity date should be 85 to 120 days after
      layer at maturity, and the stem loosens from                 transplanting. Squash may also be seeded
      the fruit. When the stem is nearly loose the                 directly into the soil 2 to 3 weeks after the
      melon is said to be at the full slip stage.                  last killing frost. Squash thrives in warm soil,
                                                                   and the use of plastic mulches is common.
XXIV. Winter Squash                                           F.   Planting Specifications:
   A. Food Value                                                   Seed per foot            1 to 2
      A pound of cooked winter squash contains                     Ounce per foot           0.05
      about 81.4 percent water, 8.2 grams of pro-                  Row width                72 to 120 inches
      tein, 1.8 grams of fat, 69.9 grams of carbo-                 Germination              6 to 10 days
      hydrates, and 286 calories.                                  Seed depth               1 inch
                                                                   Plant spacing            12 to 24 inches
   B. Description
                                                              G.   Planting Suggestions
      Winter squash is native to America and was
      grown by the Indians. There are three main                   Squash needs a warm soil to grow in, but
                                                                   not an extremely hot growing season.
                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                                    20 - 30
     Squash tolerates partial shade and is some-          M.Harvesting
     times interplanted with corn.                           Harvest winter squash when fully mature.
H.   Fertilizer                                              Indications of maturity are a hard rind and a
     A preplant fertilizer of 0.2 pound of N for             solid exterior coloring. The acorn types are
     each 100 square feet is recommended. One                harvested when a yellow, orange color has
     week after blossoming begins, sidedress                 developed on the fruit where it is in contact
     with 1 1/2 ounces of ammonium sulfate for               with the soil. In Idaho, the growing season
     high pH soils or ammonium nitrate for low               is short at best, and most winter squash are
     pH soils. The amount of fertilizer applied              harvested when the vine has been killed by
     should be based on a soil test report from              frost but before a hard frost. To harvest, cut
     the University of Idaho Analytical Labora-              the stem with a knife 2 inches from the fruit.
     tory or a private testing laboratory. Plants            Let the squash cure in the sun for 1 or more
     may be over- or under-fertilized.                       weeks or cure inside house at a temperature
I.   Cultivation                                             of 75°F for 1 week or more before storage.
     Cultivation should be shallow, when neces-           N. Storage
     sary, to remove other plant competition.                When cured, store in a home cellar or base-
     Deep cultivation close to the plants will de-           ment at 55°F. The humidity should be mod-
     stroy much of the root system and reduce                erately low. Properly cured and stored
     yield and quality. If it becomes necessary to           squash should remain in good condition
     cultivate, penetrate the soil no deeper than            throughout the winter.
     1 inch. Squash plants provide good ground
     cover and will shade out most weeds as they                     Further Reading
     mature.
J.   Watering
                                                                 Booklets and Pamphlets
     Winter squash has a water stress point of 60
     percent. When the percent of water in soil      CIS 292 Blossom-End Rot of Tomatoes (25¢)
     drops below this level, the plant will start to CIS 1041 Conduct Your Own Garden Research ($2.00)
     dehydrate, and growth will be slowed down       CIS 660 Gardening: Growing Beets, Carrots, Radishes
     or stopped. The percent of water in the soil               and Other Root Crops (50¢)
     can be estimated by taking a handful of soil    CIS 661 Gardening: Growing Cole Crops (25¢)
     at the 6-inch depth and squeezing it into a     CIS 756 Gardening: Growing Cucumbers (35¢)
     ball in your hand. If it forms a ball and your  CIS 686 Gardening: Growing Garlic (25¢)
     hand feels like it has a film of water on it,   CIS 691 Gardening: Growing Lettuce, Spinach, and
     the soil moisture will be 60 percent or                    Swiss Chard (35¢)
     above. If the soil moisture is below 60 per-    CIS 659 Gardening: Growing Peppers (25¢)
     cent, the film of water will not be felt on     CIS 723 Gardening: Growing Squash and Pumpkin
     your hand, and it is time to water again.                  (35¢)
     Plant growth can suffer from too much to        CIS 800 Growing Vegetable Seedlings for
     little water. The symptoms will be the same.               Transplanting (50¢)
     As the percentage of soil moisture drops,       PNW 495 Grow Your Own: Beans and Peas ($1.00)
     the oxygen level in the soil increases. Plants  BUL 775 Planning an Idaho Vegetable Garden ($4.00)
     need water, oxygen, and nutrients to grow.      CIS 1000 Potato Production in the Home Garden (50¢)
K.   Insects                                         PNW 497 Short-Season Vegetable Gardening ($2.00)
     The following insects may cause problems:       CIS 910 Sweet Corn Production for the Small-Market
     aphids, cucumber beetle, slugs, spider mites,              Grower and Home Gardener (50¢)
     wireworms, and squash bugs.                     CIS 667 Tomatoes for the Home Garden (35¢)
L.   Diseases                                        CIS 755 Vegetable Gardening: Planning and
     Squash diseases include aster yellows, black               Preparing the Site (35¢)
     rot, curly top virus, root rot, and storage     CIS 803 Vegetable Gardening: Growing Asparagus
     rots.                                                      (35¢)

                     Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
                                               20 - 31

				
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