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					Testing for Web
 Accessibility
  John Slatin Access U
          May, 2009

          Jim Thatcher
     http://jimthatcher.com
     jim@jimthatcher.com
    Accessibility Consulting
         Austin, Texas
Resources

                 These slides at
                     http://jimthatcher.com/testing
                     PowerPoint testing.ppt
                     Resources in order of appearance there too

                 This class is very much a resource list!




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                                  Testing for accessibility 2
Questions

          Please ask questions or
          … Make comments at any time
          … If it isn’t clear to you – ASK!




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                      Testing for accessibility 3
Outline
    Testing for Web Accessibility – Means?
    Standards and Guidelines
    Testability
       Contrast example
    Automatic Testing tools
       Free tools
       Commercial Tools
       Testing tool report
    Tools that assist with Human Review
    Lets test a page


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                     Testing for accessibility 4
Testing for Web Accessibility
Web Accessibility:
    Web resources are accessible if people with disabilities
    can use them as effectively as non-disabled people
     (UT Accessibility Institute)

    So testing means user testing with disabled and non-
     disabled people?
    Instead there are “standards and guidelines” against
     which we can test



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                             Testing for accessibility 5
Standards and Guidelines
      WCAG 1.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
             http://w3.org/TR/WCAG10
      Section 508 Standards
             http://www.access-board.gov/508.htm
      WCAG 2.0
             http://w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
      Section 508 refresh See Section 6
             http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/refresh/report/
      IBM web guidelines
             http://ibm.com/able/guidelines/web/accessweb.html


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                              Testing for accessibility 6
Priority
                 Section 508
                   16 provisions all priority one!

                 WCAG 1.0 14 guidelines
                   65 Checkpoints – 16 Priority 1, 30 Priority 2, 19 Priority 3
                    checkpoints

                 WCAG 2.0 12 guidelines
                   56 Success Criteria – 18 Level A, 17 Level AA, 21 Level AAA
                    success criteria

                 508 Refresh – who knows –
                   Public comment 1Q 2010 – at the earliest


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                                 Testing for accessibility 7
WCAG 2 – testability is key

                 All WCAG 2.0 success criteria are
                  written to be testable. While some
                  can be tested by computer
                  programs, others require human
                  testers for part or all of the test.
                 My favorite testability example …
                  Contrast

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                         Testing for accessibility 8
Testability - Example

                 WCAG 1.0 Priority 2:
                  2.2 Ensure that foreground and background
                  color combinations provide sufficient contrast
                  when viewed by someone having color
                  deficits or when viewed on a black and white
                  screen.

                     “Sufficient contrast”?
                     “Color deficits”?

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                            Testing for accessibility 9
Flickr – black and white




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                  Testing for accessibility 10
Testability - Contrast
           WCAG 2.0 Level AA:
            1.4.3 Text and images of text have a contrast ratio
            of at least 4.5:1 … 3:1 for larger text (18pt or 14pt
            bold) (Level AA)
           Contrast Ratio?
           Tools will answer that question –
                 http://www.paciellogroup.com/resources/contrast-
                  analyser.html (also pull down from toolbar)
                 Try that with http://Flickr.com
                 Another to check out: http://Graybit.com
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                             Testing for accessibility 11
Testable? Automatic tests?
      Testable by a computer vs. requiring human
       judgment
      Only ~25% of accessibility errors can be
       detected by computers (Mike Cooper)
      Many claim compliant/accessible because no
       errors reported by testing tool
      Testing all for Section 508 Standards
       discussed
             http://jimthatcher.com/testing1.htm

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                          Testing for accessibility 12
    A current example of testing …
       Recovery.gov complies with all of the automatic
        checkpoints of the Section 508 Accessibility
        Guidelines, and has been manually verified for nearly
        all of the manual checkpoints. This compliance has
        been tested using Watchfire WebXACT program.
        (To be in America)

    Accessibility of Recovery.gov
       http://jimthatcher.com/recovery.htm


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                      Testing for accessibility 13
Automatic tests (about 12 tests)
      (3) Missing alt on <img>, <area>, or <input> with
       type=“image”
      (3) Empty alt on <img> in <a> without text, same for
       <button> or <input> with type=“image”
      (1) Form control with no title or label (or empty)
      (2) No title on frame or iframe
      (1) Sever-side image map (image link with ismap)
      (1) Missing lang attribute for page
      (1) [No HTML headings (h1, h2, …) on page]


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                      Testing for accessibility 14
Testing tools (outline)
    Automatic  web accessibility testing
    Human Review – tools that assist
    User testing
                 Beyond the scope of this class
                 But check out Shawn Lawton Henry’s
                    Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design

                    The whole book is there

                 One of 11 co-authors of Web Accessibility: Web Standards
                  and Regulatory Compliance



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                               Testing for accessibility 15
Automatic Testing (outline)
        Automatic             web accessibility testing
                 Free 1-page tools
                 More general free tools
                 Desktop tools
                 Enterprise tools

        Tools          lists:
                 http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/tools/complete
                 http://www.colostate.edu/Dept/ATRC/tools.htm
                 http://www.webaim.org/articles/tools/



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                              Testing for accessibility 16
Some Free 1-page tools on the web
    CynthiaSays (HiSoftware)
          http://cynthiasays.com
    Bobby is gone!
    Truwex (Erigami)
          http://checkwebsite.erigami.com/accessibility.html
          New kid on the block 2 years ago
    Worldspace by Deque – New Kid this year
          http://worldspace.deque.com
          For Google Toolbar, http://tinyurl.com/9h7elc
    Sample file http://jimthatcher.com/testing/testfile.htm

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                           Testing for accessibility 17
 Sample File for Testing
       http://jimthatcher.com/testing/testfile.htm
                  Issue                                     Cynthia Truex   Worldspace

        1         Server-side map                             Yes    Yes       Yes
        2         Two input fields – label but same id        No     No         No
        3         Empty alt on image link                     No     Yes       Yes
        4         No alt on image (duh)                       Yes    Yes       Yes
        5         title attributes on input fields (good)     No     Yes       Yes
        6         No alt on image button                      Yes    No        Yes
        7         No alt in image map area                    Yes    Yes       Yes
        8         Iframe with no title                        No     Yes       Yes



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                                    Testing for accessibility 18
The Truex Map – very cool




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                  Testing for accessibility 19
More General Free Tools
 The             WAVE (Utah State) (version 4.0)
          http://wave.webaim.org
 AChecker http://www.atutor.ca/achecker/

     (WCAG 2.0)
 Functional            Accessibility Evaluator (U of Ill)
          http://appserv.rehab.uiuc.edu/fae


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                         Testing for accessibility 20
Desktop Commercial Tools
    Ramp ($69-$1499)
          http://www.deque.com
    InFocus ($1795)
            http://www.ssbtechnologies.com




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Enterprise Tools (expensive)
 WebKing            by Parasoft
          http://parasoft.com/jsp/products/home.jsp?product=W
           ebKing
 Rational         Policy Tester by IBM
          (was WebXM by Watchfire)
          http://tinyurl.com/9hao4g
    Worldspace by Deque
          http://deque.com/products/


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                        Testing for accessibility 22
Six Commercial Tools,
A Comparison
    Chapter 13 – Web Accessibility: Web Standards
     and Regulatory Compliance …
          See http://jimthatcher.com/testing.htm.
    Forty “issues”
          http://jimthatcher.com/step/new
    Based on 70 files
          http://jimthatcher.com/step/new/stepfiles.htm
    Example – how the tools deal with link text


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                           Testing for accessibility 23
Link text - WCAG 1.0
    WCAG 1.0 13.1: Clearly identify the target of each
     link. (P2) (Not 508 requirement)
    Interpreted to mean good link text or title attribute
     on anchor element.
  It is testable –
 evaluators would
 usually agree on
 “good link text.”



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                      Testing for accessibility 24
Link text – automatic tests
         Raise errors (or warnings) for Common phrases,
          “more,” “click here,” “more …,” “details” etc.
                 List of such is editable with several tools.
         Inadequate phrase like “click here” but with title
          attribute – should pass
         Same link text different href – should fail without
          title.
         Extreme case - Empty link text or spaces for link text
          is error without title.


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                              Testing for accessibility 25
Link text – WCAG 2.0

  2.4.4   The purpose of each link can be
      determined from the link text and its
      programmatically determined link context.
      (A)
  2.4.9    The purpose of each link can be
      identified from the link text. (AAA)


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Testing tools and link text
                                         In-
              Test       OK   Bobby               LIFT   Ramp   W-King   W-XM
                                        Focus
21. “Click here”         4     yes        no       no    yes     yes     yes
22. Image link with
                         4     yes        no      yes    yes     no      yes
   empty alt-text
23. Image link with
                         5     yes        no      yes    yes     yes     yes
   spaces for alt-text
24. Link with text and
   image with empty      3      no        no      yes    yes     no      yes
   alt-text
25. “Click here” plus
                         2      no        no       no    yes     yes     no
   title
Details at http://jimthatcher.com/testing4.htm

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Testing tools - Results
                                  In-
                  Total Bobby               LIFT Ramp W-King W-XM
                                 Focus

Correct
                  40     28        23        27        38   34   26
  Results



         Details at http://jimthatcher.com/testing4.htm




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                        Testing for accessibility 28
Human Review
           Human             Review
                     Notepad (source code)
                     Screen Readers and other AT
                     Special issue tools (like contrast)
                     Toolbars (the best news)
                     Jim’s Favelets
           (User          testing –        Beyond scope      )


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Assistive Technology
 Testing               with assistive technologies
        HPR (IBM)
           No longer available

        JAWS (Freedom                     Scientific)
           http://www.hj.com

        Window-Eyes (GW Micro)
          http://www.gwmicro.com

        Fangs
                 http://www.standards-schmandards.com/projects/fangs/

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Toolbars
     - for anyone interested in accessibility



    Web accessibility toolbar - The Paciello Group
          http://www.paciellogroup.com/resources/wat-ie-
           about.html
Best thing that has happened for accessibility –
  and a toolbar for Firefox
    Web Developer Extension for Firefox
           http://chrispederick.com/work/webdeveloper

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                        Testing for accessibility 31
IBM Accessibility Testing
    Matt King started monitoring all of IBM.com (13
     million pages) in 1999.
    Reports to Mgrs and VPs
    Five Years later – Detectable errors way down.
    Accessible?
    Need Human Review – but too many pages
    Idea: use sampling – like a political poll –evaluate
     sample pages and conclude results for whole site
    http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/443/king.html

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                     Testing for accessibility 32
Human Review for IBM
 Needed  time per page around 3-5 minutes
 The toolbars don’t do what testing tools do.
          Need value of software testing tools in the
           human review (e.g., no alt attribute or no form
           label) Don’t make me look for these.
 Simplifyhuman evaluation – scoring (AIR)
 My evaluation techniques (modified from Toolbar)
          http://jimthatcher.com/favelets (includes description of
           the process)
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The Testing Process I use
 Sample              report
          http://jimthatcher.com/testing/Sample-accessibility.doc

 Lets   look at some of the same pages –
  http://www.sec.gov!
 It is a mix of Web Accessibility Toolbar
  and “Jim’s favelets”
 The way to do accessibility testing

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                           Testing for accessibility 34
Thanks!
 Thanks for being here
 I can be reached at
          jim@jimthatcher.com
    You can contact Knowbility
          knowbility@knowbility.org




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