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									the Environment Centre (tEC)
you . your business . your community

                  the Environment Centre (tEC)
                    you . your business . your community

         Hampshire County Council:
       Impacts and Opportunities of a
          Changing Climate on key
         Infrastructure Priorities for
             Hampshire – Energy

                          HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
              The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                               Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

1. Introduction
tEC have been asked by HCC to respond to their Climate Change inquiry and this
document can be seen to provide the basis for that response. tEC have a wide-ranging
remit for energy advice and support across Hampshire and West Sussex, where in both
counties the Energy Efficiency Advice Centres for the counties are located. tEC sees this
inquiry as a fundamental and ground breaking opportunity to contribute to the energy
and climate change issues within the county and welcomes the chance to contribute to
the debate. The response is structured in respect to the national debate and policy
initiatives in the area or seen to of direct relevance to it, followed by how HCC can assist
in support strategic, regional and local goals aimed at reducing climate change impact
and enhancing local security of energy supply.

2. Policy Background
On May 23rd 2007 the DTI released its latest Energy White Paper (EWP) “Meeting the
Energy Challenge”. This built upon a number of the key themes of the 2003 DEFRA
sponsored Energy White Paper 'Our Energy Future – Creating a Low Carbon Economy'.
Both identified the need for a long-term strategic vision for energy policy combining
environmental, security of supply, competitiveness and social goals. The 2003 EWP
identified four goals for UK energy policy:
      to put ourselves on a path to cut the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions - the main
       contributor to global warming - by some 60% by about 2050 with real progress by
      to maintain the reliability of energy supplies
      to promote competitive markets in the UK and beyond, helping to raise the rate of
       sustainable economic growth and to improve our productivity
      to ensure that every home is adequately and affordably heated

It highlighted the need to develop a “low carbon” economy as well as enabling energy
reliability to become a central aspect of the future energy supply network of the country
and to deliver much of the innovation through partnership working.

By the time of the publication of the 2007 EWP the key goals had been “distilled down”
to two key challenges, and articulated by the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry to

“climate change and maintaining stable and affordable energy supply in an increasingly
unstable world”

The Secretary of State went on to add:

“With a third of our current electricity generation capacity due to close in the next 20
years there is also a pressing need for investment in new low carbon sources. We will
work to ensure there is a market price for carbon into the long term by strengthening the
EU Emissions Trading Scheme. We will triple the amount of electricity we get from
renewables by 2015.”

This overall approach has already been actively engaged with locally in Hampshire with
the emergence of the Sustainable Development Policy “SH 14” as now embedded in the
                           HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
               The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

emerging South East Plan. SH 14 has been developed in partnership by all 11 local
authorities involved in the Partnership for Urban South Hampshire (PUSH). Led by
Havant Borough Council on behalf of the partners in the area (including the three “Tier 1”
authorities, (HCC, SCC and PCC) SH 14 has gained regional and national profile for its
approach to sustainable development. It requires key renewable energy commitments to
be embedded into all of the 80,000 new homes to be built in the sub-region over the life
time of the plan, lasting until 2026. In terms of energy SH 14 has the following specific
and measurable renewable energy targets and goals:

           o   deliver 100MW of renewable energy by 2026
           o   ensure all new homes / developments are accredited as “very good” (by
               2012) and “excellent” after this time (using the BREEAM / EcoHomes
           o   ensure all new residential dwellings deliver at least 10% of their energy
               needs from renewable sources

With the recent publication of the Code for Sustainable Homes by DCLG the targets in
the BREEAM / EcoHomes context have been aligned with levels 3 and 4 of the Code. A
recent workshop on the delivery of the Code in the PUSH authorities attracted 80
delegates to Southampton to discuss its implications. HCC specifically highlighted issues
around training and education support for its delivery across the whole county in all local
authorities. This amplified findings from the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Planning Officer
Group (HIPOG) event in Winchester last October which concluded that SH 14 should
become a “Hampshire-wide” policy. This would require all LAs in the county to sign up to
the objectives but all attendees (including elected members) identified the importance of
actually improving the situation on the ground across the county.

With the arrival of the new White Paper on Planning (May 2007) and the new EWP the
need for communities, and especially local government, to facilitate a more direct and
positive approach to energy supply, its security and the reduction of adverse climate
change impacts (“low carbon footprints”) caused by development and energy use is
seen to be fundamental. Hampshire already has a very high and positive profile in this
area and the work of the HCC Climate Change Commission will add further impetus and
weight to these activities.

3. The role of HCC

tEC sees the role of HCC as pivotal in the delivery and enhancement of climate change
reduction initiatives. The work done to date by HCC and its partner authorities on SH 14
demonstrates a tangible and measurable commitment to sustainable development.
However, by its very success and commitment the work in the county has highlighted a
number of significant challenges ahead. These are broken down into the following sub-

i) Commissioning Sustainable Construction Developments

The work already done by HCC in SH 14 and the EU funded GROW project “Suspurpol”
on sustainable construction highlights the need to widen and deepen the initiatives led
by the County Council on sustainable procurement. New developments, such as the
                           HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
               The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

redevelopment of “The Castle” site in Winchester have embedded low carbon objectives
within them and the specified need to support HCCs policy on sustainable procurement.
Leading from the front on procurement in the area of public buildings and development is
strongly welcomed. tEC wishes to see this excellent initiative widened into the other
areas of construction that the CC will be engaged with over subsequent years (notably
issues around delivering on the Building Schools for the Future Programme).
Sustainable development, on site renewable energy components and the highest
standards of insulation and energy efficiency will demonstrate HCCs commitment to
exemplar leadership in the area of sustainable and secure energy supply.

ii) Capacity Building Amongst Staff

HCCs enthusiasm to participate in the need to support the Code for Sustainable Homes
education programme across the county is another area of direct relevance. It is aligned
with the corporate goal of enhancing the capacity of the skill sets of its staff and
members. This will help ensure new developments in the county support the policy goals
and targets on reduced carbon use in energy use and construction. The work being
undertaken by HIPOG and in partnership with tEC and the PUSH sub-region in this area
has already been recognised as “unique” by the Building Research Establishment
(BRE), responsible for delivering the Code nationally. This exemplar approach already
underway needs to be widened and deepened.

iii) Support for local businesses involved in renewable developments

The 2007 EWP includes a specific commitment to publish a “Biomass Strategy” as well
as a response to “Creating Value from Renewable Materials”, a two year progress report
on the strategy for Non-Food crops and uses. Locally HCC already uses 5% bio-fuels in
a range of its vehicles. This is welcomed by tEC and is an area where more can be
done. The encouragement of local businesses, notably farmers, to produce crops
capable of being used as bio-fuels (e.g. using the resource of the New Forest) is a key
area where local communities and businesses can directly benefit from, as well as
contribute to, the agenda of climate change impact reduction.

Further work on, and partnership engagement with, initiatives involving Combined Heat
and Power (CHP) as already mainstreamed in Southampton will assist this local use of
bio-fuels further. The district heating scheme approach adopted in Southampton is a
model that can be rolled out further across the county if advocated strongly by HCC.

The delivery of SH 14 itself provides serious challenges, but also opportunities for local
businesses to get involved with the renewable energy and sustainable development
“industry”. SH 14 has, by its creation, produced an immediate “market” for the installation
of renewable energy products (e.g. Ground Source Heat Pumps, domestic wind
turbines, solar thermal panels etc.). Currently this demand is unmet locally, the nearest
GSHP supplier is in Oxford, wind turbines have to be imported and the only solar
thermal developers in the county are micro SMEs (less than 10 staff). The need for
installation, maintenance, and ideally manufacture of such products is a market that will
last for decades. If Hampshire can encourage its growth by providing the necessary
incubation support then jobs will be created that are truly “sustainable” in every sense.
The role to be played by HCC in terms of economic development is seen to be of crucial
importance in this area.

                           HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
               The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

iv) Support for Other Policy Initiatives

PUSH is developing a Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) document based upon
the need to support SH 14 and enhance the potential for the delivery of renewable
energy and carbon footprint reduction from new non-domestic developments. A key
element of this agenda is how PUSH can adapt exemplar work in the area (e.g. the
London Renewables Toolkit). PUSH sees no reason to “re-invent the wheel” in any area
of energy security or on-site supply policy and consequently has adapted the toolkit to
meet the needs of the sub-region. This is very much still “work in progress” and is very
keen for HCC to help highlight the work outside the sub-region as well as to continue to
play its central role within the partnership.

At the national level the recently published government white paper on the planning
system “Planning for a Sustainable Future” makes very clear statements on the need for
zero-carbon developments and specifically references the capacity of the planning
system to:

“help speed up the shift to renewable and low carbon forms of energy” (p11)

How local authorities respond to this issues and “direction of travel” of government policy
is seen to be of crucial importance to the establishment of “renewables as a first choice”
of energy supply. There will be undoubted challenges in some areas (e.g. large scale
wind) but equally importantly is how authorities respond the “place shaping” agenda. If
domestic wind turbines become “permitted development” in planning terms, the physical
change to localities will become very obvious, just as was the case a few years ago with
satellite dishes. How local authorities chose to respond to this issue within local
communities will highlight how change is viewed by local people and how climate
change is to be seen in the county.

4. Potential methods for energy production and supply in Hampshire

Issues such as energy production and distribution and security of supply are key to
Hampshire, especially in areas that are particularly vulnerable in terms of energy
distribution, such as Hayling island. This section looks at potential approaches that could
be used in Hampshire to diversify energy production and supply.

i)    Biomass
Hampshire is well placed to exploit the Biomass option in greater depth. The New Forest
National Park has approximately 23,000 hectares of woodland with around half as much
again in the wider forest area outside of the National Park. The Forestry Commission
estimates indicate this area could produce around 78,000 tonnes of biomass fuel per
year from the proper management of this woodland. Selling for around £50 per tonne
this represents a potential annual income of nearly £4M to the local economy.

ii)  Energy From waste
Energy from Waste (EfW) is another possible route that could be taken in Hampshire
through the use of for example, the Marchwood incinerator. This could potentially be
used to create energy which could be piped under Southampton Water to Millbrook.
However, this option was discussed when the Marchwood plant was at the design stage
and was ruled out on cost grounds. If such technology was retrofitted the payback period
                            HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
                The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                 Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

has been estimated at up to 15 years. Therefore it could be argued that it would be
better to prioritise the exploration of other options for generating energy.

iii) Combined Heat and Power
Further district heating schemes could be implemented, following on from the
Southampton District Heating scheme and the Millbrook scheme that is being
implemented at present. As mentioned in 4.1 biomass would be a preferable solution to
provide fuel for future plants since the New Forest provides a large potential wood
resource. This could also help financially support local farmers if they were involved in
biomass generation through the supply of energy crops.

iv) Wave Power
Wave power is a potential option in Hampshire, utilising the power of the tides to
produce energy. This could potentially have a very beneficial impact upon security of
supply for the county. This would require detailed feasibility work to be carried out
beforehand but it may be that this resource can be utilised for areas of vulnerable supply
such as Hayling Island.

v)    Wind Power
Electricity generation through wind power is also an option in certain areas of the county
and these could include Hayling Island with average windspeeds of approximately
6m/second which is viable for domestic wind turbines. However, to deliver the 100MW of
renewable energy from wind alone would mean that approximately 25,000 domestic
wind turbines would need to be installed across the county, and it is questionable as to
whether this is realistic. Therefore larger scale wind installations also need to be
investigated as an option and could play a key role in ensuring security of supply for the
county in the future.

vi) Ground Source Heat
For new build developments Ground Source Heat can be a very effective solution for the
provision of space heating and potentially hot water, since the technology can be
planned into developments at the design stage. Retrofitting this technology into existing
buildings can be done but would be a bigger issue in terms of cost.

vi) Microgeneration
As described elsewhere in this document the PUSH SH14 policy requires 100MW of
renewable energy to be delivered within the PUSH area by 2020. The uptake of
microgeneration technologies such as solar and wind power on domestic properties is
important is achieving this target. A key fact to take into consideration is that housing is
the major impacter on CO2 missions in the UK. New housing only represents 1 - 2% of
the whole housing stock yet is the only area under formal consideration in terms of the
Code for Sustainable homes and the South East Plan policies for sustainable measures.
Therefore, the condition of existing housing needs to be addressed in terms of energy
efficiency and scope for the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

Public knowledge of the microgeneration technologies available is now greater than ever
before so the council have a real opportunity to promote microgeneration technologies
and assist householders as much as possible with attaining access to these

                           HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
               The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172
the Environment Centre (tEC)
 you . your business . your community

5. Conclusions

There are no easy answers, but leadership is seen as fundamental, and the role played
by HCC in Hampshire doubly so. It is hoped that policy challenges in this area can be
met and responded to clearly and constructively if the issue of energy supply security
and carbon impact reduction is to continue to be a central aspect of Hampshire’s
response to the issue of global warming.

The work done to date in the county is ground breaking and clearly aligns itself with
existing best practice, and in some cases is best practice. It is hoped that the Climate
Change Commission can continue to evolve this approach in a way that will benefit
Hampshire and the planet, now and in the future in an even greater way.

                           HCC Climate Change Commission report June 2007
               The Environment Centre (tEC) 14-15 Brunswick Place, Southampton SO15 2AQ
                                Tel: 023 8033 6172 Fax: 023 8033 6172

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