Atlantic Slave Trade - PowerPoint by zhangyun

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									Africa c. 1690
 Spices, Gold, Horses and Slaves
• Both West African, European and East
  Africans supplied gold to the Muslims in
  return for goods-- horses/spices.
  Without gold, they sold slaves to the
  Muslims.
• Italians sold Slavs from the Black Sea to
  the Muslim world as all of North Africa
  was controlled by Muslims. Slav
  becomes slave.
          “The Fist Day of the Yam Custom”




Thomas E. Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee (London, 1819), between pp. 274 and 275 (reprinted
Frank Cass, 1966).
      Portuguese Exploration
•1400s. Portuguese had no access to the
gold or the slave trade and so set up a
maritime end-run around Africa-- Muslim
world. Canary Islands, Maedera.
•Backdoor into the Trans Saharan Trading
Ports. Cape Verde-- just south of the
desert. Access to Gold-- cuts in on the
gold trade of Mali.
          Sailing the Atlantic
• In the Mediterranean, it was easy- short
  distance, easy to navigate, not a great deal of
  supplies needed. In Atlantic, different story.
• Wind off the coast of Africa constantly blow
  offshore-- impossible with technology of the
  time to sail up-wind. Had to sail out into the
  Atlantic– that’s where they discovered the
  islands-- and sail back in.
• Trying to figure out how to deal with-- large
  number of people, with large number of
  supplies, for long period of time. Scurvy.
Lateen vs Square Rigged Sails
              Arrival of Europeans in Africa




Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Oceanie
Triangular Trade
  The Development of the Slave
            Trade
• 1. Africans had to be willing to sell
  people.
• 2. Europeans had to have a need to buy
  people.
• 3. Europeans had to have means of
  carrying people.
A Meeting of Slavers and Africans
                                      King of Benin




Pieter van der Aa, La Galerie Agréable du Monde (Leide, 1729); taken from D. O. Dapper, Description de l’Afrique . . . Traduite
du Flamand (Amsterdam,1686), p. 311
                  Fullani Slave Coffle,
                   West Africa 1793




National Maritime Museum, London (neg. no.D7596)
Slave Trade Roots
Goree Warehouses, Liverpool




     Liverpool Record Office, Liverpool Libraries and Information Services
Coasts of Africa c. 1730
Slavers Revenging their Losses




 David Livingstone, The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa (New York, 1875), facing p. 58
         Slave Coffle, Dahomey c. 1850




Frederick E. Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans: being the journals of two missions to the king of Dahomey, and residence in
his capital, in . . . 1849 and 1850 (London, 1851), vol. 1, facing p. 100.
          African Economies
• African economies did not operate on the
  gold standard-- they sold gold. They would
  accept what the Europeans saw as
  commodities. What they bought is as
  important as what they sold.
• Most accounts regard what Africans bought
  as useless or as mislead-- in Africa it was the
  copper standard. They were imported
  money.
Trade Routes
Monetized Commodities
                                          Trade Beads




Photo taken by Dylan Kibler( Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society); slide, courtesy of David Moore, North Carolina Maritime
Museum
        Percentages of Trade
• 50 % textiles.
• 20 % booze-- Portuguese Wine, French
  Brandy, Dutch Gin, English Gin, Cashasha--
  Sugar Cane Brandy (Rum).
• 10 % firearms & powder-- (cheap guns--
  often discharged in face.) Muzzle loading,
  flintlock.
• 20% metal ware-- copper wire, bronze
  bracelets, mirrors, copper bowls and tools,
  nails, hoes and knives
                                                  El Mina




Based on Jean Barbot, A Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea and D. O. Dapper, Description de l’Afrique . . .
Traduite du Flamand (Amsterdam,1686), in Thomas Astley (ed.), A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels (London,
1745-47), vol. 2, plate 61, facing p. 589.
Cape Coast Castle
                Interior Cape Coast Castle




A. W. Lawrence, Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa (Stanford Univ. Press, 1964), plate 37; from a drawing by Henry
Greenhill, 1682
                       Gate of No Return




Michael Tuite; photographed in Ghana (Aug. 1999).
  March of the
    Slaves




Chambon, Le Commerce de l’Amerique par Marseille
(Avignon,1764).
        Canoes Battling Surf, Dahomey




Henri Morienval, La Guerre du Dahomey (Paris, 1898), p. 63
                           Embarkation Canoe




The Illustrated London News (April 14, 1849), vol. 14, p. 237.
             Slave Ships
• Small, very small by modern standards-
  - if you had too big a ship then you
  would be losing more slaves then
  selling. Size and speed relationship.
• 100 slaves was a viable cargo, 300
  typical. (Later- 400-800).
• Trade off is between carrying people ad
  getting them across alive.
   Decks of
  the French
  Slave Ship
    Aurore,
     1784


Published in the exhibition catalog Les
Anneaux de la Memoire: Nantes-Europe-
Afriques-Ameriques, Chateau des Ducs de
Bretagne, Nantes, France, Dec. 1992-Feb.
1994; original source not identified.
                        Decks of French Slaver




Color lithograph by Pretexat Oursel, 19th cent., original in Musée d’Histoire de la Ville et du Pays Malouin, Saint Malo, France.
Published in the exhibition catalog Les Anneaux de la Memoire: Nantes-Europe-Afriques-Ameriques, Chateau des Ducs de
Bretagne, Nantes, France, Dec. 1992-Feb. 1994.
         The Middle Passage
• Give people enough exercise-- small number
  of people on deck with armed crew (very
  dangerous).
• Sheer confinement-- likened to being buried
  alive. No sanitary facilities-- small pox and
  dysentery the major killers
• Fast voyage 30 days to South America,
  average 40 days. Delayed beyond planned
  voyage-- astronomic increase in death rates.
• 90-120 days for North America-- often
  stopped in Caribbean.
 Estimated Numbers/Death Rate
• Conservative Estimates place the number of
  Africans transported at 13-15 million.
• Conditions on the slave ships were terrible,
  but the estimated death rate of around 13% is
  lower than the mortality rate for seamen,
  officers and passengers on the same
  voyages.
      Deck of
        the
      Wildfire




June 2, 1860 issue of Harper's Weekly, The
Slave Deck of the Bark "Wildfire"
                                         Below Decks




Johann Moritz Rugendas, Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil. Traduit de l’Allemand (Paris, 1835); reprinted, Viagem Pitoresca

Altraves do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro, 1972).
                                      Iron Shackles




Published in Anthony Tibbles (ed.), Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity (London: HMSO, 1994), p. 154, fig. 140.
                           Thrown Overboard




Library Company of Philadelphia’s copy (also in a 1969 reprint edition of another 1862 printing by Negro Universities
Press [bottom of p. 193]).
                                Revolt on Deck




William Fox, A Brief History of the Wesleyan Missions on the West Coast of Africa (London, 1851), facing p. 116.
                                       Slave Uprising




Isabelle Aguet, A Pictorial History of the Slave Trade (Geneva, Editions Minerva, 1971), plate 64, p.71; original source not
identified.
         Trans-Atlantic exports by region
                   1650-1900
Region                Number of slaves
                      accounted for        %
Senegambia          479,900              4.7
Upper Guinea        411,200              4.0
Windward Coast        183,200            1.8
Gold Coast           1,035,600           10.1
Blight of Benin      2,016,200           19.7
Blight of Biafra     1,463,700           14.3
West Central        4,179,500            40.8
South East          470,900              4.6

Total              10,240,200            100.0
         Trans-Atlantic Imports by Region
                     1450-1900

Region                Number of slaves
                     accounted for         %
Brazil                4,000,000            35.4
Spanish Empire        2,500,000            22.1
British West Indies   2,000,000            17.7
French West Indies    1,600,00             14.1
North America         500,000              4.4
Dutch West Indies     500,000              4.4
Danish West Indies    28,000         0.2
Europe (and Islands)  200,000              1.8
Total                 11,328,000           100.0

								
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