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					Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo



       Medium-Term Plan 2010-12




          Submitted to the Science Council
                       of the

  Consultative Group on International Agricultural
                Research (CGIAR)


                   June 15, 2009
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo

                          Medium-Term Plan 2010-12



                                      Table of Contents



 MTP Overview .............................................................................................. 3
    Introduction .............................................................................................. 3
    Highlights of Project Portfolio ...................................................................... 3
    Center Financial Indicators ......................................................................... 8
 Project Portfolio .......................................................................................... 10
    1: Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based germplasm enhancement
    ............................................................................................................. 10
    2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement ..... 26
    3: Stress tolerant maize .......................................................................... 37
    4: Nutritious and specialty trait maize ....................................................... 50
    7: Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality ........................................ 58
    8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality ....................... 70
    10: Maize and wheat cropping systems ..................................................... 84
    11: Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize and wheat
    farming systems ...................................................................................... 92
 Financing Plan .......................................................................................... 100




CIMMYT                                          MTP 2010-12                                                       2
MTP Overview
Introduction

Maize and Wheat Research:
Addressing Climate Change,
Natural Resource Depletion,
Food Insecurity and Poverty

Highlights of Project Portfolio

Introduction

In an environment of climate change, natural resource depletion, food insecurity, and poverty,
CIMMYT puts cutting-edge science to work helping farmers in developing countries to improve
their food security and livelihoods. CIMMYT targets its approach through nine flagship
products encompassing maize, wheat, research tools, cropping systems, and capacity-building.


                            BOX 1: CIMMYT Flagship Products

CIMMYT‟s research agenda is focused on developing and delivering in collaboration with our partners a set of
flagship products that will have a positive impact in communities dependent on maize-or wheat-based
farming systems. Most of these products represent genetically enhanced, seed-embedded technologies; it is
the seed itself that carries the bulk of the technology. These flagship products are being developed
by multidisciplinary teams using integrated solutions for our target beneficiaries. There are nine products in
the portfolio.

    1.   New or improved traits through allele mining and gene discovery to best use global crop biodiversity
    2.   Improved tools and methodologies for genetic improvement
    3.   Stress tolerant maize for enhanced food security and crop diversification
    4.   Bio-fortified maize for improved nutrition and health
    5.   Opportunities for income generation from special trait maize
    6.   Wheat with enhanced water productivity and appropriate quality profiles
    7.   Rust resistant wheat
    8.   Resource conservation technologies for maize and wheat cropping systems
    9.   Capacity building in national agricultural research system breeding programs




Highlights of Emerging Project Portfolio

CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in a global maize and wheat network that serves the poor in
developing countries. Drawing on strong science and effective partnerships, the center creates,
shares, and uses knowledge and technology to increase food security, improve the productivity
and profitability of farming systems, and sustain natural resources. Priority areas include:

Using global maize genetic diversity to tackle threats to global food security and economic growth

Globally, maize has become the world‟s most important crop. It is used for food, feed, fuel, and
industrial purposes and is the main staple food for poor people in Africa, Latin America, and South
Asia. Maize consumption is increasing about 3.5% annually. This demand is met by an average
annual 2.6% increase in yield (fuelled by fertilizer subsidies), and a 1.1% annual increase in area


CIMMYT                                          MTP 2010-12                                                     3
sown to maize, including displacement of other crops and encroachment into fragile agro-
ecosystems. Climate change and rising fuel and fertilizer costs are threatening maize yields and
contributing to a rise in commodity and food costs.



                                        BOX-2: Water and maize

   Maize is a drought susceptible crop but above 80% of its production occurs in rainfed agro-
   ecosystems. Not surprisingly, as yields are rising (first graph below), the impact of drought on maize
   yields also increases (see arrows in second graph below). Climate change further reduces maize yields
   in developing countries by 0.4% annually, especially in drought-prone locations where water is
   becoming more scarce and costly




                                Cereal grain yields (t ha-1): 1960-2006




          Drought impact (indicated by arrows) on maize grain yields (t ha): 1960-2006
               SSA= sub-Saharan Africa, US&Can = United States of America and Canada
                        In above graph, Latin America includes the Caribbean




CIMMYT                                        MTP 2010-12                                                   4
In short, if farmers do not raise the annual rate of maize grain yield increases to more than 3%,
and in a sustainable manner, food will become more expensive, poverty and civil unrest in maize
producing/consuming areas will increase, economic growth in such areas will be held back, and
agro-ecosystems will be degraded. The challenge is to obtain significantly higher grain yields in
spite of climate change; scarcity of water, land, and fertilizer; rising fuel and fertilizer prices; and
limited public access to natural and transgenic maize genetic diversity. CIMMYT addresses this
challenge with specialized research toward improved per-unit-of-land grain yield using less water
and nutrients. CIMMYT maize researchers are working with global partners to augment by 20%
each both field-level drought tolerance/water productivity and nutrient use efficiency. They apply
knowledge on trait genetics and use native genetic variation, transgenic approaches, and
agronomy, with the assistance of socio-economic models.

A global effort to address food security: Raising the yield potential of wheat

During 1966-94, wheat yields increased at an average of 2.7% pa; this slowed to 1.2% pa over
1995-2006. The demand for wheat is expected to increase by 1.5% per annum to 2020, but
annual yield growth is currently only 1.1% per year, a fact that requires the urgent attention of
the international agricultural research community.


                                               BOX 3:




Recent advances in crop research could accelerate genetic gains in wheat yield potential,
especially if applied with a breeding perspective. CIMMYT is developing a strategy in this regard


CIMMYT                                       MTP 2010-12                                                   5
that integrates conventional and advanced breeding approaches and examines afresh ways to
increase the crop's efficiency at converting sunlight to energy and grain. As part of this, the center
will launch a global research consortium to marshal professional expertise in four linked themes:
(1) increasing photosynthetic capacity, (2) optimizing spike fertility to raise yield potential, (3)
maintaining lodging resistance under increased grain load, and (4) accelerating gene deployment
by exploring genetic diversity and applying new breeding tools.

Conservation agriculture hubs in the principal smallholder maize and wheat-based systems in the
developing world

Desertification, salinization, and soil and land degradation are widespread and advancing rapidly
in the developing world. One of the principal causes of these problems is soil tillage, whether done
manually, with animal traction, or with machines. The negative effects of tillage are exacerbated
by other common agricultural practices, especially monocropping and removing most organic
material from agricultural fields. Conservation agriculture (CA) is an alternative that addressed the
above issues. It is based on three principles: minimal soil movement, use of crop residue ground
covers, and crop rotations.


                           BOX 4: Sustainable Crop Intensification

At the workshop “Investing in Sustainable Crop Intensification: The Case for Improving Soil Health” held at
FAO, Rome in July 2008, among the priority actions formulated by the 96 delegates from 40 countries was
the following: “Building on current CGIAR centre initiatives, create a set of CA observation sites worldwide
in major agro-ecosystems to provide focal points for strategic long-term research, applied on-farm
research, farmer adaptation and impact assessment studies, training and learning nodes.” Given this
important support, CIMMYT plans to strengthen its CA research sites and develop others in important
smallholder maize and wheat based systems in the developing world and incorporating as relevant and
possible CA activities of other CGIAR centers.


CIMMYT alone cannot develop CA systems for all conditions, but the center will help catalyze
change by demonstrating the feasibility of CA and through training and strategic research on CA
systems. Topics will include (but are not limited to) soil, crop, pest, and disease processes under
CA. A leader in CA in the CGIAR, CIMMYT has already established several CA hubs to develop,
study, and promote resource-conserving systems and practices.

CIMMYT new leadership and changes in senior management and programs

In mid-March 2008, Dr. Thomas A. Lumpkin became the 7th Director General of CIMMYT. He
brings a background in agronomy and 12 years as a senior manager, both as Chair of the
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at Washington State University, USA, and as the Director
General of AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center in Taiwan. In January 2009, Mr. Scott Ferguson
joined CIMMYT as its new Deputy-Director General for Support Services to replace Mr. Martin van
Weerdenburg, who left the Center in the third quarter of 2009. Mr. Ferguson comes to CIMMYT
after working for many years in the private sector. In 2009 the Center expects to recruit a new
Deputy Director General for Research and Partnerships and a director for the newly-launched
Socioeconomics Program. The latter, along with the new Conservation Agriculture Program,
emerged from the former Impacts Targeting and Assessment Unit, whose Director Dr. John Dixon
left this post in November 2009 and continued with a half-time research appointment with
CIMMYT until April 2009. After an extensive search and interviews with qualified finalists, the
center appointed CIMMYT wheat agronomist Patrick Wall as Director for the Conservation
Agriculture Program. Mr. Peter Ninnes, Executive Research Officer and Secretary to the Board of
Trustees, left CIMMYT to take a new assignment at ICRISAT in May 2009. Drs. Rodomiro Ortiz,
Director of Resource Mobilization, and Jonathan H. Crouch, Director of the Genetic Resources
Program, will also be ending their tenure at CIMMYT during 2009. Following the departure of Dr.


CIMMYT                                         MTP 2010-12                                                     6
Crouch, biotechnology staff from the Genetic Resources Program will be re-assigned to the Global
Maize and Global Wheat Programs. Staff from the Maize and Wheat Germplasm Banks, the Seed
Health Laboratory, and the Crop Research Informatics Laboratory will report to the new Deputy-
Director General for Research and Partnerships.

The Socioeconomics and Conservation Agriculture Programs

The two new programs mentioned above will help the center address more effectively the
economic and environmental changes affecting agriculture in developing countries.

Scientists in the Socioeconomics Program will address socio-economic and environmental issues
surrounding technology adaptation and adoption in developing countries, while continuing to work
with maize and wheat breeding and agronomy programs to ensure the relevance of center efforts.
The new program builds on decades of strong work and leadership in agricultural economics and
impacts assessment, value chains, and policy issues. By extended and intensified partnerships
with advanced research institutes and within the international agricultural development
community, the Program is expected to contribute to the long-term vision for the developing
world's maize and wheat sectors and for research-for-development to enhance food security and
reduce poverty. Finally, the Program will contribute to strategic plans that will assist in CIMMYT's
fundraising and external profiling.

Following a recommendation from the Center-Commissioned External Review on P10 “Maize and
Wheat Systems,” in the second half of 2008 CIMMYT's new leadership established
the Conservation Agriculture Program (CAP). The creation of the Program reflects the importance
of natural resource management in agriculture and the significant productivity gains that are
possible through improved practices for farming systems. Work will expand on current systems
agronomy research by CIMMYT and partners around the world, particularly on cropping methods
that simultaneously boost productivity and reduce resource degradation. The CAP draws on staff
working in P10 and new professionals who will be actively engaged in an initial 3-year mega-
project Cereal System Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) led by IRRI and co-funded by the Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development. A key
objective of CSISA is to increase cereal production and raise farm income in major intensive
cereal production systems through adaptation and widespread delivery of production and post-
harvest technologies using a range of public-private sector partnerships in Bangladesh, India,
Nepal and Pakistan. CAP will continue building on CIMMYT's successful undertakings through the
eco-regional Rice-Wheat Consortium, as well as long-term research in Mexico, and more recent
endeavors in Eastern and Southern Africa, and in the drylands of the Yellow River Basin in China.

                                     Box 5:
CIMMYT Socio-economics: Maximizing the benefits of maize and wheat research


Goal                         Improvements in the livelihoods of smallholder maize and wheat producers
                             in Africa, Asia and Latin America

Purpose                      Growth and improved functioning and performance of input chains
                             (principally for seed), farming systems (conservation agriculture), and
                             output chains in ways that benefit poor small-scale producers

Outputs                             Better understanding, coordination and linkages among different
                                     value chain actors (breeders, seed distributors, farmers, agro-
                                     processors) in selected maize and wheat mega-environments
                                    Better provision of services (inputs, market information etc.) to
                                     value chain actors in selected maize and wheat mega-environments
                                     to improve uptake of improved germplasm
                                    Improvements to the policy and institutional environments for


CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                                  7
                                    selected maize and wheat mega-environments


Activities                         Ex-ante impact assessment in selected maize and wheat mega-
                                    environments to identify greatest poverty reduction impact through
                                    adoption of improved germplasm
                                   Study of the effects of the recent market, economic and climatic
                                    trends on maize and wheat producers and consumers, and
                                    implications for research agendas
                                   Randomized experiments to analyze different approaches e.g.
                                    voucher schemes to enhance smallholder adoption of seed (and
                                    fertilizer)
                                   Comparison of experimental methods to analyze consumer
                                    willingness to pay for new products such as orange bio-fortified
                                    maize
                                   Study of obstacles to and opportunities for adoption/diffusion of
                                    technologies (conservation agriculture and improved germplasm)




Fostering a Modern, Effective CGIAR

CIMMYT is participating actively and constructively in the current change process of the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), supporting transformation
that increases the system‟s capacity to address global issues, to reduce transaction costs, to
create system-wide efficiencies, and to stimulate long-term commitments for unrestricted
funding.

Conservation and Use of Crop Genetic Resources

The center‟s seed bank holds roughly 175,000 unique samples of maize and wheat seed,
representing “landraces” developed by farmers over millennia, bred cultivars, and wild and related
species of the two crops, for whose conservation the has a global mandate. In addition, in
contrast with other institutions that hold collections of maize and wheat germplasm, CIMMYT
brings together plant breeders, agronomists, molecular biologists, and socio-economists to classify
and combine families of each crop; probe them for useful traits like host plant resistance or
tolerance to stressful environments; employ them in crop improvement; and actively support their
study and use by others. Drawing on in-house resources and resources obtained through
unparalleled global maize and wheat improvement networks built on years of trust and shared
values, CIMMYT brings the newest approaches to develop genetically-enhanced experimental
varieties of maize and wheat. This seed-embedded technology helps farmers to obtain superior
yields in the presence of drought, infertile soils, pests, prevalent pathogens. Cultivars derived
from the center's varieties also offer improved nutrition and market value.

Center Financial Indicators

Long-term financial stability

During 2008, CIMMYT increased undesignated, unrestricted reserves to a level in excess of
US$11million. These unrestricted, undesignated reserves equal 106 days of operating
expenditures, exceeding the CGIAR minimum standard of 90 days.

Short-term solvency

As of the end of 2008, CIMMYT‟s short-term solvency amounted to a healthy 165 days, well in

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                                   8
excess of the CGIAR-standard range. This indicator has improved substantially over the past six
years.

The above indicators will be impacted by any material changes in funding that arise over the
period of this medium term plan. The volatility in funding levels arising from both changes in
donor priorities and in currency movements is expected to be exacerbated by disruptions and
distractions arising from the ongoing change management process that the CGIAR has undertaken.
At this point in time the Center is not able to definitely forecast the impact of these variables with
any real degree of confidence, beyond the current year.




CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                              9
Project Portfolio
1: Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based germplasm
enhancement

Project Overview and Rationale

Crop-related biodiversity is the founding asset of the CGIAR and continues to be the basic raw
material for the breeding programs of CIMMYT and its partners. Germplasm collection,
conservation and distribution remain fundamentally important aspects of our global
responsibilities regarding diverse genetic resources and improved germplasm of maize and wheat.
Annual distribution of thousands of maize and wheat accessions to hundreds of partners across
the world remains a fundamental priority for CIMMYT to distribute its products to end-users and
gain their feedback to orientate our future efforts. However, it is also increasingly evident that the
nature, quality and scope of information associated with germplasm are rate limiting factors to the
effective uptake and efficient utilization of genetic resources. Structured sets of germplasm with
dense high quality characterization data are becoming an increasingly critical asset for the global
plant research and breeding community. The creation, characterization and distribution of such
germplasm subsets is a major niche for CIMMYT, as is the coordination of associated web-enabled
informatics resources and research communities.

The emerging strategy of the CGIAR in the new millennium gives emphasis to technology-assisted
methodologies and intermediate products created from the efficient identification of value-added
traits and their rapid introgression into agronomically elite widely adapted breeding material.
Current priorities include relatively simple traits required across large areas of production (such as
pest and disease resistance), more complex traits that require pyramids of multiple components
(including resistance to root health complexes and multiple sources of resistance to the same
disease), and, highly complex traits that require a long-term approach (primarily drought
tolerance). The intermediate products from P1 (mainly trait-targeted genetic resources) will have
an impact on the productivity, stability, and resilience of new elite maize and wheat breeding lines.
Ultimate impacts of resultant new cultivars are envisaged on livelihoods of the poor through
enhanced food security and profitability of resource-poor cropping systems.

Targeted development, intensive characterization including genetic fingerprinting, and extensive
evaluation under diverse field conditions of germplasm subsets are rate-limiting factors for
effective utilization of outputs from the genomics and information technology revolutions. This
provides a significant opportunity for P1 scientists in areas of traditional comparative advantage.
However, it is clear that progress in these areas will be heavily dependent upon effective data
management, particularly in ensuring that the necessary subsequent interdisciplinary integration
and synergy is in place and efficiently functioning. Thus, one of the major new strategic focuses in
P1 is the creation of a fully-integrated, web-based support system for CIMMYT and partners
involved in the conservation, utilization, evaluation, and enhancement of genetic resources,
whereby all types of data can be integrated, compared, and collectively analyzed and queried by
anyone anywhere. We believe that through the distribution of diverse genetic resources and
improved germplasm, together with intensive related databases, we will be able to foster the
development of dynamic cooperative networks able to radically improve the pace of uptake and
the scope of impact that can be achieved from the use of genetic resources and improved
germplasm. In particular, CIMMYT, through P1, has a comparative advantage in coordinating
genetic resources information networks to help advanced research institutes (ARI), national
agricultural research systems (NARS) and small-medium enterprises (SME) focus their knowledge
and skills on germplasm most likely to address the needs of our resource-poor clients.


CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            10
A fundamentally important task of P1 is to search for novel genetic diversity (alleles, genes and
traits) that will be beneficial for improvement of specific priority traits, and which is not readily
accessible through conventional screening approaches. This can be achieved by using novel tools
and methodologies. Molecular biology and computational sciences both have a substantial role to
play in this area. CIMMYT has comparative advantage in both areas in terms of developing and
applying new statistical search strategies and computational systems for forming germplasm
subsets, as well as applying association mapping and allele mining technologies to the trait-
targeted identification of beneficial alleles and genes. New statistical methods of associating
changes in the DNA sequence and changes in the phenotype of plants are now available. These
methods allow gene discovery and validation in sets of germplasm that need not consist of specific
crosses or pedigrees; plants at hand in a breeding program; diverse subsets of gene bank
material; or practically any set of lines with sufficient diversity between them can be used. The
only rate limiting factor with this approach is the need for precise and accurate phenotype data
from across diverse locations. The speed and efficiency that this methodology can identify genes
associated with traits of interest has been demonstrated and used in CIMMYT and other
institutions. Where genes of confirmed importance for agronomic traits have already been
sequenced, genomics technologies offer a feasible means of screening large germplasm collections
for identifying new beneficial alleles. These tools will identify changes in the DNA sequence of
certain individuals that will lead to higher, more stable, or more localized expression of the traits
of interest, and that often could not have been detected through phenotypic screening alone.

 P1 is also an important source of exploratory research, based on evaluating new advances from
ARI in terms of their potential for application in maize and wheat genetic resource enhancement in
order to open up new opportunities to address recalcitrant problems or create novel sources of
added value. In addition, we believe there should be a renewed focus on strategic traits that will
enhance investment by the private sector in our commodities that will serve our target
stakeholders and ultimately our clients in resource-poor cropping systems. Changes in the
external environment suggest that our long-term comparative advantage in the area of GM-
research is not in the generation of transgenic events but in their screening and use in plant
breeding. Thus, CIMMYT is putting increasing emphasis upon out-sourcing the development of GM
events and negotiating access to proprietary products. This will then enable CIMMYT to focus
more efforts on optimizing screening systems and research on epistasis and genotype-by-
environment interaction that will lead to greater skills and efficiency in breeding with transgenic
germplasm. This revised strategy will however lead to a need for enhancing CIMMYT capacity in
management of intellectual property (IP) and biosafety issues.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

All P1 activities are directly related to CGIAR System Priority 1A and support Priorities 2A, 2B and
2C.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
There are no changes from last year's MTP




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                           11
Output 1: Genetic resources conservation, characterization, informatics and
distribution

Description:

Structured and well-characterized germplasm subsets (of wild relatives and landraces, breeding
material and cultivars), trait-specific genetic stocks (near-isogenic, introgression and substitution
lines), double haploid lines, synthetic polyploidy genotypes, genetic mapping populations and
enhanced gene pools, and wild relatives collections are becoming increasingly critical assets for
the global plant research and breeding community. Output 1 focuses on responding to this
demand, orientating users to contribute to our pro-poor targets and feeding these resources into
CIMMYT trait-targeted access activities in Output 2. Specific activities include:

Germplasm collections and global registries. Collection of new maize germplasm (landraces,
teosinte, tripsacum) in Mexico needs to be expanded in the first instance to the rest of Latin
America and then subsequently to Africa and Asia as part of the global maize conservation
strategy. However, all new collection activities will become increasingly trait-driven. Conservation
of threatened accessions through partnerships with key national programs and the Global Crop
Diversity Trust (GCDT) will be undertaken. This will facilitate a better collation of global wheat
related biodiversity across national and international genebanks is a critical role for CIMMYT. Thus,
we are placing high priority on the completion of the model wheat genetic resource registry (a
catalogue of wheat plant genetic resources across major global collections) initially covering
CIMMYT, ICARDA and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) collections. This registry
will form the foundation of expanded efforts to identify gaps and redundancy in collections thereby
enabling rationalization of global wheat genetic resource conservation.

Conservation and regeneration. Although conservation and regeneration activities must
continue within our long-term strategic framework, continuous efforts are being made to improve
and document the underlying processes in collaboration with GCDT and the CGIAR System-wide
Genetic Resources Program (SGRP). For example, logistical and statistical improvements are being
made through process analysis and genetic modeling in order to improve the efficiency of
maintenance and regeneration of maize and wheat genetic resources. On this basis, guidelines for
maize and wheat regeneration and genebank management are being continually refined. This will
contribute to the development of best practice for maize and wheat genebanks worldwide. In
addition, we will fully implement an International Crop Information System (ICIS)-based internet-
enabled genebank management system. This will result in increased genetic and cost efficiency
leading to improved long-term sustainability of maize and wheat germplasm collections including
the exclusion of pest, disease and transgene contamination.

Characterization and evaluation. Core subsets and targeted collections of accessions will
continue to be characterized for desired agronomic and nutritional traits. Germplasm evaluation
and generation of progenies from crosses with elite germplasm are carried out by P1 scientists in
collaboration with P3/P4 and P7/P8. The selected accessions are then used in germplasm
enhancement and breeding projects by CIMMYT and collaborating institutions. For the first time in
maize, selected germplasm from the US Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project will be
included in this activity. Detailed phenotyping of Generation Challenge Program (GCP) wheat and
maize reference germplasm subsets will carried out, including drought screening. Unforunately,
phenotyping of GCP wheat genetics stocks is premature at this time, given the problems we have
identified in evaluation of germplasm with diverse phenology and poor adaptation. CIMMYT will
also play an active role as global facilitator in GCDT-funded wheat germplasm evaluation projects
in NARS.

Informatics and germplasm knowledge sharing. Passport and characterization data for the
maize and wheat collections are being transferred into the ICIS database structure and integrated


CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             12
with crop improvement data in the International Wheat Information System (IWIS) and
International Maize Information System (IMIS). These databases will also be linked into the global
registries and published on the web. In addition, implementation of ICIS-GRIMS (genetic
resources information management system) into the wheat and maize germplasm collections.

Germplasm distribution and impact assessment. CIMMYT germplasm distribution continues
at an enormous scale. This has two components: (i) diverse germplasm from the genebank, and,
(ii) elite breeding material from on-going breeding programs as part of the international maize
and wheat germplasm trials of P3/P4 and P7/P8. Having achieved ISO accreditation for our seed
health inspection lab (which also handles testing for transgenic contamination) the next priority is
to achieve globally recognized and accredited standard operating procedures for the maintenance,
regeneration, purification, distribution and documentation of germplasm. An immediate priority is
to automate the seed preparation and packaging process, implement a rational partial cost
recovery system and computerize the entire process. Once these advances are in place, it will
then be possible to initiate a much more detail process of monitoring and recipient feedback. This
is critically important to enable improved orientation of future P1 initiatives and more effective
assessment of impacts from distributed germplasm. Cost-benefit analysis and impact assessment
of intermediate products from P1 is an important new priority which we believe may be best
served through out-sourcing options.

Network coordination and capacity building. Intimate and iterative linkages with advanced
institutions are essential for us to better orientate their strategic research towards our client
needs and to enable early access to resultant outputs relevant to germplasm enhancement for our
stakeholders. Meanwhile, systemic and mutually dependent relationships with national programs
allows us to provide more tailored training and capacity building whilst at the same time receiving
more rapid and direct feedback on the value of our strategies, initiatives and outputs. The
implementation of the recently concluded global maize and wheat germplasm conservation
strategies will contribute to the sharing of certain responsibilities with NARS in the area of genetic
resources. This will require the formation of strong and effective collaborator networks in genetic
resources conservation, evaluation and distribution as well as germplasm enhancement and
molecular breeding. For maize, the Latin American regeneration network has been mutually
beneficial for regeneration and conservation of accessions. CIMMYT continues to play an active
role in the network to facilitate the access and safety deposit of accessions to national maize
genebanks. The network shares collecting and conservation responsibilities, as well as distribution
of enhanced germplasm for breeding and in situ participatory breeding. The latter activity includes
capacity building among the partners. We have on-going collaborative projects with Mexican NARS
aiming to save maize diversity in the Huasteca region of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and San Luis Potosi.
In addition, we continue the collecting, regenerating, and characterizing of the Latin American
maize diversity, including highland landraces in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Management of ex situ
crop diversity is also regarded as an important activity for CIMMYT scientists. These activities are
achieved through assisting NARS across Latin America to maintain races and wild relatives in their
area which represent a dynamic genetic resource in maize.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety;

Output 2: Targeted access to useful genetic variation

Description:

The genetic characterization of germplasm can be carried out at a number of different levels.
Traditionally this has been achieved through the combined analysis of passport data including
those from geographic information system (GIS) that are related to the site of collection,


CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            13
characterization and evaluation data focusing on taxonomic and agronomic phenotype data, and
most recently, fingerprinting with arbitrary molecular markers. CIMMYT has a long successful
history of cutting-edge research aimed at the refinement of the biometric models for improved
germplasm sampling methods underlying this approach. Most recently, we have moved into more
trait-targeted approaches using whole genome or gene-based genomics technologies for
association mapping and allele mining. Specific activities include:

Targeted germplasm subsets. Core collections of maize landraces have already been defined
for lowland and subtropical race collections and are routinely used once phenotypic and genotypic
data become available. Thus, the next priority is to define wheat core collections for accessions
that have been distributed through the International Wheat Improvement Network and for more
diverse wheat germplasm accessions. This is an essential precursor for the further development of
our dynamic core selector system (Core Hunter) which will provide individual users anywhere in
the world, with the ability to define their own germplasm subsets using all available data and their
own criteria. The dynamic core selector would run in real time to take advantage of subsequent
additions of accessions or new datasets. In addition, we are developing a range of pre-defined
subsets based around user-defined high priority primary selection criteria such as drought
tolerance, rust and Fusarium resistance, and productivity under resource conservation technology
cropping systems.

Association mapping in diverse germplasm. Based on success with establishing a single
nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform at Cornell University for GCP and the Drought Tolerant
Maize for Africa (DTMA) project germplasm fingerprinting activities, we now expect to carry out
1536 SNP analysis of the GCP maize germplasm reference set including, where possible, doubled-
haploids of landraces and lines from genepools that are currently being subjected to enhancement
activities. We have already established and extensively used protocols for SSR fingerprinting of
bulked heterogeneous samples. Now with the shift to SNP markers, we need to develop a protocol
for SNP analysis of heterogeneous/heterozygous samples. Similarly, based on our success with
diversity array technology (DArT) fingerprinting of diverse wheat germplasm, we now expect to
carry out DArT analysis of the GCP wheat germplasm reference set. In both maize and wheat, this
will be accompanied by extensive multi-location evaluation. In maize, this association mapping
approach will be followed by re-sequencing of newly identified candidate genes for important
agronomic traits (initially drought tolerance) and subsequent allele mining in global maize
biodiversity. This approach has already been validated for pro-vitamin A in maize grains (see
allele mining section below for further details). With the current genomic resources available in
wheat it will take more time to determine what might be the optimum follow-on from association
mapping of diverse germplasm.

Allele mining in crop-related global biodiversity. Based on the successful proof-of-concept
allele mining project with the pro-vitamin A trait, new projects will be initiated for a range of other
agronomic traits. Good candidates from the genomics knowledge perspective include other
nutritional traits such as iron and zinc and oil and oil quality, forage digestibility and ethanol traits,
plus metabolite and physiological component traits of drought tolerance. Meanwhile, preliminary
association mapping analysis of component traits of drought tolerance in maize suggest that it will
be feasible to use this approach for highly complex traits that can be dissected into metabolic and
physiological trait components. In addition, examining the patterns of allelic diversity of
orthologous loci across several species can provide a short-cut to transfer information from model
systems (such as Arabidopsis and rice) to maize and wheat. This approach may also help resolve
functionally important variations from non-functional variation using bioinformatics analysis of the
growing public databases.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety;


CIMMYT                                       MTP 2010-12                                               14
Output 3: Exploratory research on novel sources of genetic variation

Description:

The vast majority of the activities carried out in P1 are end-user priority driven. However, it is also
important for genetic resource specialists and biotechnologists to be evaluating novel advances
from upstream research in ARI, to determine their value for addressing previously recalcitrant
goals or for enabling us to pursue completely new opportunities for adding value to maize and
wheat production in resource poor cropping systems. Thus, the activities of this output focus on
evaluating new traits or using non-conventional approaches (such as transgenic technologies) to
introduce novel genetic variation into the maize and wheat breeding pools.

New trait targets: BNI wheat: Wheat crops use a third of the worlds fertilizers but accesses only
one third of those applications while the remainder contributes to greenhouse gases. Biological
nitrification inhibitors (BNI) in wheat root exudates may be able to improve this situation. Certain
Leymus species have 20 times the BNI efficiency of cultivated wheat. Thus, in collaboration with
JIRCAS we are attempting to transfer high BNI efficiency from Leymus to cultivated wheat using
interspecific hybridization technologies. Vegetable maize: End-user feedback suggests the need
for renewed emphasis on vegetable maize genetic resources including tropical sweet corn
germplasm. It is likely that there are Latin American landraces that would be useful in this
endeavor. We have introduced several accessions of waxy maize grown in Southeast Asia from
Thailand. However, it is important to note that significant germplasm enhancement activities
would be required for the development of tropical vegetable maize germplasm. There is also the
challenge of adapting the Andean highland maize genotypes for other cool season growing
conditions across the developing world.

Access to and evaluation of appropriate proprietary transgenic germplasm. Negotiating
access to proprietary transgenic products is now a routine activity at CIMMYT. This began with
wheat for disease resistance and drought tolerance through our founding member status of the
Molecular Plant Breeding Cooperative Research Centre (MPB-CRC, Australia), and more recently
through consortium projects such as Insect Resistance Maize for Africa (RMA) and Water-Efficient
Maize for Africa (WEMA). In many cases this approaches requires the formation of new types of
partnerships with multinational life science companies and indigenous seed companies,
particularly to deal with product development and deployment, respectively. We consider this the
route of choice for trait-crop combinations with established or probable commercial market
interest within or outside our target country focus. Future efforts are likely to focus on negotiating
access to heat tolerance, male sterility and novel quality trait products. We believe that this
approach will in some cases have the parallel advantage of encouraging private sector investment
in pro-poor products and resource-poor cropping systems. However, increased emphasis on this
approach will clearly require institutional capacity in IP management and public-private
partnership building. In many cases, CIMMYT does not have comparative advantage in the
development of primary transgenic material where there is private sector interest in the crop or
trait. However, it remains a major niche for CIMMYT to integrate these new sources of genetic
variation into maize and wheat germplasm enhancement programs to better understand the
epistasis and genotype-by-environment interaction of pyramided products include transgenes. In
addition, to evaluate the effect of transgenes in suitable background genotypes under appropriate
target environmental conditions to ensure that resultant products offer true added value for our
resource poor farmer stakeholders.

Development and evaluation of new transgenic germplasm. Development of GM-wheat
lines with putative drought tolerance continues as a major activity through our collaboration with
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) and RIKEN through
funding from Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry (MAFF). This includes optimizing
Agrobacterium-mediated protocols for a wide range of background genotypes with optimum
phenotypic profiles for testing different types of transgene. Through collaborations with JIRCAS

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             15
and RIKEN, transgenic material will also be subjected to expressional analysis to determine the
cascade of effects that transgenic regulatory genes may cause. This is critical foundation work for
subsequent biosafety requirements related to future field testing of selected products based on
regulatory transgenes. In parallel to these in-house activities we are also investigating the cost,
logistical and timing efficiencies associated with out-sourcing the generation of transgenic lines. If
successful, this would allow us to focus more attention on our areas of comparative advantage
including evaluation and germplasm enhancement activities as well as research into the epistasis
and genotype-by-environment interaction of germplasm with pyramided sources of drought
tolerance including those from conventional, interspecific and transgenic origins. It is critically
important for new transgenes to be screened in a range of background genotypes appropriate to
our target beneficiaries. We also continue to investigate the opportunities for transgenic-quality
protein maize through a Rockefeller Foundation-funded project.

Breeding with double haploid lines: Double haploid lines have been used to improve the speed
and precision of breeding many crops, particularly in the private sector. Double haploid systems
allow rapid generation of homozygous lines which improves breeding efficiency by decreasing the
amount of time required to develop fixed lines. Traditionally the greatest uptake of this approach
has been where there is the greatest saving in time. However, more recently the highly
technology-based breeding programs have been rapidly converting to double haploid breeding
systems as they enable easy integration of marker-aided selection (MAS) into breeding programs
as well as facilitating mapping and genetic studies within breeding populations. Double haploid
breeding systems also have substantial genetic advantages. Double haploids allow the breeder to
select among fixed lines at the maximum level of genetic variability, viz. at the first generation
after crossing. In conventional breeding programs, early generation material must be selected
within families of genotypes evaluated in relatively few replications and locations. Thus, at least
for some traits, double haploid-based breeding systems should allow breeders to select elite
genotypes that may have been missed during conventional breeding. The impact of these
potential advantages in maize and wheat breeding will be investigated.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety;

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Genetic resources conservation, characterization, informatics and
distribution

The intermediate products from Output 1 are new sources of beneficial genetic variation for
priority breeding traits and germplasm, plus information associated with those genetic resources.
The primary users of these intermediate products who will also participate in their further
development include breeders and other researchers from CIMMYT, NARS, SME, and ARI. A
fundamental task of P1 is to search for genetic diversity that is not readily accessible through
conventional breeding approaches, using novel tools and methodologies to identify crop-related
genetic diversity beneficial for improvement of specific priority traits. Thus, P1 builds close
alliances with all actors in the maize and wheat improvement value chain and impact pathway:
national genebanks curators, breeders and trait specialists in P3-P8, and NARS and SME breeding
programs. In addition, collaborations with P10 facilitate appropriate cost-benefit analysis and
impact assessment of intermediate products to assist in prioritizing investments across different
types of interventions and end-user trait needs. P1 has a major role to play in coordinating
information and germplasm networks to help ARI, NARS, and SME focus on the most important
needs of resource-poor clients.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             16
Distribution of genetic resources and improved germplasm is a fundamentally important activity
for the whole of CIMMYT to achieve its core mission. The seeds we distribute are the primary
international public goods of CIMMYT embodying new genetic variation and integrating an entire
pipeline of advanced technologies. This germplasm is being used by breeding programs across the
world and thereby impacting our ultimate target beneficiaries. Achieving regular constructive
feedback from primary end-users is fundamentally important. Conversely, information from the
farmers and ultimate beneficiaries is generally indirect, and interpreted by the other projects.
However, the connection between P1 and the other projects is important to strengthen these
networks and make sure the right questions are being asked about end-users needs. Particularly
in terms of the priority traits, issues include the nature of the most desirable genetic backgrounds
for introgression of those traits and the range of tools required for effective utilization of these
traits, through the genetic resources in which they are embedded, in breeding programs. Finally,
training and capacity building are critically important components of our mission in this area which
we are attempting to fulfill in a variety of ways.

Output 2: Targeted access to useful genetic variation

The intermediate products from Output 1 are new sources of beneficial traits, genes and alleles
together with associated genomics tools for effective selection in breeding programs. Genetic
resources information sharing and databases are helpful in facilitating the efficient access of ARI,
NARS, and SME to useful germplasm. CIMMYT has a comparative advantage in facilitating this,
coordinating networks to share knowledge and skills focused around the generation of enhanced
germplasm products. P1 has a role in creating and then maintaining new networks, since many of
the ones set in national chains exist for different purposes.

The intermediate products from P1 are likely to have an impact on the productivity, stability, and
resilience of new, experimental maize and wheat cultivars. Resultant impacts of new cultivars on
livelihoods are envisaged and, in most cases, direct impacts will first reach the CIMMYT breeding
programs through P3/P4 and P7/P8, then through NARS intimately involved with CIMMYT through
globally decentralized shuttle breeding initiatives, and then to other NARS and SME breeding
programs in target countries. The extent to which new genetic variation, together with the tools
and methodologies to use it, is taken up by CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding programs will
greatly influence the overall contribution of these intermediate products to the final impact of
finished cultivars and improved cropping systems. Recent projects focusing on drought tolerant
maize for Africa (DTMA and WEMA) have adopted a mega-project or holistic program approach in
order to bring together many of the elements important for success along the technology
intervention, production development and product deployment value chain.

Output 3: Exploratory research on novel sources of genetic variation

Activities in this area are by nature highly speculatively, where the high risk is balanced by high
potential impact. For this reason, research activities in this area can not be placed under the same
level of product-orientated scrutiny as CIMMYT applied research. Although clearly a strict time
bound window for validation must be enforced, after which activities must be terminated if they
are not showing tangible promise towards applied outputs. However, once novel variation has
been validated to have beneficial value it should be passed into Output 1 and subjected to the
same level of analysis as any other new candidate germplasm.

International Public Goods

Genetic resources conservation, characterization, informatics and distribution
New collections and global registries: Through collaborations with maize and wheat germplasm
collections across the world and in coordination with the Global Crop Diversity Trust, global
registries will be created that will enable major duplications and gaps to be identified. On this

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                              17
basis, a 5-year strategic plan will be developed regarding priorities for trait-targeted acquisition of
new germplasm. On this basis it is expected that there will be a reduction in germplasm requests
that are declined or inappropriately fulfilled due to lack of the necessary genetic variation. This will
lead to an improvement efficiency of maize and wheat germplasm utilization in research and
breeding programs worldwide. In the first instance, the global registries will enable cross
referencing of the CIMMYT and ICARDA wheat genebanks with germplasm collections in the USA
and EU, and of the CIMMYT and IITA maize genebanks with germplasm collections in the USA and
across Latin America. For example, tropical sweet corn germplasm and US-GEM maize germplasm
are expected to be introduced in addition to elite temperate cultivars and genetic stocks with
known sources of drought tolerance in addition to the routine addition of new enhanced lines and
populations from the CIMMYT global maize breeding programs. New collections of maize and
teosinte, and monitoring of tripsacum in situ germplasm will continue in Mexico in collaboration
with the relevant NARS.

Conservation and regeneration: Germplasm accessions from global sources (including related wild
species, genetic stocks and improved breeding lines). Safety duplicates of over half of the wheat
and maize germplasm collections will be held in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault within the life of
this medium term plan reaching 100% within 5 years thereafter. A similar process is on-going
with the US National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) genebank for maize
germplasm. In addition, where possible and appropriate, threatened NARS collections will be
regenerated and multiplied in collaboration with CIMMYT including long-term safety back-up in the
CIMMYT genebank. Standard operating procedures for genebank operation (including bar-coding),
germplasm data curation and quality assurance (through ICIS-GRIMS), and germplasm
distribution developed in coordination with other genebanks (through Global Public Good Phase 2
(GPG2) project and SGRP), including pathogen and transgene detection systems (based on
selective testing of all regeneration, multiplication and breeding trials). This will lead to enhanced
public confidence in seed health and contamination risk management for global recipients of seed
shipments from CIMMYT-Mexico. Evolving best practices regarding logistical and statistical
components of maintenance and regenerating of maize and wheat genetic resources based on
modeling and simulation studies.

Characterization and evaluation: Characterization and evaluation data from maize landraces from
Latin America for the development of race-based core subsets. Multilocational phenotypic data for
drought, agronomic and characterization traits from GCP reference germplasm subsets for maize
and wheat generated and combined with genotypic characterization data for and made publically
available through an on-line resource as well as all other available maize and wheat genetic
resources phenotypic and genotypic data. Targeted evaluation of other material (landraces and
elite germplasm) with the goal of identifying new sources of trait variation and increasing the
uptake and impact of utilizing genetic resources in breeding programs.

Informatics and germplasm knowledge sharing: Cross-referencing with the US Germplasm
Resources Information Network (GRIN) and other major relevant genebank databases into IWIS
and IMIS public databases including germplasm and crop improvement information that is
important for facilitating exchange and use of genetic resources. SNP database and visualization
tools for diverse genetic resources and CIMMYT breeding lines available for thousands of lines.

Germplasm distribution and impact assessment: Globally recognized and accredited guidelines for
the maintenance, regeneration, purification, distribution and documentation of germplasm
regarding pest, pathogens and transgenes. More than 5000 maize accessions will be distributed to
the global users annually.

Network coordination and capacity building: Creation of an active community of practice of maize
and wheat genebanks, germplasm enhancers, and germplasm users. Including tracking systems
for genetic resources flowing in and out of CIMMYT and NARS breeding programs. This community
will have the opportunity to rationalize collections in line with global crop strategies both in terms

CIMMYT                                       MTP 2010-12                                             18
of the relative complement of their collections but also to safety back-ups at CIMMYT and
Svalbard. This cooperative action will enable rapid and widespread uptake of genebank operation
best practices and response to end-user feedback which should increase the quality and efficiency
of maize and wheat germplasm conservation, distribution, and utilization. These networks will be
managed in coordination with SGRP and GCDT. National, regional and international researchers
and breeders trained, capacity building and technical backstopping provided in germplasm
conservation, characterization, data management and utilization including the latest innovations in
germplasm management, novel technology-assisted germplasm enhancement tools and
methodologies

Targeted access to beneficial genetic variation from maize and wheat global biodiversity

Targeted germplasm subsets: Race-related germplasm subsets for maize and eco-regional or
trait-related germplasm subsets for wheat identified in line with target mega-environments or
specific priority traits using all available passport, phenotype, pedigree and genotype data.
Improved interdisciplinary methodologies (and resultant web-enabled CoreHunter resource) for
the development of end-user defined maize and wheat germplasm subsets, maximizing genetic
variation for priority traits. This resource will be linked to on-line training resources and
germplasm request systems, and will be advertised widely to inform non-traditional partners. This
will dramatically increase the efficiency of targeted utilization of genetic resources.

Association mapping in diverse germplasm: New added-value alleles and genes identified from
germplasm subsets through marker-trait association analyses of precision multilocation
phenotyping and genomewide genotyping data. Linked markers (wheat) and gene-based markers
(maize) identified for agronomic traits of interest to CIMMYT and NARS breeders. New sources of
genetic variation for improvement of new value-added traits in diverse maize germplasm using
association mapping. This will lead to increased scope and efficiency of use of genetic resources in
maize breeding programs worldwide.

Allele mining in crop-related global biodiversity: New allele mining methodologies for using gene-
based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers to identify beneficial genetic variation for well
studied target traits in maize and wheat improvement. Genes contributing to the traits of interest,
validated together with information on the percentage of phenotypic variation explained, map
location, gene action, and, allele and gene interaction. Allelic sequence variation across
germplasm collections related to phenotypic variation and allele-specific markers developed for
selection of optimum haplotypes. Genetic variation for improvement of drought tolerance and
provitamin A level identified in diverse maize germplasm using sequence-based allele mining.
Validated, multidisciplinary methodologies for trait-based allele mining and gene discovery. Novel
alleles and genes affecting pest and disease resistance, reproductive traits, drought tolerance, or
quality traits identified in diverse maize or wheat germplasm. Genome sequence-based trait-
driven comparative genomics facilitated use of model systems. Pathway-based in silico
comparative genomics identification of novel genes for maize and wheat allele mining and
germplasm improvement using information from model systems, algorithms to remove deleterious
candidate genes and alleles. Increased scope and efficiency of use of genetic resources in maize
and wheat molecular breeding programs worldwide

Exploratory research on novel sources of genetic variation

New trait targets: Beneficial genes and gene combinations from vegetable maize genetic
resources, including floury maize and tropical sweet corn germplasm. Apomictic maize, BNI wheat,
forage maize and triticale. Maize with increase protein, starch, and oil quality and quantity.
Comprehensive evaluation of cost and time efficiency, and rate of genetic gain achieved through
double haploid germplasm enhancement strategies in maize and wheat which allow increased
speed, efficiency or scope of genetic gain, including more efficient development and integration of
MAS particularly regarding Increased scope and efficiency of utilizing landraces in maize breeding

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                            19
worldwide. Marker-assisted improvement of eco-regionally and heterotically targeted strategic
maize germplasm pools. Trait-targeted methodologies for increased scope and efficiency of
utilizing wild species in wheat breeding worldwide. Genomics-based methodology for defining
heterotic patterns among strategic maize germplasm - based on whole genome genotyping or
expressional profiling based on modeling and simulation of increased hybrid performance. New
genes discovered through in silico methods from model systems (Arabidopsis, rice, sorghum,
maize, Medicago, Lotus).

Access to appropriate proprietary transgenic germplasm : Negotiated access to proprietary genes
for drought tolerance and pest resistance in maize, for disease resistance and drought tolerance in
wheat, and for hybrid seed productions systems in wheat. Optimized methodologies for evaluation
and germplasm enhancement in diverse backgrounds using transgenic sources of drought
tolerance in wheat and maize. Enhanced understanding of epistatsis and genotype-by-
environment interaction between transgenic, wild species and cultivated genepool sources of
complex agronomic traits such as drought tolerance. Leading to improved efficiency of utilization
of novel sources of genetic variation for improvement of agronomic traits. Increased capacity for
building public-private sector partnerships for technology-based intermediate product
development and end-product deployment.

Development of new transgenic germplasm: Validate methodology for preliminary selection of
transgenic lines under glasshouse conditions for physiological traits contributing to drought
tolerance. Transgenic material with enhanced drought tolerance in wheat and increase quality
protein maize.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

CIMMYT has been highly reliant on ARI for the development of new marker systems for diversity
analysis and this relationship is becoming stronger as we need isolated genes from increasingly
complex pathways to drive our migration into allele mining. This includes partnerships with
institutions in Australia, USA and EU (including John Innes Centre [JIC, UK], Institut Scientifique
de Recherche Agronomique [INRA, France] and National Institute of Agricultural Botany [NIAB,
UK]), for wheat, and partnerships with institutions in USA (Cornell University and USDA) for maize.

ARIs will also continue to fulfill a critical role of developing and testing new technologies. For
example, increasingly dense SNP platforms for whole genome scanning with candidate gene
markers. Many of the activities in this Project are carried out in close collaboration with SGRP,
GCP and HarvestPlus Challenge Program, as well as the maize and wheat breeding programs of
CIMMYT and partners.

In the Centers new vision, NARS partnersparticularly in primary centers of maize or wheat
diversityand other CGIAR and advanced germplasm banks play a critical role in synergizing P1
activities in germplasm conservation and characterization. Similarly, CIMMYT participation in GCP
and HarvestPlus Challenge Program provides unique access to global germplasm for drought
tolerance and biofortification, respectively. Partnerships with advanced institutes such as CRC-
MPB, Cornell University, and NIAB provide essential new technologies for targeted trait-based
access to germplasm, particularly allele and gene mining technologies. General conservation and
utilization activities among CIMMYT and other international centers take place under the System-
wide Genetic Resource Program (SGRP) and the Global Crop Diversity Trust. CIMMYT
predominantly focuses on applying various technologies for its maize and wheat germplasm
collections. CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeders also play a critical role in orientating these efforts
towards the highest priority traits. P1 researchers reach up the value chain by committing to
provide technical backstopping for the routine application of new tools and methodologies in
CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding programs. P1 has a major role to play in coordinating
information networks to help ARI, NARS, and SME focus on the most important needs of resource-


CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                               20
poor clients. Many of the activities in this Project are carried out in close collaboration with SGRP
as well as GCP and HarvestPlus Challenge Program.

P1 has a role in creating and then maintaining new networks, since many existing networks
established in national chains exist for different purposes. Achieving regular constructive feedback
from primary end-users is fundamentally important. Conversely, information from the farmers and
ultimate beneficiaries is generally indirect, and interpreted by the other projects. However, the
connection between P1 and the other projects is important to strengthen and support these
networks and make sure the right questions are being asked about end-users needs. Particularly
in terms of the priority traits and germplasm, issues include the nature of the most desirable
genetic backgrounds for introgression of those traits and the range of tools required for effective
utilization of the traits in mainstream breeding programs. In addition to synergizing links between
organizations, it is also critically important for CIMMYT to help synergize interactions between
disciplinary groups in partner organizations, for example between breeders and biotechnologists is
NARS.

The Science Council and others are encouraging the CGIAR to devolve more activities to our NARS
partners. To effectively achieve this, at least during the transition phase, we need to take a more
proactive role in coordinating the overall value chains in which we operate in order to ensure
impact of our outputs. To move ahead in this area we plan to initiate some proof-of-concept
devolution initiatives. Shifts in this direction will result in a more interdisciplinary multi-sector
regionalization of CIMMYT operational structure across programs, units, disciplines and projects
perhaps most immediately in the area of biotechnology capacity. This will clearly require a
substantial increase in the range and depth of collaborations with public and private sector NARS
on priority setting, skills development, backstopping implementation and fostering delivery of
resultant products. We propose the creation of communities of practice based on systemic
mutually dependent activities to achieve this.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             21
Logical Framework

                              Outputs                        Intended Users               Outcome                      Impact

Output 1                      Genetic resources              Maize and wheat              Improved efficiency of       Increasingly targeted
                              conservation,                  international research and   maize and wheat ex situ      access of maize and wheat
                              characterization,              breeding community, and      conservation and             germplasm users leading to
                              informatics and                SGRP                         distribution                 enhanced access and
                              distribution                                                                             improved efficiency of
                                                                                                                       utilization

Target 2010: Practices        Transgene contamination        Maize and wheat              Increased confidence of      Minimized risk of litigation
                              testing of 100% of incoming    international research and   international community      for users of CIMMYT
                              maize germplasm, 100% of       breeding community           that CIMMYT germplasm is     germplasm
                              maize genebank material                                     free from unintentional
                              introduced or regenerated                                   transgene geneflow
                              since the first
                              commercialization of GM
                              maize, 100% of maize
                              accessions annually
                              regenerated in-house.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Multilocational phenotypic     Maize and wheat              New marker-trait             Improved efficiency, pace
knowledge                     data for drought, agronomic    international research       associations for molecular   and scope of plant breeding
                              and characterization traits    community                    breeding of maize and        gains in the areas of abiotic
                              from GCP reference                                          wheat                        stress tolerance, biotic
                              germplasm subsets for                                                                    stress resistance and
                              maize and wheat generated                                                                enhanced nutritional
                              and combined with                                                                        quality
                              genotypic characterization
                              data for and made
                              publically available through
                              an on-line resource.

Target 2011: Capacity         Cross referencing of           Wheat international          Improved efficiency of       Enhanced plant breeding
                              CIMMYT, ICARDA, GRIN           research and breeding        wheat genetic resources      gains due to improved
                              (USA), ECP/GR (EU) and         communit                     conservation and             access to beneficial genetic
                              other major relevant wheat                                  utilization                  variation
                              genebank databases in
                              IWSI to create a model
                              global wheat registry.

Target 2011: Capacity         Creation of an active          Maize and wheat              Improved quality of maize    Enhanced plant breeding


CIMMYT                                                             MTP 2010-12                                                                    22
                         Outputs                        Intended Users               Outcome                      Impact

                         community of practice of       international breeding       and wheat genetic            gains due to improved
                         over 50 maize and wheat        community                    resources conservation and   access to beneficial genetic
                         genebanks, germplasm                                        enhanced utilization         variation
                         enhancers, and germplasm
                         users.

Target 2012: Capacity    Internet-based tools for       Maize and wheat              Improved efficiency of       Enhanced plant breeding
                         end-user creation and          international research and   maize and wheat genetic      gains due to more targeted
                         analysis of germplasm          breeding community           resources utilization        access to beneficial genetic
                         subsets across genebanks                                                                 variation



Output 2                 Targeted access to             Global maize and wheat       Enhanced efficiency of       Improved uptake and
                         useful genetic variation       research and breeding        maize and wheat              increased impact of
                                                        community                    germplasm utilization        utilization of genetic
                                                                                                                  resources in breeding
                                                                                                                  programs worldwide

Target 2010: Materials   Over 10 new sources of         Global maize and wheat       Increased use of genetic     Enhanced plant breeding
                         improved priority traits       research and breeding        resources in maize and       gains due to more targeted
                         identified from phenotypic     community                    wheat breeding               access to beneficial genetic
                         screening of reference                                                                   variation
                         maize and wheat
                         germplasm subsets.

Target 2010: Materials   Over 10 new sources of         Global maize and wheat       Increased use of genetic     Enhanced plant breeding
                         genetic variation for          research and breeding        resources in maize and       gains due to more targeted
                         drought tolerance and grain    community                    wheat breeding               access to beneficial genetic
                         quality traits identified in                                                             variation
                         diverse maize germplasm
                         and similarly for disease
                         resistance and yield
                         potential in wheat
                         germplasm using
                         association mapping.

Target 2011: Capacity    Over 20 end-user defined       Global maize and wheat       Improved efficiency of       Enhanced plant breeding
                         germplasm subsets              research and breeding        wheat genetic resources      gains due to improved
                         identified using CoreHunter,   community                    utilization                  access to beneficial genetic
                         a web-enabled, dynamic                                                                   variation
                         germplasm sub-set selector
                         for real-time targeted
                         selection of maize and

CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                   23
                              Outputs                           Intended Users           Outcome                        Impact

                              wheat genetic resources
                              using all passport,
                              phenotype, pedigree and
                              genotype data.

Target 2011: Practices        New tools for haplotype           Global maize and wheat   Improved efficiency of         Enhanced plant breeding
                              diversity analysis and            research and breeding    wheat genetic resources        gains due to improved
                              introgression from                community                utilization                    access to beneficial genetic
                              landraces to elite lines                                                                  variation
                              available for quality traits
                              and drought tolerance using
                              bulked DNA genotyping or
                              double haploid systems.

Target 2012: Capacity         Systematic allele mining of       Global maize and wheat   Increased use of genetic       Enhanced plant breeding
                              large sections of the maize       research and breeding    resources in maize and         gains due to more targeted
                              or wheat genebank for at          community                wheat breeding                 access to beneficial genetic
                              least one trait validated                                                                 variation

Target 2012: Practices        New methodologies for             Global maize and wheat   Increased use of genetic       Enhanced plant breeding
                              target in silico identification   research and breeding    resources in maize and         gains due to more targeted
                              of beneficial alleles             community                wheat breeding                 access to beneficial genetic
                                                                                                                        variation



Output 3                      Exploratory research on           CIMMYT and partners      New germplasm sources          Long-term high risk
                              novel sources of genetic          worldwide                with substantially improved    opportunities for large
                              variation                                                  target traits or novel added   improvements in current
                                                                                         value traits                   priority or novel added-
                                                                                                                        value traits

Target 2010: Materials        At least 10 leading events        Global maize and wheat   New germplasm sources          New wheat cultivars with
                              of new GM-wheat material          research and breeding    with substantially improved    dramatically increased
                              evaluated under open field        community                target traits or novel added   added value
                              trial conditions.                                          value traits

Target 2011: Other kinds of   More than 10 new                  Global maize and wheat   New genes for molecular        Improved scope of plant
knowledge                     candidate genes identified        research and breeding    breeding of maize and          breeding impacts in the
                              in model systems through          community                wheat                          areas of abiotic stress
                              bioinformatic approaches.                                                                 tolerance, biotic stress
                                                                                                                        resistance and enhanced
                                                                                                                        nutritional quality



CIMMYT                                                                MTP 2010-12                                                                  24
                         Outputs                      Intended Users           Outcome                    Impact

Target 2012: Practices   Validation of genomewide     Global maize and wheat   Increased and more         Improved efficiency, pace
                         molecular prebreeding        research and breeding    efficient use of genetic   and scope of plant breeding
                         methodologies for at least   community                resources in maize and     gains in the areas of abiotic
                         one complex trait in maize                            wheat breeding             stress tolerance, biotic
                         and wheat                                                                        stress resistance and
                                                                                                          enhanced nutritional
                                                                                                          quality




CIMMYT                                                      MTP 2010-12                                                             25
2: Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic
improvement

Project Overview and Rationale

Modern plant breeding is becoming increasingly dependent on the timely and appropriate
implementation of technology-assisted tools and methodologies to deliver breeding products more
simply, quickly and cheaply as well as helping to address new and recalcitrant goals. In P2 we
primarily focus on two groups of interventions based on advances in genomics and computational
sciences. Applications in these areas that are already being applied in P1, include: (1) molecular
diversity analysis to help understand our germplasm at the molecular genetic level, (2) marker-
trait association analysis to identify markers linked with traits of agronomic importance using
diverse germplasm, (3) gene and allele discovery to exploit gene diversity for gene-based
selection, and, (4) genetic engineering using novel genes from distant genepools. The other tools
and methodologies that are able to directly contribute to mainstream breeding programs form the
basis of P2, including: (5) marker-trait association analysis to identify markers linked with traits of
agronomic importance using genetic populations or breeding populations, (6) marker-assisted
selection of beneficial of trait-specific alleles, (6) whole genome screening for combined
foreground selection of complex haplotypes combined with background selection, (7) data
management systems for easy organization and query of diverse types of data across breeding
populations, seasons and locations, and (8) modeling and simulation systems forming the basis of
decision-support tools to help breeders design optimum product-led breeding systems and to help
breeders easily and rapidly interpret incoming data flows at each selection cycle.

Effective molecular breeding applications will require applying quantitative knowledge-led
phenotyping systems, analyzing environmental and genetic background effects, developing
improved predictive tools based on retrospective analysis of current and historical breeding data,
and devising new selection systems based on holistic indices. Our goal is to slowly shift to a focus
on whole genome level analysis as well as multifactorial analysis of complex agronomic traits
through simultaneous consideration of environmental factors (e.g. genotype-by-environment
interactions) plus trait-by-trait and trait-by-genetic background effects (epistasis) in order to
better serve the needs of our breeding programs at both phenotypic and molecular levels. For
complex traits such as drought tolerance, this will also require increasing emphasis on screening
of physiological parameters associated with the trait of interest under highly controlled well
designed experiments. CIMMYT has a strong niche in each of these areas of research and should
be able to capture substantial synergy through the proposed interdisciplinary approach. The
absence of public domain molecular breeding decision-support tools has become the rate limiting
factor for effectively integrating multidisciplinary interventions into modern public sector breeding
systems. CIMMYT has a comparative advantage in this area by virtue of the close interaction and
comparative strength of its biotechnology, computational systems, and global maize and wheat
improvement programs.

The effective application of molecular breeding requires the resolution of many logistical and
genetical constraints that are rarely addressed in journal publications and which are often unique
to the target breeding program. Thus, technical backstopping of NARS, SME and CIMMYT breeding
programs is a fundamental priority for P2 to ensure adequate uptake and effective impact of
outputs from P1 and P2. In addition, such activities provide an iterative mechanism to empower
end-users to orientate our future efforts. P2 is also highly committed to giving greater emphasis
to testing out-sourcing strategies for implementation of intermediate products from P2
biotechnology research, both for direct use by CIMMYT and for use by NARS and SME breeding
programs through the creation of cooperative structures. Finally, cost-benefit analysis and impact
assessment of intermediate products from P2 is an important future goal that may also be best
achieved through outsourcing.

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             26
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

All Project 2 activities are directly related to CGIAR System Priorities 2A, 2B and 2C.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
There are no changes from last year's MTP.

Output 1: Genomics-based tools for genetic enhancement

Description: Genomics is becoming a mainstay of all modern crop improvement programs. This is
very much in line with CIMMYTs strategy and general efforts to develop genomics-based tools and
molecular breeding strategies for genetic enhancement that dramatically increase the efficiency of
identifying and validating marker-trait associations for important agronomic traits thereby
improving the scope and impact of MAS in wheat and maize breeding. However, breeding
programs need access to more cost effective and high throughput genotyping systems combined
with rapid cycling technologies to increase the precision, scale and speed of MAS selection cycles.
This will require the replacement of trait-specific SSR markers with gene-based SNP markers in
order that all screening can be carried out on a common high throughput SNP genotyping platform.
Meanwhile, it will be necessary to carry out detailed functional validation of alleles and haplotypes
for qualitative and quantitative traits in diverse panels of elite germplasm. Continuous efforts will
also need to be made to improved workflow efficiency and genotyping unit costs ultimately
resulting in a one-step process for selection of multiple traits. Increased emphasis will be placed
on both maize and wheat, to optimize systems for integrating marker development and
application into on-going breeding programs. This may be based on map-as-you-go or advanced
backcross QTL methodologies or rely on selective genotyping and/or selective phenotyping
approaches. In addition, the use of linkage disequilibrium-based mapping in breeding material has
recently been validated for rust resistance, maturity and yield components, and similar efforts are
ongoing for a range of other agronomic traits under our „Wheat Phenome Atlas‟ initiative in
collaboration with the University of Queensland and Cornell University. This initial proof-of-concept
used historical data from CIMMYT‟s Wheat International Nurseries Network. Now we expect to
rapidly scale-up activities in this area and achieve proof-of-concept application in on-going
breeding programs. Linking diversity analysis to marker-assisted selection applications through
linkage disequilibrium analysis in on-going breeding programs should bring about substantial
improvements in efficiency of marker development and deployment. This will also ultimately
facilitate the integration of genome-wide association mapping technologies into wheat breeding
programs. Meanwhile, large-scale marker-trait association and validation using collections of
phenotypic extremes (selective genotyping and pooled DNA analysis) for various traits in maize is
on-going. This will enable the development and optimization of whole genome selection strategies
for parental selection and pyramiding of multiple genes in maize breeding. Commercial GM crops
are currently based on single gene traits, mainly herbicide tolerance and Bt-based pest resistance.
As we move into a second generation of much more complex GM traits such as drought tolerance,
there is an increasing need to evaluate new transgenes in a range of agronomically elite
backgrounds in order to select the events with the best GbyE and epistasis profiles. This will
require large-scale marker-assisted introgression programs combined with high throughput
physiological phenotyping in both maize and wheat germplasm enhancement programs. This will
be an important precursor, as social acceptance of GM crops broadens, to the adoption of
intragenic GM approaches (using genes from the same species) to assist with improving otherwise
elite varieties for just one or two poor traits.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            27
Output 2: Computational systems for crop improvement

Description: Data management and decision-support tools have become the rate limiting factor
for effectively integrating multidisciplinary interventions into modern breeding systems. Good
progress is being made in the development of informatics systems to enable pedigree, breeding
and phenotype data to be integrated with genomics data as well as evaluation data, geo-
referenced, environmental and international trial data. Our immediate priority is to migrate all
CIMMYT research and breeding programs to ICIS-based data management tools thereby allowing
all CIMMYT breeding and research data to be accessible through internet-based systems. At the
same time it is a high priority to begin to introduce ICIS-based breeding tools to key NARS
partners. Meanwhile, we are developing software called MOSEL that will aid ICIS-based users to
manage and interpret MAS data. Finally, we hope to start seeing bioinformatics and comparative
cereal analysis making an impact on MAS. Advances in biometrics, modeling and simulation will
continue to be a fundamentally important niche area for CIMMYT, ultimately enabling the
development of a one-stop workbench structured in line with the workflow of modern breeding
programs. A new QTL mapping software has been developed and ever more complex approaches
are being applied for mapping drought and drought-related traits in maize. Modeling and
simulation tools have already been developed for integrating whole plant physiology and marker
genotyping data into the previously well established genetic models. We are currently developing
modeling and simulation tools for hybrid breeding and drought tolerance breeding. Historically
computational tools have often been developed on a focused functionality basis with limited
interoperability to other tools used in the overall workflow and without internet linkage to enable
interface between users. P2 aims to resolve both of these constraints. In addition, a virtual
consultancy service has been established for biometrics, computational biology, breeding
informatics and simulation. This allows the latest innovations in computational sciences to be
rapidly adopted by CIMMYT and partners. CIMMYT is currently developing methodologies for
assessing the contribution and cost-effectiveness of technology-assisted interventions. This
undertaking is part of ongoing efforts to assess impacts of intermediate products contributing to
the development of new cultivars. Based on modeling of this data, we will generate simulation
tools that can help design efficient breeding systems for any target trait or cropping system. It is
envisaged that within 5 years breeders will routinely use decision-support tools that allow
optimization not only of genetic effects but also of economic implications. This approach will
facilitate priority setting of investments amongst various breeding technologies and approaches
bringing a new level of design-led efficiency to breeding.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

Output 3: Backstopping implementation of technology-assisted breeding interventions

Description:

Capacity building and technical backstopping are increasingly important activities to ensure
adequate uptake of outputs from Project 1 and 2. There are many challenges for breeding
programs establishing and scaling-up MAS programs. These include challenges associated with
making published markers work in different breeding materials, developing simple, quick, and
cheap technical protocols for sampling, marker analysis, and data collection, establishing sample-
tracking and data management systems, designing efficient breeding systems and using decision-
support tools to enable rapid but accurate selection decisions. All these issues substantially
influence the cost effectiveness of MAS and as such its ultimate impact. Thus, P2 aims to develop
and validate new tools and methodologies in close collaboration with ongoing breeding programs.
This has the added advantage of providing a forum for prioritizing trait targets by end-users in the
maize and wheat improvement programs and for gaining immediate feedback from end-users on
the value of current P1 and P2 outputs as well as orientation for future priorities. New projects

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             28
have recently allowed us to strengthen maize molecular breeding capacity in Africa and it is now a
high priority to follow a similar approach in Asia. This is a vital transition for increased impact
through enhanced interdisciplinary integration in regional programs. In particular, this will allow
us to build multi-sector communities of practice to reinforce biotechnology networks and provide a
much stronger capacity for technical backstopping in these regions. This should also allow us to
build important foundations for successful devolution of activities to strong NARS. It is now
important for us to establish a similar regionalization strategy for wheat, with strong opportunities
in Central/West Asia and North Affrica (CWANA) and other areas in Asia. The large-scale use of
markers in breeding is currently limited due to a lack of markers for complex traits and the
absence of low cost, high throughput genotyping platforms appropriate to the needs of maize and
wheat molecular breeding. Marker detection through currently available capillary electrophoresis
systems offers significant incremental advances in throughput and unit costs, but dramatic
progress will have to await appropriate SNP-based systems. SNP markers provide an efficient path
to candidate gene-based markers for molecular breeding and allele mining, having the advantage
of eliminating undesired recombination between marker and trait. There are a number of high
throughput platforms for large-scale, low cost simultaneous genotyping of tens of SNP markers,
which may be appropriate for the type of molecular breeding applications expected over the next
few years. However, it is envisaged that within the next 10 years, micro-array-based genotyping
systems will provide at least a 10-fold increase in throughput plus the all important dramatic
reduction in costs per sample. Since the capital investment required for these systems is likely to
be prohibitively expensive for most public sector breeding programs including CIMMYT, there is a
need to establish regional hubs and cooperative out-sourcing facilities to serve breeding programs
on a regional basis. We have already demonstrated that outsourcing of high density whole
genome array-based fingerprinting of diverse germplasm can work extremely well for both maize
(SNP chip) and wheat (DArT analysis). In contrast, pilot out-sourcing trials for MAS have not been
successful, partly because the demands on a genotyping system for MAS are very different from
those for fingerprinting. Thus, we are attempting to foster the development of regional out-
sourcing solutions that are tailored to the specific needs of molecular breeding programs.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Genomics-based tools for genetic enhancement

In the new vision of P2, advanced research institute partners play the fundamental role of
technology provider, although in some cases where there is no ARI provider or where CIMMYT
retains the comparative advantage in developing a particular tool or methodology, the Center will
take up that role. CIMMYT founding role in GCP and the MPB-CRC provides unique access to a
wide range of technology options. CIMMYT focuses predominantly on validating and refining those
technologies for application to end-user breeding programs, and integrating diverse technologies
into efficient, new genetic improvement methodologies. P2 scientists then validate and refine
these tools and methodologies through technical backstopping their application in CIMMYT, NARS,
and SME breeding programs.

Newly identified genetic resources, latest innovations in germplasm management, novel
technology-assisted germplasm enhancement tools and new breeding methodologies need to be
routinely and rapidly adopted by CIMMYT, NARS and SME breeding programs. To ensure
appropriate uptake and optimum impact, P2 researchers will develop, validate, and refine tools
and methodologies hand-in-hand with relevant breeding programs. These tools will enable
improved selection gains for molecular breeding of complex traits in maize and wheat at CIMMYT,
NARS and SME. Understanding the genetic basis of complex agronomic traits and identifying the


CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             29
underlying QTL is a major prerequisite for effective progress in molecular breeding. These tools
will provide new opportunities for design-led improvement of maize and wheat. This will enable
more targeted maize and wheat improved germplasm to be produced with market preferred
characters that will reduce farmer risks and vulnerabilities, improve farming household livelihoods
and health, and conserve natural resources. Knowledge and methodologies in genomics developed
by CIMMYT can be directly adopted by NARS and SME biotechnology programs. Intermediate
products from CIMMYT genomics programs, including markers, maps, genotyping systems, and
genetic populations and breeding materials that have been genetically characterized for target
traits, can be directly used in NARS and SME breeding programs for end-product development.
Identified genes and favorable allele/allele combinations will be utilized through NARS and SME
molecular breeding programs.

P2 will act as a technology bridge between the ARI and other institutions conducting advanced
research in the areas of genomics, and the breeders who will benefit from the intermediate tools.
Access to genetic sequences in many related crops, improved elucidation of metabolic pathways,
and an understanding of how these relate to phenotypes in crops will allow P2 to in turn develop
simple marker assays to select for better forms of the traits in question. Other genomic tools such
as expression analyses, validation through transient expression of transgenes in target tissues,
and evaluation of permanent expression of transgenic cultivars will allow further validation and
targeted access to new and useful sequence diversity. Much of the most advanced work in
genomics is currently being done by multinational private companies, and so public/private
partnerships are necessary to share the benefits of this work with the worlds poor, who are unable
to purchase proprietary products or operating in a cropping system not served by those products.
CIMMYT has a good reputation to both our public and our private partners, putting P2 in the
unique position of being trusted by both sides to fairly deliver these new products.

The outputs of P2 are intermediate products such as new tools and methodologies, which have
direct impacts on the efficiency and impact of CIMMYT, NARS, and SME breeding programs
through increasing the scope, speed and precision of crop improvement programs. Direct impacts
will first flow to CIMMYT breeding programs through other CIMMYT Projects (P3/P4 and P7/P8),
then NARS and SME breeding programs intimately involved with CIMMYT through globally
decentralized shuttle breeding initiatives, and then to other NARS and SME breeding programs in
target countries. The extent to which the potential benefits of these intermediate products are
quickly realized relies heavily upon the extent of uptake and the skills of adopters. It is clear that
MAS offers great benefits for rapidly improving popular cultivars for one deficient trait. This is
particularly advantageous when time is a critical factor, for example upon the emergence of a new
race of a disease. The ultimate goal of P2 activities is to enhance resilience to abiotic stresses,
yield stability under biotic stress, nutritional quality and the profitability for resource-poor maize
and wheat farming communities, through targeted use of genetic resources.

Output 2: Computational systems for crop improvement

P2 play a major role in coordinating information networks to help ARI, NARS, and SME focus on
key needs of resource-poor clients. Operation of these networks will be facilitated by informatics
tools for data management, analysis and decision-support within CIMMYT and in collaboration with
NARS and SME. Global access to information on genetic resources and breeding material will
enhance the utilization of those genetic resources by all breeding programs. By making
information systems and decision-support tools free to use, open source and easily accessible we
will not only tap into the innovative resources of partners but the quality of the tools and the
information will also be enhanced. The development and deployment of these systems and tools is
also an opportunity for building public-private sector partnerships which will lead to a better
understanding of the needs of end-users who can contribute to agricultural development.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            30
Output 3: Backstopping implementation of technology-assisted breeding interventions

To ensure appropriate uptake and optimum impact, P2 researchers will assist in implementation
through intensive technical backstopping, tailored training and user-group workshops. CIMMYT
will achieve this through proactive involvement in regional hubs, collaborative projects,
international shuttle breeding initiatives, and associated molecular breeding communities of
practice. In this way, the Center will foster and synergize national program confidence to take a
larger role in adaptive breeding. CIMMYT will increasingly emphasize its role as facilitator, enabler,
and advocate in the overall value chain. The output of much of the genomics research from P2 can
be transferred into an easily-accessible form such as PCR based markers which embodies the
information necessary to use the genes identified by years of upstream research. Molecular
breeders will then receive the sequence of the gene in addition to the primers, the expected size
or form of each allele, the priority order of each of the alleles based on extensive screening in
diverse germplasm and breeding populations, the action of each gene (additive, dominant,
epistatic) and the known interactions of each alleles within and between genes. Workshops and
on-line courses will then be conducted to train end-users in the most efficient utilization of these
resources which will enable CIMMYT, NARS and SME breeders to make optimum use of these
intermediate products. These workshops will include simulation breeding demonstrations to allow
breeders to predict the outcome of each breeding scenario before they move on to
implementation.

International Public Goods

Genomics-based tools and molecular breeding strategies for genetic enhancement

Increased knowledge of priority traits: Understanding the genetic basis, epistasis and genotype-
by-environment interaction for complex traits such as drought tolerance, pest and disease
resistance, quality traits and agronomic adaptation based on in-house marker-assisted genetic
dissection and collaborative functional profiling analysis.

Trait-specific markers: New SSR or SNP markers developed or validated through in-house efforts
or acquired from outside sources associated with traits prioritized by end-users in NARS, SME, and
CIMMYT breeding programs. Trait targets including pest and disease resistance, yield components
and grain quality, and abiotic stress tolerances.

High throughput marker genotyping systems: High-throughput single-seed-based DNA extraction
systems, as well as high-throughput SSR, SNP and gene-based marker detection systems
enabling improved efficiency, speed and precision of maize and wheat molecular breeding systems.
Leading to dramatically increased impact of genomics tools in maize and wheat breeding systems

Molecular breeding strategies: Selective genotyping and selective phenotyping approaches, map-
as-you-go and advanced backcross QTL strategies. Breeding systems based on greenhouse or
seed-based MAS selection cycles. Genetic maps and genomic tools for background selection, and
genetic materials for molecular breeding programs. Leading to improved efficiency of maize and
wheat molecular breeding.

Computational systems and data resources for crop improvement:

Data resources: High quality interdisciplinary datasets covering diverse types of data collected
across hundreds of locations by seasons. Including ability to comparatively analyze data from
across the entire genetic resources, germplasm enhancement and breeding continuum

Gene mapping methods: New mapping methods for improved power of detection compared to
existing methods, that can identify complicated gene networks. Leading to an increased power for

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            31
detecting genes with smaller genetic effects and complex genetic networks, and resulting in an
enhanced knowledge about the inheritance of important breeding traits

Biometrical designs and analyses: New tools developed to improve the development and
application of molecular breeding systems, and, the understanding and ability to manipulate
genotype-by-environmental interaction effects through combining advances in informatics,
genomics, phenotyping, and genetics with biometrics. Leading to an improved ability to identify
and manipulate underlying genes for complex biotic and abiotic stress tolerances and model their
interaction with the environment

Informatics systems: Fully integrated, web-enabled data management and analysis system linking
genetic resources, biotechnology, germplasm enhancement, cultivar development and GIS data
sources for improved knowledge-led crop improvement. One stop workstation including molecular
breeding decision-support tools that iteratively model historical data and revise simulation tools to
form a learning system

Computational biology: Analysis of metabolic pathways involved in complex agronomic traits using
in silico comparison of maize, rice and Arabidopsis whole genome sequences, leading to more
efficient methods for identifying trait-based markers

Simulation and modeling: Efficient molecular breeding strategies and implementation systems
developed and applied that effectively integrate multidisciplinary interventions for enhanced scope,
cost efficiency, and impact (crop improvement gains). Leading to an increased ability to design
knowledge-led breeding systems enabling improved efficiency, pace and success of maize and
wheat breeding product development

Backstopping implementation of technology-assisted breeding interventions:

Skills development: NARS, SME, and CIMMYT staff trained in new technologies and methodologies,
including genetic resources, biotechnology, computational systems, and germplasm enhancement.
Enabling increases in research and breeding advances through effective interdisciplinary
collaboration. Facilitating the most cost effective and efficiency molecular breeding strategies to
be adopted in NARS and SME breeding programs

Public access information and resources: A comprehensive community-based research data
management system across all disciplines. On-line training resources available for all aspects of
molecular breeding. Enabling efficiency and focus of research improved by access to sound
informatics practices and relevant, high quality information and data from previous research.

Back-stopping implementation: Tailored information, skills, and technological backstopping
provided to assist NARS, SME, and CIMMYT breeding programs to make best use of new tools,
methodologies, and genetic resources. Service, support and training units established in biotech
hubs in Africa, Asia and Latin America including cooperative out-sourcing of MAS genotyping with
NARS and other partners. Cooperatively designed and developed maize or wheat seed-based
technologies tailored for use in each target mega-environment.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

CIMMYT has been highly reliant on ARIs for the identification of marker-trait associations and the
generation of new genotyping technologies. This includes partnerships with Australian institutions
through our membership of the MPB-CRC, University of Queensland and the Australian Center for
Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG), as well as collaborations with institutions and universities in
Europe (including JIC, INRA and NIAB), the USA (Cornell University and Rutgers University),
Japan (JIRCAS and RIKEN) and Korea (Rural Department Administration or RDA). However, based

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                              32
on new approaches that allow us to combine gene discovery, validation, and application in
breeding programs, it is likely that this type of activity will be increasingly carried out more rapidly
and with less redundancy by CIMMYT and partners in their respective breeding programs.
Meanwhile, it is likely that ARI will give greater emphasis to gene isolation activities and thereby
become an essential provider for CIMMYT of candidate gene-based markers. ARI will also fulfill a
critical role of developing and testing new technologies. For example, there is much optimism that
molecular breeding at the expressional level will enable more efficient molecular breeding of
complex agronomic traits with high genotype-by-environment interaction. However, there are
many fundamental issues that need to be investigated before CIMMYT could consider proof-of-
concept applications in its breeding programs. Many of the activities in P2 are carried out in close
association with GCP and HarvestPlus Challenge Program, and other system-wide programs.

Intimate and iterative linkages with advanced institutions are essential for proper orientation of
their strategic research and early access to outputs relevant for germplasm enhancement. Thus,
P2 builds close alliances with all up and downstream neighbors in the maize and wheat
improvement value chain and impact pathway: genetic resources specialists, breeders and trait
specialists in P3/P4 to P7/P8, and NARS and SME breeding programs. In this context, our
spectrum of ARI partners covers public and private sector organizations both in OECD countries
and now increasingly including strong NARS in the developing world. We already have strong
partnerships in this respect emerging with the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
and the Chinese Agricultural University (CAU) through a new China National Science Foundation
(CNSF)-CIMMYT program and we envisage similar relationships emerging with NARS in India,
Morocco, South Africa and Brazil. Meanwhile, CIMMYT and partner molecular breeding programs
urgently need to evolve to a new paradigm of MAS application that takes maximum advantage of
out-sourcing enterprises for genotyping and other biotechnology-based services. Thus, CIMMYT is
fostering cooperative structures that will enable CIMMYT and NARS breeding programs to access
fast and cost effective genotyping services.

CIMMYT will continue to build strong partnerships with other CGIAR centers, Challenge Programs,
ARIs, strong NARS and private sector companies to achieve the necessary critical mass in
research informatics. The IRRI-CIMMYT Crop Research Informatics Laboratory (CRIL) provides a
virtual hub for this type of inter-center collaboration covering the needs of the world‟s three most
important staple crops. This alliance allows the efficient development of information systems,
analytical methods and decision-support tools with sufficient generality for application to a wide
range of breeding programs. CIMMYT has a primary niche in developing central information
resources, coordinating analysis, and facilitating the overall product development chain. Similarly,
it is CIMMYT role to validate, refine and optimize outputs from advanced research institutes to
ensure their robust and efficient application in plant breeding.




CIMMYT                                       MTP 2010-12                                             33
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                       Impact

Output 1                 Genomics-based tools           CIMMYT, ICARDA, IITA,       New technology-based tools    Improved efficiency, speed,
                         for genetic enhancement        IRRI, NARS and SME          for use in CIMMYT, ICARDA,    precision and scope of
                                                        researchers and breeders    IITA, NARS and SME            maize and wheat breeding
                                                                                    breeding programs             systems

Target 2010: Materials   DNA markers identified and     CIMMYT, IITA and NARS       New marker-assisted           Improved efficiency, speed
                         routinely applied that         maize breeders              selection tools for high      and precision MSV, QPM
                         facilitate selection of more                               priority traits in maize      and ProA enhancement in
                         than 75% of the phenotypic                                 breeding                      maize breeding
                         variation for Maize Streak
                         Virus (MSV), quality protein
                         maize (QPM), pro-vitamin A
                         (proA) within target
                         breeding programs in
                         Mexico and Africa

Target 2010: Practices   Protocols developed capable    Global maize genomics       Higher throughput lower       Improved efficiency, speed
                         of 10,000 seed-based DNA       research and molecular      cost DNA extraction           and scope of maize
                         extractions per week           breeding community                                        molecular breeding

Target 2011: Practices   Whole genome selection         Global maize genomics       Improved efficiency of        Enhanced plant breeding
                         demonstrated in                research and molecular      maize molecular breeding      gains due to improved
                         maize breeding                 breeding community          systems                       molecular breeding
                                                                                                                  systems

Target 2011: Materials   Genomic and computational      Global maize research and   Dramatically increased        More efficient hybrid maize
                         tools available for hybrid     breeding community          efficiency of identifying     breeding systems
                         prediction in maize                                        marker-trait associations
                         breeding                                                   for important agronomic
                                                                                    traits

Target 2012: Practices   Marker-trait association       Global maize and wheat      Improved efficiency and       Enhanced plant breeding
                         analysis based on pooled       genomics research and       speed of marker               gains due to more rapid
                         selective genotyping of        molecular breeding          development for agronomic     development of more
                         breeding material              community                   traits                        effective molecular
                         validated                                                                                markers



Output 2                 Computational systems          CIMMYT, ICARDA, IITA,       Increased efficiency of the   Maize and wheat cultivars


CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                   34
                         Outputs                        Intended Users           Outcome                        Impact

                         for crop improvement           NARS and SME maize and   development and                with improved resilience,
                                                        wheat breeders           application of new tools and   stability and profitability
                                                                                 methodologies for maize
                                                                                 and wheat improvement,
                                                                                 particularly targeting
                                                                                 priority traits

Target 2010: Materials   An integrated and user-        Global wheat genetics    More efficient hybrid maize    Enhanced plant breeding
                         friendly software for          research and breeding    breeding systems               gains due to improved
                         detecting additive and         community                                               breeding systems
                         dominance genes, and
                         interacting networks of
                         important breeding traits in
                         common genetically
                         segregating populations

Target 2010: Practices   Integrated methodologies       Global maize and wheat   More efficient molecular       Enhanced plant breeding
                         developed for foreground       molecular breeding       breeding systems               gains due to improved
                         and background molecular       community                                               breeding systems
                         breeding in maize and
                         wheat

Target 2011: Capacity    Large-scale genomic data       Global maize and wheat   More efficient data            Enhanced plant breeding
                         management, query and          molecular breeding       management systems in          gains due to efficiency in
                         analysis tool for assisting    community                plant breeding programs        breeding systems
                         background and foreground
                         selection used in all
                         CIMMYT molecular breeding
                         projects, linked to ICIS
                         database, simulation and
                         modeling tools

Target 2011: Materials   A fully integrated modeling    Global maize and wheat   More efficient maize and       Enhanced plant breeding
                         and simulation system          breeding community       wheat breeding systems         gains due to improved
                         available for the design of                                                            breeding systems
                         maize and wheat breeding
                         programs using genetic,
                         physiological, molecular and
                         financial parameters

Target 2012: Capacity    Integrated molecular           Global maize and wheat   More efficient maize and       Enhanced efficiency, scope,
                         breeding decision-support      molecular breeding       wheat breeding systems         and pace of plant breeding
                         tools system from marker       community                                               gains due to improved


CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                     35
                         Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                     Impact

                         development to DUS                                                                     breeding systems
                         screening



Output 3                 Backstopping                   CIMMYT, ICARDA, IITA,       Newly identified genetic    Increased pace, quantity
                         implementation of              NARSs and SME researchers   resources, latest           and value of market
                         technology-assisted            and breeders                innovations in germplasm    preferred cultivars that
                         breeding interventions                                     and data management,        reduce farmer risks and
                                                                                    novel technology-assisted   vulnerabilities, improve
                                                                                    germplasm enhancement       farming household
                                                                                    tools and methodologies     livelihoods and health, and
                                                                                    routinely adopted by        conserve natural resources
                                                                                    CIMMYT, NARSs and SME
                                                                                    breeding programs

Target 2010: Practices   Molecular breeding             Global maize and wheat      Improved uptake of          Enhanced efficiency, scope,
                         communities of practice        molecular breeding          molecular breeding          and pace of plant breeding
                         established around biotech     community                   technologies in NARS        gains due to improved
                         hubs in Africa, Asia and                                                               breeding systems
                         Latin America providing
                         technical back-stopping to
                         over 50 plant breeders

Target 2011: Policy      Creation of systemic           Global maize and wheat      Improved uptake of          Enhanced efficiency, scope,
strategies               mutual-dependency              molecular breeding          molecular breeding          and pace of plant breeding
                         partnerships with 10 strong    community                   technologies in NARS        gains due to improved
                         NARS and SMEs in Africa,                                                               breeding systems
                         Asia and Latin America
                         enabling devolution of
                         activities and development
                         of joint products

Target 2012: Capacity    Self-sustaining operation of   Global maize and wheat      Improved impact of          Enhanced efficiency, scope,
                         molecular breeding             molecular breeding          molecular breeding          and pace of plant breeding
                         communities of practice in     community                   technologies in NARS        gains due to improved
                         Africa, Asia and Latin                                                                 breeding systems
                         America




CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                36
3: Stress tolerant maize

Project Overview and Rationale

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals is the most challenged in rainfed stress-prone
environments where communities are confronted by poor market access, erratic rainfall and soil
degradation. Tropical maize growing environments are affected by a wide range of stresses
worsened by variable weather conditions, infertile and acidic soils, lack of inputs, labor shortages
for other control methods, and soil degradation. Indeed maize yields in most low and middle
income countries are far from economically attainable yields due to a wide range of abiotic and
biotic stress factors and yield increases therefore related to increasing the stress tolerance of new
cultivars. The importance of finding genetic approaches which stabilize and increase crop
productivity in the face of climate change and increasing water scarcity is widely acknowledged.
Also, for some newly emerging or newly important biotic stresses, no sources of resistance can be
found in known or improved germplasm.

This Project uses breeding methodologies, genes, chromosomal regions, and allelic variation for
exploratory incorporation into high yielding or farmers own maize germplasm and assessment of
genotype, gene-by-genotype, and genotype-by-environment effects. It applies the insights gained
to generate strategically important stress tolerant source germplasm and strengthen the
capacities of partners to effectively use new and proven tools emerging from this project and
other undertakings, such as Projects 1 and 2 and the CGIAR Generation Challenge Program (GCP).
As steward of the world‟s maize genetic resources, CIMMYT provides through this Project an
effective access path for identifying and availing new sources of resistance. The Centers
accumulated maize research and breeding materials targeting stress environments are regarded
as successes. This Project builds upon them to contribute to food and income security and better
use of scarce resources (water, nutrients, labor, and land), in particular as climate change
increases the area and frequency of unfavorable production conditions. The incorporation of stress
tolerance in germplasm with increasing yield potential in this project is core to achieving maize
productivity increases in low and lower middle income countries.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Project 3 addresses CGIAR priorities 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 5D.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP

Delayed development of transgenic drought tolerant CIMMYT germplasm in Output 1 due to
slower than expected progress by private sector transgenic trait provider.
Reduced commitments in Output 3 (Striga resistant maize) due to a shortage in funding
commitments.


Increased funding for validating metal silos for postharvest pest control in Output 4. Mycotoxin
research in Output 5 specified based on available funding.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            37
Output 1: Drought tolerant (DT) maize to enhance food and income security, reduce
use of scarce irrigation water and adjust to climate change

Description:

- Germplasm improvement for drought tolerance in high yielding germplasm targeted at high
priority regions/mega-environments and based on availability of funds (currently strong for SSA,
increasing for Asia and lacking for Latin America)


- Research into molecular, physiological and breeding tools that accelerate breeding progress for
drought tolerance

- Search for new sources of genetic variation for drought tolerance among the world genetic
resources

 - Collaboration and support of partners (NARS, seed companies, NGOs) for cultivar development,
testing, release and seed production


- Comparative advantage: drought tolerance is an intractable highest priority trait as emphasized
in SP 2B


- Partners: NARS, seed companies and NGOs in SSA and Asia, IITA, AATF, multinational seed
companies


- System priorities: 2B, 2A, 1A

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses;

Output 2: Maize germplasm tolerant to acidic and low fertility soils to enhance
productivity among resource-constrained farmers and reduce encroachment of maize
production into more fragile environments

Description:

- Germplasm improvement targeted at high priority regions/mega-environments (in particular
Latin America and SSA) and based on availability of funds (new projects have been submitted for
funding by donors)
- Research into molecular, physiological and breeding tools that accelerate breeding progress for
acid soil tolerance and nitrogen use efficiency (new projects have been submitted for funding by
donors)
- Comparative advantage: SP 2B. Nutrient use efficiency is a complex trait and increasingly
important given increasing fertilizer costs and reduced use of chemical fertilizers
- Partners: NARS, seed companies and producer organizations in SSA and Latin America
- System priorities: 2B, 2A



CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                          38
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses;

Output 3: Striga resistant maize to restore maize production in affected areas in sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA)

Description:

- Search of new sources of genetic variation for Striga resistance among the world genetic
resources (minimal investment due to inadequate funding)
- Support of collaborators (NARS and SME) in deploying herbicide resistant maize technology to
combat Striga (no further investment due to inadequate funding)
- Comparative advantage: Striga resistance is a highly complex trait where even advanced
research labs (but not CIMMYT) have failed to provide adequate solutions. Striga is a problem
among 3-6 million maize farmers in SSA and affects the poorest the most.
- Partners: NARS, seed companies and NGOs in SSA, IITA, BASF, AATF, ICIPE, CIAT
- System priorities: 2A, 1A

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples;

Output 4: Insect resistant maize to reduce pre-and postharvest losses and extend grain
storage

Description:

- Germplasm improvement for post harvest insect pest resistance targeted at high priority
regions/mega-environments and based on availability of funds (currently strong for SSA but
lacking for Asia and Latin America)
- Research into molecular, physiological and breeding tools that accelerate breeding progress for
post harvest insect pest resistance
- Search of new sources of genetic variation for post harvest insect pest resistance among the
world genetic resources

 - Assessment of improved maize storage practices (metal silos, super bags) for financial viability
and impact potential
- Collaboration and support of partners (NARS, seed companies, NGOs) for cultivar development,
testing, release and seed production of pre- and post-harvest pest resistant germplasm
- Collaboration with private trait providers for the deployment of Bt for pre-harvest pest resistance
in Kenya
- Comparative advantage: Insect resistance is a highly complex trait and the most recent CIMMYT
EPMR emphasized the need for CIMMYT to continue to work on conventional insect resistance
germplasm. CIMMYT prioritizes its investment to focus on conventional resistance sources against
post harvest pests (with larger damage) while collaborating with the public and private sector on
transgenic solutions targeting pre-harvest pests.
- Partners: NARS, seed companies and NGOs in SSA and Mexico, multinational seed companies,
ICIPE, IFPRI
- System priorities: 2A, 1A

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples;




CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             39
Output 5: Disease resistant maize to reduce pre-and postharvest losses and increase
food safety

Description:

- Search of sources of genetic variation for new and highly virulent diseases that lack adequate
disease resistance in adapted germplasm and have been prioritized by partners (e.g. BLSB for
Asia)
- Search of sources of genetic variation for mycotoxin resistance
- Research into molecular, pathological and breeding tools that accelerate breeding progress for
disease resistance for use by breeders in NARS and the private seed sector
- Collaboration with partners (NARS, seed companies) for germplasm use
- Comparative advantage: As the steward of the world's genetic resource for maize, CIMMYT has
access to the widest range of genetic variation to combat new and virulent disease resistance for
which inadequate resistance is found in improved and adapted germplasm (SP 2A). Mycotoxin
resistance is a highly complex trait and there is a lack of resistant sources, breeding methods and
germplasm use.
- Partners: NARS and seed companies in SSA, Asia and Latin America, USDA and US Universities,
consortium of CGIAR centers and European partners working on mobilizing support for mycotoxin
research
- System priorities: 2A, 2C, 1A

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2C: Enhancing
nutritional quality and safety;

Output 6: Strengthened impact pathways for stress tolerant maize

Description:

- Training and collaboration of breeders from NARS and seed companies in the use of new
germplasm sources and breeding tools
- Support of resource-constrained NARS and SME for adaptive breeding projects, cultivar release
and breeder seed production to achieve impact in low income countries
- Comparative advantage: research, research collaboration and capacity building are synergistic
activities executed between Output 1-5 and Output 6 to ensure impact of international public
goods developed by CIMMYT.
- Partners: NARS, seed companies, NGOs and producer organizations in SSA, Asia and Latin
America, multinational seed companies
- System priorities: 2B, 2A, 2C, 5D

 Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and
vulnerability;




CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                           40
Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Drought tolerant (DT) maize to enhance food and income security, reduce
use of scarce irrigation water and adjust to climate change

Breeders from NARS and seed companies (mostly in SSA and Asia, due to funding availability) and
IITA use germplasm from CIMMYT in their own breeding programs (stronger NARS, seed
companies, IITA) or for cultivar release (weak NARS, SME with no breeding program). They also
produce breeders seed.

Private seed companies are engaged in scale up of seed production and demonstrations.

NGO and Extension are engaged in demonstrations.

In some instances NGOs are engaged in seed relief i.e., sourcing of seed of drought tolerant
maize cultivars from collaborating seed companies.

Collaborative regional projects [DTMA, The New Seed Initiative for Maize in Africa (NSIMA), WEMA,
BMZ-funded project for Asia] greatly assist in knowledge transfer and more effective germplasm
use and deployment.

Activities in Output 6 are designed in support of activities in Output 1.

Output 2: Maize germplasm tolerant to acidic and low fertility soils to enhance
productivity among resource-constrained farmers and reduce encroachment of maize
production into more fragile environments

Greatest use for acid soil tolerant germplasm comes from NARS and producer organizations in
Latin America who use CIMMYT germplasm for increasing maize production in areas not targeted
by the multinational private sector or strong NARS (such as in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay,
Uruguay, Venezuela). Cultivar release is done by NARS, and seed production by producer
organizations.

Given the current lack of funding, the interest in particular by producer organizations has led to
plans for establishing a maize germplasm consortium targeted at South America for increased
sustainability and demand-driven germplasm development.

Acid soil tolerant germplasm has also been provided to NARS in Asian and African countries with
significant areas under acidic soils (e.g. Indonesia, Zambia) but there is no accompanying project
funding to support follow-up.

New project shave been submitted for funding available nutrient use efficiency (NUE) related
research in maize given increasing fertilizer prices. Selection for increased NUE is routinely done
for germplasm targeted at SSA and using impact pathways of Outputs 1, 3 and 6.

Output 3: Striga resistant maize to restore maize production in affected areas in sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA)
 Breeders from NARS and seed companies in high priority countries in SSA source Striga resistant
germplasm from CIMMYT (East and Southern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda)
and IITA (West and Central Africa) and use germplasm in their own breeding programs (stronger
NARS, seed companies) or for cultivar release (weak NARS, SME with no breeding program).




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                               41
Private seed companies (e.g. Western Seed, Kenya Seed, TanSeed, ZimSeed) are engaged in
scale up of seed production.

CIMMYT and BASF are engaged in backstopping seed companies for cultivar release, seed
production and seed treatment, respectively.

Seed companies, AATF, Extension and NGOs are engaged in demonstrations where technologies
are provided by CIAT, CIMMYT and ICIPE.

Currently there is inadequate funding for collaborative activities and this hinders deployment of
Striga relevant technologies.

Activities in Output 6 are designed in support of activities in Output 3.

Output 4: Insect resistant maize to reduce pre-and postharvest losses and extend grain
storage

Breeders from NARS and seed companies (mostly in SSA, due to funding availability) use
germplasm from CIMMYT in their own breeding programs (stronger NARS, seed companies, IITA)
or for cultivar release (weak NARS, SME with no breeding program). They also produce breeders
seed.

Private seed companies will engage in scaling up of seed production and demonstrations.

NGO and Extension Agents will engage in demonstrations.

Donor organizations and policy makers use ex-ante impact assessment of postharvest pest losses
and improved storage practices for making investment decisions.

Collaborative regional projects in eastern and southern Africa assist in knowledge transfer and
more effective germplasm use and deployment.

Activities in Output 6 are designed in support of activities in Output 4.

Output 5: Disease resistant maize to reduce pre-and postharvest losses and increase
food safety

Foliar diseases
Notwithstanding Science Council advice to leave breeding for leaf disease resistance to NARS,
there continues to be a very high demand by breeders from NARS and seed companies world-wide
for disease resistant germplasm from CIMMYT for use in their own breeding programs. Also, a
recent seed sector study showed that the incorporation of basic disease resistance into germplasm
developed under Outputs 1-4 is necessary, otherwise such germplasm is unacceptable to and not
used by clients and collaborators.

In addition, there is distinct demand for sources of resistance to new or more virulent diseases
such as currently for BLSB in Asia.

Disease resistant germplasm from CIMMYT is integrated into NARS and seed companies own
breeding programs.

Mycotoxin resistant germplasm
At this stage there is inadequate funding for the development of mycotoxin resistant maize

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             42
germplasm. Due to the nature of the disease (enhanced by drought, acidic and low fertile soils
and insect damage), impact pathways of mycotoxin resistant maize germplasm would align with
those described under Output 1 and 4.

International Public Goods

Stress tolerant maize with improved productivity and adaptation to smallholder growing
environments world-wide provides increased food security to resource-poor farmers, enabling
them to break out of the poverty spiral and also engage in soil fertility-enhancing crop
diversification strategies.

More productive germplasm to increase national maize production in low and middle income
countries with high maize demand.

Maize types with high levels of drought and heat tolerance to offset expected impacts of climate
change in the developing world.

As an insurance against narrowing genetic diversity and biotic constraints, new and diverse
sources for host plant resistance to pre- and post-harvest diseases and pests that threaten maize
production, health and trade in significant regions of the developing world.

Seed-embedded options for controlling Striga, a parasitic weed that threatens maize production
throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

Integrated into the CIMMYT-IRRI Alliance, maize germplasm suited to resource-conserving
cropping systems, in particular intensive rice-maize cropping in Asia

Knowledge-sharing on genetic resources and selection protocols to breed maize germplasm for
stress-prone environments and with improved resistance to important biotic stresses.

Knowledge of more effective, incentive-driven impact and seed delivery pathways to increase the
impact of maize genetic gains among farmers in drought-prone and outlying areas.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Multinational private sector: trait provider for transgenic events (Bt, drought tolerance) and
research collaboration on advanced breeding methods.

ARIs (Universities and NARS in Europe, the USA, Brazil, China, Kenya and India) and IITA:
research collaboration on advanced breeding methods.

NARS and private seed sector: use of germplasm, seed production and dissemination, resource
persons in capacity building.

NGOs and extension: information dissemination and combination of CIMMYT outputs with
complementary interventions that enhance livelihood strategies of resource-poor farmers.

Other IARCs: partners in research for complementary interventions that enhance livelihood
strategies of resource-poor farmers.

Sub-regional organizations and seed trade associations: priority setting and use of common
networking approaches (e.g., ASARECA, SADC-SSSN, AFSTA, APSA)


CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             43
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                      Intended Users                Outcome                       Impact

Output 1                 Drought tolerant (DT)        Breeders in NARS, private     Use of increasingly drought   Increased food and income
                         maize to enhance food        seed companies and at         tolerant, diverse maize       security for resource-poor
                         and income security,         IITA, formal and              germplasm; more effective     farm families, decreased
                         reduce use of scarce         community-based seed          development, and              vulnerability to recurrent
                         irrigation water and         producers, NGOs and CBOs,     dissemination of drought      droughts and climate
                         adjust to climate change     decision makers, scientific   tolerant more productive      change, decreased need for
                                                      community at large            maize cultivars to farmers    food aid and irrigation
                                                                                    world-wide                    water


Target 2010: Materials   Annual provision of >10      Breeders and scientific       NARS and privates eed
                         elite new DT and high        community world-wide          companies use DT
                         yielding maize genotypes                                   germplasm for breeding
                         adapted to eastern and                                     and vareity release
                         southern African maize
                         mega-environments
                         (annual target)

Target 2010: Materials   100 existing hybrids and     Breeders and scientific       Maize germplasm suitable
                         open-pollinated cultivars    community world-wide          for rainfed systems in Asia
                         targeted at Asia evaluated
                         for combined tolerance to
                         drought and water-
                         logging

Target 2010: Practices   Use of MARS to accelerate    Breeders and scientific       Greater breeding gains for
                         breeding for drought         community world-wide          drought tolerance
                         tolerance in > 4 maize
                         populations

Target 2011: Practices   Doubled haploid generation   Breeders and scientific       Greater breeding gains for
                         from DT sources scaled up    community world-wide          drought tolerance
                         to 50 populations per year

Target 2011: Practices   Web-based access to
                                                                                    Increased access to DT
                         information and seed of      Breeders and scientific
                                                                                    germplasm by global
                         drought tolerant source      community in Asia
                                                                                    scientific community
                         germplasm from CIMMYT

Target 2012: Materials   Transgenic sources of        Breeders in SSA, scientific   First information on the

CIMMYT                                                       MTP 2010-12                                                                  44
                         Outputs                         Intended Users                Outcome                        Impact

                         drought tolerance               community world-wide          complementarity of
                         incorporated into drought                                     transgenic and conventional
                         tolerant CIMMYT maize                                         maize drought tolerance
                         germplasm



Output 2                 Maize germplasm                 Breeders in NARS, private     Maize productivity increases   Reduced encroachment of
                         tolerant to acidic and          seed companies and at         on acidic and low fertility    maize production into
                         low fertility soils to          IITA, formal and              soils                          fragile environments such
                         enhance productivity            community-based seed                                         as tropical forests
                         among resource-                 producers, NGOs and CBOs,                                    Maize productivity increases
                         constrained farmers and         decision makers, scientific                                  in particular Africa and
                         reduce encroachment of          community at large                                           South America
                         maize production into
                         more fragile
                         environments

Target 2010: Materials   Annual provision of >6          Breeders in NARS and          Continued increases in the     Maize productivity increases
                         elite, new low-pH or low N      private seed companies        low-pH tolerance of maize      on acidic soils in South
                         tolerant maize genotypes                                      varieties available to         Americas
                                                                                       farmers in South America

Target 2010: Practices   Germplasm consortium            NARS and private seed         Accelerated breeding
                         established for South           companies in South            progress for soil acidity
                         American agroecologies not      America                       tolerance in South
                         catered for by private seed                                   America
                         sector including acidic
                         soils

Target 2011: Practices   Germplasm development           NARS and private seed         Accelerated breeding
                         and capacity building efforts   companies in South            progress in South America
                         initiated within the South      America
                         American germplasm
                         consortium targeted at
                         increasing maize
                         productivity in areas not
                         catered by the private
                         sector

Target 2012: Practices   Germplasm development           Breeders in SSA, scientific   Increased availability of
                         efforts targeted at             community world-wide          NUE maize germplasm in
                         increasing nitrogen use                                       particular for SSA
                         efficiency in maize

CIMMYT                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                    45
                         Outputs                       Intended Users                Outcome                         Impact

                         increased by 50% as
                         compared to 2009, using
                         conventional, molecular and
                         transgenic approaches.



Output 3                 Striga resistant maize to     Breeders in NARS, private     Maize varieties become          Restoration of maize
                         restore maize production      seed companies and at         available which are not         production on resource-
                         in affected areas in sub-     IITA, formal and              affected by Striga;             poor farmers' fields affected
                         Saharan Africa (SSA)          community-based seed          reduction of Striga seed        by Striga sp. (parasitic
                                                       producers, NGOs and CBOs,     banks in soils                  weeds)
                                                       decision makers, scientific
                                                       community at large

Target 2010: Materials   Striga resistance in          Breeders in SSA, scientific   New sources of resistance
                         germplasm bank materials      community world-wide          against Striga
                         established



Output 4                 Insect resistant maize to     Breeders in NARS, private     Maize varieties with in-built   Reduced pre- and
                         reduce pre-and                seed companies and at         resistance to intractable       postharvest losses due to
                         postharvest losses and        IITA, formal and              pre- and post harvest insect    high-impact insect pests
                         extend grain storage          community-based seed          pests become available to       Opportunities for farmers to
                                                       producers, NGOs and CBOs,     farmers in tropical             extend on-farm storage and
                                                       decision makers, scientific   environments                    increase their income
                                                       community at large

Target 2010: Policy      Option for market             Decision makers, seed         Humanitarian access to Bt
strategies               segmention between            companies                     events in markets with
                         humanitarian and                                            commercial interests for
                         commercial use of                                           transgenic Bt maize seed
                         transgenic Bt maize seed
                         explored

Target 2010: Policy      Metal silos validated for     Decision makers, donor        Investment decisions on
strategies               post harvest pest             agencies                      use of metal silos for post
                         management in two                                           harvest pest control in
                         countries in eastern and                                    eastern and southern
                         southern Africa                                             Africa

Target 2011: Materials   Collaborative evaluation of   NARS and seed companies       Postharvest pest resistant
                         postharvest pest resistant    in eastern and southern       hybrids and OPVs entering


CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                      46
                         Outputs                       Intended Users                Outcome                          Impact

                         germplasm with NARS and       Africa                        national maize cultivar trials
                         local seed companies in at                                  in several SSA countries
                         least three eastern and
                         southern African countries

Target 2012: Practices   Ex-ante impact assessment     Breeders in SSA, scientific   Improved targeting of
                         for postharvest storage       community world-wide          postharvest pest control
                         pests published for eastern                                 methods
                         and southern Africa



Output 5                 Disease resistant maize       Breeders in NARS, private     Maize varieties with in-built    Reduced pre- and
                         to reduce pre-and             seed companies and at         resistance to new and high       postharvest losses due to
                         postharvest losses and        IITA, formal and              priority diseases become         new, highly virulent or toxic
                         increase food safety          community-based seed          available to farmers in          maize diseases with lack of
                                                       producers, NGOs and CBOs,     tropical environments            resistance sources or
                                                       decision makers, scientific                                    effective breeding methods
                                                       community at large                                             Increase food safety and
                                                                                                                      trade opportunities

Target 2010: Practices   Molecular markers for leaf    Breeders in SSA, scientific   Accelerated development of
                         diseases important to sub-    community world-wide          disease resistant
                         Saharan Africa identified                                   germplasm for SSA

Target 2011: Policy      Basic strategy to support     Decision makers, donor        Investment decisions on
strategies               low cost aflatoxin            agencies                      measures that reduce
                         evaluation and control                                      aflatoxin contamination in
                         decision support system for                                 the maize value chain in
                         maize drafted for eastern                                   eastern Africa
                         Africa.

Target 2012: Practices   Molecular markers for leaf    Breeders in SSA, scientific   Accelerated development of
                         diseases applied in a         community world-wide          disease resistant
                         minimum of two breeding                                     germplasm for SSA
                         projects targeted at sub-
                         Saharan Africa



Output 6                 Strengthened impact           NARS, seed companies,         Increased effectiveness of       Sustainable maize
                         pathways for stress           NGOs and CBOs                 NARS, seed companies,            productivity increases
                         tolerant maize                                              NGOs, CBOs in developing,        among resource-poor maize
                                                                                     releasing, targeting and         farmers in stress-prone


CIMMYT                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                     47
                        Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome                    Impact

                                                                           disseminating stress       environments
                                                                           tolerant maize cultivars

Target 2010: Capacity   Stress breeding skills of 20
                        NARS and private sector
                        staff improved through
                        workshops, visiting scientist
                        fellowships and graduate
                        research projects (annual
                        target)

Target 2010: Capacity   Backstopping of 12 NARS in
                        Africa, Asia and Latin
                        America through
                        collaborative country-
                        specific maize breeding and
                        dissemination projects
                        targeted for stressed
                        environments (annual
                        target)

Target 2011: Capacity   Backstopping of 12 NARS in
                        Africa, Asia and Latin
                        America through
                        collaborative country-
                        specific maize breeding and
                        dissemination projects
                        targeted for stressed
                        environments (annual
                        target)

Target 2011: Capacity   Stress breeding skills of 20
                        NARS and private sector
                        staff improved through
                        workshops, visiting scientist
                        fellowships and graduate
                        research projects (annual
                        target)

Target 2012: Capacity   Stress breeding skills of 20
                        NARS and private sector
                        staff improved through
                        workshops, visiting scientist


CIMMYT                                                       MTP 2010-12                                             48
                        Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                        fellowships and graduate
                        research projects (annual
                        target)

Target 2012: Capacity   Backstopping of 12 NARS in
                        Africa, Asia and Latin
                        America through
                        collaborative country-
                        specific maize breeding and
                        dissemination projects
                        targeted for stressed
                        environments (annual
                        target)




CIMMYT                                                     MTP 2010-12                      49
4: Nutritious and specialty trait maize

Project Overview and Rationale

The world‟s maize genetic resources contain a wealth of benefits, including new opportunities for
improving nutrition, and multiple uses of maize and maize products. This Project explores and
pursues opportunities for developing genetic traits of greatest nutritional benefit and greatest
demand by beneficiaries, partners, and clients. Participants incorporate the traits into germplasm
usable by breeding programs worldwide, and develop experimental germplasm for use by clients
and beneficiaries. This project focuses on traits to biofortify maize for key nutrients (high quality
protein, vitamin A, zinc) for food or non-food uses, such as for poultry feed, and traits associated
with horticultural uses of maize (green cobs, blue corn) as a cash crop for peri-urban growers in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America, or dual purpose maize (food and fodder). Project 4 promotes a
strong integration with CIMMYT staff in regional projects, their clients and beneficiaries, and
partners in advanced institutes and Challenge Programs, capitalizing on CIMMYTs comparative
advantage to identify useful traits for human nutrition and health, horticulture, or multiple
purposes in gene bank and breeding materials. The market potential and benefits of specialty
maize will be assessed, and analyses of alternate suppliers and incentive-based value chains used
to highlight opportunities and recommend priorities for research investments.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Project 4 addresses CGIAR priorities 2C (enhancing nutritional quality), 2A (maintaining and
enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples), and 2B (improving tolerance to selected
abiotic stresses, in collaboration with Project 3, all related to producing more and better food at
lower cost through genetic improvements. Priority 1A is addressed by characterizing maize
germplasm for important nutritional traits, and priority 3B is addressed in collaboration with ILRI
by developing maize with improved suitability for use as feed. Project 4 is seeking resources to
address priority 5B (making international and domestic markets work for the poor), by analyzing
value chains in collaboration with Project 11. Project participants work with Projects 1 and 2 to
apply molecular techniques that enhance the efficiency of germplasm characterization and use.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
There are no changes from last year's MTP

Output 1: Micronutrient-enriched maize for improved nutrition, health and agricultural
productivity

Description:

This output primarily consists of CIMMYTs flagship product biofortified maize for improved
nutrition and health. The main focus of this work is the development of germplasm,
methodologies and knowledge associated with B-carotene and provitamin A concentrations in
maize. CIMMYT is also facilitating partner research and strengthening work groups in target
countries to increase the eventual adoption and impact of the biofortified maize.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 6A: New research; 6C:
Development Activities;

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            50
Output 2: Quality protein maize (QPM) for improved agricultural productivity and
health

Description:

This output primarily consists of CIMMYTs flagship product Biofortified maize for improved
nutrition and health. The main focus of this work is the development of germplasm,
methodologies and knowledge associated with QPM. Special emphasis is given to accelerating the
deployment of QPM cultivars, documenting and publicizing the nutritional benefits of QPM and
building partners capacities to develop and deploy QPM. CIMMYT is supporting local seed
companies with training in QPM seed production.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 3B: Increasing income
from livestock; 6C: Development Activities;

Output 3: Dual-purpose or specialty maize for improved livelihoods and income
generation

Description: This output primarily consists of CIMMYTs flagship product Opportunities for income
generation from special trait maize. In addition to dual-purpose maize, which produce grain for
food and stover for fodder, CIMMYT is exploring options and beginning research on various
special-trait maize, including blue and yellow maize, that may be value-added and represent
important income generating opportunities for farmers

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 2D: Genetically
enhancing selected high-value species; 3A: Increasing income from fruit and vegetables; 3B:
Increasing income from livestock; 5B: Making international and domestic markets work for the
poor; 6A: New research; 6C: Development Activities;

Output 4: Strengthened impact pathways for nutritional and specialty trait maize

Description: This output contributes to CIMMYTs flagship product Capacity building in the breeding
programs of national agricultural research systems (NARS) and small and medium scale
enterprises (SME). In addition to exchange visits with scientists of various partner programs and
countries, farmer and scientist training events are regularly organized and guidance is given to
students, especially graduate students.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 2D: Genetically
enhancing selected high-value species; 3A: Increasing income from fruit and vegetables; 3B:
Increasing income from livestock; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions;
5B: Making international and domestic markets work for the poor; 6C: Development Activities;




CIMMYT                                    MTP 2010-12                                          51
Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Micronutrient-enriched maize for improved nutrition, health and agricultural
productivity

Output 1 is primarily conducted with the HarvestPlus Challenge Program, which has developed
detailed impact pathways for delivering biofortified maize (among others). The intended
beneficiaries are malnourished maize consumers in target countries. In brief, the impact pathway
is:

- Biofortified cultivars are developed by international and national researchers,
- Promising cultivars are tested by national researchers, including seed companies
- Potential commercial cultivars will be validated by farmer participatory research, involving
extension service and NGOs

- Biofortified cultivars will be officially released

- Biofortified cultivars will be promoted by private and public institutions, including the health and
education sectors

- Seed will be availed to farmers through formal (private or public seed companies) or informal
(e.g. NGOs) suppliers

- Farmers will produce, consume and sell biofortified grain.

For scaling up, the Projects strongest partners are often the donors who, besides funding the work,
serve an advocacy role for bio-fortified and nutritional maize and use their influence in other ways.
The media are also partners in advocacy.

For scaling out, NARS researchers traditionally work through extension programs, where those are
linked to NGOs, farmer associations, and farmers, or directly with NGOs and farmer associations,
where extension is weak or non-existent. It is the same in the case of links to the private
companies. The Project may also have direct connections to the private sector and will foster
NARS-private company linkages.

Output 2: Quality protein maize (QPM) for improved agricultural productivity and
health

Agrosalud, a project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and convened by
CIAT, offers an example of how P4 works with partners to ensure a complete and successful
impact pathway. The goal of this special project is to improve the nutritional status of the rural
and urban poor in target regions of Latin America by developing and deploying agronomically
superior, micronutrient-dense quality protein maize (QPM). Primary target countries are El
Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Haiti. Most of the
germplasm comes directly from CIMMYT or is derived from Center products. Each country team
implements a similar impact pathway, which starts from maize breeding at CIMMYT, including
methodology development and applied breeding, continues with the identification and creation of
sources of variation, which is then followed by the development of experimental hybrids and
open-pollinated cultivars for evaluation by interested partners. An extensive on-farm variety
validation strategy conducts hundreds of demonstration plots in each of several countries and
uses field days to expose farmers to the advantages of the new cultivars. Seed sector
development is a key feature of this project, and public and private producers are involved in
ensuring that seed of new QPM cultivars are available to farmers.


CIMMYT                                         MTP 2010-12                                          52
For scaling up, the Projects strongest partners are often the donors who, besides funding the work,
serve an advocacy role for nutritional maize and use their influence in other ways. The media are
also partners in advocacy.

For scaling out, NARS researchers traditionally work through extension programs, where those are
linked to NGOs, farmer associations, and farmers, or directly with NGOs and farmer associations,
where extension is weak or non-existent. It is the same in the case of links to the private
companies. The Project may also have direct connections to the private sector and will foster
NARS-private company linkages.

Output 3: Dual-purpose or specialty maize for improved livelihoods and income
generation

The impact pathway is similar to that for outputs 1 and 2, except that work with specialty maize
requires special efforts to study value chains and associated market opportunities.

Output 4: Strengthened impact pathways for nutritional and specialty trait maize

The focus of output 4 is capacity building, or enhancing the probability of success of P4 by
strengthening the various actors along the impact pathway. This is achieved by a combination of 1)
team activities, during which all actors learn about their inter-connectedness and the vital/unique
role that each plays, and 2) targeted capacity building efforts during which one or few actors, e.g.
breeders or seed producers, are offered training or technical backstopping in their specific area of
influence along the impact pathway.

Capacity building is a current that runs through all the Project objectives, in relation to education
and creating awareness of the importance of a diverse diet.

(See also impact pathways for outputs 1 and 2).

International Public Goods

· Source germplasm and allelic discovery in maize genetic resources for specified high-priority
traits, especially for nutritional enhancement.

· Experimental materials (germplasm) pyramiding proven new, important traits in adapted
genetic backgrounds for evaluation and use with selected clients and beneficiaries.

· Information about inheritance and breeding methods for nutritional or specialty traits.

· Ex-ante impact assessment and analysis of the presence of alternate suppliers for assessing and
targeting CIMMYT involvement in nutritional and specialty trait-specific research.

· Publications on germplasm, breeding methods, and recommended pathways (commodity chains)
to maximize impact of the value-adding maize research investments chosen.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Please refer to Impact Pahways by Output, above.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             53
Logical Framework

                              Outputs                       Intended Users               Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                      Micronutrient-enriched        Researchers in NARS,         Nutritious maize germplasm     Improved vitamin A, Fe,
                              maize for improved            private companies, IARC      is used and incorporated in    and Zn nutrition in selected
                              nutrition, health and         and ARIS                     breeding and research          countries
                              agricultural productivity                                  programs, resulting in
                                                                                         biofortifled cultivars being
                                                                                         availed to maize farmers
                                                                                         and consumers.

Target 2010: Materials        At least 10 new advanced      Researchers in NARS,         Greatly expanding genetic
                              or elite genotypes with       private companies, IARC      base of micronutrient-
                              enhanced pro-vitamin A, Zn    and ARIs                     enhanced germplasm
                              or Fe concentration

Target 2010: Materials        In collaboration with NARS,   Seed producers and NGOs      Cultivars with enhanced
                              germplasm with enhanced       in target countries          levels of pro-vitamin A
                              pro-vitamin A content                                      become available to
                              evaluated in trials                                        farmers in pilot countries
                              acceptable for cultivar
                              release portfolios in a
                              minimum of two African
                              countries

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Effectiveness of marker       Breeders and scientific      These new molecular tools
knowledge                     assisted selection for at     community                    will enhance the efficiency
                              least one gene to improve                                  of breeding maize with
                              provitamins A concentration                                enhanced levels of
                              of maize validated                                         provitamins A

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Farmer-participatory trials   Private and public sector    Better understanding of
knowledge                     of provitamins A enriched     seed producers. Maize        farmer preferences and
                              experimental hybrids or       researchers                  likely acceptance of
                              OPVs conducted in the                                      products under
                              primary target country                                     development
                              (Zambia)

Target 2011: Materials        Five High provitamin A CML    Maize researchers and seed   Nutritious, agronomically
                              lines announced               producers                    elite maize germplasm is
                                                                                         available to breeding and
                                                                                         research programs


CIMMYT                                                            MTP 2010-12                                                                     54
                         Outputs                         Intended Users               Outcome                        Impact

Target 2012: Materials   Two provitamins A enriched      Maize researchers and seed   Some of the necessary
                         cultivars identified as         producers                    steps towards availing
                         candidates and fast-tracked                                  biofortified cultivars to
                         for release and                                              farmers and consumers are
                         commercialization by                                         completed
                         partners (s)



Output 2                 Quality protein maize           Researchers in NARS,         Nutritious maize germplasm     Reduced risk of protein
                         (QPM) for improved              private companies, IARC      is used and incorporated in    malnutrition in groups
                         agricultural productivity       and ARIs                     breeding and research          heavily dependent upon
                         and health                                                   programs, resulting in         maize, especially women
                                                                                      biofortified cultivars being   and children members;
                                                                                      availed to maize farmers       increased income
                                                                                      and consumers                  opportunities for
                                                                                                                     smallholder pork and
                                                                                                                     chicken producers

Target 2010: Materials   At least 15 new elite QPM       Researchers in NARS,         Sustained development of
                         genotypes available             private companies, IARCs     high yielding, agronomically
                                                         and ARIs                     excellent QPM cultivars

Target 2010: Materials   Use of molecular markers        Breeders, scientific         More effective maintenance
                         validated and available for     community                    of QPM characteristics in
                         use in MAS for the opaque-                                   new breeding projects and
                         2 gene and markers for                                       more effective conversion
                         selected modifiers identified                                of high-value germplasm to
                         or developed                                                 QPM

Target 2010: Materials   At least 5 stress tolerant
                         QPM inbred lines announced
                         as CMLs (CIMMYT maize
                         lines)

Target 2011: Materials   Stress tolerant, yellow
                         grained QPM inbred lines
                         (>10) and their hybrids
                         available from research in
                         S. Asia



Output 3                 Dual-purpose or                 Researchers in NARS,         Maize with value-added         Increased incomes and


CIMMYT                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                    55
                              Outputs                          Intended Users            Outcome                        Impact

                              specialty maize for              private companies, IARC   traits or uses is              market competitiveness
                              improved livelihoods and         and ARIs                  incorporated in breeding       improve adopters
                              income generation                                          and research programs,         livelihoods
                                                                                         resulting in cultivars with
                                                                                         increased income-
                                                                                         generating potential being
                                                                                         availed to maize farmers
                                                                                         and markets.

Target 2010: Materials        At least one focused,            Researchers in NARS,      New opportunities for
                              genetic enhancement              private companies, IARC   income generation by
                              project initiated or ongoing     and ARIs                  smallholder farmers
                              on specialty maize with
                              high impact potential and
                              benefits to resource-poor
                              farmers, supported by
                              project funding

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Documentation of GxE             Researchers in NARS,      Facilitated genetic
knowledge                     interaction for 2 specialty      private companies, IARC   improvement for emerging,
                              traits, e.g. starch and oil in   and ARIs                  high-value traits
                              selected Mexican highland
                              germplasm

Target 2011: Materials        Improved blue or other           Researchers in NARS and   Research activities are
                              priority specialty maize OPV     private companies         better informed about
                              or hybrid evaluated by                                     farmer preferences and
                              farmers at >6 locations in                                 likelihood of adopting
                              highlands of Mexico                                        products in development

Target 2012: Other kinds of   Biochemical                      Researchers in NARS,      Facilitated genetic
knowledge                     characterization (protein,       private companies, IARC   improvement for emerging,
                              starch, oil, total carotenoids   and ARIs                  high-value traits
                              and total phenols) of >50
                              best CMLs, evaluation and
                              documentation



Output 4                      Strengthened impact              NARS and private seed     Increased effectiveness of     Impact on nutrition and
                              pathways for nutritional         company breeders          NARS, seed companies,          income of resource-poor
                              and specialty trait maize                                  NGOs, CBOs in developing,      farm families
                                                                                         releasing, targeting and
                                                                                         disseminating nutritional or

CIMMYT                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                  56
                        Outputs                         Intended Users                Outcome                      Impact

                                                                                      specialty maize cultivars

Target 2010: Capacity   Backstopping of 10 NARS in      In-country multi-             Agreed and coordinated
                        Africa, Asia and Latin          stakeholder teams including   public-private strategies
                        America through                 NARS, seed entrepreneurs,     that increase farmers
                        collaborative country-          NGOs, CBOs and farming        access in stress-prone
                        specific maize breeding and     communities                   environments to improved
                        dissemination projects                                        maize seed
                        addressing nutritionally
                        enhanced or specialty
                        maize (annual target)

Target 2010: Capacity   Skills of 50 scientists,        Scientists from NARS and      Increased effectiveness of
                        technicians and students        private seed companies        NARS and SMEs in
                        improved in breeding,                                         developing stress tolerant
                        participatory research, or                                    maize cultivars
                        reaching end users through
                        workshops, visiting scientist
                        fellowships and graduate
                        research projects (annual
                        target)




CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                   57
7: Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality

Project Overview and Rationale

Approximately 50 million hectares or close to 50% of all wheat cultivated in developing countries
is sown under rainfed systems that receive less than 600 mm of rainfall annually. Some of the
poorest and most disadvantaged wheat farmers live in rainfed areas of less than 350 mm annual
rainfall and their livelihoods often depend solely on income from wheat production, with wheat
straw or fodder contributing to farm animal sustenance. In rainfed areas, water availability is
limited and unpredictable, and indications are that climate change is making this variability more
extreme. Water productivity is an increasingly important trait for wheat cultivars for irrigated
areas. While farmers in the past irrigated five to six times, current practice is shifting to
supplementary, three irrigations or less. Temporary drought in irrigated systems is increasing due
to inadequate amounts or untimely application of water. New wheat cultivars need therefore to
combine drought tolerance and high yield potential (responsiveness to water availability). CIMMYT
breeds germplasm selected under controlled and natural drought and reduced irrigation conditions
to develop germplasm that is broadly adapted to input water efficiency and response. Year to year
variation in precipitation at a location is increasing. Hence, to protect farmers from the vagaries of
nature, new wheat cultivars must be very drought tolerant in years with less than 300 mm rainfall
while being able to convert higher rainfall in subsequent seasons to higher yield. To enhance
drought tolerance in severely drought stressed environments, CIMMYT has worked to
disaggregate drought tolerance per se in wheat into distinctive components and to apply those
findings to germplasm improvement. Ongoing research is gaining a better understanding of traits
with major effects on water productivity for dryland wheat farming areas. Traits with significant
effects include root architecture and physiological traits, resistance to soil-borne pests and
diseases, tolerance to heat and saline conditions, zinc deficiency, and boron toxicity. Because
many of these traits that directly affect drought tolerance are below ground and hence difficult or
expensive to measure, a major component of P7 is the development of genetic markers, an
activity closely linked to P2, to enhance breeding efficiency.

Grain quality is a paramount concern for farmers, processors, and consumers. Traits that allow
farmers to obtain higher income while benefiting consumers, with high value and value-added
traits, include improved nutritional quality, better milling and processing qualities, safer food
products, and improved straw and forage quality for animal feed and fodder. CIMMYT wheat
improvement activities are focusing on improving bread-making quality, with increasing attention
now given to noodles, chapattis, semolina, and pasta. P7 wheat improvement activities also focus
on traits that add value to grain by improving nutritional value, or enhancing the safety of wheat-
based foods.

CIMMYT P7 activities worldwide are closely linked with the ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement
Program (ICWIP) for the CWANA region. This important alliance between ICARDA and CIMMYT has
established guidelines for operational strategies to work more effectively with NARS in CWANA.
The ICWIP MTP presents common outputs, outcomes and impacts pathways for both Center
medium term plans consistent with agreed priorities developed through common planning.
Breeding drought tolerant winter wheat is carried in the joint Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program, hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Affairs of Turkey.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            58
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Output 1 delivers sustainable productivity gains in spring and winter bread and durum wheat and
triticale through genetic enhancement to improve livelihoods of the poor and national and regional
food security.

Output 1 meets specific Goals 1 and 2 of SP2A, by developing and promoting conventional and
novel breeding technologies and promoting the use and exploitation of genetic resources, as well
as the general goal of SP2B, by producing stress tolerant (drought, heat and cold) and multiple
disease resistant germplasm.

Output 2 contributes SP 2B through the identification of stress adaptive traits and increased
selection efficiency. Resistance to soil borne diseases in many rainfed areas is a major factor
determining drought resistance and contributes to SP2A.

Output 3: The research generated in CGIAR priority areas will only be successful when the outputs
are implemented by collaborating partners and stakeholders in such a way as to reach the poor.
Thus enhanced human resource development will enhance the efficiency of achieving the goals of
SP2A and SP 2B.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP

There is no significant change in last year's MTP.

Output 1: Spring and winter bread and durum wheat and triticale lines with tolerance
to abiotic stresses (drought, heat) and multiple disease resistance (rusts, Septoria,
Fusarium, soil-borne diseases) and better end-use quality.

Description:

Approximately 450 elite lines wheat targeted for Mega-environment (ME) 4 (spring), ME 9
(facultative) and ME 12 (winter wheat) with increased water productivity, tolerance to high and
low temperature, performance stability, resistance to soil-borne diseases (cereal cyst and lesion
nematodes, Fusarium crown rot), three wheat rusts and foliar diseases, and appropriate end-use
quality, are distributed by the International Wheat Improvement Network (international nursery)
trials to around 150 cooperators in more than 100 countries for evaluation by NARS partners.
These lines are utilized by breeding programs as parents or for cultivar release and are tested by
farmers and NGOs for use as cultivars. Segregating populations targeted to NARS-specific
requirements are sent to locations where hot spot screening is possible. Expanded validation and
use of high-throughput, marker-assisted selection for soil-borne pathogen resistance, durable
quantitative resistance to foliar pathogens, and improved market-orientation and nutritional
quality, using publicly available markers enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of P7 breeding
activities, for all partners. Germplasm is developed through targeted shuttle breeding with
partners for specific traits (stem rust resistance with Kenya and Ethiopia, soil-borne pathogens
and micro-nutrient screening with Turkey, Hessian fly with Morocco, and rusts globally). New
sources of genetic material from landraces, newly re-synthesized wheat lines (hereafter
synthetics), and genetic stocks, and associated knowledge for water-use-efficient germplasm are
developed, evaluated and disseminated.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                           59
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety;

Output 2: Determine the scientific basis of stress adaptive traits, with emphasis on
drought, heat and resistance to diseases to develop more efficient selection
methodologies.

Description:

Many traits affecting drought tolerance are difficult or expensive to measure. To enhance selection
methodologies and efficiency to improve wheat for drought stressed environments is an important
element of P7. Effective breeding methodologies for germplasm improvement for variable
locations that are significantly affected by genotype-by-environment interactions is a main project
thrust. Refined application of physiological tools such as canopy temperature depression, stem
carbohydrate remobilization and real-time spectral reflectance has proven to be valuable in
applied breeding activities at CIMMYT and NARS. CIMMYT principal breeding site near Ciudad
Obregon, Sonora, Mexico allows simulation of several globally important drought conditions typical
drought prone wheat areas in developing countries. CIMMYT has one of the world‟s strongest
programs in phenotyping wheat germplasm for drought adaptive traits, which is essential for
marker development. P7 has close linkages with P1 and P2, involving the International Wheat
Improvement Network (IWIN) to validate selected lines internationally. The International Crop
Information Systems (ICIS) data management applications, and expanded use of automated
planting, harvesting and seed packaging technologies, including barcode unique identity tracking
are enhancing bioinformatics applications in CIMMYT wheat improvement activities.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses;

Output 3: Increased capacity of partners to face the challenges of climate change in
relation to wheat improvement in drought and heat stressed, variable environments.

Description:

The capacity of NARS researchers in wheat physiology, industrial quality and food safety, and
improvement for biotic and abiotic stress resistance/tolerance will continue to be enhanced and
upgraded through visits of scientists and training. Partners and stakeholders are networked by
collaborative testing and sharing of information and germplasm through the International Wheat
Improvement Network (IWIN).

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses;

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Spring and winter bread and durum wheat and triticale lines with tolerance
to abiotic stresses (drought, heat) and multiple disease resistance (rusts, Septoria,
Fusarium, soil-borne diseases) and better end-use quality.

The principal users of P7 output 1 products are breeders and researchers in NARS, ARIs and
private breeding companies, NGOs and farmers. Achievements in global wheat production during
the last decades have been substantially fuelled by the collective efforts of the International
Wheat Improvement Network (IWIN) which is based on the free exchange of germplasm and data.


CIMMYT                                    MTP 2010-12                                              60
Several hundred wheat researchers annually participate in this global network and evaluate new
wheat germplasm from the CIMMYT-Mexico, and Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA Winter Wheat program
hubs. The germplasm is distributed through standardized international nurseries consisting of
screening nurseries and yield trials which are targeted to specific agro-ecological environments or
specific stresses. In addition specially targeted segregating populations and advanced lines
characterized for specific traits are distributed. Data collected from the screening sites in all wheat
growing regions worldwide are returned to CIMMYT on a voluntary basis and then curated into
public access databases and form the basis for future breeding decisions. The data flow from
cooperators to CIMMYT and vice versa is essential for future improvement in wheat germplasm as
it empowers NARS while strengthening the relevance of products from international breeding
programs.

The ultimate beneficiaries of IWIN will continue to be smallholder farmers, who will receive seed
of improved bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale cultivars. Building upon the foundation of
modern wheat cultivars, new releases can be expected to deliver 10% more yield than older
cultivars, be more tolerant to variable climate conditions, and to produce more straw (an
important component for animal fodder, home cooking fuel, and roofing material). Broad
adaptation in cultivars buffers farmer risk in low or variable rainfall settings, while allowing SME
and progressive farmers to produce and market seed of relevant cultivars. The adoption of those
cultivars and knowledge by NARS will contribute by stabilizing production of wheat in the targeted
areas. This research will have direct impact on reducing vulnerability to abiotic and biotic stresses
for farm families whose livelihood depends on income from wheat based farming systems and will
improve farm productivity and total production. Thus, this research will contribute to alleviating
poverty by increasing farm production and incomes and in so doing improve the livelihoods and
nutritional security of resource poor farmers.

Output 2: Determine the scientific basis of stress adaptive traits, with emphasis on
drought, heat and resistance to diseases to develop more efficient selection
methodologies.

Developing wheat germplasm with enhanced drought tolerance is difficult, as the genetic value of
a given genotype is often masked by confounding factors like phenology, susceptibility to soil
borne diseases, soil heterogeneity etc. These masking factors represent a major bottle-neck for
developing reliable genetic markers. CIMMYT has therefore disaggregated drought tolerance per
se in wheat into distinct components and applies those findings to germplasm improvement.
Ongoing research is gaining a better understanding of traits with major effects on water
productivity in dryland wheat areas. These include root architecture and physiological traits,
resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases, tolerance to heat and saline, zinc deficient, and boron
toxic soils. Research carried out under P7 is focusing on characterization of genetic resources for
these traits. CIMMYT breeding site near Ciudad Obregón allows simulation of drought as it occurs
in major wheat growing areas. Research on soil-borne diseases is mainly carried out in Turkey.
Simultaneously, these genetic resources are evaluated at hot spots for various other abiotic and
biotic stresses. The phenotypic data generated are utilized by researchers (P1 and P2 at CIMMYT)
and partners (NARS, ARI) to develop molecular genetic or morphological markers and to develop
screening methods that allow a more precise selection. The markers and methods developed are
made available to partners through training courses, visiting scientists (see Output 3) and
publications. Germplasm characterized for specific traits (physiological or molecular
characterization) is distributed with relevant information through the IWIN.

P7, output 2, research has direct impact on the efficiency of NARS, ARI and CIMMYT wheat
program and through this it contributes to faster development of more stress tolerant germplasm.
For impact pathway of improved germplasm developed through P7 output 2 products, see impact
pathway for output 1. The principal users of P7 output 2 products are wheat researchers in NARS,
ARI and private breeding companies. The germplasm is distributed through international nurseries,
consisting of screening nurseries and yield trials targeted to specific agro-ecological environments

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             61
or specific stresses. In addition, especially targeted segregating populations and advanced lines
characterized for specific traits are distributed to those partners with specific needs and
requirements. Data collected from the screening sites in all wheat growing regions worldwide are
returned to CIMMYT on a voluntary basis and curated into public access databases and form the
basis for future breeding decisions by CIMMYT, ARI and NARS scientists. The data flow from
cooperators to CIMMYT and vice versa is essential for future improvement in wheat germplasm as
it empowers NARS while strengthening the relevance of products from international breeding
programs.

Output 3: Increased capacity of partners to face the challenges of climate change in
relation to wheat improvement in drought and heat stressed, variable environments.

The principal users of P7 output 3 products are wheat scientists from developing countries.
Through training courses addressing specific topics (e.g. soil borne diseases, heat and drought
tolerance, biofortification) and visits of scientists to Mexico and CIMMYT scientists visiting NARS,
knowledge is shared and exchanged. This approach leads to an increased research capacity of
NARS, which is in particular needed related to precision phenotyping and applying new selection
methods for wheat improvement.

International Public Goods

Spring and winter bread, and spring durum wheat germplasm
Wheat germplasm with increased water productivity, adaptation and performance stability,
multiple resistances to soil-borne and foliar diseases, and appropriate end-user quality, distributed
through international nursery trials for sharing and evaluation by NARS partners.

Segregating populations distributed, targeted to NARS-specific germplasm requirements and to
locations where hot spot screening is needed.

Expanded validation and use of high-throughput, marker-assisted selection for soil-borne
pathogen resistance, durable quantitative resistance to foliar pathogens, and improved market-
oriented and nutritional quality, using publicly available markers.
Germplasm characterized for abiotic and biotic stress adaptive traits
Germplasm developed through targeted shuttle breeding with partners for specific traits (soil-
borne pathogens, micro-nutrient screening, Hessian fly, rusts).
Data and information through the International Wheat Improvement Network.
New sources of genetic material and associated knowledge for water-use-efficient germplasm.

Selection methodologies to improve wheat for drought stressed environments
Effective breeding methodologies for germplasm improvement for variable locations significantly
affected by genotype-by-environment interactions.
Refined application of physiological tools such as canopy temperature depression, stem
carbohydrate remobilization, real-time spectral reflectance in applied breeding at CIMMYT and by
NARS colleagues.
Validation of international crop information system (ICIS) data management applications, and
expanded use of automated planting, harvesting and seed packaging technologies, including
barcode unique identity tracking.

Regional capacity building; breeding, pathology, quality and physiology
The capacity of NARS researchers in wheat physiology, industrial quality, and food safety, and
improvement for biotic and abiotic stress resistance or tolerance will continue to be enhanced and
upgraded through visits of scientists and training

Elaboration of Partners Roles
CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                                62
Achievements in global wheat production over the past few decades have been substantially
fuelled by the collective efforts of IWIN, which is based on the free exchange of germplasm and
data. Several hundred wheat researchers annually participate in this global network and evaluate
new wheat germplasm from CIMMYT spring, and the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA winter wheat
programs. The exchange of germplasm and information is paramount for impact from CIMMYT
wheat program. The importance of this network can not be emphasized enough, as it is the basis
for a successful wheat improvement program at CIMMYT. Collaboration on specific topics include:

- Ecuador-evaluation of wheat germplasm for resistance to yellow rust

- Ethiopia-evaluation of bread and durum lines for resistance to stem rust

- India-evaluation of germplasm for heat tolerance

- Iran-winter wheat breeding

- Kazakhstan-germplasm development for high latitudes

- Kenya-evaluation of bread and durum lines for resistance to stem rust

- Morocco-Leaf rust resistance in durum, Hessian Fly resistance

- Sudan-evaluation of mapping populations for drought

- Tunisia-evaluation of durum mapping population for septoria resistance, drought
-Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture; joint Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA International Winter Wheat
Improvement Program


Developing and evaluating drought tolerant wheat germplasm requires a multitude of expertise
and expensive infrastructure, which is not all available at CIMMYT. We access these through
strategic alliances and joint projects. Such a strategic alliance is with Australian institutions (MPB-
CRC, CSIRO, Universities of Adelaide, Queensland, Sydney and Western Australia) where the
Grains Research & Development Coportation (GRDC, Australia) is funding projects to enhance
tolerance to drought and soil-borne diseases, and exploit new germplasm sources. CIMMYT and
Australia use their complementary skills and expertise to develop new markers and identify stress
adaptive traits that can be used to enhance breeding efficiency. Other partnerships are
established with UK institutions (John Innes Centre, NIAB), Japan (JIRCAS), Germany (Institute of
Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research [IPK, Gatersleben]) and through participation in EU
projects. For the model used to collaborate with China, refer to P8.

CIMMYT and ICARDA are committed to improving the welfare of poor people and to alleviating
poverty in CWANA by increasing the production, productivity and nutritional quality of wheat.
ICWIP is a good example of a strategic alignment between a global commodity center (CIMMYT)
and an eco-regional center (ICARDA) working on the same commodity (wheat). Given its high per
capita wheat consumption and status as the center of origin and diversity for wheat, CWANA
represents one of the most important regions of CIMMYT global mandate for wheat improvement.

A further example of a global CIMMYT network is the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA International Winter
Wheat Program Improvement Program (IWWIP) hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture in Turkey.
The program distributes germplasm developed by IWWIP but also elite lines which are submitted
by winter wheat breeding programs in North America, Asia and Europe for international
distribution from Turkey. Co-operators receive germplasm from a diverse array of public and
private sector programs, evaluate the germplasm and send the results to IWIN.

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             63
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                         Intended Users            Outcome                         Impact

Output 1                 Spring and winter bread         NARS, IARC ARI, NGOs,     Measurable increases in         Increased national food
                         and durum wheat and             SME breeding and seed     productivity, water-use         security. Reduced
                         triticale lines with            companies.                efficiency and genetic          vulnerability of farm
                         tolerance to abiotic                                      diversity in farmers‟ fields.   families whose livelihoods
                         stresses (drought, heat)                                  Reduced losses from             depend on income from
                         and multiple disease                                      diseases and increased          wheat-based farming
                         resistance (rusts,                                        stability of grain yield.       systems. Improved
                         Septoria, Fusarium, soil-                                                                 agricultural productivity and
                         borne diseases) and                                                                       profitability, better quality
                         better end-use quality.                                                                   of wheat products and more
                                                                                                                   sustainable utilization of
                                                                                                                   natural resources. Risk of
                                                                                                                   disease epidemics
                                                                                                                   reduced.

Target 2010: Materials   Distribution of F4 and F5       NARS in five regions or   Enhanced efficiency to          Better adapted and market-
                         segregating populations         wheat farming systems     exploit wide genetic            oriented cultivars with more
                         targeted at five eco-regions                              variability by partners.        genetic diversity in farmers
                         or farming systems                                                                        fields

Target 2010: Materials   450 advanced bread and          Breeding programs,        Candidate lines                 Germplasm and information
                         durum wheat and triticale       farmers                   characterized for relevant      sharing and analysis lead to
                         lines distributed thought the                             traits. Lines and data used     faster deployment of
                         International Nursery                                     for wheat improvement.          improved cultivars and
                         System to around 150                                      Candidate cultivars             increased productivity.
                         cooperators                                               evaluated by farmers
                                                                                   through participatory
                                                                                   varietal selection. Lines
                                                                                   submitted for national
                                                                                   cultivar registration trials.

Target 2010: Materials   At least 5 cultivars released   NARS, IARC ARI, NGOs,     Valuable lines used in          Improved and genetically
                         and 60 new lines used in        SME breeding and seed     breeding programs. Data         diverse wheat germplasm
                         NARS crossing programs.         companies.                from International Wheat        used by breeders. Faster
                                                                                   Improvement Network             development of improved
                                                                                   available to cooperators.       cultivars. Participation in
                                                                                                                   global and regional wheat
                                                                                                                   improvement networks
                                                                                                                   increases. Global


CIMMYT                                                         MTP 2010-12                                                                   64
                         Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                         Impact

                                                                                                                     monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                     screening against new
                                                                                                                     diseases and new virulence
                                                                                                                     before major epidemics
                                                                                                                     occur.

Target 2010: Materials   Parental lines with desirable   NARS, IARC ARI, NGOs,       New lines with better            Cultivars with improved
                         quality for diverse end uses    SME breeding and seed       quality properties available    end-use quality and better
                         identified and deployed.        companies.                  to wheat breeders               marketability; farmers have
                                                                                                                     higher income.

Target 2011: Materials   450 advanced bread and          Breeding programs,          Candidate lines                 Germplasm and information
                         durum wheat and triticale       farmers                     characterized for relevant      sharing and analysis lead to
                         lines distributed through                                   traits. Lines and data used     faster deployment of
                         the International Nursery                                   for wheat improvement.          improved cultivars and
                         System to around 150                                        Candidate cultivars             increased productivity.
                         cooperators.                                                evaluated by farmers
                                                                                     through participatory
                                                                                     varietal selection. Lines
                                                                                     submitted for national
                                                                                     cultivar registration trials.

Target 2011: Materials   At least 5 cultivars released   Farmers, seed production    Cultivars released and          Farmers and consumers
                         and 60 new lines used in        enterprises, breeding       adopted by farmer for areas     benefit from new wheat
                         NARS crossing programs.         programs                    affected by erratic rainfall.   cultivars. The enhanced
                                                                                     Seed available for formal       drought and heat tolerance
                                                                                     and informal collaboration.     of these cultivars buffer
                                                                                                                     systems against possible
                                                                                                                     negative effects from
                                                                                                                     climate change.

Target 2011: Materials   Lines (30) resistant to         NARS wheat research and
                         nematodes and root rots         breeding programs.
                         distributed through a Root
                         Disease Screening
                         Nursery.

Target 2012: Materials   At least 5 cultivars released   Valuable lines used in      Enhanced efficiency to          Improved and genetically
                         and 60 new lines used in        breeding programs. Data     exploit wide genetic            diverse wheat germplasm
                         NARS crossing programs.         from International Wheat    variability by partners.        used by breeders. Faster
                                                         Improvement Network                                         development of improved
                                                         available to cooperators.                                   cultivars. Participation in
                                                                                                                     global and regional wheat


CIMMYT                                                         MTP 2010-12                                                                     65
                         Outputs                        Intended Users            Outcome                         Impact

                                                                                                                  improvement networks
                                                                                                                  increases. Global
                                                                                                                  monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                  screening against new
                                                                                                                  diseases and new virulence
                                                                                                                  before major epidemics
                                                                                                                  occur.

Target 2012: Materials   Diverse crosses between        NARS and private sector
                         wheat genepools (Spring x      wheat improvement
                         Winter) exploited to           programs
                         develop at least 30 drought
                         tolerant populations

Target 2012: Materials   450 advanced bread and         Breeding programs,        Candidate lines                 Germplasm and information
                         durum wheat and triticale      farmers                   characterized for relevant      sharing and analysis lead to
                         lines distributed through                                traits. Lines and data used     faster deployment of
                         the International Nursery                                for wheat improvement.          improved cultivars and
                         System to around 150                                     Candidate cultivars             increased productivity.
                         cooperators                                              evaluated by farmers
                                                                                  through participatory
                                                                                  varietal selection. Lines
                                                                                  submitted for national
                                                                                  cultivar registration trials.



Output 2                 Determine the scientific       NARS, IARC, ARI, SME      New valuable diversity          Livelihood of farmers living
                         basis of stress adaptive                                 identified and incorporated     in marginal areas enhanced
                         traits, with emphasis on                                 into breeding lines.            through more drought
                         drought, heat and                                                                        tolerant and stress resistant
                         resistance to diseases to                                                                cultivars. Measurable
                         develop more efficient                                                                   increase in productivity,
                         selection methodologies.                                                                 genetic diversity in farmers‟
                                                                                                                  fields.

Target 2010: Capacity    Improved understanding of      NARS cereal pathology     Users of CIMMYT                 Breeding programs utilize
                         soil borne pathogen            programs                  germplasm make better           germplasm more
                         frequency, diversity and                                 decisions about the             thoroughly, resulting in
                         economic importance for                                  appropriate, immediate use      better cultivars reaching
                         three countries.                                         of co-developed                 farmers more quickly.
                                                                                  germplasm.

Target 2010: Capacity    QTL identified for water-use   NARS wheat improvement

CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                                     66
                              Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact

                              and N-use efficiency in         programs
                              durum populations

Target 2010: Materials        Experimental wheat                                          Wheat populations in            Available genetic variability
                              populations available not                                   improved backgrounds,          is better utilized with
                              confounded by                                               evaluated for drought          impact in farmers fields.
                              phenology.                                                  relevant traits.

Target 2011: Capacity         Established physiological       NARS wheat research         Variations in heat and         Negative impacts of climate
                              and environmental               programs in South Asia      drought tolerance are          change on livelihoods of
                              limitations to grain yield                                  better understood, affecting   farmers thwarted through
                              and vegetative biomass                                      research and breeding          the cultivation of heat and
                              productivity with high                                      programs. Breeders are         drought tolerant wheat
                              throughput phenotyping.                                     better able to access heat     cultivars.
                                                                                          tolerant germplasm

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Genetic basis to host           NARS wheat research         Enhanced breeding              Validation and
knowledge                     resistance for several soil     programs                    efficiency.                    recommendation of an
                              borne pathogen resistant                                                                   optimal breeding strategy
                              sources understood.                                                                        for CIMMYT and NARS
                                                                                                                         partners.

Target 2011: Materials        Genetic stocks and rye                                      Wheat genetic stocks,          Available genetic variability
                              evaluated for stress related                                mostly with introgressions     is better utilized with
                              traits (physiological traits,                               from wheat wild relatives,     impact in farmers‟ fields.
                              zinc efficiency, disease                                    in improved backgrounds,
                              resistance) by CIMMYT and                                   evaluated for drought
                              partners.                                                   relevant traits.

Target 2011: Capacity         Routine application in          NARS, IARC, ARI, SME        Physiological trait-based      Greater efficiency in
                              durum wheat of optimized                                    breeding for heat tolerance    breeding using fundamental
                              molecular markers for soil                                  implemented.                   molecular pathways and
                              cyst nematodes, boron                                                                      processes is achieved.
                              tolerance, cereal rust
                              resistance, protein quality.

Target 2011: Materials        Candidate genes for
                              drought tolerance are
                              identified and used in
                              breeding programs through
                              MAS.

Target 2012: Other kinds of   Assessment of interaction       NARS especially extension   Principles for development
knowledge                     of genotype x conservation      services                    of cropping system adapted


CIMMYT                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                                     67
                              Outputs                       Intended Users               Outcome                       Impact

                              agriculture cropping                                       cultivars used and deployed
                              systems.                                                   to partners.

Target 2012: Capacity         MAS applied for drought       NARS, ARI, SME and private   Wheat cultivars adapted to    Cultivars that can fully
                              and heat adaptive traits in   sector wheat improvement     zero-tillage systems          exploit the benefits of
                              bread wheat mapping           programs                                                   conservation agriculture
                              populations.                                                                             with higher yield and
                                                                                                                       reduced production costs,
                                                                                                                       leading to increased
                                                                                                                       incomes for farmers.

Target 2012: Other kinds of   Multi-location analysis of    HarvestPlus, SME involved    Wheat germplasm better        Cultivars with value-added
knowledge                     wheat processing and          in food processing, and      tailored to end-user and      traits, to improve
                              nutritional quality is        wheat improvement            market requirements.          marketability
                              established.                  programs



Output 3                      Increased capacity of         NARS, SME,IARC               NARS and partner staff        Partner‟s research-for-
                              partners to face the                                       trained. Increased            development capacity
                              challenges of climate                                      effectiveness of partners     strengthened to improve
                              change in relation to                                      and CIMMYT research.          the livelihoods of people
                              wheat improvement in                                                                     depending on income from
                              drought and heat                                                                         rainfed wheat systems.
                              stressed, variable
                              environments.

Target 2010: Capacity         Regional network testing of   NARS, SME                    Valuable lines used in        Improved and genetically
                              NARS wheat lines                                           breeding programs             diverse wheat germplasm
                              facilitated.                                               exchanged. Data from          used by breeders. Faster
                                                                                         cooperative testing           development of improved
                                                                                         networks analyzed and         cultivars. Participation in
                                                                                         shared.                       global and regional wheat
                                                                                                                       improvement networks
                                                                                                                       increases. Global
                                                                                                                       monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                       screening against new
                                                                                                                       diseases and new virulence
                                                                                                                       before major epidemics
                                                                                                                       occur.

Target 2010: Capacity         International training on     NARS wheat improvement       Strengthened pool of wheat    Increased research
                              soil borne pathogens          programs                     scientists                    effectiveness of CIMMYT
                              conducted and network of                                                                 and its partners in key

CIMMYT                                                            MTP 2010-12                                                                    68
                        Outputs                        Intended Users           Outcome                      Impact

                        researchers in SBP                                                                   regions and NARS.
                        formed.

Target 2011: Capacity   Mutidisciplinary program for                            Physiological trait-based    Greater efficiency in
                        visiting scientists focused                             breeding implemented         breeding using fundamental
                        on wheat physiology for                                 through multi-stakeholder    methodologies is achieved
                        drought and heat                                        teams.
                        tolerance.

Target 2011: Capacity   International Cereal Cyst      NARS wheat improvement   Strengthened pool of wheat   Increased research
                        Nematode quarantine            programs                 scientists.                  effectiveness of CIMMYT
                        collection established in                                                            and its partners in key
                        Turkey and Belgium                                                                   regions and NARS
                        (ARS).




CIMMYT                                                      MTP 2010-12                                                                69
8: Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality

Project Overview and Rationale

Until the advent of science-based agriculture, wheat farmers‟ harvests were held hostage by
rapidly evolving fungal pathogens, among the most damaging of which were the rusts (stem, leaf
and stripe), other foliar diseases and Fusarium head blight. Modern breeding, combined with the
international exchange of experimental wheat germplasm and lines, resulted in developing and
wide dispersion of genetically enhanced wheat germplasm able to resist the rusts and other
diseases for several decades. Durable resistance to common wheat diseases provides farmers with
confidence that they will reap reasonable harvests, despite evolving pathogen populations, and
without the need to use expensive chemical inputs. More virulent pathotypes or strains of a
pathogen will likely overcome crop resistance at some point. Hence, CIMMYT emphasizes research
aimed at raising the genetic yield potential of wheat while maintaining its disease resistance to
ensure that production increases stay abreast of population growth. This approach results in
enhanced, seed-embedded technology that gives superior performance in farmers' fields. The
foundation is improved wheat germplasm and related knowledge built together by CIMMYT and
partners; this combination has had demonstrable impact in farmers fields.

P8 works with intensive, fully or supplementary irrigated agro-ecosystems that include bread and
durum wheat, and triticale. The Projects goals are addressed through understanding physiological
traits such as those related with yield and heat tolerance, while keeping in mind the issue of end-
use quality. Often together with NARS, CIMMYT will select germplasm in disease hot-spots
including those in China, Ecuador, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal,
Pakistan, Turkey, and Uruguay to protect farmers yields from rust and other diseases of global
importance for wheat farmers and consumers. The occurrence of a new stem rust race Ug99 in
Uganda, which is virulent on more than 85% of all what cultivars currently grown worldwide,
illustrates the need for monitoring of the global disease situation and the need for continuous
investment in disease resistance breeding. CIMMYT breeders generate some 500 lines annually
with broadened, often more durable disease resistance, focusing on leaf, stem, and yellow rust,
Fusarium head blight and crown rots, and Helminthosporium and Septoria spp.

Together with more than 100 country partners in the International Wheat Improvement Network
(IWIN), Center staff will also monitor the vulnerability of currently-sown wheat cultivars to
emerging disease risks such as the new virulent Ug99 stem rust strain from Uganda. These issues
are addressed while maintaining end-use grain quality.

Worldwide, over 50 new wheat cultivars containing CIMMYT germplasm are released each year.
Time to cultivar release and registration after receiving experimental germplasm varies
considerably by country, from as little as 3 years to as much as 10-12 years. Lack of effective
seed production also limits farmers‟ use of new cultivars: wheat is a self-pollinated crop, so
farmers can re-sow seed from one year to the next without substantially altering the identity or
performance of a cultivar, and this constitutes a disincentive for commercial seed production.

This Project identifies new traits and incorporates them into elite germplasm accessible to
resource-poor farmers aiming to improve food security and livelihoods. CIMMYT wheat germplasm
must meet the quality demands of a range of clients, markets, end-users and beneficiaries. For
the poorest of the poor, biofortification of wheat cultivars through increased micro-nutrient
content will have significant impacts. CIMMYT and partners will also work to provide value-added
traits that enable farmers to meet industry and market standards. Relevant traits include
improved micronutrient and protein content and improved quality for common and specialized
food products. Through host plant resistance breeding, CIMMYT and partners will also work


CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             70
proactively to address food health issues associated with food contamination from Fusarium
mycotoxins.

P8 activities are closely linked with the ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program (ICWIP) for
CWANA (see Project Overview of P7 for more details)

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Output 1 delivers sustainable productivity gains in spring and winter bread and durum wheat and
triticale through genetic enhancement to improve livelihoods of the poor and national and regional
food security.

Output 1 contributes to the overall goal of SP2, as it directly contributes to increased food
production and food security. It meets specific Goals 1 and 2 of SP2A, by developing and
promoting conventional and novel breeding technologies and promoting the use and exploitation
of genetic resources, as well as the general goal of SP2B, by producing stress tolerant (heat and
cold) and multiple disease resistant germplasm with appropriate end-use quality.

Output 2 contributes to SP 2A specific goals 1 and 2 through the identification of new resistance
genes and the introgression of durable resistance genes into elite wheat cultivars. These lines with
enhanced yield potential and better disease resistance and end-use quality are typical pro-poor
traits, as they protect farmers from losses from biotic stresses, thereby reducing their risk and
vulnerability and contribute to more stable income.

Output 3 contributes to the overall goal of SP2, by monitoring the distribution, evolution and
migration of pathogens through a global network. NARS capacity will be improved to undertake
effective pathogen tracking and monitoring.

Output 4 contributes to SP 2 priority 2C Specific Goal 1, 2 and 3 through the development of
wheat lines with increased iron and zinc content in the grain and through enhanced bio-availability
by optimizing the flour extraction rate. Food safety is increased through distribution of wheat lines
with enhanced resistance to Fusarium head blight and low mycotoxin content.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP

Disease resistant cultivars with high yield potential for farmers in wheat producing agro-ecologies
where adequate or supplementary irrigation is used is a principle focus of P8. P8 research targets
traits that convey resistance/tolerance in wheat cultivars to biotic and abiotic stresses in irrigated
areas. The occurrence of stem rust race Ug99 and its virulence on more than 85% of all currently
grown wheat cultivars world wide made breeding stem rust resistant cultivars one of the
overarching priorities of wheat improvement at CIMMYT and NARS, together with resistance
against yellow and leaf rust, enhanced yield potential and stability, and heat tolerance. Resulting
germplasm must also preserve a range of quality traits to meet user needs. Worldwide, over 50
new wheat cultivars containing CIMMYT germplasm are released each year. CIMMYT derived
wheat lines are grown on nearly 80% of the spring wheat area in lesser developed counties
(excluding China) and maintaining genetic diversity among elite lines is paramount to control
disease epidemics. Cereal rusts remain the main threat for wheat production in irrigated areas.
Building resistance on single major genes has proven to be not sustainable and CIMMYT is
therefore combining minor genes that assure durable resistance. Maintaining the high level of
durable resistance in CIMMYT wheat is a major priority. Together with building the capacity of



CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             71
NARS and other partners, this research will help reduce the vulnerability of wheat farmers in
intensive or irrigated areas and reduce risk for disease epidemics.

Output 1: Genetically diverse wheat germplasm with enhanced consumer and market
oriented quality, high yield potential, water and nutrient use efficiency, resistant to
biotic stresses and buffered to tolerate climatic change and variability

Description:

Disease resistant cultivars with high yield potential for farmers in wheat producing agro-ecologies
where adequate or supplementary irrigation is used is a principle focus of P8. P8 research targets
traits that convey resistance/tolerance in wheat cultivars to biotic and abiotic stresses in irrigated
areas. The occurrence of stem rust race Ug99 and its virulence on more than 85% of all currently
grown wheat cultivars world wide made breeding stem rust resistant cultivars one of the
overarching priorities of wheat improvement at CIMMYT and NARS, together with resistance
against yellow and leaf rust, enhanced yield potential and stability, and heat tolerance. Resulting
germplasm must also preserve a range of quality traits to meet user needs. Worldwide, over 50
new wheat cultivars containing CIMMYT germplasm are released each year. CIMMYT derived
wheat lines are grown on nearly 80% of the spring wheat area in lesser developed counties
(excluding China) and maintaining genetic diversity among elite lines is paramount to control
disease epidemics. Cereal rusts remain the main threat for wheat production in irrigated areas.
Building resistance on single major genes has proven to be not sustainable and CIMMYT is
therefore combining minor genes that assure durable resistance. Maintaining the high level of
durable resistance in CIMMYT wheat is a major priority. Together with building the capacity of
NARS and other partners, this research will help reduce the vulnerability of wheat farmers in
intensive or irrigated areas and reduce risk for disease epidemics.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples;

Output 2: Basis of durable disease resistance characterized and genetic diversity
enhanced to reduce genetic vulnerability in farmers fields.

Description: More than 40 bread and durum wheat lines with new race specific resistance are
characterized for resistance genes and distributed to partners and increases the genetic diversity
for rust resistance in CIMMYT germplasm. Rust resistance of most elite spring bread wheat lines is
based on minor genes adult plant or durable resistance), which greatly reduces the risk of rust
epidemics. Durum lines with adult plant resistance for leaf rust will be distributed to partners for
the first time. Diverse sources of resistance to septoria are incorporated into high yielding lines.
The International Wheat Improvement Network (IWIN) allows further validation of new sources of
resistance, internationally.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples;

Output 3:

Global networks to monitor distribution, evolution and migration of pathogens for an
early warning of threats.

Description:

A global network of NARS, international agricultural research centers (IARC), FAO and ARI using
GIS data (rust tracker) is established to monitor rust distribution and migration. This network is

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                              72
linked to the Durable Rust Resistance Project, managed by Cornell University. Baseline samples
and stem rust data will be collected by all partners in Ug 99 threatened countries and the global
distribution of stem rust races will be understood better. Early warning systems will allow NARS
and farmers to prepare for fungicide application to disease susceptible cultivars. The International
Fusarium Nursery generates information regarding the global distribution of scab or Fusarium
head blight (FHB) and crown rot caused by Fusarium species and their geographic distribution is
determined.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples;

Output 4:

Germplasm developed with enhanced genetic variability for increased iron, zinc and
protein concentration, reduced susceptibility to mycotoxin contamination, and improved
value-added, end-use quality

Description: At least 10 high-yielding wheat lines with enhanced Zn and Fe grain content and
resistance to cereal rusts adapted to South Asia (Pakistan and India) tested by NARS partners in
farmers fields. Wheat cultivars with reduced susceptibility to mycotoxin (DON) distributed in
international nurseries.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety;

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Genetically diverse wheat germplasm with enhanced consumer and market
oriented quality, high yield potential, water and nutrient use efficiency, resistant to
biotic stresses and buffered to tolerate climatic change and variability

The main impact pathway for P8 is the IWIN. International agricultural research has historically
been an example par excellence of an open source approach to biological research. Beginning in
the 1950s and especially in the 1960s, a looming global food crisis led to the development of a
group of international agricultural research centers with a specific mandate to foster international
exchange and crop improvement relevant to many countries. This formalization of a global
biological commons in genetic resources was implemented through an elaborate system of
international nurseries with a breeding hub, free sharing of germplasm, collaboration in
information collection, the development of human resources, and an international collaborative
network. IWIN is a truly open source system that impacts on world poverty and hunger. The open
source approach is just as relevant today, as witnessed by current crises in food prices and
looming crop diseases problem of global significance.

The principal users of P8, output 1, products are breeders and researchers in NARS, ARIs and
private breeding companies, NGOs and farmers. Within IWIN, several hundred wheat researchers
annually participate in this global network and evaluate new wheat germplasm from CIMMYT, and
the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA Winter Wheat program. The germplasm is distributed through
standardized international nurseries consisting of screening nurseries and yield trials which are
targeted to specific agro-ecological environments or specific stresses. In addition specifically
targeted segregating populations and advanced lines characterized for specific traits are
distributed. Data collected from the screening sites in all wheat growing regions worldwide are
returned to CIMMYT on a voluntary basis and then curated into public access databases and
provide the basis for future breeding decisions. The data flow from cooperators to CIMMYT and
vice versa is essential for future improvement in wheat germplasm as it empowers NARS while
strengthening the relevance of products from international breeding programs.

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             73
The ultimate beneficiaries of IWIN will continue to be smallholder farmers. New releases can be
expected to deliver 10% more yield than older cultivars; have better and more durable disease
resistance; and will be more tolerant to variable climate conditions. The adoption of those
cultivars and knowledge by NARS will contribute to stabilizing production of wheat in the targeted
areas. This research will have direct impact on reducing vulnerability to abiotic (heat and cold)
and biotic stresses for farm families whose livelihoods depend on income from wheat based
irrigated farming systems and will improve farm productivity and total production. Thus, this
research will contribute to alleviating poverty by increasing farm production and incomes and in so
doing improve the livelihoods and nutritional security of resource poor farmers

Output 2: Basis of durable disease resistance characterized and genetic diversity
enhanced to reduce genetic vulnerability in farmers fields.

New sources of resistance identified in genetic resources are made available to NARS for
immediate use. CIMMYT breeders transfer the new resistance genes into CIMMYT elite lines, a
process that takes 3-5 years, which are then globally distributed through IWIN. Introgressing the
resistance into widely adapted elite CIMMYT lines by CIMMYT scientists, using back-crossing and
MAS, allows co-operators to use the new resistance source directly in their crossing programs for
cultivar development without the need for the time-consuming transfer of the resistance from the
original source, which is often unimproved material. Output 2 contributes to increased genetic
diversity for disease resistance in farmers‟ fields, thereby reducing risk and vulnerability and
increase food security.

Output 3: Global networks to monitor distribution, evolution and migration of pathogens
for an early warning of threats.

Monitoring global pathogen movement and migration of wheat diseases has been greatly ignored
during the last decade. The occurrence of Ug 99 has clearly demonstrated the need for a global
monitoring system of airborne diseases like rusts. In an international effort including NARS, IARC,
ARI and FAO, a real time tracking system accessible through the internet has been developed. The
rust tracker follows air movement and makes predictions on which areas could be at risk from
airborne spores. Surveys in wheat producing countries using GIS, locate disease occurrence and
data are the accessible through an internet accessible database. The global monitoring system
provides early warning to NARS with regard to the potential risk of an epidemic. For example, FAO
has sent a warning to countries at risk from Ug99 infection following the confirmed presence of
Ug99 in Iran. The occurrence of new virulences can be identified early, which provides breeders
valuable time to identify elite lines resistant to the new races. Output 3 contributes to national,
regional and global food security

Output 4: Germplasm developed with enhanced genetic variability for increased iron,
zinc and protein concentration, reduced susceptibility to mycotoxin contamination, and
improved value-added, end-use quality

The principal target countries for Fe and Zn enriched wheat lines are India and Pakistan, as these
countries consume wheat products using high flour extractions, thereby keeping the Fe and Zn in
the food. Since high zinc and Fe wheat are invisible nutrient traits, biofortification is a rather blunt
intervention, that is, biofortified cultivars are not delivered to specific targeted age, geographical,
or income groups. Rather, because (i) Fe and zinc deficiency is so pervasive, (ii) wheat
consumption is so high among all age and socio-economic groups, and (iii) a high percentage of
total wheat supply will be biofortified, a large number of the zinc deficient population will consume
zinc-biofortified wheat.

Seed zinc (and iron) is invisible to farmers and consumers. Therefore, the strategy is to combine
the high zinc trait with superior agronomic traits, in particular high yield and resistance to new


CIMMYT                                       MTP 2010-12                                             74
strains of yellow rust and stem rust that will drive adoption by farmers. Currently relatively few
popular wheat cultivars dominate wheat production in India and Pakistan; thus, there is a
reasonable expectation as new lines are released, these new biofortified lines will account for a
high percentage of total production. For this strategy to work and to become sustainable, it is
essential that the institutions that breed the cultivars to be released (CIMMYT, Indian Council for
Agricultural Research [ICAR], Pakistan Agricultural Research Council [PARC], private sector SME)
work in close collaboration and breeding for micronutrient density is part of their core breeding
objectives. CIMMYT, funded by HarvestPlus Challenge Program, is pursuing sustainability
specifically through (i) securing the commitment of high-level managers at these institutions, (ii)
providing funding for these institutions for undertaking the additional costs of biofortification-
related breeding, research, training, and equipment, and (iii) holding project meetings. This is
facilitated through for example through close collaboration with the Indian Biofortification Program,
which is funded by the Indian government through the Department of Biotechnology (DBT).

In addition, it is important that policymakers in India and Pakistan (importantly the Ministries of
agriculture, health, and finance), NGOs, and other enabling institutions be made aware of the
biofortification strategy so they become supporters of the work. This is supported through
HarvestPlus in-country conferences and meetings, and targeted in-country activities.

International Public Goods

Output 1. Genetically diverse wheat germplasm with enhanced consumer and market
oriented quality, high yield potential, water and nutrient use efficiency, resistant to
biotic stresses and buffered to tolerate climatic change and variability.

- Disease resistant cultivars with high yield potential for farmers in wheat producing agro-
ecologies where adequate or supplementary irrigation is used.
- Basis of grain yield potential is expanded, addressing important associated traits such as
resistance to lodging, spike sink capacity, stay-green, and heat tolerance.
- Potential durable, polygenic sources of resistance from the bread and durum wheat genomes, as
well as related wild species, is an important focus for maintaining and enhancing resistance to
main wheat diseases.

Output 2. The basis of durable disease resistance is investigated resulting in
characterized and enhanced genetic diversity to reduce the risk of genetic vulnerability
in farmers’ fields.

- Knowledge of the basis for durable resistance to the main pathogens of wheat.
- Knowledge of rust epidemiology to assist in the local, regional and global fight against a global
stem rust pandemic is a particularly significant effort of the project.
- New sources of resistance to wheat pathogens are sought and confirmed.

Output 3. Global networks to monitor distribution, evolution and migration of pathogens
for an early warning of threats.

- A global network based on contributions from NARS, IARC, ARI and FAO established to track
evolution and migration of pathogens

- Real time information system climate factors influencing rust movement build on the Google
Global Earth Platform (Rust tracker) with P11

- GIS data protocols and information platforms for tracking rust movement

Output 4. Germplasm developed with enhanced genetic variability for increased iron,

CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                               75
zinc and protein concentration, reduced susceptibility to mycotoxin contamination,
and/or improved value-added, end-use quality.

 - Zn and Fe enriched wheat cultivars with high yield and disease resistance
- Wheat cultivars with reduced susceptibility to mycotoxins, thereby contributing to increased food
safety.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Achievements in global wheat production during the past few decades were substantially fuelled
by the collective efforts of IWIN, which is based on the free exchange of germplasm and data.
Several hundred wheat researchers annually participate in this global network and evaluate new
wheat germplasm from CIMMYT and the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA Winter Wheat program. The
exchange of germplasm and information is paramount for impact from CIMMYT wheat program.
The importance of this network can not be emphasized enough, as it is the basis for a successful
wheat improvement program at CIMMYT. Collaboration on specific topics includes:

- Ecuador-evaluation of wheat germplasm for resistance to yellow rust
- Ethiopia-evaluation of bread and durum lines for resistance to stem rust
- India-evaluation of germplasm for heat tolerance
- Iran-winter wheat breeding
- Kenya-evaluation of bread and durum lines for resistance to stem rust
- Sudan-evaluation of mapping populations for heat
- Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture- joint Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA International Winter Wheat
Improvement Program
- Uruguay-evaluation for FHB and leaf rust

Identifying, verifying and transferring new sources of resistance into elite lines, characterizing the
variation of pathogens and identifying markers for the respective resistance gene requires a
multitude of expertise and expensive infrastructure, which is not all available at CIMMYT. We
access these through strategic alliances and joint projects. Such a strategic alliance is with
Australian institutions (MPB-CRC, CSIRO, University of Sydney). For rust race identification, we
collaborate with USDA and the University of Minnesota. CIMMYT is a founding member of the
Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, which coordinates global efforts on improving cereal rust. For FHB,
CIMMYT is coordinating the International Fusarium Network and we participate in the USDA-
USWBSI (United States Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative). Other partnerships are established with
UK institutions (John Innes Centre, Rothamsted) and through participation in EU projects.

Another model of collaboration is established with China-CAAS, where CIMMYT wheat lines, using
molecular markers developed by Chinese researchers, are characterized for quality traits relevant
for Chinese wheat products. This enables Chinese and CIMMYT breeders to plan crosses better. In
the future, markers for disease resistance will be applied.

The Project is linked to P1, P2, P10 and P 11. Research targeted at the CWANA region is carried
out under the ICARDA-CIMMYT ICWIP.

For details of the co-operation with ICARDA and the Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA IWWIP, please see
P7.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                            76
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                 Genetically diverse             Farmers, household          Measurable increase in         Increased national food
                         wheat germplasm with            consumers, food             productivity and genetic       security. Reduced
                         enhanced consumer and           processors, NARS, IARC      diversity in farmers fields.   vulnerability of farm
                         market oriented quality,        ARI, NGO, SME, other        Reduced losses from            families whose livelihoods
                         high yield potential,           private sector              diseases and increased         depends on income from
                         water and nutrient use                                      stability of grain yield.      wheat based farming
                         efficiency, resistant to                                    Enhanced input efficiency.     systems. Improved
                         biotic stresses and                                                                        agricultural productivity,
                         buffered to tolerate                                                                       better quality of wheat
                         climatic change and                                                                        products and more
                         variability                                                                                sustainable utilization of
                                                                                                                    natural resources. Risk of
                                                                                                                    disease epidemics reduced.
                                                                                                                    Reduced or eliminated use
                                                                                                                    of fungicides leading to
                                                                                                                    improved environment and
                                                                                                                    profitability.

Target 2010: Materials   450 advanced bread and          NARS, IARC ARI, NGO,        Sustained growth in wheat      Improved and genetically
                         durum wheat lines and           SME, private sector         productivity by release of     diverse wheat germplasm
                         segregating populations for                                 new and diverse wheat          used by breeders. Faster
                         irrigated areas distributed                                 germplasm distributed          development of improved
                         through the International                                   through international          cultivars. Participation in
                         Nursery System to around                                    nurseries and used by          global and regional wheat
                         200 cooperator.                                             NARS-own breeding              improvement networks
                                                                                     programs.                      increases. Global
                                                                                                                    monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                    screening against new
                                                                                                                    diseases and their virulence
                                                                                                                    before major epidemics
                                                                                                                    occur.

Target 2010: Materials   Candidate lines (20)            NARS, IARC ARI, NGO,        Sustained growth in wheat      Improved and genetically
                         submitted for national          SME, other private sector   productivity by release of     diverse wheat germplasm
                         cultivar registration trials,                               new and diverse wheat          used by breeders. Faster
                         and 100 new lines used in                                   germplasm distributed          development of improved
                         partner-own crossing                                        through international          cultivars. Participation in
                         programs.                                                   nurseries and used by          global and regional wheat
                                                                                     NARS breeding programs.        improvement networks


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                         Outputs                        Intended Users            Outcome                         Impact

                                                                                                                  increases. Global
                                                                                                                  monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                  screening against new
                                                                                                                  diseases and their virulence
                                                                                                                  before major epidemics
                                                                                                                  occur.

Target 2010: Materials   Advanced lines resistant to                              Advanced lines                  Germplasm and information
                         stem rust distributed in the                             characterized for relevant      sharing and analysis lead to
                         International Stem Rust                                  traits. Lines and data used     faster deployment of
                         Resistance Screening                                     for global wheat                improved cultivars and
                         Nursery (100).                                           improvement. Candidate          increased productivity.
                                                                                  cultivars evaluated by
                                                                                  farmers through
                                                                                  participatory varietal
                                                                                  selection.

Target 2010: Materials   High quantities of seed                                  Cultivars released and          Farmers and consumers
                         available of 5 to 10 wheat                               adopted by farmers for          benefit from new wheat
                         genotypes resistant to                                   areas affected by variable      cultivars. Enhanced drought
                         UG99 stem rust and                                       input potential and high        and heat tolerance of these
                         adapted to target                                        disease pressure, and           cultivars buffer against
                         countries.                                               partner breeding programs       possible negative effects
                                                                                  strengthened.                   from climate change.

Target 2010: Materials   Adapted wheat cultivars        Sichuan and Yunnan AAS,   Sustained productivity          Livelihood of farmers
                         from Africa and Asia and       CAAS                      growth in Sichuan and           improved through increased
                         elite genotypes enhanced                                 Yunnan Provinces through        food security and income.
                         with diverse and durable                                 the release of high-yielding
                         sources of resistance to the                             spring bread wheat
                         Ug99 stem rust pathogen.                                 cultivars with durable
                                                                                  resistance to yellow rust

Target 2010: Materials   Advanced lines resistant to    Nepal, Bangladesh, BAU-   Genetic stocks with             Reduced vulnerability of
                         Fusarium Head Blight with      India, CIMMYT breeders    combined resistance to          farmers through enhanced
                         low myscotoxin (DON)                                     these stresses, as well as      wheat productivity and
                         content distributed in the                               with yield stability, made      stability for tolerance to the
                         Fusarium Elite Spring                                    available for further genetic   effects of climate change
                         Wheat Screening Nrusery                                  diversification                 and diseases.

Target 2011: Materials   40 heat tolerant, early-                                 Advanced lines                  Germplasm and information
                         maturing lines resistant to                              characterized for relevant      sharing and analysis lead to
                         Helminthosporium leaf                                    traits. Lines and data used     faster deployment of


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                         Outputs                         Intended Users           Outcome                          Impact

                         blight and cereal rusts                                  for global wheat                 improved cultivars and
                         developed for Eastern                                    improvement. Candidate           increased productivity.
                         Gangetic Plains.                                         cultivars evaluated by
                                                                                  farmers through
                                                                                  participatory varietal
                                                                                  selection.

Target 2011: Materials   Candidate lines (20)            Global wheat breeding    Diverse sources of spring         Development of cultivars
                         submitted for national          community, Global Rust   and winter bread wheat           resistant to Ug99 reduces
                         cultivar registration trials,   Initiative               germplasm, with                  the risk of a global stem
                         and 100 new lines used in                                information on genes for         rust pandemic and
                         partner-own crossing                                     resistance to Ug99, made         associated food insecurity
                         programs.                                                available to NARS for either     and economic losses.
                                                                                  direct release or use in their
                                                                                  breeding programs

Target 2011: Materials   Advanced lines resistant to     Global wheat breeding    Diverse sources of spring        Development of cultivars
                         stem rust distributed in the    community, Global Rust   and winter bread wheat           resistant to Ug99 will
                         International Stem Rust         Initiative               germplasm with information       reduce the risk of a global
                         Resistance Screening                                     on resistance genes against      stem rust pandemic and
                         Nursery (100)                                            Ug99 made available to           associated damage to
                                                                                  NARS for either direct           economies and food
                                                                                  release or for use in their      security
                                                                                  breeding programs

Target 2011: Materials   Wheat germplasm resistant       Farmers and seed         High acceptance of stem          Reduced vulnerability of
                         to fusarium head scab           producers                rust resistant cultivars by      farmers in target areas;
                         through MAS and hot-spot                                 farmers, with resistance to      increased food security
                         shuttle breeding with China,                             Ug99 introgressed into           through reduced risk of a
                         and Southern Cone                                        widely grown cultivars           global stem rust
                                                                                                                   pandemic.

Target 2011: Materials   450 advanced bread and          NARS, IARC ARI, NGO,     Cultivars released and           Farmers and consumers
                         durum wheat lines and           SME, private sector      adopted by farmer for areas      benefit from new wheat
                         segregating populations for                              affected by variable input       cultivars. Enhanced drought
                         irrigated areas distributes                              potential and high disease       and heat tolerance of these
                         through the International                                pressure; partners breeding      cultivars buffers against
                         Nursery System to around                                 programs strengthened.           possible negative effects
                         200 cooperator.                                                                           from climate change.

Target 2012: Materials   450 advanced bread and          NARS, IARC, ARI, NGO     Sustained growth in wheat        Improved and genetically
                         durum wheat lines and           SME, private sector      productivity by release of       diverse wheat germplasm
                         segregating populations for                              new and diverse wheat            used by breeders. Faster


CIMMYT                                                         MTP 2010-12                                                                     79
                         Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                         Impact

                         irrigated areas distributes                                 germplasm distributed           development of improved
                         through the International                                   through international           cultivars. Participation in
                         Nursery System to around                                    nurseries and used by           global and regional wheat
                         200 cooperator.                                             NARS-own breeding               improvement networks
                                                                                     programs.                       increases. Global
                                                                                                                     monitoring and pre-emptive
                                                                                                                     screening against new
                                                                                                                     diseases and their virulence
                                                                                                                     before major epidemics
                                                                                                                     occur.

Target 2012: Materials   Candidate lines (20)            GFI, USWBSI, China, INIA-   Increased availability of       Reduced toxin content in
                         submitted for national          Uruguay                     wheat germplasm resistant       wheat results in improved
                         cultivar registration trials,                               to scab                         health of wheat
                         and 100 new lines used in                                                                   consumers.
                         partner-own crossing
                         programs.

Target 2012: Materials   Advanced lines resistant to     Farmers and seed            Mitigating the threat from      Reduced vulnerability of
                         stem rust distributed in the    producers in Kenya and      the Ug99 stem rust race, to     farmers in target areas;
                         International Stem Rust         Ethiopia                    safeguard food security and     increased food and
                         Resistance Screening                                        livelihoods in Africa, Middle   economic security through
                         Nursery (100).                                              East and Asia                   reduced risk of a global
                                                                                                                     stem rust pandemic.

Target 2012: Materials   Durum wheat lines (30)          Global wheat breeding       Diverse sources of spring       Development of cultivars
                         with durable resistance to      community, Global Rust      and winter bread wheat          resistant to Ug99 will
                         leaf rust based on minor        Initiative                  germplasm, with                 reduce the risk of a global
                         genes.                                                      information on genes for        stem rust pandemic and
                                                                                     resistance to Ug99, made        associated economic and
                                                                                     available to NARS for either    food security effects.
                                                                                     direct release or for use in
                                                                                     their breeding program



Output 2                 Basis of durable disease        NARS, ARI                   Germplasm developed with        Germplasm developed in
                         resistance characterized                                    better resistance to            partnership through global
                         and genetic diversity                                       pathogens                       alliances between CIMMYT,
                         enhanced to reduce                                                                          North and South.
                         genetic vulnerability in
                         farmers fields.

Target 2010: Capacity    Knowledge on the                Global Rust Initiative      Breeding efficiencies           More durable and diverse

CIMMYT                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                     80
                         Outputs                         Intended Users               Outcome                          Impact

                         epidemiological dynamics of                                  employed to rapidly develop      rust resistance deployed,
                         stem rust in East Africa.                                    wheat germplasm for use          particular to areas where
                                                                                      by GRI partners                  rapid pathogen evolution
                                                                                      worldwide.                       occurs.

Target 2010: Capacity    Validation of 4 molecular                                    Increased selection              Increased national and
                         markers for quality traits                                   efficiency; wheat                regional food security;
                         relevant for Chinese wheat                                   germplasm with durable           reduced vulnerability of
                         products and resistance to                                   resistance to rust.              farmers and increased farm
                         Yellow rust.                                                                                  income.

Target 2011: Materials   Five RIL/DH populations         Wheat research teams in      Variations in spot blotch        Losses from spot blotch
                         developed for mapping           South Asia                   resistance are better            disease reduced. Genetic
                         resistance to spot-blotch to                                 understood and form the          diversity for spot blotch
                         identify molecular markers                                   basis for designing new          resistance enhanced in
                                                                                      resistance breeding              improved wheat
                                                                                      strategies.                      germplasm.

Target 2011: Capacity    Basis of adult plant            Global Rust Initiative       Breeding efficiencies            More durable and diverse
                         resistance (APR) to leaf rust                                employed to rapidly develop      rust resistance deployed,
                         in durum wheat determined                                    wheat germplasm for use          particular to areas where
                         and 40 durum lines with                                      by GRI partners                  rapid pathogen evolution
                         APR distributed.                                             worldwide.                       occurs.

Target 2011: Materials   Identification of resistance-   NARS; Cooperators in         Increased selection              Reduced toxin content in
                         related genes to FHB and        Global Fusarium Initiative   efficiency and availability of   wheat results in improved
                         development of DNA                                           scab resistant germplasm.        health of wheat
                         markers.                                                                                      consumers.

Target 2011: Materials   Identification of genomic
                         regions (QTL) in bread and
                         durum wheat populations
                         for fine mapping of rust
                         resistance genes and
                         marker development.



Output 3                 Global networks to              NARS, Policy Makers, NGO,    Responsibility                   Farmers less vulnerable to
                         monitor distribution,           IARC, ARI                                                     losses from pathogen
                         evolution and migration                                                                       epidemics, thereby
                         of pathogens for an early                                                                     increasing their
                         warning of threats.                                                                           productivity, food security,
                                                                                                                       wealth and health.


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                              Outputs                       Intended Users             Outcome                        Impact

Target 2010: Materials        International Fusarium        GFI, NARS, USWBSI,         Knowledge of the nature        Reduced toxin content in
                              Nursery (FHB and CR                                      and distribution of FHB and    wheat products results in
                              resistance and informative                               crown rot causing Fusarium     improved health of wheat
                              genetic stocks) grown in                                 species (including             consumers
                              FHB/crown rot hotspots.                                  knowledge of new means of
                                                                                       describing pathogenic
                                                                                       Fusarium- chemotype, DNA
                                                                                       based lineages, etc.)

Target 2010: Materials        Species and chemotype of                                 Nature and distribution of     Reduced losses from
                              pathogen isolates                                        FHB and crown rot causing      Fusarium species and
                              (FHB/crown rot) regionally                               Fusarium species               healthier wheat products
                              determined.                                              determined

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Monitoring of pathogen in
knowledge                     global network of hot spot
                              location and publication of
                              results.



Output 4                      Germplasm developed           Resource poor consumers    Wheat germplasm with           Improved and safer
                              with enhanced genetic         and farmers; processors;   acceptable nutritional and     nutrition from grain
                              variability for increased     NARS                       end-user traits identified     consumption for rural and
                              iron, zinc and protein                                   and used                       urban poor. Enhanced
                              concentration, reduced                                                                  wheat grain market
                              susceptibility to                                                                       opportunities for farmers
                              mycotoxin
                              contamination, and
                              improved value-added,
                              end-use quality

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Evaluation of the G x E for   NARS, ARI and CIMMYT       Enhanced genetic variability   Genetic diversity
knowledge                     grain Fe and Zn in the        breederstive               for biofortified grain         contributes to nutritional
                              target region of India and                               improvement                    security
                              Pakistan.

Target 2010: Materials        Wheat genetic resources       NARS and CIMMYT            Biofortified germplasm         Improved wheat germplasm
                              screened for iron and zinc    breeders                   development                    contributes to improved
                              concentration.                                                                          farmer and consumer
                                                                                                                      livelihoods

Target 2010: Materials        Wheat genetic resources       NARS, ARI and CIMMYT       Enhanced genetic variability   Genetic diversity
                              screened and identified for   breeders                   for biofortified grain         contributes to nutritional


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                         Outputs                        Intended Users          Outcome                     Impact

                         nitrogen use efficiency.                               improvement                 security mpr

Target 2011: Capacity    High through-put NIR           Farmers in India and    Improved wheat cultivars    Enhanced food and
                         screening for iron, zinc and   Pakistan                reach farmers               nutritional security
                         protein grain concentration
                         established and fully
                         functioning.

Target 2012: Materials   Germplasm developed (20)       Processors, consumers   Optimized processing        Improved health of wheat
                         for biofortified, enhanced                             methods defined to retain   consumers
                         iron or zinc concentration.                            nutritional value of
                                                                                biofortified grain

Target 2012: Materials   Farmer participatory           Farmers in India and    Improved wheat cultivars    Enhanced food and
                         evaluation of biofortified     Pakistan                reach farmers               nutritional security
                         wheat germplasm.




CIMMYT                                                        MTP 2010-12                                                          83
10: Maize and wheat cropping systems

Project Overview and Rationale

Through partnerships with NARS, agri-business, and other CGIAR centers, this Project undertakes
strategic and process research with an ultimate vision of widespread sustainable systems used by
smallholder wheat and maize producers based on the principles of conservation agriculture (CA).
The aim is to improve rural incomes and livelihoods through sustainable management of agro-
ecosystem productivity and diversity, while minimizing unfavorable environmental impacts. The
Project will focus on the development of appropriate practices tending to reduce tillage, provide
adequate surface retention of crop residues, and incorporate diversified crop rotations to reverse
soil degradation. For small- and medium-scale farmers, the Project will seek more efficient and
sustainable use of water and other inputs, lower production costs, better management of biotic
stresses, and enhanced system intensity, diversity and production. As CA-based resource-
conserving practices are adopted, research will promote an integrated evaluation of the effects of
long-term conservation agriculture under diverse agro-ecological conditions, both rainfed and
irrigated. Studies will focus on such factors as pest, weed, and disease dynamics and
management; the effects of crop rotations and green manure cover crops; residue management
and threshold levels of residue cover; soil nutrient dynamics and nutrient management; water
management; soil structure dynamics; impacts on greenhouse gas emissions; adaptive research
and policy issues; impacts on household livelihoods, local or regional economies, and food security;
and cultivars adapted to CA systems, as well as the adaptation of equipment for conservation
agriculture systems.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

CIMMYT investments include research on conservation agriculture in maize and wheat based
cropping systems with a strong alignment with SP4, together with some contribution to SP2 and
SP5. Capacity building is a major component. Frontier research and development activities also
receive small resource allocations as a means for exploring emerging issues affecting global
agriculture and ensuring impacts of CIMMYT knowledge and ensuing technology in maize and
wheat farming systems

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
There is no significant change in last year's MTP

Output 1: Strategic systems knowledge of cereal-soil dynamics and management
developed to exploit genotype x system interactions (G x S) and enhance resource and
input-use efficiency for sustainable maize- and wheat-based cropping systems.

Description:

The strategic science platforms focus on the dynamic/long-term questions of conservation
agriculture based technologies using the vehicle of long term trials. There are well-developed
strategic science platforms on three of the research stations where CIMMYT operates in Mexico,
and others are being developed in the innovation and learning hubs in other major maize and
wheat-based systems. The principal questions to be addressed focus on enhancing water use
efficiency, C and N cycles under different system management regimes, including especially tillage,
residue management, germplasm and crop rotation components; the management and dynamics
of weeds, pests and diseases; and the restoration and quantification of soil health, as well as the

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                           84
effects of these on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The strategic research activities are
closely linked to applied research, capacity building and knowledge development in a series of
coordinated innovation and learning platforms (see Output 2). The strategic science platforms
embedded in innovation hubs in Mexico offer particularly rich opportunities for capacity building,
while regional training and capacity building is conducted in other hubs.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at landscape level; 4C:
Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low-
and high-potential areas; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural
poverty and vulnerability; 6B: Free-standing training; 6C: Development Activities;

Output 2: Coordinated innovation and learning platforms established in key farming
systems to engage, catalyze and support NARS technology developers and associated
stakeholders (notably researchers, farmers, policy makers) to develop widely applicable
technologies and identify policies to increase system productivity and sustainability
including improved input use efficiency (including water, nutrients and labor) and soil
quality management

Description: The innovation and learning hubs are located in important maize and wheat based
cropping systems in the developing world - generally characterized by different resources,
constraints and risks. Applied, participatory research in these hubs will concentrate on increasing
the efficiency of inputs, including labor, and the interactions between management and
technology components, especially genotype x management interactions. Synthesis across
common research themes in the hubs will facilitate the production of IPGs of global relevance, for
which effective data and knowledge management is essential. The hub research will be conducted
by small multi-disciplinary teams (agronomy, crop breeding, social science and cropping systems),
in close cooperation with NARS, in a multi-stakeholder innovation system context.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at landscape level; 4C:
Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low-
and high-potential areas; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural
poverty and vulnerability; 6B: Free-standing training; 6C: Development Activities;

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Strategic systems knowledge of cereal-soil dynamics and management
developed to exploit genotype x system interactions (G x S) and enhance resource and
input-use efficiency for sustainable maize- and wheat-based cropping systems.

Strategic science platforms in Mexico and other regional hub locations facilitate joint research on
cereal-soil dynamics and management with advanced research institutes such as the Centro de
Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV, Mexico), University of California, and Catholic
University of Leuven. This primary research provides data which can be used in modeling to
extrapolate the knowledge to other environments. The knowledge if also of direct use in the
cropping system oriented research hubs in different ecosystems across the developing world (see
Output 2), and in this way the following organizations are involved:

Regional agricultural research-for-development organizations (e.g., Rice-Wheat Consortium for
the Indo-Gangetic Plains; Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia).

International agricultural research-for-development organizations (e.g., CGIAR Centers such as
CIAT, ICARDA or IRRI, and FAO).

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             85
Advanced research institutes (universities) that collaborate with CIMMYT on basic research of
technology design and the evaluation of economic and biophysical effects of these technologies.

As the strategic CA science platforms are located within priority maize and wheat-based cropping
systems where CIMMYT concentrates its activities, multidirectional knowledge flows among
CIMMYT and NARS researchers, ARI scientists, applied researchers, extension agents and farmers
within the innovation and learning hub (see Output 2). Another channel for the dissemination of
knowledge of cereal-soil dynamics and management are trainees, as the hub provides the base
for systematic capacity building in conservation agriculture principles and management.

Output 2: Coordinated innovation and learning platforms established in key farming
systems to engage, catalyze and support NARS technology developers and associated
stakeholders (notably researchers, farmers, policy makers) to develop widely applicable
technologies and identify policies to increase system productivity and sustainability
including improved input use efficiency (including water, nutrients and labor) and soil
quality management

The hubs located in priority maize and wheat systems in the developing world provide, and will
provide, examples of functional innovation systems focused on the development of technologies
based on the principles of conservation agriculture (CA). Multiple partners and stakeholders,
including farmers, NARS, Advanced research institutions, universities and CGIAR center scientists,
both from CIMMYT and sister institutes. As such the hubs will provide both a functional
development node through partnerships with farmers and national institutions, and an example of
an innovation strategy that can be replicated in other areas by partners. Technological
components developed with partners in the hubs, including methodologies and, importantly,
adapted equipment is shared across hubs. The hubs also provide a training ground for scientists
from other regions with similar agricultural systems, including training in technologies and
technology adaptation, as well as in the organization and management of innovation systems.

International Public Goods

CIMMYT concentrates its efforts to develop and apply resource-conserving technologies based on
the concepts of conservation agriculture in focal areas or hubs representative of major maize- and
wheat-based cropping systems in the developing world. This strategy provides a platform to
extend the conviction that there are alternatives to current degradative crop production methods
while at the same time developing examples of coherent, efficient innovation and learning hubs
that can be emulated and multiplied by partners. In collaboration with ICARDA in CWANA, CIAT in
Southern Africa and IRRI in South Asia, and NARS and NGOs in a number of countries (see below),
CIMMYT conducts primary research related to the design and implementation of on-farm and
landscape level conservation agriculture practices. The focus of this work has demonstrated the
widespread applicability of the principles of conservation agriculture, and that they can be
effectively adapted to the circumstances of farmers in multiple environments. The engagement
with local application of the principles initiates a process of paradigm shift in multiple stakeholders,
accepting the need for innovation systems and conservation agriculture to replace the traditional
paradigms of linear knowledge flow and tillage-based agriculture with the removal of residues.
This has resulted, among other things, in the development of new technologies for soil
conservation and increased water productivity, while reducing labor requirements and production
costs; these outcomes are transferable across regions. Local research in the hubs has been
participatory, with farmers, extension workers and NARS assessing their requirements, adapting
the general principles and defining appropriate intervention points to facilitate wider effective
adaptation which fosters adoption. The specific approaches used have depended on the degree of
crop production intensity; in rainfed environments efforts have focused on the adoption of
minimum and zero-tillage with residue retention, and the identification of functional crop rotation
systems, while in more intensive irrigated systems, conservation agriculture is coupled with the


CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                             86
establishment of raised-beds in a system of permanent raised beds. Significant efforts have been
made by CIMMYT researchers to demonstrate the advantages of conservation agriculture alone
and coupled with raised-bed planting to farmers, extension agents, researchers and policy-makers.
Access to, and development of, appropriate planting equipment has been a component of this
research, often relying on the exchange of technologies across continents, and involving small-
and medium-sized enterprises assessing needs for machinery modification with farmers.

Experience has shown that even smallholder farmers see benefits in this technology, in some
cases hiring local agricultural mechanization entrepreneurs to sow and harvest crops. Beneficiaries
include farmers, who save natural and economic resources while ensuring more sustainable
farming, and communities that depend on the improved biophysical and economical sustainability
of agricultural production. P10 catalyses partnerships at the local, national and international level
to enhance the development of CA-oriented innovation platforms.

Other International Public Goods include:

      Knowledge of the processes by which conservation agriculture systems and practices affect
       land, labor, and water productivity; soil organic matter and soil physical, chemical, and
       biological fertility; pest and disease dynamics; and farm household incomes and livelihoods.
      Knowledge of adaptation processes to develop and extend complex systems.
      Technological components for conservation agriculture systems that are appropriate for
       small- and medium-scale maize and wheat systems that generate additional food or
       income, that facilitate system diversification and improve soil health and productivity, and
       thereby contribute to sustainable production.
      The strengthened capacity of partners (NGOs, NARS, farmer groups, public and private
       sector entities, and policy-makers) in conservation agriculture research-for-development;
       the formation and management of farmer-focused innovation systems; the scaling out of
       conservation agriculture principles and technologies; and the development of local,
       regional, and national policies that promote sustainable agricultural practices.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Farmers and farmer organizations; direct beneficiaries and active elements in setting CIMMYT
research agenda, and in knowledge-sharing through their feedback.

Private enterprises, including seed producers and machinery manufacturers, participate actively in
innovation systems,

NARS and NGOs, who serve as principle contacts for adapting, implementing, and spreading
technologies (e.g., NARS and NGOs involved in the CSISA Project in South Asia and in CIMMYT CA
projects in Southern Africa and Mexico).

National and local policy-makers, who cooperate and create enabling institutional environments.

Regional agricultural research-for-development organizations (e.g., Rice-Wheat Consortium for
the Indo-Gangetic Plains).

International agricultural research-for-development organizations (e.g., CGIAR Centers such as
ICARDA or IRRI, and FAO).

Advanced research institutes (universities), that collaborate with CIMMYT on basic research of
technology design and the evaluation of economic and biophysical effects of these technologies



CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                           87
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                          Intended Users            Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                 Strategic systems                NARS researchers          Enhanced understanding of      Through better technologies
                         knowledge of cereal-soil         supporting breeding and   the GxE interactions and       and knowledge, reduction
                         dynamics and                     crop management           resource and input use         of poverty and producer
                         management developed                                       efficiency underlying          risk, enhancement of
                         to exploit genotype x                                      Conservation Agriculture       natural resources dedicated
                         system interactions (G x                                   (CA), and improved design      to agriculture and
                         S) and enhance resource                                    of applied research            contributions to the
                         and input-use efficiency                                   programs in developing         mitigation of and adaptation
                         for sustainable maize-                                     countries (including both      to climate change
                         and wheat-based                                            breeding and crop
                         cropping systems.                                          management research) to
                                                                                    better exploit genetic and
                                                                                    management options for
                                                                                    increasing system
                                                                                    productivity and mitigating
                                                                                    the effects of climate
                                                                                    change

Target 2010: Materials   Published synthesis of G x S     NARS researchers          Better understanding of G x    Increased productivity and
                         in maize and wheat               supporting breeding and   S and implications for trial   reduced poverty
                         systems                          crop management           design


Target 2010: Materials   Synthesis of the long-run        NARS researchers          Better knowledge of input-     Increased input-use
                         impact of CA on soil organic     supporting breeding and   use efficiency                 efficiency and climate
                         matter (soil carbon) and         crop management                                          change mitigation and
                         plant nutrient availability in                                                            adaptation
                         contrasting soil types and
                         environments.

Target 2010: Materials   Strategies developed for         NARS researchers          Improved knowledge of          Increased nutrient use
                         the efficient management of      supporting breeding and   fertilizer use practices       efficiency and reduced
                         nitrogen in CA systems,          crop management           under CA systems               greenhouse gasess
                         including issues of fertilizer
                         placement and
                         immobilization, crop
                         rotations and residue
                         amounts.



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                              Outputs                         Intended Users            Outcome                       Impact

Target 2010: Materials        Publication on the effects of   NARS researchers          Knowledge of CA systems,      Reduced greenhouse gases;
                              CA on greenhouse gas            supporting breeding and   greenhouse gases, and         climate change
                              emissions under different       crop management           climate change                mitigationa
                              environments

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Interactions between crops
knowledge                     under CA and both soil and
                              necrotrophic diseases
                              documented in different
                              agro-ecosystems.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Strategic research
knowledge                     documented on G x
                              Management interactions
                              on maize and wheat

Target 2011: Other kinds of   The effects of tillage and
knowledge                     residue management
                              practices on microorganism
                              diversity and populations
                              characterized and
                              incorporated in a
                              strategically integrated
                              database.

Target 2012: Materials        The effects of CA practices     NARS researchers          Better knowledge of           Increased nutrient-use
                              on micronutrient uptake by      supporting breeding and   nutrient-use efficiency       efficiency and reductions in
                              maize and wheat                 crop management                                         micronutrient application
                              documented.                                                                             requirements

Target 2012: Materials        The effects of crop rotation    NARS researchers          Greater understanding of      Enhanced system
                              on crop productivity and        supporting breeding and   the effects and potential     productivity through
                              soil quality in contrasting     crop management           effects of crop rotation in   adequate crop rotations.
                              environments analyzed and                                 different environments
                              documented.

Target 2012: Materials        Functional aids to soil         NARS researchers          Greater appreciation and      Enhanced soil resource
                              quality assessment              supporting breeding and   understanding of soil         management
                              developed and published.        crop management           quality and management
                                                                                        effects on soil quality

Target 2012: Materials        The effect of permanent         NARS researchers          Greater appreciation and      Enhanced soil resource
                              raised beds on salt             supporting breeding and   understanding of salt         management and reduced
                              accumulation and                crop management           management in gravity-fed     salinization


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                         Outputs                        Intended Users                     Outcome                       Impact

                         distribution analyzed and                                         irrigation systems
                         documented



Output 2                 Coordinated innovation         NARS scientists and policy         Greater knowledge and         Poverty reduced, livelihoods
                         and learning platforms         makers from different              capacity in NARS to manage    improved, soil and water
                         established in key             disciplines, initially in: risky   innovation systems and        conserved, fuel use
                         farming systems to             maize-based systems in             develop sustainable maize     reduced, soil organic carbon
                         engage, catalyze and           southern Africa; intensive         and wheat-based farming       loss slowed or reversed,
                         support NARS                   maize and wheat systems            systems through               functioning mechanisms for
                         technology developers          in Asia (rice-wheat, rice-         participatory system-         the mitigation of and
                         and associated                 maize, cotton-wheat and            oriented research.            adaptation to climate
                         stakeholders (notably          maize-wheat); and                                                change in the domains
                         researchers, farmers,          degraded maize- and                                              surrounding hubs
                         policy makers) to              wheat-based systems in
                         develop widely                 Mexico
                         applicable technologies
                         and identify policies to
                         increase system
                         productivity and
                         sustainability including
                         improved input use
                         efficiency (including
                         water, nutrients and
                         labor) and soil quality
                         management

Target 2010: Materials   Documented options for         NARS scientists and policy         Better knowledge of climate   Climate change mitigation
                         residue management and         makers                             change mitigation and         or adaptation in maize and
                         soil carbon and nitrogen                                          adaptation options            wheat farming systems in
                         options to mitigate and                                                                         developing countries
                         adapt to climate change in
                         different environments.

Target 2010: Materials   Knowledge of integrated        NARS associated with the           Knowledge of integrated,      Sustainable intensification
                         rice-maize intensification     rice-maize intensification         productivity-enhancing        with enhanced resource
                         models in selected locations   under the IRRI-CIMMYT              technologies for rice-maize   management and reduced
                         across Asia documented.        Alliance                           intensification across Asia   poverty

Target 2010: Materials   Report of analysis of          NARS policy makers from            Better knowledge of policy    Wider adoption of CA
                         similarities and differences   different disciplines              drivers                       technologies leading to
                         in policy impacts on the                                                                        poverty reduction,


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                              Outputs                         Intended Users               Outcome                        Impact

                              adoption and profitability of                                                               enhanced resources and
                              CA in selected communities                                                                  mitigation of climate
                              in three continents.                                                                        change

Target 2010: Materials        Report on the impact of         NARS scientists and policy   Better knowledge of            Increased impacts of
                              adoption of CA technologies     makers                       germplasm - CA system          improved maize and wheat
                              on the uptake of improved                                    interactions and impacts       germplasm
                              cultivars in Africa, Asia and
                              Latin America.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Impact of CA on soil quality
knowledge                     in farmers‟ fields in
                              southern Africa, Asia and
                              Mexico analyzed and
                              documented.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Options for efficient
knowledge                     integrated rice-maize
                              system management
                              options in selected locations
                              across Asia documented.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Report on the interaction
knowledge                     between management and
                              the performance of
                              improved wheat and maize
                              cultivars

Target 2012: Other kinds of   The impact of different         NARS and IARC scientists     Improved understanding of      Increased adoption of CA
knowledge                     agents and attitudes on the                                  the functioning of             systems
                              functioning of innovation                                    innovation systems.
                              systems analyzed and
                              documented.

Target 2012: Materials        A synthesis of the factors      NARS and IARC scientists,    Enhanced understanding of      Increased adoption of CA
                              affecting smallholder CA        policy makers                smallholder adoption           systems
                              adoption in southern Africa                                  pathways
                              published

Target 2012: Materials        Impact of CA on water and       NARS and IARC scientists,    Greater appreciation of the    More efficient agricultural
                              nutrient use efficiency         policy makers                effects of CA on input use     systems
                              synthesized and potential                                    efficiency and the potential
                              benefits at regional scales                                  impacts of this.
                              analyzed and documented.


CIMMYT                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                                         91
11: Knowledge, targeting, and strategic assessment of maize
and wheat farming systems

Project Overview and Rationale

Most poor farmers and consumers in developing countries depend on risky and complex maize- or
wheat-based farming systems for their survival. For related crop research to have rapid, lasting
impacts on poverty reduction, it is essential to consider the diverse production, consumption, and
livelihood roles of wheat and maize. These go far beyond household and national food security
and include cash income from sales of grain and specialty products, the reduction of vulnerability
through stable yields, the stimulus of animal production through the provision of fodder and feed,
the creation of bioenergy from low cost feedstocks, and the improvement of human health
through nutritionally-enhanced grain. In addition, there is a range of secondary, indirect benefits
not widely recognized: for example, the intensification of maize and wheat fosters on-farm
diversification and local, rural non-farm economy growth.

Through strategic assessments of wheat and maize systems and knowledge sharing, this Project
will contribute to mission-effective maize and wheat improvement research by CIMMYT and NARS
As the easy research gains have been achieved and as the international community places greater
emphasis on sustainable poverty reduction, sustainable management of resources, and other
Millennium Development Goals, the choice and efficient delivery of maize and wheat traits and
management technologies to smallholder farmers requires more careful analysis of options. This
project will promote the translation of new innovations in plant science into concrete benefits for
poor farmers. In many developing regions, the dominant role of wheat and maize on small farms
is changing from a staple for home consumption to a cash crop for domestic sales and export,
both in well-watered and drought-prone environments. Meanwhile, the technological and
knowledge needs of resource-poor farmers are evolving rapidly as a result of changing trade
regimes, the withdrawal of state services, the transformation of food systems, the reduction of the
agricultural research budgets, and pervasive market and institutional failures.

Despite the diversity of maize and wheat systems, relatively homogenous mega-environments,
farming systems and research domains can be defined to guide priority setting and targeting and
support spatial knowledge bases assembled. The synthesis of ex post and ex ante impact
assessments, conducted in the normal course of research, identifies key lessons for research
targeting and operations. The Project develops key methodologies (e.g., socioeconomic and
environmental characterization, impact pathway assessment, value chain mapping, knowledge
sharing). Science knowledge sharing platforms are being developed under the IRRI-CIMMYT
Alliance.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural
poverty and vulnerability; 6A: New research

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
There are no changes from last year's MTP




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Output 1: Strategic information and data for targeting priority setting

Description: Despite the diversity of maize and wheat systems, relatively homogenous mega-
environments, farming systems and research domains can be defined to guide priority setting and
targeting and supporting spatial knowledge bases assembled. The synthesis of ex post and ex
ante impact assessments, conducted in the normal course of research, identifies key lessons for
research targeting and operations.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 5D: Improving research and
development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability; 6A: New research;

Output 2: Functional understanding of value chains and innovations systems in
selected regions

Description: The adoption and adaptation of technologies (including germplasm) and knowledge
involves a complex non-linear social and economic learning process as framed in the U impact
pathway which occurs as the result of the cooperation and interaction of farmers, private seed
suppliers, public officials, technical specialists and marketing agents. The innovation system
functions within/along an impact pathway. The impact pathway describes the dominant chain of
events linking research outputs such as resource-conserving technologies or knowledge to farm
household-level impact. Generally, impact pathway analysis provides plausible specification of the
dominant links and critical roles of the key actors leading to the adoption and better management
of improved germplasm and knowledge on farmers‟ fields.

Strategic research foci include the following. First, maize and wheat are not homogenous
commodities; both crops can be differentiated into several products e.g. bio-fortified wheat,
quality protein maize (QPM), landraces etc. for which consumers may pay different prices.
Furthermore, maize is also a high value agricultural product by virtue of it being a vegetable (e.g.
sweet corn, baby corn, green cobs). However, high value does not always mean high income for
farmers. The effective and efficient functioning of value chains (along with issues of governance
and equity) are to a large degree determined by the institutional environment. CIMMYT research
will identify key institutional factors that enhance the pro-poor nature of maize and wheat value
chains. Institutional factors are defined broadly and range from farmer organizations to
institutions in terms of rules of the game.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 5B: Making international and
domestic markets work for the poor; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce
rural poverty and vulnerability; 6A: New research;

Output 3: Strengthened partners involved in research and sustainable development for
maize and wheat based cropping systems, in alliance with other CGIAR centers.

Description: The knowledge sharing and capacity building functions essentially cut across the
whole of CIMMYT, and link to external partners e.g., IRRI in the case of the cereal systems
knowledge Project (CSKP). Through sharing CIMMYT science knowledge, the capacity of
researchers (especially in Africa) and agricultural support services (especially in Asia) will be
strengthened. A concerted effort is required in converting relevant report and journal articles into
fact sheets for populating the bank/portal.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 5D: Improving research and
development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability; 6B: Free-standing training;

CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             93
Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Strategic information and data for targeting priority setting

Consider the specific impact pathway of the publication Wheat (or Maize) Facts and Futures. After
assembling, analyzing and interpreting data assembled jointly with NARS, including seed
companies where appropriate, the Project provides maize and wheat status and scenario
information to NARS actors. The short-term outcome will be improved understanding, on the part
of national research managers and policy makers, of current and probable future commodity
markets and technologies and, by virtue of this, greater insight of breeding priorities (for abiotic
and biotic stresses and quality characteristics for market access).

The medium-term expectation is improved focus and effectiveness of national crop improvement
programs (this will occur more rapidly in strong NARS such as India; more slowly in less well-
resourced NARS), and thus better cultivars and faster adoption by poor farmers. In the long-term,
significant producer and consumer impacts could be expected: improved livelihoods, reduced
vulnerability, and reduced poverty among marginalized farmers, diversification towards cash crop
production, job creation in the rural non-farm economy, and increased food consumption by poor
consumers. The farm household benefits will tend to be aligned with CIMMYT flagship products.

There are several assumptions that link these steps: the feasibility of assembling relevant data for
the analysis; the availability and credibility of the results; the relevance to national science policy
decisions; the effectiveness of crop improvement, seed distribution, farmer adoption and
adaptation, and knowledge extension activities; the correspondence with farmers goals; and the
on-farm cost-effectiveness of a specific technology.

Output 2: Functional understanding of value chains and innovations systems in
selected regions

The impact pathways depend on a variety of functional internal and external partnerships with
different value chain actors as well as policy-makers and providers of financial and business
development services. These partnerships can be mapped as networks. In regard to internal
partnerships, the collaboration with CIMMYT Projects underpins the delivery of most outputs,
which in turn supports the networks of those respective Projects. The internal network of CIMMYT
social scientists also fosters the dissemination of Project knowledge outputs, including
methodologies, guidelines, and knowledge bases.

Output 3: Strengthened partners involved in research and sustainable development for
maize and wheat based cropping systems, in alliance with other CGIAR centers.

The principal users of Project products and services are research managers and scientists for the
design and appraisal of agricultural research and development. The knowledge outputs of the
Project take the form of web products, reports, papers, and databases developed by CIMMYT and
partners, especially NARS socioeconomics and senior research managers and agri-businesses in
developing countries. Sometimes the knowledge flows through other CIMMYT Projects, sometimes
directly to NARS partners. Ultimately, improved NARS understanding, research methods and
targeting will lead to improved livelihoods and poverty reduction.




CIMMYT                                      MTP 2010-12                                              94
International Public Goods

The Project produces international public goods in the following areas:

      Spatial knowledge bases and strategic assessments to support priority setting, targeting,
       and scaling up for CIMMYT and partners.
      Syntheses of ex post and ex ante impact assessments.
      Better understanding of producer incentives and institutional drivers of maize and wheat
       diversity.
      Analyses of maize and wheat value chains to improve marketing efficiency and producer
       and consumer benefits
      Knowledge and associated knowledge sharing mechanisms for maize and wheat science
       that provide direct benefits and also support capacity building at CIMMYT.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Regarding external partnerships, the Project collaborates strategically with the CGIAR Science
Council Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) on impact assessment approaches and
methods. Project scientists partner with other CGIAR centers to complement expertise in
multidisciplinary and micro-economic analyses of maize, wheat, and conservation agriculture:
notably IFPRI, ICARDA, CIAT and ILRI in relation to targeting, environmental characterization,
climate change, knowledge bases and impact assessment; Bioversity International in relation to
crop diversity; CIAT, IFPRI and ILRI for value addition and grain and stover quality; and the IRRI-
CIMMYT Alliance as well as many other centers for the knowledge sharing and the Cereal Systems
Knowledge Portal.

In relation to Challenge Programs, the Project provides analyses of strategies for reaching end
users and ex ante impact assessment for HarvestPlus, and with the System-wide Livestock
Program in relation to the analysis of emerging maize fodder. The development of data and
knowledge bases requires cooperation in sharing data on cultivar adoption, financial and economic
benefits, impact pathways, and innovation systems, including NARS from Mexico, Morocco, Turkey,
Ethiopia, Kenya, India, China and Bangladesh.

Universities and NARS support impact assessments and crop diversity studies. Joint activities with
universities, NARS, FAO, and NGOs are planned on value chain analysis throughout the developing
world. Active collaboration on the Cereal Systems Knowledge Portal is ongoing with IRRI, as well
as a wide range of NARS, universities, and other public and private sector organizations. Project
staff conducts joint research with advanced universities and in the field with universities in
developing countries.




CIMMYT                                     MTP 2010-12                                             95
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                       Intended Users                 Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                 Strategic information         CIMMYT and System-wide         Better knowledge of impact     Increased effectiveness of
                         and data for targeting        Program researchers and        pathways and enhanced          maize and wheat system,
                         priority setting              managers, NARSs, policy        targeting of research and      research-for-development
                                                       makers, donors                 policy for maize and wheat     for improvement of rural
                                                                                      systems, especially for poor   livelihoods, food security
                                                                                      farmers                        and reduced poverty

Target 2010: Materials   Appraisals of climate         Managers and researchers       Better understanding of the    More efficient and effective
                         change impact on maize        in NARS, CIMMYT, CGIAR         environments and impact        Project monitoring and
                         and wheat farming systems     and associated partners,       pathways for maize.            evaluation. Improved
                         initiated                     agricultural policy makers     Lessons from ex post and       priority setting for
                                                       and donors. NARS               ex ante assessments.           germplasm enhancement
                                                       (including extension),         Estimates of gene valuation    including, intermediate
                                                       university and CGIAR           to guide the utilization of    genetically enhanced
                                                       researchers, policy makers     genetic diversity;             materials More efficient
                         Maize Facts and Futures
                                                       in ministries of agriculture   knowledge of the               utilization of ex situ and in
                                                       and water resources, CGIAR     interactions between seed      situ maize and wheat
                                                       Challenge Programs             markets and diversity          genetic diversity (including
                                                                                                                     considerations of seed
                         Synthesis of knowledge                                                                      markets in the latter
                         sharing and capacity                                                                        case).
                         Building. Past impacts
                         assessed and strategic
                         investment pathways
                         preliminary identified for
                         drought tolerant maize in
                         eastern and southern Africa

                         Synthesis findings of
                         external monitoring and
                         evaluation research on crop
                         breeding and management
                         investments in Ethiopia and
                         Uganda made available to
                         policy makers, NARS
                         partners and scientists



CIMMYT                                                       MTP 2010-12                                                                        96
                         Outputs                      Intended Users                Outcome                      Impact




Target 2011: Materials   Update wheat atlas




Output 2                 Functional                   CIMMYT researchers,           Greater effectiveness of     Increased farmer income
                         understanding of value       private sector, policy        crop improvement and crop    and accelerated adoption of
                         chains and innovations       makers, partners (including   management research,         improved cultivars, and
                         systems in selected          NGOs), CGIAR centers.         including high protein and   increased employment
                         regions                                                    micro-nutrient enriched      through value chain and
                                                                                    maize and wheat cultivars,   innovation system
                                                                                    and improved value-added     effectiveness
                                                                                    chains in selected maize
                                                                                    and wheat farming
                                                                                    systems.

Target 2010: Materials   Documented value chains
                         for marginal maize systems
                         in eastern India and Kenya




                         Synthesis of innovation
                         systems in regions of crop



CIMMYT                                                      MTP 2010-12                                                                   97
                         Outputs                       Intended Users                 Outcome                          Impact

                         diversity


                         Documented value chains
                         for marginal maize systems
                         in Asia and sub-Saharan
                         Africa




Target 2011: Materials   Documented adoption and
                         impacts of resource
                         conserving technologies in
                         intensive cereal systems in
                         South Asia

                         Enhanced understanding of
                         the maize seed sector and
                         delivery chain dynamics in
                         East and Southern Africa




Output 3                 Strengthened partners         NARS (including extension),    Strengthened professional        Partners' capacity
                         involved in research and      NGOs, CGIAR researchers,       capacity to improve maize-       strengthened to conduct
                         sustainable development       policy makers, universities,   and wheat-based farming          appropriate research-for-
                         for maize and wheat           agri-business.                 systems. Accessibility and       development to improve
                         based cropping systems,                                      impact of knowledge and          livelihoods and reduce
                         in alliance with other                                       technology developed by          poverty.
                         CGIAR centers.                                               CIMMYT and partners
                                                                                      enhanced.

Target 2010: Capacity    Open learning modules (e-     NARESs, universities           Strengthened and                 Extended knowledge of new
                         courses) compatible with                                     diversified study curricula of   generation of cereal
                         initiatives of other CGIAR                                   partner universities.            breeders.
                         centers and partners                                         Diversified possibilities for
                                                                                      continuous professional

CIMMYT                                                       MTP 2010-12                                                                           98
                        Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome        Impact

                        functioning                                       development.




                        Model of extension and
                        scientific repositories (e.g
                        Country knowledge bank,
                        science portals) introduced
                        to the key stakeholders and
                        partners in Latin America

                        Initiation of maize and
                        wheat science information
                        exchange platforms
                        (portals) enhancing access
                        to CIMMYT's knowledge
                        wealth

Target 2011: Capacity   Complete set of CIMMYT
                        core courses and learning
                        materials digitalized and
                        available in various formats
                        (e.g. video-lectures; stand
                        alone e-courses, etc)




                        Strategic links for further
                        capacity building efforts
                        with the key collaborating
                        universities in Africa, Asia
                        and LAC established and
                        functioning

                        Network of training hubs
                        related to specific CIMMYT
                        research areas established
                        and functioning




CIMMYT                                                      MTP 2010-12                           99
Financing Plan


                                         CIMMYT-Table 1: Allocation of Project Costs by Priority Area and Priorities, 2010
                                                                                                       in $millions

                                                                              Priority           Priority Area 2           Priority Area 3    Priority Area 4             Priority Area 5                Non-Priority    Area
                                                                              Area 1

                                   Project                                      1A       2A       2B       2C      2D       3A       3B      4A      4C         4D      5A      5B      5D      Developm    New         Stand-    Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                   ent    Research alone
                                                                                                                                                                                                Activities Areas Training


    Project 01 - Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based              1.271    0.794    0.794    0.318                                                                                                                   3.177
    germplasm enhancement

    Project 02 - Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for                         1.025    2.561    1.537                                                                                                                   5.123
    genetic improvement

    Project 03 - Stress tolerant maize                                          1.408    1.407    8.444    1.407                                                                        1.407                                     14.073

    Project 04 - Nutritious and specialty trait maize                           0.145    0.436    0.291    0.582   0.293    0.145    0.291                              0.145   0.291              0.145      0.145                2.909


    Project 07 - Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality                   0.211    0.423    1.268    0.212                                                                                                                   2.114


    Project 08 - Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and                      2.141    5.352    3.211                                                                                                                  10.704
    quality

    Project 10 - Maize and wheat cropping systems                                        0.282                                               0.282   0.282      1.253                   0.282      0.470                  0.282    3.133


    Project 11 - Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of                        0.540    0.540                                                                         0.720   0.360                 0.720       0.720    3.600
    maize and wheat farming systems

                                                                      Total     3.035    7.048   19.250    7.267   0.293    0.145    0.291   0.282   0.282      1.253   0.145   1.011 2.049      0.615      0.865       1.002     44.833




CIMMYT                                                                                            MTP 2010-12                                                                                                                         100
                                              CIMMYT-Table 2: Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2008-2012
                                                                                             in $millions

Projects
                                                                                                    Actual          Estimated     Proposal      Plan 1       Plan 2
                                                                                                     2008             2009          2010         2011         2012
    Priorities

Project 01 - Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based germplasm enhancement

    1A                                                                                                      1.843         1.619         1.271        1.554        1.881

    2A                                                                                                      1.152         1.012         0.794        0.971        1.176

    2B                                                                                                      1.152         1.012         0.794        0.971        1.176

    2C                                                                                                      0.461         0.405         0.318        0.389        0.470

                                                                                   Total Project            4.608         4.048         3.177        3.885        4.703

Project 02 - Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement

    2A                                                                                                      1.306         0.833         1.025        1.211        1.125

    2B                                                                                                      3.264         2.081         2.561        3.027        2.811

    2C                                                                                                      1.959         1.249         1.537        1.817        1.687

                                                                                   Total Project            6.529         4.163         5.123        6.055        5.623

Project 03 - Stress tolerant maize

    1A                                                                                                      1.131         1.046         1.408        1.534        1.333

    2A                                                                                                      1.129         1.045         1.407        1.536        1.333

    2B                                                                                                      6.776         6.271         8.444        9.214        7.997

    2C                                                                                                      1.129         1.045         1.407        1.536        1.333

    5D                                                                                                      1.129         1.045         1.407        1.536        1.333

                                                                                   Total Project        11.294           10.452        14.073       15.356       13.329

Project 04 - Nutritious and specialty trait maize

    1A                                                                                                      0.219         0.180         0.145        0.141        0.187

    2A                                                                                                      0.658         0.540         0.436        0.422        0.562

    2B                                                                                                      0.439         0.360         0.291        0.281        0.375

    2C                                                                                                      0.877         0.720         0.582        0.562        0.750

    2D                                                                                                      0.438         0.361         0.293        0.279        0.377

    3A                                                                                                      0.219         0.180         0.145        0.141        0.187

    3B                                                                                                      0.439         0.360         0.291        0.281        0.375
Projects
                                                                                                Actual       Estimated     Proposal      Plan 1       Plan 2
                                                                                                 2008          2009          2010         2011         2012
    Priorities

    5A                                                                                               0.219         0.180         0.145        0.141        0.187

    5B                                                                                               0.439         0.360         0.291        0.281        0.375

    Development Activities                                                                           0.219         0.180         0.145        0.141        0.187

    New Research Areas                                                                               0.219         0.180         0.145        0.141        0.187

                                                                                Total Project        4.385         3.601         2.909        2.811        3.749

Project 07 - Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality

    1A                                                                                               0.182         0.252         0.211        0.204        0.199

    2A                                                                                               0.364         0.503         0.423        0.409        0.398

    2B                                                                                               1.093         1.510         1.268        1.226        1.195

    2C                                                                                               0.182         0.252         0.212        0.204        0.200

                                                                                Total Project        1.821         2.517         2.114        2.043        1.992

Project 08 - Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality

    2A                                                                                               1.229         2.062         2.141        1.906        2.203

    2B                                                                                               3.073         5.155         5.352        4.766        5.509

    2C                                                                                               1.844         3.092         3.211        2.860        3.305

                                                                                Total Project        6.146        10.309        10.704        9.532       11.017

Project 10 - Maize and wheat cropping systems

    2A                                                                                               0.346         0.331         0.282        0.285        0.297

    4A                                                                                               0.346         0.331         0.282        0.285        0.297

    4C                                                                                               0.346         0.331         0.282        0.285        0.297

    4D                                                                                               1.540         1.470         1.253        1.268        1.322

    5D                                                                                               0.346         0.331         0.282        0.285        0.297

    Development Activities                                                                           0.579         0.549         0.470        0.477        0.498

    Stand-alone Training                                                                             0.346         0.331         0.282        0.285        0.297

                                                                                Total Project        3.849         3.674         3.133        3.170        3.305

Project 11 - Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming systems

    2A                                                                                               0.426         0.514         0.540        0.470        0.476

    2B                                                                                               0.426         0.514         0.540        0.470        0.476

    5B                                                                                               0.568         0.685         0.720        0.627        0.634
Projects
                                          Actual       Estimated     Proposal      Plan 1       Plan 2
                                           2008          2009          2010         2011         2012
   Priorities

   5D                                          0.285         0.341         0.360        0.313        0.318

   Stand-alone Training                        0.568         0.685         0.720        0.627        0.634

   New Research Areas                          0.568         0.685         0.720        0.627        0.634

                          Total Project        2.841         3.424         3.600        3.134        3.172

                                 Total        41.473        42.188        44.833       45.986       46.890
                                                                 CIMMYT-Table 3: Summary of Project Costs, 2008-2012
                                                                                                in $millions

                                                                                                    Actual       Estimated     Proposal     Plan 1      Plan 2
                                               Project                                               2008          2009          2010       2011        2012


Project 01 - Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based germplasm enhancement                     4.608         4.048        3.177       3.885       4.703

Project 02 - Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for genetic improvement                         6.529         4.163        5.123       6.055       5.623

Project 03 - Stress tolerant maize                                                                     11.294        10.452        14.073      15.356      13.329

Project 04 - Nutritious and specialty trait maize                                                        4.385         3.601        2.909       2.811       3.749

Project 07 - Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality                                                1.821         2.517        2.114       2.043       1.992

Project 08 - Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and quality                                  6.146       10.309        10.704       9.532      11.017

Project 10 - Maize and wheat cropping systems                                                            3.849         3.674        3.133       3.170       3.305
Project 11 - Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of maize and wheat farming                    2.841         3.424        3.600       3.134       3.172
systems
                                                                                        Total          41.473        42.188        44.833      45.986      46.890
                                      CIMMYT-Table 4: Summary of Priority Costs, 2008-2012
                                                         in $millions


                         Priorities                     Actual           Estimated      Proposal       Plan 1           Plan 2
                                                        2008               2009           2010         2011             2012
1A                                                               3.375          3.097          3.035            3.433            3.600
2A                                                               6.610          6.840          7.048            7.210            7.570
2B                                                           16.223            16.903         19.250        19.955           19.539
2C                                                               6.452          6.763          7.267            7.368            7.745
2D                                                               0.438          0.361          0.293            0.279            0.377
3A                                                               0.219          0.180          0.145            0.141            0.187
3B                                                               0.439          0.360          0.291            0.281            0.375
4A                                                               0.346          0.331          0.282            0.285            0.297
4C                                                               0.346          0.331          0.282            0.285            0.297
4D                                                               1.540          1.470          1.253            1.268            1.322
5A                                                               0.219          0.180          0.145            0.141            0.187
5B                                                               1.007          1.045          1.011            0.908            1.009
5D                                                               1.760          1.717          2.049            2.134            1.948
Development Activities                                           0.798          0.729          0.615            0.618            0.685
Stand-alone Training                                             0.914          1.016          1.002            0.912            0.931
New Research Areas                                               0.787          0.865          0.865            0.768            0.821
                                                Total        41.473            42.188         44.833        45.986           46.890
                                           CIMMYT-Table 5: Investments by Undertaking, Activity and Sector, 2008-2012
                                                                                  in $millions

                                                             Actual            Estimated            Proposal            Plan 1            Plan 2
                                                              2008               2009                 2010               2011              2012

Increasing Productivity                                               24.883               25.314              26.899            27.592            28.132

  Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding                                    16.588               16.876              17.932            18.395            18.754

  Production Systems Development & Management                          8.295                8.438               8.967             9.197             9.378

    Cropping systems                                                   8.295                8.438               8.967             9.197             9.378

    Livestock systems                                                  0.000                0.000               0.000             0.000             0.000

    Tree systems                                                       0.000                0.000               0.000             0.000             0.000

    Fish systems                                                       0.000                0.000               0.000             0.000             0.000

Protecting the Environment                                             2.074                2.109               2.242             2.299             2.345

Saving Biodiversity                                                    2.074                2.109               2.242             2.299             2.345

Improving Policies                                                     2.074                2.109               2.242             2.299             2.345

Strengthening NARS                                                    10.368               10.547              11.208            11.497            11.723

  Training and Professional Development                                4.147                4.219               4.483             4.599             4.689

  Documentation, Publications, Info. Dissemination                     2.074                2.109               2.242             2.299             2.345

  Organization & Management Couselling                                 0.000                0.000               0.000             0.000             0.000

  Networks                                                             4.147                4.219               4.483             4.599             4.689

                                                     Total            41.473               42.188              44.833            45.986            46.890
                                                    CIMMYT-Table 6: Project Investments by Developing Region, 2008-2012
                                                                                          in $millions

                                                                                           Actual        Estimated    Proposal     Plan 1      Plan 2
                              Project                                    Region
                                                                                            2008           2009         2010        2011        2012
Project 01 - Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-based                                  0.272         0.235        0.246       0.288       0.298
                                                                  Asia
germplasm enhancement
                                                                  CWANA                         0.000         0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                  LAC                           2.704         2.580        1.577       1.988       2.736

                                                                  SSA                           1.632         1.233        1.354       1.609       1.669

                                                                          Total Project         4.608         4.048        3.177       3.885       4.703
Project 02 - Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for                                    0.504         0.359        0.218       0.298       0.407
                                                                  Asia
genetic improvement
                                                                  CWANA                         0.000         0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                  LAC                           2.118         0.994        1.385       1.178       1.668

                                                                  SSA                           3.907         2.810        3.520       4.579       3.548

                                                                          Total Project         6.529         4.163        5.123       6.055       5.623

Project 03 - Stress tolerant maize                                Asia                          0.967         1.384        1.431       1.312       1.060

                                                                  CWANA                         0.000         0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                  LAC                           0.337         0.279        0.744       0.580       0.530

                                                                  SSA                           9.990         8.789       11.898      13.464      11.739

                                                                          Total Project        11.294        10.452       14.073      15.356      13.329

Project 04 - Nutritious and specialty trait maize                 Asia                          0.433         0.312        0.298       0.384       0.490

                                                                  CWANA                         0.000         0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                  LAC                           2.007         1.498        1.308       1.176       1.568

                                                                  SSA                           1.945         1.791        1.303       1.251       1.691

                                                                          Total Project         4.385         3.601        2.909       2.811       3.749

Project 07 - Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality         Asia                          0.749         1.726        1.710       1.510       1.130

                                                                  CWANA                         0.543         0.292        0.341       0.367       0.567

                                                                  LAC                           0.529         0.499        0.063       0.166       0.295

                                                                  SSA                           0.000         0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                          Total Project         1.821         2.517        2.114       2.043       1.992
Project 08 - Disease resistant wheat with high productivity and                                 3.754         4.635        4.002       3.604       5.122
                                                                  Asia
quality
                                                                  CWANA                         0.325         1.084        0.963       0.810       0.660
                                                                                        Actual      Estimated    Proposal     Plan 1      Plan 2
                            Project                                    Region
                                                                                         2008         2009         2010        2011        2012

                                                                LAC                         1.975        4.412        5.688       5.080       5.146

                                                                SSA                         0.092        0.178        0.051       0.038       0.089

                                                                        Total Project       6.146       10.309       10.704       9.532      11.017

Project 10 - Maize and wheat cropping systems                   Asia                        1.628        1.881        1.982       2.163       1.723

                                                                CWANA                       0.038        0.045        0.063       0.026       0.045

                                                                LAC                         0.185        0.203        0.089       0.086       0.146

                                                                SSA                         1.998        1.545        0.999       0.895       1.391

                                                                        Total Project       3.849        3.674        3.133       3.170       3.305
Project 11 - Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment of                               0.138        0.481        0.525       0.617       0.347
                                                                Asia
maize and wheat farming systems

                                                                CWANA                       0.653        0.860        1.167       0.468       0.813

                                                                LAC                         0.047        0.069        0.011       0.022       0.038

                                                                SSA                         2.003        2.014        1.897       2.027       1.974

                                                                        Total Project       2.841        3.424        3.600       3.134       3.172

                                                                                Total      41.473       42.188       44.833      45.986      46.890
                 CIMMYT-Table 7: Summary of Investments by Developing Region, 2008-2012
                                                      in $millions

                                    Actual             Estimated       Proposal           Plan 1            Plan 2
        Region
                                     2008                2009            2010              2011              2012

SSA                                          21.567           18.360          21.022               23.863            22.101

Asia                                          8.445           11.013          10.412               10.176            10.577

LAC                                           9.902           10.534          10.865               10.276            12.127

CWANA                                         1.559            2.281              2.534             1.671             2.085

                           Total             41.473           42.188          44.833               45.986            46.890
                                  CIMMYT-Table 8: Expenditure by Object, 2008-2012
                                                          in $millions


                                         Actual           Estimated       Proposal       Plan 1           Plan 2
        Object of Expenditure
                                          2008              2009            2010          2011             2012


Personnel                                     17.490             19.424         20.642        21.173           21.589

Supplies and services                         13.373             14.921         15.856        16.263           16.584

Collaboration/ Partnerships                       6.479           4.662          4.954            5.082            5.182

Operational Travel                                2.090           1.939          2.061            2.114            2.155

Depreciation                                      2.041           1.242          1.320            1.354            1.380

                                Total         41.473             42.188         44.833        45.986           46.890
                               CIMMYT-Table 9: Member and Non-Member Unrestricted Grants, 2008-2010
                                                       in $millions NC = National Currency


                                                               Actual 2008   Actual 2008   Estimated 2009    Estimated 2009    Proposal 2010   Proposal 2010
                      Member                     Type NC
                                                                  (US$)         (NC)            (US$)             (NC)             (US$)           (NC)

Unrestricted Grants

  Member

       Australia                                        AUD          0.663         0.750             0.729             0.750           0.693           0.750

       Canada                                           CAD          1.178         1.360             0.991             1.060           0.941           1.060

       China                                            USD          0.140         0.140             0.120             0.120           0.120           0.120

       Denmark                                          DKK          0.776         3.700             0.725             3.700           0.689           3.700

       France                                           EUR          0.139         0.100             0.109             0.075           0.103           0.075

       Germany                                          EUR          0.598         0.428             0.471             0.325           0.447           0.325

       India                                            USD          0.122         0.122             0.112             0.112           0.112           0.112

       Japan                                            JPY          0.794        79.505             0.558            54.086           0.530          54.086

       Korea, Republic of                               USD          0.050         0.050             0.040             0.040           0.040           0.040

       Norway                                          NOK           0.486         2.500             0.368             2.500           0.349           2.500

       Philippines                                      PHP          0.017         0.780             0.010             0.470           0.010           0.470

       South Africa                                     USD          0.220         0.220             0.000             0.000           0.000           0.000

       Sweden                                           SEK          0.347         2.500             0.386             2.500           0.367           2.500

       Switzerland                                      CHF          0.582         0.600             0.545             0.600           0.518           0.600

       Thailand                                         USD          0.010         0.010             0.000             0.000           0.000           0.000

       United Kingdom                                   GBP          1.610         0.900             1.617             0.945           1.537           0.945

       World Bank                                       USD          2.240         2.240             2.000             2.000           2.000           2.000

                                                   Subtotal          9.972                           8.781                             8.456

                                          Total Unrestricted         9.972                           8.781                             8.456
                            CIMMYT-Table 9a: Member and Non-Member Unrestricted and Restricted Grants, 2008-2010

                                                                 in $millions

                                                                                             Actual       Estimated     Proposal
                                      Member / Non-Member
                                                                                              2008          2009          2010

Unrestricted Grants

  Member

       Australia                                                                                  0.663         0.729        0.693

       Canada                                                                                     1.178         0.991        0.941

       China                                                                                      0.140         0.120        0.120

       Denmark                                                                                    0.776         0.725        0.689

       France                                                                                     0.139         0.109        0.103

       Germany                                                                                    0.598         0.471        0.447

       India                                                                                      0.122         0.112        0.112

       Japan                                                                                      0.794         0.558        0.530

       Korea, Republic of                                                                         0.050         0.040        0.040

       Norway                                                                                     0.486         0.368        0.349

       Philippines                                                                                0.017         0.010        0.010

       South Africa                                                                               0.220         0.000        0.000

       Sweden                                                                                     0.347         0.386        0.367

       Switzerland                                                                                0.582         0.545        0.518

       Thailand                                                                                   0.010         0.000        0.000

       United Kingdom                                                                             1.610         1.617        1.537

       World Bank                                                                                 2.240         2.000        2.000

                                                                                 Subtotal         9.972         8.781        8.456

                                                                        Total Unrestricted        9.972         8.781        8.456

Restricted Grants

  Member

       ADB                                                                                        0.177         0.000        0.000

       Australia                                                                                  0.629         1.076        0.551

       Brazil                                                                                    -0.003         0.032        0.000
                                                                           Actual       Estimated     Proposal
                                          Member / Non-Member
                                                                            2008          2009          2010

    Canada                                                                      1.008         0.923        0.800

    China                                                                       0.000         0.050        0.020

    European Commission                                                         1.650         0.759        1.133

    Germany                                                                     0.960         1.616        1.251

    IFAD                                                                        0.548         0.379        0.349

    India                                                                       0.241         0.444        0.300

    Iran                                                                        0.154         0.079        0.304

    Italy                                                                       0.075         0.048        0.037

    Japan                                                                       1.893         1.294        0.699

    Korea, Republic of                                                          0.080         0.069        0.063

    Mexico                                                                      0.517         0.311        0.485

    OPEC Fund                                                                   0.050         0.000        0.000

    Rockefeller Foundation                                                      0.232         0.003        0.000

    Spain                                                                       0.302         0.024        0.483

    Sweden                                                                      0.008         0.023        0.000

    Switzerland                                                                 1.304         1.346        1.343

    Syngenta Foundation                                                         0.391         0.619        1.006

    Turkey                                                                      0.349         0.118        0.250

    United States                                                               1.691         6.492        7.183

    World Bank                                                                  0.226         0.689        0.000

                                                                Subtotal      12.482         16.394       16.257

Non-member

    AATF - African Appropiate Tecnology Foundation                              0.785         1.241        1.740

    Agrovegetal                                                                 0.110         0.100        0.145

    ASARECA                                                                     0.064         0.052        0.149

    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics                             0.005         0.000        0.000

    BASF, Germany                                                               0.027         0.020        0.000

    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation                                           9.117         5.237        8.195

    Bioversity International                                                    0.000         0.019        0.000

    CIAT                                                                        0.000         0.119        0.174
                                                                               Actual       Estimated     Proposal
                                      Member / Non-Member
                                                                                2008          2009          2010

Cornell University                                                                  1.573         2.303        2.376

CRC for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia                                         0.055         0.025        0.042

FENALCE                                                                             0.163         0.160        0.260

FONTAGRO                                                                            0.000         0.016        0.298

Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA                                      0.000         0.521        0.007

Generation/CP                                                                       0.993         1.249        0.580

Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT)                                                  0.112         0.030        0.158

GRDC                                                                                0.718         0.854        0.905

HarvestPlus/CP                                                                      0.991         0.648        0.421

Howard G. Buffett Foundation                                                        0.384         0.313        0.403

ICARDA                                                                              0.197         0.159        0.175

IFPRI                                                                               0.016         0.030        0.224

IITA                                                                                0.536        -0.036        0.000

ILRI                                                                                0.219         0.065        0.243

IRRI                                                                                0.009         2.316        2.519

Kazakhstan                                                                          0.114         0.242        0.164

Monsanto Fund                                                                       0.047         0.117        0.045

Nippon Foundation                                                                   0.318         0.270        0.109

Others                                                                              0.234         0.210        0.051

Pioneer                                                                             0.085         0.354        0.050

Private Sector Consortium                                                           0.001         0.000        0.000

Sehgal Family Foundation                                                            0.148         0.073        0.050

UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE                                                              0.055         0.034        0.015

US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)                                                       0.447         0.455        0.078

Washington State University                                                         0.097         0.120        0.000

Water & Food/CP                                                                     0.473         0.278        0.000

World Agroforestry                                                                  0.046         0.000        0.000

                                                                   Subtotal        18.139        17.594       19.576

                                                            Total Restricted       30.621        33.988       35.833

                                                               Total Grants        40.593        42.769       44.289
                                                          Actual       Estimated     Proposal
Summary and Statement of Activities
                                                           2008          2009          2010

                                          Total Grants       40.593         42.769       44.289

                                        Center Income          2.329         1.300        1.350

                                             Revenue         42.922         44.069       45.639

                                      Total Investment       41.473         42.188       44.833

                                      Surplus (Deficit)        1.449         1.881        0.806
                                    CIMMYT-Table 10: Allocation of Member, Non-Member Grants and Other Sources to Projects, 2008-2010
                                                                                             in $millions

                                                                                                                                           Actual    Estimated   Proposal
                          Project                                                          Member                                           2008       2009        2010



Project 01 - Maize and wheat genetic resources for trait-
                                                             Member                          China                                           0.000      0.030       0.020
based germplasm enhancement
                                                                                             European Commission                             0.538      0.068       0.117

                                                                                             Japan                                           0.779      0.758       0.466

                                                                                             Mexico                                          0.034      0.000       0.000

                                                                                             United States                                   0.032      0.019       0.018

                                                                                             World Bank                                      0.196      0.605       0.000

                                                             Non Member                      Generation/CP                                   0.276      0.396       0.142

                                                                                             Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT)              0.112      0.030       0.158

                                                                                             IRRI                                            0.000      0.087       0.000

                                                                                             Others                                         -0.080      0.000       0.000

                                                                                             Private Sector Consortium                       0.001      0.000       0.000
                                                            Unrestricted + Other sources
                                                                                                                                             2.720      2.055       2.256

                                                                                                                          Project Total      4.608      4.048       3.177
Project 02 - Technology-assisted tools and methodologies for
                                                             Member                          China                                           0.000      0.020       0.000
genetic improvement
                                                                                             European Commission                             0.656      0.010       0.000

                                                                                             Japan                                           0.471      0.135       0.000

                                                                                             Korea, Republic of                              0.038      0.069       0.063

                                                                                             Rockefeller Foundation                          0.135      0.003       0.000

                                                                                             United States                                   0.238      0.245       0.758
                                                            Non Member                       AATF - African Appropiate Tecnology
                                                                                                                                             0.101      0.352       0.396
                                                                                             Foundation
                                                                                             Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation               1.772      1.147       1.638

                                                                                             Cornell University                              0.024      0.036       0.039

                                                                                             CRC for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia    -0.001      0.000       0.000

                                                                                             Generation/CP                                   0.337      0.171       0.055

                                                                                             HarvestPlus/CP                                  0.101      0.037       0.000
                           Project                                                                                   Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                    Member
                                                                                                                      2008        2009        2010


                                                                      Howard G. Buffett Foundation                      0.233       0.174       0.242

                                                                      IRRI                                              0.000       0.008       0.010

                                                                      Others                                            0.100       0.003       0.000

                                                                      Sehgal Family Foundation                          0.004       0.003       0.000

                                     Unrestricted + Other sources                                                       2.320       1.750       1.922

                                                                                                     Project Total      6.529       4.163       5.123
Project 03 - Stress tolerant maize   Member                           ADB                                               0.129       0.000       0.000

                                                                      European Commission                               0.117       0.000       0.000

                                                                      Germany                                           0.620       1.272       1.078

                                                                      IFAD                                              0.041       0.000       0.000

                                                                      Mexico                                            0.009       0.000       0.000

                                                                      Spain                                             0.053       0.000       0.000

                                                                      Switzerland                                       1.279       1.110       1.251

                                                                      Syngenta Foundation                               0.391       0.529       0.846

                                                                      United States                                     0.000       1.114       1.436

                                                                      World Bank                                        0.011       0.028       0.000
                                                                      AATF - African Appropiate Tecnology
                                     Non Member                                                                         0.684       0.889       1.344
                                                                      Foundation
                                                                      BASF, Germany                                     0.027       0.020       0.000

                                                                      Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation                 6.526       3.585       5.791

                                                                      FENALCE                                           0.163       0.160       0.260

                                                                      FONTAGRO                                          0.000       0.016       0.298

                                                                      Generation/CP                                     0.000       0.290       0.374

                                                                      Howard G. Buffett Foundation                      0.151       0.139       0.161

                                                                      IFPRI                                             0.000       0.012       0.104

                                                                      IRRI                                              0.000       0.223       0.270

                                                                      Others                                            0.050       0.001       0.000

                                                                      Pioneer                                           0.008       0.281       0.000

                                     Unrestricted + Other sources                                                       1.035       0.783       0.860

                                                                                                     Project Total     11.294      10.452     14.073
                            Project                                                                                                        Actual    Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                           Member
                                                                                                                                            2008       2009        2010


Project 04 - Nutritious and specialty trait maize           Member                           Canada                                          1.005       0.923       0.800

                                                                                             European Commission                             0.000       0.049       0.073

                                                                                             Germany                                         0.175       0.072       0.000

                                                                                             India                                           0.109       0.107       0.100

                                                                                             Mexico                                          0.000       0.007       0.129

                                                                                             OPEC Fund                                       0.050       0.000       0.000

                                                                                             United States                                   0.089       0.000       0.000

                                                            Non Member                       ASARECA                                         0.064       0.052       0.149

                                                                                             HarvestPlus/CP                                  0.462       0.540       0.000

                                                                                             Others                                          0.015       0.000       0.000

                                                                                             Pioneer                                         0.077       0.073       0.050

                                                                                             Sehgal Family Foundation                        0.144       0.070       0.050

                                                                                             US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)                   0.324       0.297       0.009

                                                            Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     1.871       1.411       1.549

                                                                                                                           Project Total     4.385       3.601       2.909

Project 07 - Drought tolerant wheat with enhanced quality   Member                           Australia                                       0.229       0.642       0.412

                                                                                             European Commission                             0.004       0.006       0.005

                                                                                             Italy                                           0.075       0.048       0.037

                                                                                             Mexico                                          0.018       0.014       0.000

                                                                                             Turkey                                          0.349       0.118       0.250

                                                                                             United States                                   0.014       0.036       0.000

                                                                                             World Bank                                      0.009       0.028       0.000
                                                                                             Australian Centre for Plant Functional
                                                            Non Member                                                                       0.005       0.000       0.000
                                                                                             Genomics
                                                                                             Cornell University                              0.408       0.431       0.529

                                                                                             CRC for Molecular Plant Breeding, Australia     0.056       0.025       0.042

                                                                                             Generation/CP                                   0.333       0.305       0.009

                                                                                             GRDC                                            0.157      -0.005       0.000

                                                                                             ICARDA                                          0.041       0.000       0.000

                                                                                             IRRI                                            0.000       0.653       0.769
                           Project                                                                                                           Actual    Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                             Member
                                                                                                                                              2008       2009        2010


                                                                                               Kazakhstan                                      0.022       0.006       0.054

                                                                                               Others                                         -0.003       0.081       0.000

                                                                                               US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)                   0.006       0.009       0.006

                                                                                               Washington State University                     0.097       0.120       0.000

                                                              Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     0.001       0.000       0.001

                                                                                                                             Project Total     1.821       2.517       2.114
Project 08 - Disease resistant wheat with high productivity
                                                              Member                           Australia                                       0.140       0.249       0.000
and quality
                                                                                               Canada                                          0.003       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               Germany                                         0.034       0.049       0.000

                                                                                               India                                           0.132       0.337       0.200

                                                                                               Iran                                            0.154       0.079       0.304

                                                                                               Japan                                           0.643       0.401       0.233

                                                                                               Korea, Republic of                              0.042       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               Mexico                                          0.456       0.290       0.356

                                                                                               Spain                                           0.249       0.024       0.483

                                                                                               Sweden                                          0.008       0.023       0.000

                                                                                               Switzerland                                     0.021       0.098       0.000

                                                                                               United States                                   1.014       4.830       4.971

                                                              Non Member                       Agrovegetal                                     0.110       0.100       0.145

                                                                                               Cornell University                              1.083       1.778       1.754

                                                                                               GRDC                                            0.561       0.859       0.905

                                                                                               HarvestPlus/CP                                  0.402       0.047       0.421

                                                                                               ICARDA                                          0.156       0.159       0.175

                                                                                               IFPRI                                           0.000       0.005       0.000

                                                                                               Kazakhstan                                      0.092       0.236       0.110

                                                                                               Others                                          0.026       0.065       0.000

                                                                                               US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)                   0.117       0.149       0.063

                                                              Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     0.703       0.531       0.584

                                                                                                                             Project Total     6.146      10.309     10.704
                         Project                                                                                                            Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                            Member
                                                                                                                                             2008        2009        2010


Project 10 - Maize and wheat cropping systems                Member                           ADB                                             0.048        0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Australia                                       0.260        0.185       0.139

                                                                                              Germany                                         0.036        0.016       0.033

                                                                                              IFAD                                            0.507        0.379       0.349

                                                                                              Rockefeller Foundation                          0.097        0.000       0.000

                                                                                              United States                                   0.269        0.000       0.000

                                                                                              World Bank                                      0.010        0.028       0.000

                                                             Non Member                       CIAT                                            0.000        0.119       0.174

                                                                                              Cornell University                              0.039        0.000       0.000
                                                                                              Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
                                                                                                                                              0.000        0.521       0.007
                                                                                              FARA
                                                                                              IITA                                            0.536       -0.036       0.000

                                                                                              ILRI                                            0.203        0.046       0.238

                                                                                              IRRI                                            0.009        1.037       1.097

                                                                                              Monsanto Fund                                   0.047        0.117       0.045

                                                                                              Others                                          0.070        0.050       0.051

                                                                                              UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE                          0.055        0.034       0.015

                                                                                              Water & Food/CP                                 0.473        0.278       0.000

                                                             Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     1.190        0.900       0.985

                                                                                                                            Project Total     3.849        3.674       3.133
Project 11 - Knowledge, targeting and strategic assessment
                                                             Member                           Brazil                                          -0.003       0.032       0.000
of maize and wheat farming systems
                                                                                              European Commission                             0.335        0.626       0.938

                                                                                              Germany                                         0.095        0.207       0.140

                                                                                              Switzerland                                     0.004        0.138       0.092

                                                                                              Syngenta Foundation                             0.000        0.090       0.160

                                                                                              United States                                   0.035        0.248       0.000

                                                             Non Member                       Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation               0.819        0.505       0.766

                                                                                              Bioversity International                        0.000        0.019       0.000

                                                                                              Cornell University                              0.019        0.058       0.054

                                                                                              Generation/CP                                   0.047        0.087       0.000
Project                                                                                  Actual     Estimated    Proposal
                                         Member
                                                                                          2008        2009         2010


                                           HarvestPlus/CP                                   0.026        0.024        0.000

                                           IFPRI                                            0.016        0.013        0.120

                                           ILRI                                             0.016        0.019        0.005

                                           IRRI                                             0.000        0.308        0.373

                                           Nippon Foundation                                0.318        0.270        0.109

                                           Others                                           0.056        0.010        0.000

                                           World Agroforestry                               0.046        0.000        0.000

          Unrestricted + Other sources                                                      1.012        0.770        0.843

                                                                         Project Total      2.841        3.424        3.600

                                                                       Total Resticted     30.621       33.988       35.833

                                                    Total Unrestricted + Other sources     10.852        8.200        9.000

                                                                                 Total     41.473       42.188       44.833
      CIMMYT-Table 11: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2008-2012

                                      in $millions

                  Actual          Estimated          Proposal         Plan 1         Plan 2
                   2008             2009               2010            2011           2012

NRS                        521                521               521            521            521

IRS                         77                 93                93             93             93

      Total                598                614               614            614            614
                                    CIMMYT-Table 12: Currency Structure of Expenditure, 2008-2010
                                                         in millions of units and percent

                                    Actual                           Estimated                         Proposal
                                     2008                              2009                              2010


      Currency           Amount     $ Value    % Share    Amount      $ Value    % Share    Amount     $ Value     % Share

BDT                        25.482      0.373         1      26.756       0.382         1      28.094       0.401         1

ETB                         2.696      0.279         1       2.831       0.257         1       2.973       0.270         1

INR                        21.456      0.497         1      22.529       0.469         1      23.655       0.493         1

KES                       123.546      1.851         4     129.723       1.622         4     136.209       1.703         4

MXN                       160.151     13.932        34     168.159      12.935        31     176.567     13.582         30

NPR                        30.362      0.415         1      31.880       0.425         1      33.474       0.446         1

Others                      0.642      0.642         2       0.700       0.700         2       0.750       0.750         2

TRY                         0.473      0.372         1       0.497       0.331         1       0.522       0.348         1

USD                        23.112     23.112        56      25.067      25.067        59      26.840     26.840         60

                 Total                41.473     100 %                  42.188     100 %                 44.833      100 %
                     CIMMYT - Table 13: Statement of Financial Position (SFP), 2008-2010
                                                                 in $millions
         Assets, Liabilities and Net Assets                                     2008            2009            2010
 Current Assets
    Cash and Cash Equivalents                                                          31.396          29.500     30.000

    Investments                                                                         0.000           0.000      0.000

    Accounts Receivable

    - Donor                                                                             3.594           6.000      5.500

    - Employees                                                                         0.071           0.050      0.060

    - Other CGIAR Centers                                                               0.251           0.600      0.500

    - Others                                                                            2.036           1.500      1.700

    Inventories                                                                         0.879           0.700      0.800

    Pre-paid Expenses                                                                   0.000           0.000      0.000

                                               Total Current Assets                    38.227          38.350     38.560
Non-Current Assets
    Net Property, Plan and Equipment                                                   14.587          14.600     14.600

    Investments                                                                         0.000           0.000      0.000

    Other Assets                                                                        0.000           0.000      0.000

                                          Total Non-Current Assets                     14.587          14.600     14.600

                                                        Total Assets                   52.814          52.950     53.160
Current Liabilities

    Overdraft/Short Term Borrowings                                                     0.000           0.000      0.000

    Accounts Payable

    - Donor                                                                             8.612           6.964      6.698

    - Employees                                                                         0.022           0.030      0.000

    - Other CGIAR Centers                                                               3.994           5.000      4.000

    - Others                                                                            6.315           4.500      5.000

    Accruals and Provisions                                                             1.418           1.500      1.600

                                             Total Current Liabilities                 20.361          17.994     17.298
Non-Current Liabilities

   Accounts Payable

   - Employees                                                                          0.000           0.000      0.000

   - Deferred Grant Revenue                                                             0.000           0.000      0.000

   - Others                                                                             6.378           7.000      7.100

                                        Total Non-Current Liabilities                   6.378           7.000      7.100

                                                    Total Liabilities                  26.739          24.994     24.398
Net Assets

    Unrestricted

    - Fixed Assets                                                                     14.991          14.991     14.991

    - Unrestricted Net Assets Excluding Fixed Assets                                   11.084          12.965     13.771

                                       Total Unrestricted Net Assets                   26.075          27.956     28.762
Restricted                                       0.000    0.000    0.000

                            Total Net Assets    26.075   27.956   28.762

             Total Liabilities and Net Assets   52.814   52.950   53.160
                        CIMMYT-Table 14: Statement of Activities (SOA), 2008-2010
                                                            in $millions

                                                                                                  Restricted                      Total
                                                                           Unrestricted
                                                                                            Temporary    Challenge     2008       2009       2010
                                                                                                         Programs
Revenue and Gains         Grant Revenue                                            9.972        28.164         2.457     40.593     42.769     44.289
                          Other revenue and gains                                  2.329         0.000         0.000      2.329      1.300      1.350

                             Total revenue and gains                              12.301        28.164         2.457     42.922     44.069     45.639

Expenses and Losses       Program related expenses                                10.233        28.164         2.457     40.854     42.188     44.833

                          Management and general expenses                          6.564         0.000         0.000      6.564      6.700      6.800

                          Other losses expenses                                    0.000         0.000         0.000      0.000      0.000      0.000

                             Sub Total expenses and losses                        16.797        28.164         2.457     47.418     48.888     51.633

                          Indirect cost recovery                                   -5.945        0.000         0.000     -5.945     -6.700     -6.800

                             Total expenses and losses                            10.852        28.164         2.457     41.473     42.188     44.833

                             Net Operating Surplus / (Deficit)                     1.449         0.000         0.000      1.449      1.881      0.806

                          Extraordinary Items                                      0.000         0.000         0.000      0.000      0.000      0.000

                             NET SURPLUS / (DEFICIT)                               1.449         0.000         0.000      1.449      1.881      0.806

Object of Expenditure     Personnel                                                8.345         8.361         0.784     17.490     19.424     20.642

                          Supplies and services                                    1.186        11.248         0.939     13.373     14.921     15.856

                          Collaboration/ Partnerships                              0.120         5.804         0.555      6.479      4.662      4.954

                          Operational Travel                                       0.534         1.403         0.153      2.090      1.939      2.061

                          Depreciation                                             0.667         1.348         0.026      2.041      1.242      1.320

                                                                 Total            10.852        28.164         2.457     41.473     42.188     44.833

				
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