Rehabilitation Programs Since the late 1970‟s there has been a perception that corrections has experienced an ideological crisis of confidence. This sense of crisis arose from challenges to the belief that rehabilitation of offenders was possible through using intervention aimed at changing targeted behaviours and attitudes. Research on the outcome of rehabilitation programs by Martinson in 1974 seemed to suggest that “nothing works”. At that time, rehabilitation was the principal objective of the corrections system in advanced economy countries. This resulted in a shift away from the rehabilitation ideology to alternative models. The main alternative was retribution ideology with a return to „law and order‟ policies involving harsher penalties, longer sentences and new laws aimed at „tough on crime‟ and „war on crime‟. The principle argument to support the new argument was community safety (removing criminals from the community), victim awareness and selective rehabilitation (for drug users). This ideology did not make it clear how offenders were meant to spend their time which they were in the system, nor what criteria was expected to determine their return to the community. In contrast to this ideology was the growth in popularity of the „academic‟ research in sociology, which interpreted crime as a product of both inadequate and repressive social structures and a corrupt justice system. If crime is the product of the social systems, there is no point in expecting individual offenders to change their behaviour without changing the social conditions they will return to. More recently, new studies have challenged the „nothing works‟ conclusions and there has been a renewed interest in rehabilitation programs based on psychological assessment and analysis of criminogenic factors. The continuing investment in rehabilitation programs has been the result of: Consistent evidence that the general public expects treatments which will return the offender to the community with changed behaviour; Evidence of the effectiveness of some programs Managers of offender supervision are aware that treatment programs make it easier to manage offenders, especially in custody The courts and parole boards are increasingly making treatment programs a condition of sentencing. All correctional organisations in Australia include a strong commitment to rehabilitation in their strategic and business plans. This includes a commitment to evidence based measures of outcomes and cost effective targeting according to risk and needs assessment and risk management systems.