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Korean for Beginners (PDF)

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					Korean Textbook
For beginners through slightly advanced.




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                               PDF generated at: Tue, 11 May 2010 14:26:12 UTC
Contents
Articles
Chapter 1- Basics                           1
    Korean                                  1
    Korean/Alphabet                         4
    Korean/RWP                              6
    Korean/Principles of Orthography        7
    Korean/Essential Pronunciation Rules   11
    Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules    15
    Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson            18
    Korean/Getting started on Hanjas       25

Chapter 2- Grammar                         28
    Korean/Grammar Introduction            28
    Korean/Personal pronouns               28
    Korean/Demonstrative pronouns          30
    Korean/Adjectives                      32
    Korean/Verbs                           33
    Korean/Conjunctions                    37
    Korean/Postpositions                   38
    Korean/Sentence word order             39
    Korean/Comparatives and superlatives   43
    Korean/Questions                       44
    Korean/Commands                        45
    Korean/Dates and times                 46

Chapter 3-Vocabulary                       47
    Korean/Expert Hanja                    47
    Korean/Expert                          49

Chapter 4- Conversation Level I            55
    Korean/Lesson I1                       55
    Korean/Lesson I2                       58
    Korean/Lesson I3                       62
    Korean/Lesson I4                       64
    Korean/Lesson I5                       65
    Korean/Lesson I6                           66
    Korean/Lesson I7                           68
    Korean/Lesson I8                           68
    Korean/Lesson I9                           69
    Korean/Lesson I10                          70

Chapter 5- Conversation Level II               71
    Korean/Lesson II1                          71
    Korean/Lesson II2                          72
    Korean/Lesson II3                          73
    Korean/Lesson II4                          73
    Korean/Lesson II5                          74
    Korean/Lesson II6                          74
    Korean/Lesson II7                          75
    Korean/Lesson II8                          75
    Korean/Lesson II9                          76
    Korean/Lesson II10                         76

Chapter 6- Conversation Level III              77
    Korean/Lesson III1                         77
    Korean/Lesson III2                         78
    Korean/Lesson III3                         80
    Korean/Lesson III4                         80
    Korean/Lesson III5                         81
    Korean/Lesson III6                         81
    Korean/Lesson III7                         82
    Korean/Lesson III8                         82


References
    Article Sources and Contributors           84
    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors   86


Article Licenses
    License                                    87
                                                                                                                                1




                                      Chapter 1- Basics

Korean
                                                                      [1]
                                                        [panel edit      ]
                                                       Other languages...
                                     Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                         Advanced
                                                         Grammar



                                             III This is a Category III Language.
Welcome to the Korean Wikibook, a free textbook for learning Korean.
Note: To use this book, your web browser must first be configured to display Korean (Hangeul) characters. Check
the two boxes below:

                                             ㄱㄴㄷㄹㅁㅂㅅㅇㅈㅎ 안녕하세요


The boxes show Hangeul characters and jamo. If symbols appear as blank boxes, garbage, or question marks (?),
your computer or web browser needs to be configured for the Korean language.


Introduction
Korean is the official language of both Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Republic of
Korea (South Korea). It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
Worldwide, there are about 80 million Korean speakers, most of which live in China, Japan or the United States, but
they also represent sizeable minorities in New Zealand, Kazakhstan, Canada, Uzbekistan and Australia.
In the Republic of Korea, the language is most often called 한국말 (Han-gung-mal), or more formally, 한국어
(Han-gug-eo) or 국어 (Gug-eo; literally "national language"). In North Korea and Yanbian, the language is most
often called 조선말 (Chosŏnmal), or more formally, 조선어 (Chosŏnŏ).
Experts are still not completely sure of the origins of the Korean language, although it is generally believed to come
from the Altaic language tree. It is an agglutinative language, so it has some certain special characteristics that are
unlike English. A student of Chinese languages will quickly notice that Korean shares much of their vocabulary,
while a Japanese student will also notice similarities in grammar and vocabulary.
Feel free to use English Wiktionary's Korean language Category as a reference for these courses. New students to
this type of language may initially progress slowly, but as study progresses, previously unfamiliar aspects of Korean
will begin to make sense and new concepts will be more easily learned. Korean grammar is complex but surprisingly
also very simple, and always very fun to learn.
Korean                                                                                                                       2


       Reading and writing
       •   Alphabet Introduction
       •   Learn to read, write and pronounce Korean (course)
       •   /Principles of Orthography/
       •   /Essential Pronunciation Rules/
       •   /Advanced Pronunciation Rules/
       •   /Mini-tutorial Lesson/
       •   /Getting started on Hanjas/


       Grammar
                                               •   Introduction to Korean Grammar •            Conjunctions
                                               •   Personal pronouns                      •    Postpositions
                                               •   Demonstrative pronouns                 •    Sentence word order
                                               •   Adjectives                             •    Comparatives & superlatives
                                               •   Verbs                                  •    Forming questions
                                               •   Articles & qualifiers                  •    Forming commands
                                                                                          •    Forming dates & times



       Vocabulary
       • Expert Hanja Hanja Terms for Expert Level Learners
       • Expert Terms for Expert Level Learners


       Conversation

   1단계 (LEVEL I): Beginner                                          2단계 (LEVEL II): High beginner
   •       1. Greeting                                              •      1. Sports
               안녕하세요?                                                          운동
   •       2. Forming sentences                                     •      2. Jobs
               저는 대학생입니다.                                                      직업
   •       3. Connective Particles and Forms                        •      3. Downtown
               -고, -거나, -지만                                                    도심
   •       4. Colors / Shopping                                     •      4. Public transportation
                파랑, 빨강, 노랑                                                     대중교통
   •       5. In a taxi / Distance and Time                         •      5. At the hotel
               택시 / 거리와 시간                                                     호텔에서
   •       6. Family                                                •      6. At the library
               가족                                                              도서관에서
   •       7. Around the house                                      •      7. At the farm
               집안                                                              시골에서
   •       8. The workplace / Using the telephone                   •      8. Medical care
               직장                                                              병원에서
   •       9. School                                                •      9. The Weather
               학교                                                              날씨
   •       10. Onomatopoeia                                         •      10. At the Theater
               의성어                                                             영화관에서
Korean                                                                                                                             3


   3단계 (LEVEL III): Low                             4단계 (LEVEL IV): High intermediate
   intermediate                                     •   제1과
   •    1. The human body                           •   제2과
                                                    •   제3과
            인간의 몸
                                                    •   제4과
   •    2. Religion
                                                    •   제5과
            종교                                      •   제6과
   •    3. Nature                                   •   제7과
            자연                                      •   제8과
   •    4. The universe                             •   제9과
            우주                                      •   제10과
   •    5. Reading a book
            독서
   •    6. How much do you love me?
            날 얼마나 사랑해?
   •    7. Using computers
          컴퓨터 사용하기
   •    제8과
   •    제9과
   •    제10과

   5단계 (LEVEL V): Low advanced                      6단계 (LEVEL VI): Advanced
   •    제1과                                         •   제1과: 마침 제 친구가 전화했기에 망정이지 그렇지 않았으면 비행기를 놓칠
   •    제2과                                             뻔했어요.
   •    제3과                                         •   제2과
   •    제4과                                         •   제3과
   •    제5과                                         •   제4과
   •    제6과                                         •   제5과
   •    제7과                                         •   제6과
   •    제8과                                         •   제7과
   •    제9과                                         •   제8과
   •    제10과                                        •   제9과
                                                    •   제10과




       About this Book

       About the Authors
       • Authors

                                                                         [1]
                                                           [panel edit      ]
                                                         Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
   Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                            Advanced
                                                            Grammar
Korean                                                                                                                                4


    References
    [1] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Korean/ Navigation




    Korean/Alphabet
                                                                               [1]
                                                                 [panel edit      ]
                                                                Other languages...
                                                         Learn Korean (Introduction)
            Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
   Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                                  Advanced
                                                                  Grammar




    Introduction
    The Korean alphabet, known as Hangeul (한글, "great script"), is considered one of the most efficient and logical
    writing systems in the world.[citation needed] While most modern alphabets evolved from earlier hieroglyphics or
    ideographs, 한글 (Hangeul) was created specifically to make it easy to read and write the Korean language.
    Although the characters of 한글 (Hangeul) may appear to be ideograms like the traditional Hanja (한자, 漢字), they
    really form an alphabet. Each block character represents one syllable and is made up of individual jamo (자모),
    much like the letters in the English alphabet. 한글 (Hangeul) is easy to learn because it has only 24 basic jamo.
            See Wikipedia's entries on Hangul and Hanja for more about the history and design of the Korean writing
            systems.


    Consonants
    Below are the consonants (자음) of the Korean alphabet. You don't
    need to memorize them yet because individual lessons will cover each
    letter in detail. For now, just be aware that the Korean alphabet has ten
    basic consonants and nine variations on them:




                                                                                                 14 Korean consonants
Korean/Alphabet                                                                                                                                 5


                                                            Consonant jamo
                  Basic       Letter (jamo)
                  예사소리                           ㄷ
                                              ㄱ ㄴ ㄹ ㅁㅂ ㅅㅇ                                                             ㅈ        ㅎ
                              Romanization g or k      n d or t       r or l      m b or p        s - or ng         j or ch    h
                              Pronunciation [g] or     [n] [d] or     [ɾ] or      [m] [b] or      [s] silent or [ŋ] [ʥ] or     [h]
                                            [k]            [t]        [l]             [p]                           [ʨ]

                  Aspirated   Letter (jamo)
                  거센소리                        ㅋ            ㅌ                          ㅍ                               ㅊ
                              Romanization k               t                          p                               ch
                              Pronunciation [kʰ]           [tʰ]                       [pʰ]                            [ʨʰ]

                  Tense       Letter (jamo)
                  된소리                         ㄲ            ㄸ                          ㅃ ㅆ                             ㅉ
                              Romanization gg or kk        dd or tt                   bb or pp    ss                  jj
                              Pronunciation [k͈]           [t͈]                       [p͈]        [s͈]                [ʨ͈]


    Notice that some consonants have two different pronunciations (e.g. ㄱ pronounced as /g/ or /k/ depending on
    context). Also, some are "aspirated" and some are "tense". Those details and more are explained in ../Essential
    Pronunciation Rules/.


    Vowels
    There are 21 letters used to represent vowels: six basic vowels, nine
    combinations of those six basic vowels (which originally were all
    pronounced as diphthongs), and six vowels with an extra short dash
    representing the initial y [j] sound.




                                                                                                   6 Korean regular vowels: diphthongs in red




                                                                  Vowel jamo
                                       Letter (jamo)
                                                       ㅏㅑㅓㅕㅗㅛㅜㅠㅡㅣ
                                       Romanization a      ya eo       yeo o         yo u        yu eu          i
                                       Pronunciation [a]   [ja] [ʌ]    [jʌ] [o]      [jo] [u]    [ju] [ɯ]       [i]

                                       Letter (jamo)
                                                       ㅐㅒㅔㅖㅚ ㅟ ㅢ
                                       Romanization ae     yae e       ye oe              wi             ui
                                       Pronunciation [ɛ]   [jɛ] [e]    [je] [wø]          [wi]           [ɰi]

                                       Letter (jamo)
                                                       ㅘ ㅝ
Korean/Alphabet                                                                                                                   6


                                   Romanization wa           wo
                                   Pronunciation [wa]        [wʌ]

                                   Letter (jamo)
                                                   ㅙ ㅞ
                                   Romanization wae          we
                                   Pronunciation [wɛ]        [we]




    End of introduction
    To learn how to read, write, and pronounce each Korean letter, proceed to the Read, Write, and Pronounce Korean
    course.
                                                            [panel   edit [1]]
                                                          Other languages...
                                                   Learn Korean (Introduction)
        Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
                                     5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                          Grammar



    Korean/RWP
                                                     Learn Korean (Introduction)
                                                    Read, write, pronounce Korean:
                            Course — Lesson 1 • Lesson 2 • Lesson 3 • Lesson 4 • Lesson 5 • Lesson 6 • Summary
                               Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
                                                         Grammar • Conversation


    Welcome to a course teaching you how to read, write and pronounce the Korean script! Here you will learn the script
    without difficulty, because we're taking it step by step and you will have plenty of opportunities to practise. So dive
    in!
    • Lesson 1 (first four letters: ㅂㅏㄴㅇ)
    • Lesson 2 (four more letters: ㅁㅣㄹㄱ)
    •   Lesson 3 (final ㅇ and four more letters: ㅗㄷㅅ一)
    •   Lesson 4 (the last basic letters: ㅜㅓㅔㅐㅎㅈ)
    •   Lesson 5 (aspiration, diphthongs)
    •   Lesson 6 (doubled letters, more digraphs)
    •   Summary
Korean/RWP                                                                                                                            7


   External links
   • Learn to read, write and pronounce Korean [1]: A continuation of this course copied on a private (non-wiki) site.
     See [[]] for more details.


   References
   [1] http:/ / www. learnlangs. com/ RWP/ Korean/




   Korean/Principles of Orthography
                                                                          [1]
                                                            [panel edit      ]
                                                           Other languages...
                                                         Learn Korean (Introduction)
            Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
   Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                                  Advanced
                                                                  Grammar




   Introduction
   The Korean writing system (Hangeul) has some basic principles that are easy to master.


   Writing Korean letters

   Consonants
   When writing Korean consonants (자음, jaeum), the general rule is to start at the top left corner and work down to
   the bottom right. The topmost horizontal stroke is usually first, followed by any vertical strokes. The images below
   show the generally accepted stroke order:




   For double characters, such as ㅃ and ㅉ, simply write the corresponding single character twice, close together, using
   the same stroke order. Once proficiency in writing has been developed, one may develop shortcuts or different forms
   of short-hand or cursive, for personal use. For example, ㄹ is often written similar to a backwards S as one stroke.
Korean/Principles of Orthography                                                                                                    8


    Vowels
    With vowels (모음, moeum), the general rule is to move from left to right and top to bottom. If the character is a
    digraph with both horizontal and vertical components, the horizontal vowel is written first, followed by the
    appending vertical vowel to the right:




    Syllables
    In Hangeul, words are divided into blocks of characters, each block representing one syllable. For example, the word
    for the Korean dietary staple, kimchi, has two syllables and is thus divided into two blocks of hangul characters:

                                            Letter (jamo):
                                                              ㅣ ㅣ
                                                             ㄱ ㅊ 김치          =>



                                                             ㅁ
                                            Romanization:    gi       ch i                김치
                                                             m                          (gimchi)


    In modern Korean, no jamo may stand alone. Instead, they are grouped into syllables, each with an initial consonant
    cluster (초성), a medial vowel or diphthong (중성), and optionally a final consonant cluster (종성).
    The placement or "stacking" of jamo in the block follows set patterns based on the shape of the medial.
    • The components of complex jamo such as ㅄ or ㅝ are written left to right.
    • Medials are written under the initial, to the right, or wrap around the initial from bottom to right, depending on
      their shape: If the medial has a horizontal axis like ㅡ eu, then it is written under the initial; if it has a vertical axis
      like ㅣ i, then it is written to the right of the initial; and if it combines both orientations, like ㅢ ui, then it wraps
      around the initial from the bottom to the right:


                                               initial medial     initial     initial     2nd
                                                                                          med.
                                                                  medial     1st med.



    • A final jamo, if there is one, is always written at the bottom, under the medial:


                                               initial medial     initial     initial     2nd
                                                                                          med.
                                                     final        medial     1st med.

                                                                  final           final



    Blocks are always written in phonetic order, initial-medial-final. The direction of the medial (horizontal or vertical)
    governs the placement of the initial. These are the basic rules:
    •   Syllables with a horizontal medial are written downward: 읍
    •   Syllables with a vertical medial and simple final are written clockwise: 쌍
    •   Syllables with a wrapping medial switch direction (down-right-down): 된
    •   Syllables with a complex final are written left to right at the bottom: 밟
Korean/Principles of Orthography                                                                                               9


    Initial consonant placeholder
    When a syllable has no actual initial consonant, the null initial ㅇ (called 이응, ieung) is used as a placeholder. (No
    placeholder is needed when there is no final.)
    Examples:
    • 오이 (oi, "cucumber")
    • 왕 (wang, "king")


    Horizontal medials
    In a syllable with a horizontal medial (ㅛ, ㅗ, ㅡ, ㅜ, or ㅠ), the initial is written first, followed by the medial below
    it. With ㄱ, the vowels look like this: 교, 고, 그, 구, 규. Any other consonant behaves the same: 표, 소, 드, 부, 류.
    Notice how the protruding lines in each vowel nestle into any empty spaces in the consonant above it, particularly
    with ㄱ and ㅅ.


    Vertical medials
    In a syllable with a vertical medial (ㅑ, ㅏ, ㅕ, ㅓ, ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅒ, or ㅖ), the initial is written to the left of the vowel.
    With ㄱ, the vowels look like this: 갸, 가, 겨, 거, 기.


    Wrapping medials
    If the vowel is a wrapping medial (i.e. written with the digraphs ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅚ, ㅟ, ㅢ, ㅙ, or ㅞ), the initial is always in
    the top-left area, with the diphthong surrounding the consonant on the bottom and right sides. With ㄱ, the vowels
    look like this: 과, 궈, 괴, 귀, 긔, 괘, 궤. Notice how ㅗ fits into spaces of the consonant above it.


    Finals
    In a syllable with a final (받침, batchim), the initial and medial are written in the top of the block, as described
    above, and the final is written below them. In few cases, a syllable will contain two finals, the final written below is
    simply the two characters next to each other.


    Practice

    Practice 1
    Combine the following jamo into Korean characters. Click "Show" to check your answers:


    Practice 2
    Write the following Korean words:


    Practice 3
    Write the following Korean words:


    Practice 4
    Write the following Korean words:


    Compounds of 2
    Complete this table. Or if you feel you are proficient enough, you can complete it until satisfied. Who's gonna know?
Korean/Principles of Orthography                         10




    Compounds of 3




                                    [panel   edit [1]]
                                   Other languages...
Korean/Principles of Orthography                                                                                                       11


                                                      Learn Korean (Introduction)
        Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
                                     5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                          Grammar



    Korean/Essential Pronunciation Rules
                                                                              [1]
                                                                [panel edit      ]
                                                               Other languages...
                                                          Learn Korean (Introduction)
             Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
    Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                                   Advanced
                                                                   Grammar




    Introduction
    Note: If you are not aware of the general interpretations of the Korean alphabet, please first read Alphabet before
    continuing.
    This page uses the International Phonetic Alphabet to transcribe pronunciation. All text within square brackets
    [skwɛər ˈbrækət̩s] uses that system. See the Wikipedia entry on IPA for more information.
    The few essential pronunciation rules and exceptions in this lesson will improve your accuracy in speaking and
    interpreting Korean.


    Plain, aspirated, and tense
    In English, certain pairs of consonants, like p/b, t/d, s/z, and k/g, have a pronunciation that differs mostly in whether
    they are voiced or voiceless. Korean consonants do not have that same distinction, but rather differ according to
    whether they are "plain", "aspirated", or "tense".

                          Some consonant jamo are plain, some aspirated, some tense:
                                   Basic       Letter (jamo)
                                   예사소리                        ㄱ ㄷ ㅂ ㅅㅈ
                                               Romanization g or k      d or t       b or p     s j or ch
                                               Pronunciation [g] or     [d] or       [b] or     [s] [ʥ] or
                                                             [k]        [t]          [p]            [ʨ]

                                   Aspirated   Letter (jamo)
                                   거센소리                        ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ                                 ㅊ
                                               Romanization k           t            p               ch
                                               Pronunciation [kʰ]       [tʰ]         [pʰ]            [ʨʰ]

                                   Tense       Letter (jamo)
                                   된소리                         ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ ㅆㅉ
                                               Romanization gg or kk    dd or tt     bb or pp   ss jj
                                               Pronunciation [k͈]       [t͈]         [p͈]       [s͈] [ʨ͈]
Korean/Essential Pronunciation Rules                                                                                              12


    Aspirated consonants (ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ) are pronounced with a burst of air that does not accompany their plain
    counterparts. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, put a hand or a lit candle in
    front of your mouth and say "tore" ([tʰɔɹ]) and then "store" ([stɔɹ]). You should either feel a puff of air or see a
    flicker of the candle flame with "tore" that does not appear with "store". In English, the t should be aspirated in
    "tore" and unaspirated in "store". In Korean, the aspirated consonants are like the t in "tore", in that you must expel a
    burst of air to say them correctly.
    Tense consonants (ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, and ㅉ) are said with a harder, stiffer voice than their plain counterparts. With
    these "tense" consonants, the diaphragm, glottis, and tongue are tense. For example, imagine you were to say "duck!"
    kind of loudly. The hard d sound in "duck!" is like the sound made by the Korean ㄸ.


    ㄹ (rieul)
    Proper pronunciation of the Korean letter ㄹ takes some practice for most English speakers. It is pronounced sort of
    like a half r and half l sound. Specifically, it is either an alveolar tap or an alveolar lateral approximant, depending on
    the following sound. While difficult at first, mastery is fairly easy.


    Initial, Middle, and Final Consonants
    Korean alphabet charts have two tables: initial sounds, and final sounds. The sound of a Korean consonant can
    change slightly when it is preceded or followed by another consonant. For example, ㄱ can be pronounced as a
    voiced sound (the English g) or voiceless (like the English k). To know how to pronounce such letters, it's important
    to know the difference between an initial, a medial, and a final consonant.


    Initial Consonant
    An initial consonant is any consonant at the beginning of a word. Initial consonants (especially at the beginning of
    sentences and phrases) are usually pronounced voiceless. For example the ㅈ in the word 저 ("I") is typically
    voiceless, especially as first word of a sentence. That makes it sound more like "ch" than "j" to an English speaker.
    The consonants that follow this rule are ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ, and ㅂ. Thus, initial ㄱ sounds more like "k" than "g", initial ㄷ
    sounds more like "t" than "d", initial ㅈ sounds more like "ch" than "j", and initial ㅂ sounds more like "p" than "b":
    Examples:
    •   가 ([ka]): initial sound is unvoiced.
    •   다 ([ta]): initial sound is unvoiced.
    •   바 ([pa]): initial sound is unvoiced.
    •   자 ([ʨa], "cha"): initial sound is unvoiced.


    Middle Consonants
    Consonants that come in the middle of a sentence can follow some complex sound changes, but the two most
    important changes are whether the consonant follows another consonant or a vowel. For example, the word 막대기
    ("stick") has a middle consonant-consonant sequence (ㄱㄷ) and a vowel-consonant sequence (ㅐㄱ). In many cases,
    a middle consonant with a preceding consonant becomes slightly more tensified, meaning a "tighter, stronger"
    pronunciation. So the ㄷ becomes a slightly harder "d" ([d̬]), but the second ㄱ is pronounced "normally" ([g]). The
    same consonants listed in the section above (ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ, and ㅂ) are also mainly the ones that follow this rule.
    Examples:
    • 막대기 ([mak̚d̬ɛːgi]): Middle consonant ㄷ follows another consonant, so it is more tense.
    • 막대기 ([mak̚d̬ɛːgi]): Middle consonant ㄱ follows another vowel, so it has the standard pronunciation.
Korean/Essential Pronunciation Rules                                                                                         13


    Final Consonants
    A final consonant is a consonant that either ends a word, or is preceded by another consonant. Examples are found in
    밥 ([pap̚], "rice") and 식사 ([ɕik̚sa], "meal"). Notice that ㅂ is the final letter in 밥. This causes its pronunciation to
    shorten to an unreleased stop, like the p in the English word "apt" ([æp̚t]). The ㄱ in 식사 also has a similar change.
    It's pronounced similar to the c in the English word "act" ([æk̚t]). ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅈ, and ㅂ follow this rule in final position.
    Other consonants can sometimes follow more complex rules. Some of them will be discussed here, but many are
    very complex and will be discussed in the ../Advanced Pronunciation Rules/ section.
    Examples:
    • 밥 ([pap̚], bap): Final consonant ㅂ is at the end of the word, so it sounds tensed and abbreviated.
    • 식사 ([ɕik̚sa]): Final consonant ㄱ is followed by another consonant, so it sounds tensed and abbreviated.


    ㅇ (ieung)
    ㅇ (ieung) is a special letter in Korean, because sometimes it makes a sound and sometimes it doesn't. This is
    determined by whether it is in the initial, middle, or final position.
    • In initial position, such as in the word 엄마 ([ʌmma], "mother") ㅇ is not pronounced, and the vowel becomes the
      initial sound.
    • In the middle position, there are two possibilities.
      • When ㅇ follows a final consonant, that preceding consonant replaces ㅇ. For example, 한국어 (Hangugeo,
         "Korean language") has an ㅇ following the final consonant ㄱ in 국 . That ㄱ is pronounced as if it replaces
         the initial ㅇ of the following syllable, thus the word is pronounced as if it were written "한구거" [hangugʌ].
      • However, when ㅇ is not preceded by a consonant, such as in the word 아이 ([ai], "child"), it is silent.
    • Finally, if ㅇ is in the final position, such as in 강 ([kaŋ], "river") or 영어 ([jʌŋʌ], "English language"), then it is
      pronounced [ŋ], similar to the ng in the English word "sing".
    Examples:
    • 엄마 ([ʌmma]): ㅇ in initial position is not pronounced.
    • 한국어 ([hangugʌ]): ㅇ in middle position with preceding consonant is replaced by the consonant (한국어 ->
      "한구거").
    • 아이 ([ai]): ㅇ in middle position with no preceding consonant is silent.
    • 강 ([kaŋ]): ㅇ in final position is similar to ng sound.


    Final-initial pairs ㄴㄹ and ㄹㄹ
    The final-initial pairs ㄴㄹ and ㄹㄹ each become [ll] (or for some speakers, [ɭl]):
    Examples:
    • 몰라 ([molla], low form for "don't know")
    • 곤란 ([kollan], "troubles, difficulty")
    • 원래 ([wʌllɛ], "originally")
    Note that the final-initial pair ㄴㄴ does not follow this rule. Each ㄴ in ㄴㄴ retains its natural sound ([n̚n]).
Korean/Essential Pronunciation Rules                                                                                              14


    T-stops
    There are a few consonants that, when are in final position, are pronounced [t̚] (an unreleased t, like in the English
    word "atlas"). These characters are: ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅊ, and ㅌ:
    •   맛 ([mat̚], "flavor, taste")
    •   꽃 ([g̬ot̚], "flower")
    •   끝 ([g̬ɯt̚], "end")
    •   돋보기 ([tot̚pogi], "magnifying glass")
    •   맞다 ([mat̚da], "to correct")
    •   있다 ([it̚da], "to exist")
    However, if an ㅇ (ieung) follows a t-stop letter, then the normal sound is simply carried over:
    • 맛이 ([maɕi], as if it were spelled "마시")


    Exercise
    Pronounce the following:


    Next steps
    If you want to know more about specific pronunciation rules, then you can read more in the ../Advanced
    Pronunciation Rules/ section. Otherwise, you are ready to start learning Korean vocabulary and grammar!
                                                          [panel   edit [1]]
                                                        Other languages...
                                                  Learn Korean (Introduction)
        Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
                                     5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                          Grammar
Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules                                                                                                    15



    Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules
                                                                           [1]
                                                             [panel edit      ]
                                                            Other languages...
                                                          Learn Korean (Introduction)
             Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
    Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                                   Advanced
                                                                   Grammar


    This lesson is incomplete. Help by clicking "edit" or use [[]].


    Medials
    • ㅗㅏ becomes ㅘ
    • ㅜㅓ becomes ㅝ


    Finals
    The sounds of some final consonants (받침, batchim) are different from their sounds as initials.
    Only seven consonant sounds are found at the end of syllables.
    In general, obstruents before nasals are assimilated to nasals, while keeping the same place of articulation as before:
    Notice the pattern: 1) ㄱ, ㅋ becomes ㅇ 2) The 't-stops' ㄷ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅌ,ㅎ becomes ㄴ 3) ㅂ, ㅍ becomes ㅁ
    • ㄱㄴ becomes ㅇㄴ

      ex) 격노하다(to be incensed), pronounced [경노]

    • ㄱㅁ becomes ㅇㅁ

      ex) 국물 (broth), pronounced [궁물]

    • ㅋㄴ becomes ㅇㄴ

      ex) not common

    • ㅋㅁ becomes ㅇㅁ

      ex) 부엌문 (kitchen door), pronounced [부엉문]

    • ㄷㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

      ex) 닫는 (closing, present participle form), pronounced [단는]

    • ㄷㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

      ex) not common

    • ㅅㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

      ex) 덧니 (snaggletooth), pronounced [던니]

    • ㅆㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
    • ㅅㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

      ex) 옷맵시 (line of cloth, style), pronounced [온맵씨]
Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules                            16


    • ㅈㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

     ex) 젖니 (baby tooth), pronounced [전니]

    • ㅈㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

     ex) 낮말, pronounced (난말)

    • ㅊㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

     not common
     ex) 옻나무 (lacquer tree), pronounced [온나무]

    • ㅊㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

     not common
     ex) 옻물 (lacquer sap), pronounced (온물)

    • ㅌㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

     ex) not common

    • ㅌㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

     ex) 낱말 (a word), pronounced (난말)

    • ㅎㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ

     ex) 놓는 (putting down, participle form), pronounced (논는)

    • ㅎㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ

     ex) not common

    • ㅂㄴ becomes ㅁㄴ

     ex) 굽는 (roasting, participle form), pronounced (굼는)
     ex) 줍는 (picking up, participle form), pronounced (줌는)

    • ㅂㅁ becomes ㅁㅁ

     ex) 업무 (duties), pronounced (엄무)

    • ㅍㄴ becomes ㅁㄴ

     ex) 엎는 (flipping, participle form), pronounced (엄는)
     ex) 덮는 (covering, participle form), pronounced (덤는)

    • ㅍㅁ becomes ㅁㅁ

     ex) not common

    Some combinations involve aspiration:
    • ㄱㅎ becomes ㅋ

     ex)   북한 (North Korea), pronounced (부칸)
     ex)   익숙한 (familiar), pronounced (익쑤칸)
     ex)   착한 (good-natured), pronounced (차칸)
     ex)   악한 (evil), pronounced (아칸)
Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules                                                                                               17


    •   ㅎㄱ becomes ㅋ
    •   ㅎㄷ becomes ㅌ
    •   ㄷㅎ becomes ㅌ
    •   ㅂㅎ becomes ㅍ
    •   ㅎㅂ becomes ㅍ
    •   ㅈㅎ becomes ㅊ
    •   ㅎㅈ becomes ㅊ
    •   ㅎㅅ becomes ㅆ
    •   ㄱ ㅅ becomes ㅆ
    Some combinations involve palatalization:
    • ㄷ이 becomes 지
    • ㅌ이 becomes 치
    Some involve complex assimilation/alterations:
    •   ㄱㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ
    •   ㄴㄹ becomes ㄹㄹ, or sometimes ㄴㄴ
    •   ㅁㄹ becomes ㅁㄴ
    •   ㅇㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ
    • ㅂㄹ becomes ㅁㄴ
    받침 followed by ㅇ: replace ㅇ with 받침 (use second 받침 if there are two). Otherwise, 받침 followed by
    consonant:
    •   ㄱ, ㅋ: like ㄱ
    •   ㄴ: like ㄴ
    •   ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ: like ㄷ
    •   ㄹ: like /l/
    •   ㅁ: like ㅁ
    •   ㅂ, ㅍ: like ㅂ
    •   ㅇ: like /ng/
                                                          [panel   edit [1]]
                                                        Other languages...
                                             Learn Korean (Introduction)
        Reading and writing — Course • Principles of Orthography • Essential Pronunciation Rules • Advanced Pronunciation Rules
     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
                                     5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                          Grammar
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                           18



    Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson
    unknown operator: u'strong' unknown operator: u'strong'


    만남과 인사 (man-nam-gwa in-sa) - Greetings

    유용한 표현 (Yoo-yong-hahn Pyo-hyun) Useful Expressions
    •   네(neh) = Yes
    •   아니오(anio)= No
    •   죄송하지만(joeh-song hajiman) = I am sorry, but...
    •   감사합니다 (gamsa hamnida) = Thank you
    •   천만에요 (chon-mahn-eh-yo) = You are welcome
    •   실례합니다 (sillye hamnida) = Excuse me
    •   안녕하세요 (ahn-nyong haseyo) = Hello / Hi / How are you?
    •   안녕히 가세요 (ahn-nyoung-hee gaseyo) = Good bye (when the other party is leaving)
    •   안녕히 계세요 (ahn-nyoung-hee geseyo) = Good bye (when you are leaving)
    • 영어를 할 줄 아십니까? (young-o-rul hahl-jool ahsimnika?) = Can you speak English?
    • 여기 영어를 할 줄 아는 분 계십니까? (yo-gi yong-o-rul hahl-jool anun-boon gyeh-simnika?) = Does anyone
      here speaks English?
    • 저는 한국어를 조금밖에 못합니다 (juh-neun hangook-o-rul jogum-bakke mot-hamnida) = I speak Korean only
      a little.
    • 성함이 어떻게 되시지요? (sung-ham-ee ottokeh dweh-sijiyo?) = What is your name?
    • 제 이름은 지영입니다 (jeh irum-eun Zee-Young imnida) = My name is Zee-Young
    • 잘 있습니다 (jal it-seumnida) = I am well.
    • 만나뵙게 되어서 반갑습니다 (mana bwep-ge dweh-o-so bahn-gahp-seumnida) = Nice to meet you.
    • 뭐라고 그러셨지요? (morago gruh-shut-jiyo?) What did you say, please?
    • 조금 천천히 말씀해 주세요 (jo-geum chun-chun-hee mal-sseum-hae juseyo) = Please speak a little slowly.
    • 충분히 이해하고 있습니다 (choong-boon-hee ee-hae-hago it-seum-nida) = I understand you/him/her/it well
      enough.


    mahn-sa-seo in-sa-hahl-te dae-wha
    •   Young-Sook: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo! yong-o-rul hahl-jool a-se-yo?
    •   jom-won: jwe-song-hahm-nida. yong-o-rul hahl-jool mo-rum-nida.
    •   Young-Sook: jo-do han-koo-go-rul jo-gum-ba-ke motam-nida.
    •   jom-won: gwen-chan-soum-nida. i-hae-hahm-nida.
    •   Hanna: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo!
    •   Chan-Yong: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo! je-chin-goo Kim, Chul-Soo-si-wa in-sa-ha-sin-jeogi in-na-yo?
    •   Hanna: up-soum-nida. cho-eum mahn-na-bwem-neun-geot ga-soum-nida.
    •   Chan-Yong: 출수씨, 이부니이영호씨 임니다. Chul-Soo-si, i-booni Lee, Young-Ho-si im-nida.
    •   Hanna: mahn-na-bwep-ge dwe-o-so bahn-gap-soum-nida.
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                                      19


    Hotel-e-so

    yon-soup
    •   yok-siri in-neun double-roomul won-hahm-nida.
    •   chim-dae doo-gae-rul won-hahm-nida.
    •   yok-siri o-di-e i-chi-yo?
    •   예야글 해슴니다. ye-ya-gul hae-seum-nida.
    •   ji-nan-joo-e ye-yagul hae-seum-nida.
    •   ye-yagi an-dwe-o in-nayo?
    •   sook-bang-nyo-ga o-teo-ke dwep-nika?
    •   ha-roo-e ol-ma-im-nika?
    •   tibi poham-dwen ga-gyo-gin-ga-yo?
    •   check-in si-ga-ni on-je-im-nika?
    •   check-out si-ga-ni on-je-im-nika?
    •   sin-yong card-rul ba-soum-nika?
    •   yo-hang-ja soo-pyo-ro ji-bool-ha-go sip-soum-nida.
    •   bahng key-rul joo-se-yo.
    • je o-ta-go je nam-pyon sin-sa-bo-gul da-rio-joo-se-yo.
    • nae-il a-chim yo-dol-si-e ke-wo-joo-si-get-soum-nika?


    hotel-e-so dae-wha
    •   Mee-Young: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo? single-roomee in-na-yo?
    •   front ji-gwon: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo? myo-chil dong-an mo-moo-ru-sil
    •   ye-jong-im-nika?
    •   Mee-Young: ee-joo-yo.
    •   front ji-gwon: neh, a-joo jo-eun single room-i i-soum-nida.
    •   Mee-Young: sook-bang-nyo-ga o-teo-ke dwep-nika?
    •   front ji-gwon: sook-bang-ryo-neun ha-roo-e pal-man-won-im-nida.
    •   Mee-Young: jo-seum-nida.
    • Park, Won-Chul: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo. je-i-reum-eun Park, Won-Chul im-nida. je roomee ye-yak dwen-go-su-ro
      al-go i-seum-nida.
    • front ji-gwon: on-je ye-yagul ha-shut-na-yo?
    • Park, Won-Chul: je-ga o-je jon-wha-ro hae-neun-de-yo.
    • front ji-gwon: ah, gu-ro-se-yo. yo-gi it-goon-nyo. yok-siri dal-lin double room.
    • Park, Won-Chul: ma-seum-nida. sibil-ye-jong-im-nida.
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                                  20


    eun-haing om-moo

    yon-soup
    •   doh-nul yo-gi-so ba-kool-soo in-na-yo?
    •   baek-bool-mahn ba-koo-go sip-seum-nida.
    •   hwan-yoori o-teo-ke dwem-nika?
    •   yo-haing-ja soo-pyo-rul ba-koo-go sip-soum-nida.
    •   yo-gi yokwoni i-soum-nida.
    •   kook-je woon-jon-myon-ho-jeung-ul gat-ko it-seum-nida.
    •   yo-haing-ja soo-pyo-ga dul-o it-neun ji-gabul boon-sil-hait-seum-nida.
    •   yo-haing-ja soo-pyo-rul sa-go sip-seum-nida.
    •   eun-haing yong-up-si-gani o-teo-ke dwe-nayo?
    •   ja-dong-hyon-geum-ji-kup-ki-ga o-di in-nayo?
    •   do-wa-joo-shu-so gahm-sa-hahm-nida.
    •   i-je gwen-chan-seum-nida.


    eun-haing-eso dae-wha
    •   Jung, Chul-Soo: ahn-nyong-ha-seyo. mee-kook dollar-rul won-hwa-ro ba-koo-go sip-seum-nida.
    •   en-haing ji-gwon: ah, gu-ro-seyo. eol-mana ba-koo-si-get-seum-nika?
    •   Jung, Chul-Soo: baek-o-sip-boo-rul ba-koo-ro-go hahm-ni-da. o-neul hwan-nyu-ri o-teo-ke dwe-na-yo?
    •   eun-haing ji-gwon: eel-boo-re chon-ee-bae-geon im-nida.
    •   Jang, Soo-Mee: ahn-nyong-ha-se-yo. jom do-wa-joo-seyo?
    •   eun-haing ji-gwon: neh, moo-seun eerin-gayo?
    •   Jang, Soo-Mee: yo-haing-ja soo-pyo-rul boon-sil-haet-seo-yo.
    •   eun-haing ji-gwon: do-nan dang-han-geot gaht-seum-nika?
    •   Jang, Soo-Mee: ah-nee-yo, o-neul ah-chi-me shopping-ha-da-ga boon-sil-haet-seo-yo.


    ticket goo-ip

    yon-seup
    •   sa-baek-goo-sibi-bon hang-gong-pyon ye-ya-gul hwa-gin-hago sip-seum-nida.
    •   je ticket-e dae-ha-yo moo-ro-bo-go sip-seum-nida.
    •   je sa-baek-goo-sibi-bon hang-gong-pyon ticket-eul gat-go in-nayo?
    •   je jwa-seogi bae-jong-dwe-eot-nayo?
    •   Pusan-uro ga-neun ticket-eul sa-go sip-seum-nida.
    •   ticket-ee ol-ma-in-gayo?
    •   Pusan ga-neun da-eum gi-cha-ga myot-si-e it-seum-nika?
    •   myot-si-e do-chak-ha-nayo?
    •   sam-bon gate-i o-neu cho-gin-gayo?
    •   sin-go-hal poom-mogi a-moo-geo-to up-seum-nida.
    •   sin-go-hal poom-mogi se-ge-ba-ke up-seum-nida.
    •   ji-kaing-in-gayo?
    • je si-ga-ne do-cha-ka-get-seum-nika?
    • on-je chak-ryuk-ha-nayo?
    • do-cha-gi ji-yon-dwe-ot-nayo?
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                                 21


    tieket goo-ip hal-tae dae-hwa
    • Song, Young-Hee: Pusan-uro ga-neun da-eum hahng-gong-pyon ticke-seul sago sip-seum-nida.
    • ji-gwon: economy so-gul wo-na-sip-nika, first class-rul wo-na-sip-nika?
    • Song, Young-Hee: economy-ro he-joo-seyo. chang-moon chok jwa-seo-gul joo-si-get-seum-nika?
    • ji-gwon: jwe-song-hahm-nida. chang-moon cho-gun na-ma-in-nun go-si up-go geu dae-sin bok-do-cho-gul
      deu-ril-soo it-seum-nida.
    • Song, Young-Hee: gahm-sa-ham-nida.
    •   Park, In-Sook: Pusan ga-neun ticke-seul doo-jang sago sip-seum-nida.
    •   ji-gwon: il-ban-seo-geul wo-na-sim-nika, chim-dae-kah-nul wo-na-sim-nika?
    •   Park, In-Sook: chim-dae-kah-nul joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   ji-gwon: gi-cha-neun ee-yo-ge-seo chong-kak da-seo-si-e chool-bal-hahm-nida.


    gil, si-gan moo-ro bo-gi

    yon-seup
    • tok-baro ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   ee-gi-rul ta-ra-so chook ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   do-si-rul tok-ba-ro tong-gwa-he-so kye-sok ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   si-nae-ro du-ro-ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   wen-cho-gu-ro ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   o-run-cho-gu-ro ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   eun-heng gon-neo-pyo-nim-nida.
    •   eun-heng yo-pim-nida.
    •   ban-de cho-ge it-seum-nida.
    •   mol-ji ahn-seum-nida.
    •   hahn block-mahn ga-si-myon dwem-nida.
    •   baro mo-toong-i-ye it-seum-nida.
    •   geo-eui-da wa-seum-nida.
    •   pyo-si-rul ta-ra-ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   ee-gi-reun il-bang-tong-heng-im-nida.
    •   ji-gum myo-si-im-nika?
    •   chong-o in-de-yo.
    •   cha-jong in-de-yo.
    •   se-byok doo-si-in-de-yo.
    •   o-hoo se-si-in-de-yo.
    •   doo-si sam-sip-boo-nip-nida.
    •   yo-dul-si sa-sip-o-boo-nim-nida.
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                  22


    gi-ri-na si-ga-nul moo-ro-bol-te dae-hwa
    •   Cho, Byong-Tae: sil-lye-hahm-nida. gi-rul ee-rut-neun-de-yo.
    •   yo-in: o-di ga-sim-nika?
    •   Cho, Byong-Tae: gang-nam-yo-gul chat-go it-seum-nida.
    •   yo-in: sa-gori-e-seo o-reun-cho-gu-ro ga-sip-si-yo.
    •   Tae-Soo: ji-gum myot-si-im-nika?
    •   Hanna: chong-o-im-nida.
    •   Tae-Soo: chong-mal-yo? jo-neun yol-han-si sam-sip-boo-nin-jool a-rat-so-yo.
    •   Hanna: dang-sin si-gye-ga neut-gun-nyo.
    •   Bora: young-hwa-ga mot-si-e si-jak-ha-na-yo?
    •   Chang-Young: yo-dul-si sam-sip-boon-chu-me-yo.
    •   Bora: neu-jo-so-neun ahn-dwe-nika il-gop-si sa-sip-o-boo-ne to-nap-sida.
    •   Chang-Young: il-gop-si sam-sip-boo-ne to-na-neun-gosi deo jo-eul-geot gat-goo-nyo.


    sik-dang

    yon-seup
    •   menu-rul bo-yo-joo-si-ge-so-yo?
    •   o-neul special-ee moo-eo-sim-nika?
    •   o-teon geo-seul gwon-ha-sim-nika?
    •   ee-eum-si-gul jo-ah-ha-ji ahn-seum-nida.
    •   ee-eum-si-gun neo-moo tcham-nida.
    •   ee-eum-si-gun neo-moo tu-gop-seum-nida.
    •   steak-eul mediumuro he-joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   steak-eul well-done-euro he-joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   ee-eum-si-gun je-ga joo-moon-han-go-si a-nim-nida.
    •   a-ga-see! yo-bo-se-yo!
    •   po-do-joo menu-rul jom joo-si-ge-so-yo?
    •   jok-po-do-joo hahn-byong-mahn joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   baek-po-do-joo ban-byong-mahn joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   ji-bang maek-joo-rul han-jan joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   ma-ti-ni han-jan joo-sip-si-yo.
    •   gye-san-seo joo-se-yo.
    •   yo-gi-e ti-bi po-ham-dwe-ot-seum-nika?
    •   sin-yong card-ro ji-bool-ha-ge-seum-nida.
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson                                                                                    23


    sik-dang-e-seo dae-hwa
    •   waitress: do-wa-deu-ril-ka-yo?
    •   Kang son-saing-nim: yo-gi "bi-bim-bap"-i-ra-go in-neun-de i-ge moo-seun eum-si-gim-nika?
    •   waitress: na-mool-ha-go ba-bool mae-woon go-choo-jang-e bibin go-sim-nida.
    •   Kang son-saing-nim: jo-a-yo. i-go-su-ro ha-ge-so-yo.
    •   waitress: ma-sil-go-seun moo-eo-suro ha-si-ge-so-yo?
    •   Kang son-saing-nim: naeng-soo-ro joo-se-yo.
    •   Chun son-saing-nim: mwol gwon-ha-sim-nika?
    •   waitress: o-neul jo-nyok special-eun hong-ha-bim-nida. ba-da-e-so ba-ro o-neul ja-ba-on-go-sim-nida.
    •   Chun son-saing-nim: geun-sa-han-geot ga-tun-de-yo. o-teo-ke yo-ri-ha-na-yo?
    •   waitress: baek-po-do-joo-e dam-gun geot-do it-go twi-gin-geot-do it-seum-nida.
    •   Chun son-saing-nim: twi-gin-geo-suro ha-ge-seum-nida. lemo-nul jan-tuk poo-ryo-joo-se-yo.
    •   Kim, Soo-Kyong: sil-lye-ha-get-seum-nida.
    •   nam-ja: neh, mal-seum-ha-se-yo.
    •   Kim, Soo-Kyong: ee-gun-cho-e gwen-chanun sik-dang-i it-su-myun ha-na ga-ru-cho joo-si-get-seum-nika?
    •   nam-ja: gul-se-yo, woo-rae-ogi gun-cho-e it-seum-nida.
    • Kim, Soo-Kyong: o-teo-ke ga-ji-yo?
    • nam-ja: ee-gil-lo chook ga-si-da-ga sin-ho-deumg-e-seo o-reun-cho-gu-ro ga-sin da-eum doo-block-mahn
      goro-ga-si-myon dwem-nida. ga-si-da o-reun-cho-ge it-seum-nida.


    soot-ja
    •   young
    •   hana
    •   dool
    •   set
    •   net
    •   da-seot
    •   yo-seot
    •   il-gop
    •   yo-dol
    •   a-hop
    •   yol
    •   yol hana
    •   yol dool
    •   yol set
    •   yol net
    •   yol da-seot
    •   yol yo-seot
    •   yol il-gop
    •   yol yo-dol
    •   yol a-hop
    •   smool
    •   smool hana
    • smool dool
    • so-reun
Korean/Mini-tutorial Lesson   24


    •   ma-heun
    •   shwin
    •   ye-soon
    •   ee-reun
    •   yo-deun
    •   a-heun
    •   baek


    dahl
    •   il-wol
    •   ee-wol
    •   sam-wol
    •   sa-wol
    •   o-wol
    •   you-wol
    •   chil-wol
    •   pal-wol
    •   goo-wol
    •   si-wol
    •   si-bil-wol
    •   si-bi-wol


    yo-il
    •   wol-yo-il
    •   hwa-yo-il
    •   soo-yo-il
    •   mo-gyo-il
    •   geu-myo-il
    •   to-yo-il
    •   il-yo-il


    gye-jol
    •   bohm
    •   yo-reum
    •   ga-eul
    •   gyo-eul
Korean/Getting started on Hanjas                                                                                          25



    Korean/Getting started on Hanjas
    For beginning Korean language students, learning the hanja is not necessary. However, because so many Korean
    words come from Chinese roots, knowing hanja will be quite helpful in mastering enough vocabulary to become
    fluent in Korean.


    What are Hanja and why do we use them?
    Hanja are Chinese characters that have been borrowed into the Korean language. Like many languages, many
    Korean words are composed of roots, many of which are from the Chinese language. In the quest of mastering a
    foreign language, learning the roots of the words is one approach for learning vocabulary.


    Just how many Hanja do I need to know?
    There's no exact number that you need to know. Since many people learn Korean without learning the characters, it
    is possible to know the language without learning any characters. Around 2000 characters is a good number for
    learning how to read and recognize words. The 1800 standardized Hanja set will cover the majority of the roots for
    the Sino-Korean words.
    Below is 1 example of how Hanja can be used to remember words.
    *船    -- 선. Boat
    *漁    -- 어. Fish
    *夫    -- 부. Husband/father
    *船    -- 선. Boat
    In Korean a fisherman is 어부, and fishing boat is 어선. The corresponding characters are 漁夫 and 漁船.
    Before we list the standard 1800 character set, you need to learn the 214 radicals that make up the characters. See
    List_of_Kangxi_radicals [1] for the list of radicals. You need to write them on flashcards and commit them to
    memory. If you know the radicals, it will be easier to remember the characters and to look up unknown words in a
    dictionary when necessary.


    List of Hanja
    *가
    歌   -- song
    家   -- house, can also be pronounced as 고
    價   -- price
    加   -- add
    可   -- right, can also be pronounced as 극
    街   -- street
    假   -- pretend, can also be pronounced as 하 or 격
    暇   -- leisure 佳 -- beautiful
    架   -- shelf
    *각
    各   -- each
    角   -- horn
    刻   -- carve
    覺   -- awake, can also be pronounced as 교
    脚   -- leg
Korean/Getting started on Hanjas                     26


    閣 -- pavillion
    却 -- reject
    *간
    間   -- gap
    干   -- shield, can also be pronounced as 건
    看   -- see
    簡   -- letter
    幹   -- trunk, can also be pronounced as 관
    懇   -- sincerity
    刊   -- publish
    肝   -- liver
    姦   -- adultery
    *갈
    渴 -- thirsty, can also be pronounced as 걸 or 할
    *감
    感   -- feel
    減   -- decrease
    監   -- look
    甘   -- sweet
    敢   -- daringly
    鑑   -- mirror
    *갑
    甲 -- armor, can also be pronounced as 압
    *강
    江   -- river
    强   -- strong
    康   -- peaceful
    講   -- exercise, also pronounced as 구
    降   -- surrender, also pronounced as 항
    綱   -- head rope
    剛   -- firm
    鋼   -- steel
    *개
    開 -- open
    改 -- change
    個 -- piece
    介 -- between
    槪 -- generally
    蓋 -- cover, also pronounced as 합
    慨 -- lament
    皆 -- all
    *객
    客 -- guest
    *갱
    更 -- again, also pronounced as 경
Korean/Getting started on Hanjas                                     27


    *거

    References
    [1] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ List_of_Kangxi_radicals
                                                                                                                                         28




                                    Chapter 2- Grammar

Korean/Grammar Introduction
                                                                          [1]
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                                                                Advanced
    Grammar: Sentence word order • Verbs • Nouns • Particles • Personal pronouns • Demonstrative pronouns • Adjectives • Determiners •
              Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times


The Korean grammar series is being moved into the Conversation series.



Korean/Personal pronouns
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Korean pronouns pose some difficulty to speakers of English due to their complexity. The Korean language makes
extensive use of speech levels and honorifics in its grammar, and Korean pronouns also change depending on the
social distinction between the speaker and the person or persons spoken to.
In general, Korean speakers avoid using second person singular pronoun, especially when using honorific forms.
This is done in several ways:
• Omit the subject if it can be implied by the context. Most English sentences need subjects, but not Korean
  sentences do not.
• Use the appropriate title. For example, talking to a teacher or certain other professionals (e.g. a manager), one
  may use 선생님 (seonsaengnim, "teacher").
• Use kinship terms, even to address someone who is not family:
   •   언니 (eonni, "older sister"), used by females to address a slightly elder female
   •   누나 (nuna, "older sister"), used by males to address a slightly elder female
   •   오빠 (oppa, "older brother"), used by females to address a slightly elder male
   •   형 (hyeong, "older brother"), used by males to address a slightly elder male
   •   아줌마 (ajumma, "middle aged woman")
   •   아저씨 (ajeoshi, "middle aged man")
  • 할머니 (halmeoni, "grandmother")
  • 할아버지 (harabeoji, "grandfather")
• Use the plural 여러분 (yeoreobun, "ladies and gentlemen") where applicable.
Korean/Personal pronouns                                                                                                                   29


    • If talking to someone younger than the speaker, one may use the person's name.


    Pronouns
                                                         singular                                   plural

                                                    polite           plain              polite                  plain

                             first person      저 (jeo)              나 (na)     저희 (jeoheui)             우리 (uri)

                            second person      당신                   너          당신들 (dangshindeul) 너희들 (neoheuideul)
                                               (dangshin)           (neo)

                             third person                그 (geu)                                 그들 (geudeul)

                             third person            그녀 (geunyeo)                          그녀들 (geunyeodeul)
                               feminine


    The first and second person pronouns have both an informal and a polite (humble/honorific) form. The polite form is
    used when speaking to someone older or of high social status. 당신 (the plain second person singular pronoun)
    literally means "friend", but is only used as a form of address and is more polite than 친구 (chingu), the usual word
    for "friend". 당신 is also sometimes used as the Korean equivalent of "dear" as a form of address. Also, whereas uses
    of other humble forms are straightforward, 당신 must be used only in specific social contexts, such as between two
    married couples. In that way it can be used in an ironic sense when used between strangers.
    Of the third person pronouns, the feminine forms sound awkward and are mostly used when translating texts from
    other languages. 그 was originally used for both genders and still is in conversation.
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Korean/Demonstrative pronouns                                                                                                                30



    Korean/Demonstrative pronouns
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    Demonstrative object pronouns
    Korean has three demonstrative pronouns for objects:
    • 이것 (this, ee-guht) is used when the object is nearby the speaker.
    • 그것 (that, geu-guht) is used when the object is near the listener. It is also used when the speaker already
      mentioned the object.
    • 저것 (that [over there], juh-guht) is used when the object is far from the speaker and the listener.
    Examples:
    • 이것은 이상하다: This is strange.
    • 그것은 이상하다: That is strange.
    • 저것은 이상하다: That [over there] is strange.

    When 은 (the topic marker) follows those pronouns, they are often contracted as follows:
    • 이건: contraction of 이것은
    • 그건: contraction of 그것은
    • 저건: contraction of 저것은
    Examples:
    • 이건 이상하다: This is strange.
    • 그건 이상하다: That is strange.
    • 저건 이상하다: That [over there] is strange.

    When 이 (the subject marker) follows those pronouns, they are often contracted as follows:
    • 이게: contraction of 이것이
    • 그게: contraction of 그것이
    • 저게: contraction of 저것이
    underline text
Korean/Demonstrative pronouns                                                                                                              31


    Demonstrative personal pronouns
    Korean has three demonstrative pronouns for people.
    • 이분 is used when the person is nearby the speaker.
    • 그분 is used when the person is near the listener.
    • 저분 is used when the person is far from the speaker and the listener.


    Demonstrative determiners
    Also 이, 저, and 그 can be used in front of nouns:
    • 이 식사가 맛있어요.
        This dish is delicious.
    • 그 연필을 이용해요?
        Are you using that pencil?
    • 저 식당에 갑시다.
           Lets go to that restaurant.
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Korean/Adjectives                                                                                                                            32



    Korean/Adjectives
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    Adjectives come in two forms in Korean. In their main form, they are inflected like verbs (i.e. with honorifics, tense,
    and speech levels) and come at the end of their sentence or clause.
    •   붉다: "(to be) red"
    •   푸르다: "(to be) blue"
    •   크다: "(to be) big"
    •   작다: "(to be) small"
    Adjectives also have a "attributive" form that ends in ㄴ (often 은). Grammatically, adjectives in this form are
    관형사 ("determiners"), which always come before the noun they modify.
    •   붉은: "red"
    •   푸른: "blue"
    •   큰: "big"
    •   작은: "small"
    Some abstract Korean nouns translate as adjectives:
    • 녹색: "(the color) green"
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Korean/Verbs                                                                                                                                33



    Korean/Verbs
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    Introduction
    Most Korean dictionaries list verbs (동사) in a form that ends in 다(da):

                             •   사다: to buy            •   싫어하다: to dislike/hate      •   자다: to sleep
                             •   전화하다: to call         •   알다: to know                •   보다: to see/watch
                             •   만들다: to make/create •     배우다: to learn              •   가르치다: to teach
                             •   오다: to come           •   좋아하다: to like              •   치다: to hit
                             •   하다: to do             •   사랑하다: to love              •   생각하다: to think
                             •   마시다: to drink         •   듣다: to listen/hear         •   원하다: to want
                             •   먹다: to eat            •   움직이다: to move              •   일어나다: to wake up
                                                           (around)
                             •   가다: to go             •   놀다: to play                •   쓰다: to write
                             •   주다: to give           •   읽다: to read                •   걷다: to walk
                             •   갖다: to have           •   말하다: to speak              •   잠자다: to sleep



    Verb stems
    Similar to English verbs, Korean verbs change their endings and take auxiliary words to fit the tense (when an action
    occurs) and mood (statements vs. commands vs. questions) of the situation. However, Korean verbs also change
    form to express honorifics and speech levels in order to reflect the social relationships between the speaker, the
    subject, and the audience. The speech level listed in most books (including dictionaries) is called 해라체. It is formal
    but of low to neutral politeness. The 해라체 speech level is sometimes used by close friends, relatives of similar age,
    and young people. As shown above, the indicative forms of verbs in the 해라체 speech level end in 다. The part of
    the word preceding 다 is called the "verb stem".


    Exercise
    Identify the verb stem of the following verbs:


    Honorifics
    Korean grammar expresses the relationship between the speaker, the subject, and the listener by using honorifics and
    speech levels in conjugation and word choice. Honorifics express the speaker's relationship and politeness or social
    humility toward the subject of the sentence and speech levels to express that with the audience. When talking about
    someone statutorily superior, a speaker or writer must indicate the subject's apparent superiority by using special
    honorific affixes. Generally, someone is considered superior in status if he or she is an older relative, a stranger of
    roughly equal or greater age, an employer, a teacher, a customer, or the like. Someone is looked upon as equal or
    inferior in status if he or she is a younger stranger, a student, an employee or the like.
Korean/Verbs                                                                                                                     34


    Note: If the subject is considered inferior to the listener, the honorific should not be used, as the misuse of honorifics
    or the use of inappropriate speech levels is likely to be considered insulting, but also possibly hilariously
    disrespectful.
    A few Korean verbs have special honorific equivalents, but most can be converted into an honorific form by adding
    an honorific affix after the stem and before the ending. If the verb stem ends in a vowel, add 시, but if it ends in a
    consonant, add 으시. Thus, the honorific form of 가다 ("to go") is 가시다 and the honorific form of 걷다 ("to
    walk") is 걸으시다.


    Exercise
    Write the honorific form of the following verbs:


    Formal polite speech level
    Since the 해라체 speech level is not polite enough for many of the initial encounters you might have speaking
    Korean, we will first learn a polite speech level instead. 합쇼체 is the formal, polite speech level in Korean. It is
    used commonly between strangers, among male co-workers, by TV announcers, and to customers.
    To create statements (that is, to use the indicative mood of verbs) in the 합쇼체 form, take the verb stem and add the
    honorific affix 시 or 으시 if applicable. Then add ㅂ니다 if the result ends in a vowel or 습니다 if it ends in a
    consonant. E.g.:

                                 Verb              Stem       Subject        Add polite   Complete 합쇼체 form
                                                                              ending

                     Verb Stems ending in vowels

                     가다                            가      (Non-honorific)    가 ㅂ니다        갑니다

                     가다                            가      (Honorific) 시     가시 ㅂ니다        가십니다

                     Verb Stems ending in
                     consonants

                     읽다                            읽      (Non-honorific)    읽 습니다        읽습니다

                     읽다                            읽      (Honorific) 으시    읽으시 ㅂ니다       읽으십니다



    Exercise
    In this exercise, you are talking with a stranger about various subjects. Determine correct 합쇼체 form for the
    following verbs based on the given subject:


    Informal polite speech level
    When people of similar age or social standing converse, they often use the informal polite speech level, called
    해요체. 해요체 is appropriately polite for most of the situations you will typically encounter, so it is the next form
    to learn.
    To create the 해요체 form of Korean verbs, do the following:
    1.   Take the stem.
    2.   Add the honorific 시 or 으시 if applicable.
    3.   If the last letter is ㅂ, change it to 우.
    4.   If the result ends in a vowel followed by 르, insert an extra ㄹ, making the end ㄹ르.
    5.   If the last vowel is now ㅡ, change it to ㅏ if the next-to-last vowel is ㅗ or ㅏ. Otherwise, change ㅡ to ㅓ.
    6.   If the last vowel is now ㅗ or ㅏ, add ㅏ요. Otherwise, add ㅓ요.
Korean/Verbs                                                                                                                35


    Korean spelling rules make the above rules seem just a bit more complicated in practice:
    •   If the result ends in ㅏㅏ요, that collapses to ㅏ요.
    •   If the result ends in ㅗㅏ요, that collapses to ㅘ요.
    •   If the result ends in ㅜㅓ요, that collapses to ㅝ요.
    •   If the result ends in 시ㅓ요, that collapses to 세요.
    •   If the result ends in ㅣㅓ요, that collapses to ㅕ요.
    The usual spelling rules also apply, so an ㅏ without an initial consonant is written as 아 and an ㅓ without an initial
    consonant is written as 어.

                               Verb     Stem       Subject       Rules 3-6   Complete 해요체 form
                                                                  above

                             가다:        가      (Non-honorific)    가ㅏ요        가요

                             가다:        가      (Honorific) 시     가시ㅓ요        가세요

                             오다:        오      (Non-honorific)    오ㅏ요        와요

                                   [1] 어렵      (Non-honorific)   어려우ㅓ요       어려워요
                             어렵다

                                  [1]   덥      (Non-honorific)   더우ㅓ요        더워요
                             덥다:

                             하다:        하      (Honorific) 시     하시ㅓ요        하세요

                             가르치다 가르치 (Non-honorific)            가르치ㅓ요       가르쳐요

                             읽다:        읽      (Honorific) 으시    읽으시ㅓ요       읽으세요

                             읽다:        읽      (Non-honorific)    읽ㅓ요        읽어요

                             모르다        모르     (Non-honorific)   몰라ㅏ요        몰라요

                             쓰다         쓰      (Non-honorific)    써ㅓ요        써요



    Exercise
    In this exercise, you are talking with a friend about various subjects. Determine correct 해요체 form for the
    following verbs in both honorific and non-honorific forms:


    Casual speech level
    When close friends and relatives talk with each other, they may use a very casual speech level called 해체. Be
    careful not to use this 해체 with someone with whom you are not very close, as it can be considered offensive.
    Since you already know the 해요체 form, creating the casual 해체 form of Korean verbs is easy, just take the 요 off
    of the end of the 해요체 form:
Korean/Verbs                                                                                                                36


                                                 Verb   해요체 form 해체 form

                                                가다:     가요              가

                                                오다:     와요              와

                                                덥다:     더워요             더워

                                                모르다 몰라요                 몰라



    Exercise
    In this exercise, you are talking with a close friend. Determine correct 해체 form for the following verbs:


    Tense
    Korean verbs can be conjugated into several different tenses to indicate the time when an event occurs.


    Past tense
    The past tense of a Korean verb is formed as follows:
    1. Take the verb stem.
    2. Add the honorific suffix (시 or 으시) if applicable.
    3. Add the one of the following:
       • If the word now ends in 하, add 였. Note: 하였 often is contracted as 했.
       • Otherwise, if the preceding vowel of the verb stem is ㅏ or ㅗ, add 았.
       • Otherwise, add 었.
    4. Add the ending for the appropriate speech level.


    Future tense
    The future tense of a Korean verb is formed as follows:
    1.   Take the verb stem.
    2.   Add the honorific suffix (시 or 으시) if applicable.
    3.   Add the suffix 겠.
    4.   Add the ending for the appropriate speech level.


    Other tenses
    Korean also has a remote past tense, used to indicate that an event occurred long ago, a past future tense, and a
    (rarely-used) remote past future tense. To form the remote past tense, first form the past tense, then add an extra 었
    before the ending for the appropriate speech level.


    Copula and existence verb
    이다 and 있다: Two Korean words conjugate similar to verbs and are often translated as verbs but are not
    considered verbs in Korean grammar: 이다 (the copula, often translated as "to be") and 있다 (the existence particle,
    often translated as "to exist").
                                                        [panel   edit [1]]
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                            Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
    Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
Korean/Verbs                                                                                                                                37


                                                  5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
       Grammar: Sentence word order • Verbs • Nouns • Particles • Personal pronouns • Demonstrative pronouns • Adjectives • Determiners •
                    Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times



    References
    [1] This term is adjective because this word indicates status. but it can be used in "해요체" form.




    Korean/Conjunctions
    Introduction
    In language, a conjunction is a way to combine 2 or more phrases into one sentence. This chapter will cover the basic
    conjunctions such as 'and', 'or', and 'but'.


    ~지만 (but)
    • 김치는 맵지만 맛있어요. Kimchi is spicy but delicious.
    • 한국어는 어렵지만 재미있어요. The Korean language is difficult but interesting.


    와/과 (and)
    This is used for combining 2 nouns. If the end of the first noun has no consonant, use '와'. If the noun has a
    consonant, use '과'.
    • 김치와 단무지는 맛있어요. Kimchi and yellow radishes are delicious.
    • 나는 텔레비전과 영화를 보아요. I watch TV and movies.


    (이)나 (or)
    This is for choosing between 2 nouns, pronouns, or adverbs.
    • 맥주나 막걸리를 마셔요. I drink beer or makkoli.
    • 지하철이나 버스를 타요. I ride the subway or the bus.


    ~고 (and)
    This form is for combining 2 or more verb sentences
    • 날마다 나는 한국말을 공부하고 운동해요. Every day I study Korean and exercise.
    • 그 남자가 부산에 갔고 미술관을 방문했어요. That man went to Busan and visited the museum.


    ~거나 (or)
    This form is used for choosing between 2 or more actions.
    • 더우면 나는 수영하거나 PC방에 가요. If it's hot, I swim or go to the PC room.
    • 나는 주말에 운동하거나 공부해요. On the weekend, I exercise or study.
Korean/Postpositions                                                                                                                         38



    Korean/Postpositions
                                                                              [1]
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                                            Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
    Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
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                  Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times


    English often uses prepositions to show the relationship of a noun to the rest of the sentence. Examples are "to
    home", "across the river", "on the street", etc. Like English prepositions, Korean particles are short words that
    describe spacial relationships between objects and designate things like the subject and direct object. Unlike English
    prepositions, though, Korean particles come after the words they modify (hence their alternative name:
    "postpositions").
    Consider the following sentence:
    • Korean: '도서관이 시장 옆에 있어요.'
    • Literally: 'library market next to is.'
    • English: 'The library is next to the market.'
    In Korean, the phrase 옆에 ('next to') is placed after 시장 ('the market').
    Below is a basic list of postpositions and words to describe spatial relationships.
    •   에게 ("to [a person]")
    •   에서 ("from" or "at")
    •   을/를 (direct object)
    •   근처 nearby
    •   멀다 be far from here
    •   가깝다 be near/close
    •   위 above/on
    •   아래 below
    •   앞 in front of
    •   뒤 behind
    •   옆 beside/by/next to
    •   안 inside
    Here are some examples of how to use these postpositions.
    • 새가 지붕 위에 있어요. There's a bird on the roof.
    • 어머니는 주방 안에 있어요. Mother is in the kitchen.
    Postpositions dealing with time
    • 동안 - for
    • 는 동안 - while
    Example sentences
    • 30분동안 잤어요. I slept for 30 minutes.
    • 나는 말하는 동안 영화를 봤어요. I talked while watching a movie.
                                                              [panel   edit [1]]
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Korean/Postpositions                                                                                                                                 39


                                 Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
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                                          5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
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                    Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times




    Korean/Sentence word order
                                                                                  [1]
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                                             Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                                 Conversation
      1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                      Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
              2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                    Grammar




    Introduction
    An important part of being able to understand and speak Korean is that one must have a firm understanding of the
    grammar used to make coherent sentences. During these first few lessons we shall focus on building a useable
    grammar base. In this lesson, we will learn some more useful particles, Present progressive, future tense, and the
    requesting form. We will also learn some new grammar, but it will not be the main focus of this lesson.


    Conversation
    Here we find Joseph meeting 찬호 again.


    Dialogue
           찬호: 앗! 오래간만 입니다, 조세프!
           조세프: 네, 안녕하십니까, 찬호?
           찬호: 네. 저는 지금 학교로 가고 있습니다.
           조세프: 선생님을 만나겠습니까?
           찬호: 아니요, 공부하겠습니다. 조세프는 오늘 숙제를 하겠습니까?
           조세프: 네, 저는 집에서 하겠습니다.
           찬호: 그래요. 안녕히 가십시요.
           조세프: 안녕히 가십시요.
Korean/Sentence word order                                                                                                     40


    Conversation review
    찬호 begins with another greeting:
          찬호: 앗! 오래간만 입니다,                     조세프!
    "오래간만 입니다" can be translated as: "Long time, no see" in English. At first, it's a hard expression to pronounce,
    but a little bit of practice should untie your tongue.
          조세프: 네, 안녕하십니까, 찬호?
          찬호: 네. 저는 지금 학교로 가고 있습니다.

                              네.    저는        지금    학교          로              가           고 있습니다

                             Yes. I (topic)   now   school (to/towards) go (verb stem) (present progressive)


    New vocabulary, new particle, new verb tense. 지금 means “now”. In a later lesson, we will learn many words such
    as "later, tomorrow, yesterday, just a second ago, etc". In the next part, 찬호 uses a new particle with a similar
    meaning to what we learned before: "N + (으)로". This particle means "to", "toward", or "in the direction of". It can
    be interchanged with "에" relatively safely, but "로" with its additional usages, is a little more versatile. If the noun
    ends in a consonant then it becomes "으로" (집으로). Simple.
    Finally, we have a new verb tense: the present progressive tense. It can also be made into a statement or question by
    adding the "VS + ㅂ/습니다" or "VS + ㅂ/습니까" forms. The strange thing about this verb tense is that the
    standard "VS + ㅂ/습니다" can mean the same thing! Remember in lesson 1, Joseph said "집에 갑니다". This could
    have also been said "집에 가고있습니다" or even "집으로 가고 있습니다." It is your choice. Some combinations
    sound more natural to others, but a beginning student doesn't have to be concerned with that. You will eventually get
    the feel of what sounds right.
          조새프: 선생님을 만나겠습니까?
    This might sound funny, but one of the most important things to learn in Korean is not found in this sentence. Where
    is the subject? Is it 선생님 (“teacher”)? No, there is no subject. In Korean, if the subject of the next sentence is
    understood, it can be omitted. This is often found in colloquial English:
          English speaker A: "I'm a little busy."
          English speaker B: "Oh, studying today?"
    However, in Korean, you can omit the subject more freely than English, and sometimes other elements can also be
    omitted, resulting in very short sentences. Well, if 선생님 ("teacher") isn't the subject, what is it? It's the direct
    object!

                                                         선생님            을

                                                          teacher (direct object)


    The particle 을 is used to designate the direct object of the sentence, i.e. the thing or person upon which the action is
    happening. In most textbooks, this is usually denoted as "을/를" because "을" comes after words ending in a
    consonant, and "를" comes after words in a vowel. This particle is omitable, but for the beginner, it's best left in so
    nothing gets confused.
    Now, based on what we have learned so far, one might guess that the verb stem of the verb in this sentence is
    "만나겠다", which is a perfectly logical guess, but wrong. The actual verb stem is "만나다" which means "to meet"
    (as you might have gleaned from the previous paragraph). The "겠습니다" or, more correctly "겠다" is the future
    tense form. For this form, it is unimportant whether the verb stem ends in a consonant or vowel. Simply add "겠" and
    then finish off with "습니다" to speak politely. Easy as 파이, no?
          찬호: 아니요,         공부하겠습니다. 조새프는 오늘 숙제를 하겠습니까?
Korean/Sentence word order                                                                                                  41


                       아니요,          공부하겠습니다.            조새프는            오늘                  숙제를          하겠습니까?

                         No,   (I)    will study.          Joseph        today homework (direct object)    will do?
                                                           (topic)


    This sentence may sound a little strange, but it is nonetheless correct. 공부하다 means "to study", 오늘 means
    "today" and 숙제 means "homework." 하다 will be explained in more detail later, but for now, it means "to do"
    when by itself. Notice the 를 on 숙제? What is he doing? his homework!
          조새프: 네,      저는 집에서 하겠습니다.
                                                네,      저는       집        에서 하겠습니다.

                                               Yes, I (topic) home         (at)         will do.


    Finally, we have another particle, 에서, which is translated "from" or "at". In this case, it functions as "at". Notice
    "Yes, I will do it at home."
          찬호: 그래요.안녕히 가십시요.
          조새프: 안녕히 가십시요.
    그래요 is a polite way of saying "okay." It also means "Yes that's right."


    Korean sentence order
    Korean sentences have a different word order from English. Whereas an English sentence typically has a
    Subject-Verb-Object word order, a Korean sentence typically has a Subject-Object-Verb word order. For sentences
    with only a subject and a verb, Korean and English word order is essentially identical:

                                                         Korean: 철수는 먹는다.

                                                                     subject    verb

                                                         English: Cholsu        eats.

                                                                     subject    verb


    If a sentence includes an object, the English and Korean order differs:
    English: I am reading a book. English: I(subject) am reading(verb) a book(object)
    Korean: 저는 책을 읽고 있습니다. Korean: 저는(subject) 책을(object) 읽고 있습니다(verb).

                                                    Korean: 철수는 사과를 먹는다.

                                                            subject      object     verb

                                                    English: Cholsu      eats       the
                                                                                    apple.

                                                            subject      verb       object
Korean/Sentence word order                                                                                                 42


    Predicates
    A more complete understanding of Korean sentence order requires an understanding of Korean predicates
    (서술부어). As in English, complete Korean sentences must have a predicate that contains a conjugated Korean
    word (용언). Also as in English, Korean verbs (동사) are conjugated and so can be sentence predicates. However,
    with regard to forming sentences, Korean differs from English in two important ways:
    1. Korean sentences do not require subjects (주어), just predicates. (That is, a Korean sentence with only a predicate
       is grammatically complete.)
    2. Korean adjectives (형용사) can be conjugated and used as sentence predicates.
    Korean sentences that include subjects, indirect objects, direct objects, and complements often arrange them in this
    order:

          Korean: Subject (주어) indirect object (간접 목적어) direct object (직접 목적어) complement               predicate
                                                                               (보어)                     (서술부어)

                  철수는          나에게                        사과를                                           준다.

          English: Cholsu      gives                      me                            the apple.

                  Subject      predicate                  indirect object               direct object   complement


    Above is the usual word order in Korean, which is the order most easily understood by native speakers of Korean.
    However, excluding the predicate (the verb), the placement of other words is not entirely relevant to the meaning of
    the sentence. The following arrangements have the same meaning as the above example:

                                       Korean: 나에게          사과를             철수는            준다.

                                             indirect object direct         subject        verb
                                                             object

                                             to me          the apple       Cholsu         gives

                                       Korean: 철수는          사과를             나에게            준다.

                                             subject        direct          indirect object verb
                                                            object

                                             Cholsu         the apple       to me          gives




    Review

    Vocabulary: 어휘
    •   오래간만 입니다 - Long time, no see!
    •   선생님 - Teacher
    •   숙제 - Homework
    •   만나다 - To meet
    •   공부하다 - To study
    •   하다 - To do
    •   지금 - Now
    •   오늘 - Today
Korean/Sentence word order                                                                                                                         43


    Grammar: 문법
    •   VS + 겠다 - Future Tense
    •   VS + 고 있다 - Present Progressive
    •   N + (으)로 - Toward
    •   N + 을/를 - Direct Object Marker
    •   N + 에서 - From, At, Location of Action


    Practice: 연습
    Conjugate the following verbs with the future and present progressive tenses in polite form:
    Add 에서, (으)로, and 을/를 particles to each noun:
    When you are ready, continue on to Korean/Lesson I3.
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
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                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar



    Korean/Comparatives and superlatives
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                                                                    Advanced
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                  Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times



    Introduction
    This chapter talks about how to do comparisons in the Korean language and express superlatives. For those
    unfamiliar with the grammar terms, a superlative term basically expresses whether something is the best, the biggest,
    the tallest, etc.


    Superlatives
    To express a superlative in Korean, a speaker can use either 가장 or 제일 followed by the verb. One example is
    telling someone what your favorite movie is. Thus, to say that your favorite movie is the Matrix, you can say 나는
    Matrix을 제일 좋아해요. This would literally translate to 'I like the Matrix the most.'
Korean/Comparatives and superlatives                                                                                                         44


    Comparatives
    To do a comparison in Korean, a speaker can use '보다 (더)' followed by a verb. Here are some examples.
    • 나는 차보다 커피를 즐겨요. I like coffee better than tea.
    • 나는 수학을 역사보다 좋아해요. I like math better than history.
    If there are 2 objects being compared, the object that that is being compared against is placed right before the 보다.
    So in the examples above, the Korean word for tea, 차, is placed right before the 보다 and the Korean word for
    history, 역사, is put right before the 보다.


    Degree of adjectives
    To form varying degrees of adjectives, prefix an adjective with the adverbs 매우 or 아주:
    • 비싸다: (to be) expensive
    • 매우 비싸다: (to be) very expensive
    • 아주 비싸다: (to be) extremely expensive
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                   Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times




    Korean/Questions
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                  Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times




    Forming questions
    To form questions in high form (존댓말), simply add the ending 습니까? if the verb stem ends in a consonant or
    ㅂ니까? if it ends in a vowel.
    • Example: 당신은 어디로 가고 있습니까? (Where are you going?)
    When forming questions in middle and low form, the questions are implied by a rising final tone, much like in
    English. The ending for middle form is 요? For low form, just leave off any ending and use just the raw verb stem.
    • Example(middle): 당신은 언제 미국에 왔어요? (When did you come to America?)
    • Example(low): 넌 어디 갔다왔어? (Where have you been?)
Korean/Questions                                                                                                                           45


    Interogative pronouns

    무엇
    The interrogative pronoun 무엇 means "what". In speech, it is often contracted to 뭐:
    • 이게 뭐예요?
       What is this?
    • 뭐라고 했어요?
       What did [you] say?
    • 뭐하니?
           What are [you] doing?
    The pronoun 누구 means "who". It contracts before 가 to make 누가.
    The pronoun 어디 means "where".
                                                               [panel   edit [1]]
                                                            Other languages...
                                 Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate •
                                          5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
      Grammar: Sentence word order • Verbs • Nouns • Particles • Personal pronouns • Demonstrative pronouns • Adjectives • Determiners •
                   Conjunctions • Comparatives & superlatives • Forming questions • Forming commands • Forming dates & times




    Korean/Commands
    How to make command form (명령형 [命令形])of verbs
    First, we must specify if we are speaking to someone who is older or higher in position than us, or to someone who is
    younger or lower in position. With children, we may use the less polite (verb stem + 라) form. This form is also used
    when someone is angry or when giving military commands.
    음식을 먹으세요!
    Eat your meal!
    When you are asking someone politely to do something for you, use (verb stem + 어/아 주다) form:
    보여 주세요!
    Please show me.
    주다 literally means "to give," but does not translate directly.
    When we want to talk modestly about ourselves we use the (verb stem + 드리다) form instead. "드리다" also means
    "to give," but is an honorific verb.
    책을 보여 드렸어요
    I have shown the book.
Korean/Dates and times                                                                                    46



    Korean/Dates and times
    In Korean, time is expressed like "Now is...". So one would say "지금은 여섯시 입니다" to express "It is six
    o'clock." The "지금은" means "now is," the "여섯시" means "six o'clock," and the "입니다" means roughly "it
    is/be."


    Dialogue
          지금 몇 시에요?
          What is the time now?
          지금, 7시에요
          It's 7'o clock right now.
          지금, 2시 30분입니다
          It's 2:30 right now.
          지금, 4시 반입니다
          It's 4:30 right now.

    Vocabulary
    • 지금 (只今): now, at present
    • 몇: how many
    • 시 (時): hour
    • 분 (分): minute
    • 반 (半): half [an hour]
                                                                       47




                             Chapter 3-Vocabulary

Korean/Expert Hanja
Introduction
This section introduces hanja terms (words originated from Chinese).


단장
(끓을 단, 창자 장) 슬퍼서 창자가 끊어지는 듯함. (나의 어린 시절은 단장의 아픔으로 얼룩져 있었다.)


심회
(마음 심, 품을 회) 마음속으로 품고 있는 생각. (자식을 전쟁터로 보내야 했던 그의 심회는 어땠을까?)


생경
어린 시절을 시골에서 보낸 터라 서울 생활이 생경했다.


사숙
참고할 만한 책도 거의 없었고 사숙할 작가 역시 전무했다.


신산
작품 속의 유년은 행복했지만 실제 자신의 삶은 신산했다.


야료
나를 떨어뜨리기 위해 누가 야료을/를 부린 것이 틀림없다.


편벽
편벽되지 않고 균형 잡힌 시선으로 세상을 바라보아라.


난맥
고질적인 문제점이던 지휘 체계의 난맥이/가 개선되었다.


맹아
그 무렵부터 자본주의의 맹아이/가 서서히 싹트기 시작했다.
Korean/Expert Hanja                                                     48


    실기
    상황을 제대로 파악하지 못해 실기하는 어리석음을 범했다.


    경도
    (기울 경, 넘어질 도) 한동안 사이가 격조했다.


    계제
    이것저것 따질 계제가 아니다.


    고양
    직원들의 사기가 고양되다.


    관조
    차분히 관조하는 자세.


    갈파
    喝破 1. 큰소리로 꾸짖어 누름. 2. 남의 언론을 설파함. 3. 사설(邪說)을 무너뜨리고 진리를 밝힘.


    산출
    算出 계산을 해 냄. ¶ 원가를 〜하다/ 미터를 보고 주행 거리를 〜한다/ 이윤이 〜되다.


    국한
    局限 어떤 부분에만 한정함. 문제의 범위를 〜시키다/ 본교 출신자로 〜하다/ 대기 오염은 그 지방에 〜된 문제가
    아니다.


    자조
    自照 자기 자신을 관찰・반성함.


    본령
    本領 1. 본래의 영지(領地). 2. 가장 본질적이고 근본적인 면. ¶ 문학의 〜. 3. 근본이 되는 강령이나 특질.
Korean/Expert                                                               49



    Korean/Expert
    Introduction
    This section is for advanced learners with an expert level of Korean.


    각다분하다
    tiresome: 일을 해 나가기가 고되고 힘들다 (하루 종일 운전하려니 각다분하다.)


    구성지다
    graceful: 천연스럽고 구수하며 멋지다 (할아버지의 구성진 노랫가락을 들어 봐라.)


    초름하다
    insufficient: 충분하지 못하거나 조금 부족하다 (여비가 좀 초름하니까 아껴 쓰자.)


    어금버금하다
    hardly different: 서로 엇비슷해서 차이가 별로 없다 (우리는 어금버금한 실력이다.)


    가직하다
    near: 거리가 조금 가깝다 (멀리 가지 말고 가직한 곳에서 놀아라.)


    다붓하다
    close: 사이가 멀지 않다, 조용하고 호젓하다 (다붓하게 떨어져 있다.)


    덧거칠다
    go wrong: 일이 잘못되어 가다 (아무리 애를 써 봐도 사업은 덧거칠어만 갔다.)


    간동하다
    잘 정돈되어 홀가분하다 (방을 간동하게 정리했다.)


    덜퍽지다
    매우 넉넉하고 탐스럽다 (소쿠리에 귤을 덜퍽지게 담아 왔다.)
Korean/Expert                                                      50


    시뜻하다
    탐탁하지 않거나 싫증이 난 듯하다 (시뜻한 표정으로 상을 물리었다.)


    가무리다
    몰래 감춰 두다, 몰래 혼자 차지하다 (문갑에 가무려 둔 통장을 꺼냈다.)


    잡도리하다
    일이 어긋나지 않도록 단속하다 (기밀이 새지 않도록 잡도리했다.)


    그들먹히다
    거의 그득하다 (물통에 물이 그들먹하게 찼다)


    숙수그레하다
    여러 개의 크기가 고르다 (정원에 심은 묘목들이 숙수그레하다.)


    암팡지다
    체구는 작아도 야무지고 당차다 (내 동생은 초등학생이지만 참 암팡지다.)


    우두망찰하다
    갑자기 일을 당해 정신없이 어쩔 줄 몰라 하다 (엄마는 그런 상태에서 느끼는 어떤 위기의식과
    이웃으로부터의 따돌림으로 늘 우두망찰한 표정을 짓고 있을 뿐, 이래라저래라 자기 의견을 말하지 않았다.)


    가탈
    이리저리 트집을 잡아 까다롭게 구는 일 (페루 음식에 대한 심한 가탈로 석철은 쿠즈코에서 쫓겨났다.)


    깜냥
    스스로 일을 판단할 수 있는 능력 (제 깜냥엔, 외무고시 1차를 통과한 자신이 자랑스러웠다.)


    달포
    한 달이 약간 넘는 기간 (그 후 석철은 거의 달포나 MSN에 로스인 하지 않았다.)


    선잠
    깊이 들지 못하고 살짝 드는 잠. (시험을 앞두고 긴장을 한 탓인지 간밤에는 내내 선잠만 잤다.)


    헤살
    짓궂게 남의 일을 방해함. 또는 그런 짓. (여교수는 석철이 하는 일마다 짓‚œ게 헤살을 놓았다.)


    고갱이
    식물 줄기의 가운데 위치한 연한 부분, 사물의 핵심이 되는 부분 (한 민족의 문화와 정신을 이해하는 고갱이는
    말이다.)
Korean/Expert                                                     51


    어깃장
    일부러 다른 사람의 일이 어긋나도록 하는 말이나 행동 (순순히 협조하는 것 같더니 차츰 어깃장을 놓기
    시작했다.)


    화수분
    재물이 계속해서 쏟아져 나오는 보물단지. (넌 내가 무슨 화수분인 줄 아니? 어째 나만 보면 돈 얘기냐!)


    생때같다
    통 병이 없을 정도로 몸이 튼튼하고 건강하다. (생때같던 사람이 하룻밤 사이에 갑자스럽게 세상을 세상을 떠
    버렸다.)


    속절없다
    단념하는 것 외에는 달리 마땅한 방법이 없다. (아무리 기다려도 그녀는 어지 않고, 나는 속절없이 담배만
    피워 댔다.)


    수더분하다
    성질이 까다롭지 않고 순하고 소박하다. (모름지기 사람이란 수더분하고 어수룩한 맛이 있어야 한다.)


    애달프다
    마음이 쓰리거나 몹시 안타깝다. (남편을 지척에 두고 만나지 못하는 애달픈 마음이야 오죽하겠는가.)


    올곧다
    정신 상태나 마음이 올바르고 곧다. 줄이 바르다. (한평생을 한눈팔지 않고 자기의 길만을 올곧게 걸어온
    사람이다.)


    옹골지다
    속이 꽉 차 있어서 실속이 있다. (겉으로 자리 보여도 살림 하나는 옹골지게 잘하는 여편네다.)


    하릴없다
    달리 어쩔 도리가 없다. 조금도 틀림이 없다. (비를 맞으며 문 앞에 쭈그리고 있는 그의 모습은 하릴없는
    거지였다.)


    여북
    얼마나, 오죽의 뜻을 나타내며, 언짢거나 안타까움을 드러냄 (아, 여북 답답했으면 내가 이러겠어?)


    적이
    약간, 얼마간 (적이 안심이 되는 한편 더욱 더 착잡해지고 하는 듯한 두 개의 얼국이 수시로 변덕을 부리며
    엇갈리고 있었다.)
Korean/Expert                                                    52


    짐짓
    마음은 그렇지 않으면서 일부러 (그것이 사랑에서 즐겨 찾는 국거리인 줄 번연히 알면서도 짐짓 그렇게 묻는
    거였다.)


    되우
    매우 몹시 (누나는 이 말에 되우 놀라며 눈을 말똥말똥 떴다.)


    무릇
    대체적으로 보아 (부모가 물려주는 거만의 유산은 무릇 불행을 낳기 쉽다.)


    섬뻑
    어떤 일이 행해진 뒤 곧바로 (혹시 내가 말을 너무 까다롭게 내기 때문에 섬뻑 대답이 안 나왔거나
    그랬겠지요.)


    얼추
    대충, 대강 (일이 얼추 끝나 가는 것 같군.)


    좀체
    여간해서, 쉽사리 (그는 좀체 입을 열지 않는 성격이다.)


    길래
    오래도록 (계양산에 가서 길래 계실 터인가요?)


    노상
    늘 같은 모양으로 (김 장자는 자나 깨나 노상 그 아들로 하여 은근히 걱정 중이겠다.)


    사뭇
    거리낌 없이 전혀 딴판으로 사무칠 정도로 몹시, 줄곧 (그의 기분은 아까 오전과는 사뭇 달라 보였다.)
Korean/Expert                                                     53


    자못
    생각보다 훨씬 더 (마을 친척들도 명식의 경솔한 언도이 자못 불쾌한 모양이었다.)


    잼처
    어떤 일에 바로 뒤이어 거듭. (어해가 어리둥절하고 미처 대답 못하는 것을 보고 그 여자는 잼처 묻는다.)


    객쩍다
    언행이나 생각이 쓸데없고 싱겁다 (객쩍은 소리 그만 두어요. 그따위 실업는 소리를 할 때가 아니에요.)


    발자하다
    성미가 급하다 (발자하게 새새거리며 날뛰는 겨애보다 은근하고 깊이가 있어 보여서)


    살핏하다
    짜거나 엮은 것이 다소 거칠고 성기다


    해사하다
    낯빛이 희고 말쑥하다 (해사하게 생긴 그 얼굴 모습과 같이 명쾌한 가운데도 안존하고 순편한 편이요.)


    괄괄하다
    성격이 드세고 급하다 (성미가 괄괄하고 입심이 좋기 때문에 양반의 글방에를 다닐 때도 누구한테나 결코
    만만하게는 보이지 않았다.)


    애잔하다
    가날프고 약하다, 몹시 애틋하고 애처롭다 (대불이는 마음속으로 형님도 벌써 늙었구나 하고 생각하면서
    애잔한 눈빛으로 마주 보았다.)


    음전하다
    얌전하고 우아하다 (금개의 말하는 태도는 그대로 음전하고 순박했다.)


    데데하다
    몹시 볍변치 못하여 보잘것없다 (그렇게 데데한 남자를 얻다 써먹어.)


    머쓱하다
    무안을 당해 어색하고 열없다 (사내가 물러가자 나는 오히려 머쓱한 기분이 들었다.)


    추레하다
    겉모습이 보잘것없고 궁상스럽다 (달수의 그런 추레한 꼴을 본 사람들은 경멸에 앞서 동정을 보냈다.)


    곰살스럽다
    얼굴 따위가 얌전하고 고와 보이다 (그녀의 목소리는 곱살스러웠다.)
Korean/Expert                                                   54


    데퉁스럽다
    언행이 거칠고 엉뚱하여 미련스러운 데가 있다 (데퉁스럽게 대답했다.)


    든적스럽다
    행동에 치사하고 더러운 데가 있다 (두 어른께서 날 홀대하고 수치스럽고 든적스럽게 여기신다 한들 딴
    도리가 없습니다.)


    영절스럽다
    보기에 아주 그럴듯하다 (그 화가는 도시의 전경을 영절스럽게 묘사하였다.)


    갸웃하다
    무엇을 이상하게 여기며 머리나 몸을 한쪽으로 비스듬히 기울이다 (그녀는 한패를 돌아다모면서 고개를
    갸웃했다.)


    도두보다
    실제보다 좋게 보다 (제 것이면 도두보고 남의 것은 깔보려 하는 것이 인간의 숙명적인 성격인가 보다.)


    바루다
    안절부절못하다 (잘못된 것을 바루었다.)
                                                                                                                                                55




                   Chapter 4- Conversation Level I

Korean/Lesson I1
                                                                             [1]
                                                               [panel edit      ]
                                                              Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                            Conversation
 1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                 Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
         2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                               Grammar




Korean Conversation, Level I, Lesson 1: Greetings
Welcome to the first conversation lesson for learning Korean. By now you should be familiar with hangeul (the
Korean writing system) and how to form syllables. If you are not yet familiar with hangeul, see Korean/Alphabet. It
is highly recommended that you know these basics before you embark on learning how to make sentences and
commencing dialogue.
In this first section, we will introduce basic Korean sentence structure, basic vocabulary, and greetings in Korean.
      시작할까요?
      (Shall we start?)


Dialogue
The simple dialogue below is between Korean native 찬호 and Joseph (조세프) from America. Joseph is interested
in Korean culture and language, and was able to meet 찬호 through a program in his school. Here, they meet for the
first time:
      찬호: 안녕하십니까,  조세프 씨?
      조세프: 네. 안녕하십니까, 찬호 씨?
      찬호: 만나서 반갑습니다.
      조세프: 저도요. 저는 집에 갑니다.
      찬호: 네. 안녕히 가십시오.
      조세프: 안녕히 계십시오.
Korean/Lesson I1                                                                                                              56


    Overview
    The conversation began with 찬호 asking this:
          찬호: 안녕하십니까,               조세프 씨?
    Here, we learn our first bit of Korean. "안녕하십니까?" is a common formal greeting in Korean. It literally means
    "Are you at peace?". "씨" is a title which means "Mr". Joseph replied like this:
          조세프: 네.      안녕하십니까, 찬호 씨?
    "네" means "yes". Then Joseph asked 찬호 the same question. Typically, the response to "안녕하십니까?" is "네",
    but it is not necessary to respond that way, as we learn from 찬호's response:
          찬호: 만나서 반갑습니다.
    "만나서 반갑습니다" means "Nice to meet you." This can also be shortened to "반갑습니다", but since 찬호 and
    Joseph have first met, it is best to be as polite as possible. "만나서" means "because we've met".
          조세프: 저도요.          저는 집에 갑니다.
    Here, we learn some important things about making a Korean sentence. "저" means "I," and "저도요" means "Me
    too". Then Joseph says: "저는 집에 갑니다." This means "I go home." We'll dissect this sentence more in just a
    moment. First, let us finish analyzing the conversation:
          찬호: 네.안녕히 가십시오.
          조세프: 안녕히 계십시오.
    Look carefully at how each says "Good bye" to each other. 찬호 says "안녕히 가십시오" while Joseph says
    "안녕히 계십시오" Why do their replies differ from each other? Well, Joseph is leaving, while it is assumed that
    찬호 is staying. So, 찬호 tells Joseph to "Go in peace" (like spock!) and Joseph tells 찬호 to "Stay in peace." It may
    sound funny, but that's how it works in Korea. Remember these two carefully and try not to mix them up!


    Grammar: "I go home."
    The short sentence 저는 집에 갑니다 ("I go home.") reveals a great deal of usable grammar:

                                             저     는       집        에        갑니다 .

                                              I   (topic) house (location)    go   .


    Let's discuss 는, 에, and 갑니다. As mentioned above, 저 means "I". In Korean, "는" marks the primary topic of a
    sentence. Joseph is talking primarily about himself, so he says "저는". Note that if the primary topic ends in a
    consonant, "는" changes to "은" so it's easier to pronounce. So, if Joseph wanted to talk primarily about his house
    (집) instead himself, he would say "집은".
    "에" is in a similar class of elements (called "particles"), but it marks the location, such as "to school (학교에), to the
    bathroom (화장실에)," and so forth. However, if Joseph wanted to say "to me", he would say "저에게", not "저에."
    The difference is that "에" means "to that thing or place" and "에게" (the dative particle) means "to that person."
    This is an important distinction to remember, but even if you make a mistake, a Korean will probably still
    understand.
    Finally, we see the verb, "갑니다." Now, if you were to look up "go" in a Korean dictionary, it would probably say
    "가다." This is the verb's unconjugated dictionary or "base" form. "가" is the actual root of the verb, or "Verb Stem"
    (VS). When we put the verb into a Korean sentence, it must be conjugated. The standard, polite statement
    conjugation in Korean is {VS + ㅂ/습니다}. What does this mean? This means we take the verb stem (가) and add
    "ㅂ니다" if the stem ends in a vowel and "습니다" if the verb stem ends in a consonant. In this case, "가" ends in a
    vowel, so we slip the ㅂ under it (갑) and add "니다" = "갑니다". If the verb was "먹다 (to eat)" then we would add
    "습니다" because the verbstem ends in a consonant (먹). Thus, we have "먹습니다." A special thing to remember
    about this is, when conjugated, the verb is actually pronounced "감니다" like there's a ㅁ on the bottom. This is
Korean/Lesson I1                                                                                                                                   57


    because of a special pronunciation rule called "nasalization" which we won't discuss here, but keep it in mind.
    In order to make a question, the form is {VS + ㅂ/습니까}. An astute student would see something like that in
    "안녕하십니까", which is actually a question. So, if 찬호 wanted to ask "Do you go (are you going)?" he would ask
    "갑니까?" (Remember pronunciation: "감니까"). Armed with this information, we can now make a statement or a
    question with almost any verb.


    Review

    Vocabulary: 어휘
    •   안녕하십니까? - a formal greeting
    •   (만나서) 반갑습니다 - "Nice to meet you."
    •   안녕히 가십시오 - "Good bye" (to someone who is leaving)
    •   안녕히 계십시오 - "Good bye" (to someone who is staying)
    •   네 - "yes"
    •   아니요 - "no"
    •   저 - "I"
    •   집 - "house"
    • 학교 - "school"
    • 가다 - "to go"
    • 먹다 - "to eat"


    Grammar: 문법
    •   VS + ㅂ니까 - Question, use when VS ends in vowel (e.g.: 가 -> 갑니까)
    •   VS + 습니까 - Question, use when VS ends in consonant (e.g.: 먹 -> 먹습니까)
    •   VS + ㅂ니다 - Statement, when VS ends in vowel (e.g.: 가 -> 갑니다)
    •   VS + 습니다 - Statement, when VS ends in consonant (e.g.: 먹 -> 먹습니다)
    •   N + 은/는 - Topic particle
    •   N + 에 - Location particle (to that thing/place)
    •   N + 에게 - Dative particle (to that person)


    Practice: 연습
    Conjugate the following verbs into statement form (VS + ㅂ/습니다) and question form (VS + ㅂ/습니까?). Click
    "▼" to check your answers:
    Determine whether the topic marker should be "은" or "는":
    Determine whether the particle should be "에" or "에게":
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar
Korean/Lesson I2                                                                                                                                     58



    Korean/Lesson I2
                                                                                  [1]
                                                                    [panel edit      ]
                                                                   Other languages...
                                             Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                                 Conversation
      1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                      Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
              2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                    Grammar




    Introduction
    An important part of being able to understand and speak Korean is that one must have a firm understanding of the
    grammar used to make coherent sentences. During these first few lessons we shall focus on building a useable
    grammar base. In this lesson, we will learn some more useful particles, Present progressive, future tense, and the
    requesting form. We will also learn some new grammar, but it will not be the main focus of this lesson.


    Conversation
    Here we find Joseph meeting 찬호 again.


    Dialogue
           찬호: 앗! 오래간만 입니다, 조세프!
           조세프: 네, 안녕하십니까, 찬호?
           찬호: 네. 저는 지금 학교로 가고 있습니다.
           조세프: 선생님을 만나겠습니까?
           찬호: 아니요, 공부하겠습니다. 조세프는 오늘 숙제를 하겠습니까?
           조세프: 네, 저는 집에서 하겠습니다.
           찬호: 그래요. 안녕히 가십시요.
           조세프: 안녕히 가십시요.


    Conversation review
    찬호 begins with another greeting:
           찬호: 앗! 오래간만 입니다,                          조세프!
    "오래간만 입니다" can be translated as: "Long time, no see" in English. At first, it's a hard expression to pronounce,
    but a little bit of practice should untie your tongue.
           조세프: 네, 안녕하십니까, 찬호?
           찬호: 네. 저는 지금 학교로 가고 있습니다.

                                   네.     저는       지금     학교           로                 가          고 있습니다

                                  Yes. I (topic)   now    school (to/towards) go (verb stem) (present progressive)


    New vocabulary, new particle, new verb tense. 지금 means “now”. In a later lesson, we will learn many words such
    as "later, tomorrow, yesterday, just a second ago, etc". In the next part, 찬호 uses a new particle with a similar
Korean/Lesson I2                                                                                                               59


    meaning to what we learned before: "N + (으)로". This particle means "to", "toward", or "in the direction of". It can
    be interchanged with "에" relatively safely, but "로" with its additional usages, is a little more versatile. If the noun
    ends in a consonant then it becomes "으로" (집으로). Simple.
    Finally, we have a new verb tense: the present progressive tense. It can also be made into a statement or question by
    adding the "VS + ㅂ/습니다" or "VS + ㅂ/습니까" forms. The strange thing about this verb tense is that the
    standard "VS + ㅂ/습니다" can mean the same thing! Remember in lesson 1, Joseph said "집에 갑니다". This could
    have also been said "집에 가고있습니다" or even "집으로 가고 있습니다." It is your choice. Some combinations
    sound more natural to others, but a beginning student doesn't have to be concerned with that. You will eventually get
    the feel of what sounds right.
          조새프: 선생님을 만나겠습니까?
    This might sound funny, but one of the most important things to learn in Korean is not found in this sentence. Where
    is the subject? Is it 선생님 (“teacher”)? No, there is no subject. In Korean, if the subject of the next sentence is
    understood, it can be omitted. This is often found in colloquial English:
          English speaker A: "I'm a little busy."
          English speaker B: "Oh, studying today?"
    However, in Korean, you can omit the subject more freely than English, and sometimes other elements can also be
    omitted, resulting in very short sentences. Well, if 선생님 ("teacher") isn't the subject, what is it? It's the direct
    object!

                                                        선생님            을

                                                        teacher (direct object)


    The particle 을 is used to designate the direct object of the sentence, i.e. the thing or person upon which the action is
    happening. In most textbooks, this is usually denoted as "을/를" because "을" comes after words ending in a
    consonant, and "를" comes after words in a vowel. This particle is omitable, but for the beginner, it's best left in so
    nothing gets confused.
    Now, based on what we have learned so far, one might guess that the verb stem of the verb in this sentence is
    "만나겠다", which is a perfectly logical guess, but wrong. The actual verb stem is "만나다" which means "to meet"
    (as you might have gleaned from the previous paragraph). The "겠습니다" or, more correctly "겠다" is the future
    tense form. For this form, it is unimportant whether the verb stem ends in a consonant or vowel. Simply add "겠" and
    then finish off with "습니다" to speak politely. Easy as 파이, no?
          찬호: 아니요,         공부하겠습니다. 조새프는 오늘 숙제를 하겠습니까?
                       아니요,          공부하겠습니다.         조새프는           오늘                숙제를            하겠습니까?

                         No,   (I)    will study.       Joseph       today homework (direct object)    will do?
                                                        (topic)


    This sentence may sound a little strange, but it is nonetheless correct. 공부하다 means "to study", 오늘 means
    "today" and 숙제 means "homework." 하다 will be explained in more detail later, but for now, it means "to do"
    when by itself. Notice the 를 on 숙제? What is he doing? his homework!
          조새프: 네,      저는 집에서 하겠습니다.
                                                네,   저는       집      에서 하겠습니다.

                                               Yes, I (topic) home    (at)        will do.


    Finally, we have another particle, 에서, which is translated "from" or "at". In this case, it functions as "at". Notice
    "Yes, I will do it at home."
Korean/Lesson I2                                                                                                           60


          찬호: 그래요.안녕히 가십시요.
          조새프: 안녕히 가십시요.
    그래요 is a polite way of saying "okay." It also means "Yes that's right."


    Korean sentence order
    Korean sentences have a different word order from English. Whereas an English sentence typically has a
    Subject-Verb-Object word order, a Korean sentence typically has a Subject-Object-Verb word order. For sentences
    with only a subject and a verb, Korean and English word order is essentially identical:

                                                    Korean: 철수는 먹는다.

                                                            subject     verb

                                                    English: Cholsu     eats.

                                                            subject     verb


    If a sentence includes an object, the English and Korean order differs:
    English: I am reading a book. English: I(subject) am reading(verb) a book(object)
    Korean: 저는 책을 읽고 있습니다. Korean: 저는(subject) 책을(object) 읽고 있습니다(verb).

                                               Korean: 철수는 사과를 먹는다.

                                                       subject   object     verb

                                               English: Cholsu   eats       the
                                                                            apple.

                                                       subject   verb       object



    Predicates
    A more complete understanding of Korean sentence order requires an understanding of Korean predicates
    (서술부어). As in English, complete Korean sentences must have a predicate that contains a conjugated Korean
    word (용언). Also as in English, Korean verbs (동사) are conjugated and so can be sentence predicates. However,
    with regard to forming sentences, Korean differs from English in two important ways:
    1. Korean sentences do not require subjects (주어), just predicates. (That is, a Korean sentence with only a predicate
       is grammatically complete.)
    2. Korean adjectives (형용사) can be conjugated and used as sentence predicates.
    Korean sentences that include subjects, indirect objects, direct objects, and complements often arrange them in this
    order:
Korean/Lesson I2                                                                                                           61


          Korean: Subject (주어) indirect object (간접 목적어) direct object (직접 목적어) complement               predicate
                                                                               (보어)                     (서술부어)

                   철수는         나에게                        사과를                                           준다.

          English: Cholsu      gives                      me                            the apple.

                   Subject     predicate                  indirect object               direct object   complement


    Above is the usual word order in Korean, which is the order most easily understood by native speakers of Korean.
    However, excluding the predicate (the verb), the placement of other words is not entirely relevant to the meaning of
    the sentence. The following arrangements have the same meaning as the above example:

                                       Korean: 나에게          사과를             철수는            준다.

                                             indirect object direct         subject        verb
                                                             object

                                             to me          the apple       Cholsu         gives

                                       Korean: 철수는          사과를             나에게            준다.

                                             subject        direct          indirect object verb
                                                            object

                                             Cholsu         the apple       to me          gives




    Review

    Vocabulary: 어휘
    •   오래간만 입니다 - Long time, no see!
    •   선생님 - Teacher
    •   숙제 - Homework
    •   만나다 - To meet
    •   공부하다 - To study
    •   하다 - To do
    •   지금 - Now
    •   오늘 - Today


    Grammar: 문법
    •   VS + 겠다 - Future Tense
    •   VS + 고 있다 - Present Progressive
    •   N + (으)로 - Toward
    •   N + 을/를 - Direct Object Marker
    •   N + 에서 - From, At, Location of Action
Korean/Lesson I2                                                                                                                                     62


    Practice: 연습
    Conjugate the following verbs with the future and present progressive tenses in polite form:
    Add 에서, (으)로, and 을/를 particles to each noun:
    When you are ready, continue on to Korean/Lesson I3.
                                                                   [panel   edit [1]]
                                                                Other languages...
                                         Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                           Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                         Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
       2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                  Advanced
                                                   Grammar



    Korean/Lesson I3
                                                                                  [1]
                                                                    [panel edit      ]
                                                                   Other languages...
                                             Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                                 Conversation
      1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                      Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
              2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                    Grammar




    "And" and "And?" "Or" or "Or"?
    One thing that varies in korean is that there is a difference between an “and” for a verb and an “and” for a noun. In
    this lesson, we will learn these ands, ors, and buts. It just so happens that today 찬호 is introducing his friends to
    Joseph, so this is a perfect opportunity to use these forms! (Don't feel overwhelmed, there's only 3 ways to say each!)
           찬호: 오늘 저는 조세프에게 친구들을 소개하겠습니다.
           조세프: 오케이! 기대합니다!
           찬호: 저 친구들은 "연희"와 "가영"입니다.
           저세프: 만나서 반갑습니다!
           연희와 가영: 반갑습니다.
           연희: 조세프는 미국에서 왔고 한국말을 공부하고 있습니까?
           조세프: 네,그래요.
           가영: 와우! 고생 많네요! 한식을 좋아합니까?
           조세프: 양식이나 한식 둘 다 좋아합니다. 하지만, 한국에서 양식을 먹지 않습니다.
           가영: 그렇군요... 학교에 걸어갑니까? 아니면 버스를 탑니까?
           찬호: 집에서 버스를 타지 못합니다. 걸어가거나 뛰어갑니다. 하하하!
    The above example has several new forms in it because of the differentiation between noun "and/or" & verb
    "and/or". We'll look at the examples and pick out new vocabulary, and then discuss new grammar separately.
Korean/Lesson I3                                                                                                         63


          찬호: 오늘 저는 조세프에게 친구들을 소개하겠습니다.
          조세프: 오케이! 기대합니다!
    소개하다 means "to introduce." It's used really often when talking about friends and people you know, but it can
    also be used to refer to something like "introducing information." Following that, 기대하다 means "to await
    expectedly or excitedly." This can also be said 기대되다, which sometimes sounds more natural.
          찬호: 저 친구들은 "연희"와 "가영"입니다.
    Here we meet the noun connective particle 와 (“and”) and its alternative 과, used after vowels. More information can
    be learned about this in the following section, but it's use is fairly straight forward.
          찬호: 만나서 반갑습니다!
          연희와 가영: 반갑습니다.
    Nothing new here.
    연희: 조세프는 미국에서 오고 한국말을 공부하고 있습니까? 조세프: 네,                                                그래요.
    오다 means “to come” but the connective verb suffix -고 (“and”) is connected to it. 에서 in this case means “from”.
    (So keep track! You now know it means “from” or “at”.) Finally, Joseph responds with 그래요 (“that’s right”).
          가영: 와! 고생 많네요!             한식을 좋아합니까?
          조세프: 양식이나 한식 둘 다 좋아합니다.                           하지만, 한국에서는 양식을 먹지 않습니다.
    가영 uses a phrase that is often heard in Korea: "고생 많다." This means "you have lots of struggles," but is used
    sort of like "must be difficult," a sort of compliment for the listener who might be going through hard times. The
    ending on this is "VS+군요" Which is a sort of exclamatory form. This will also be discussed in the next section.
    "한식" means "Korean food," a sort of contraction of "한국 음식," and "양식" is "Western food." Can you guess the
    contraction for this one?
    Joseph links the two with "N+(이)나" which is "or" for nouns. The verb form is "VS+거나" (discussed later, of
    course). "둘 다" means "both" Afterwards, Joseph uses the stand alone word "하지만," meaning "however" or "but."
    The verb form of this is "VS+지만." It's simplicity doesn't merit any further discussion.
                    학교에 걸어갑니까? 아니면 버스를 탑니까?
          가영: 그렇군요...
          찬호: 집에서 버스를 타지 못합니다. 걸어가거나 뛰어갑니다. 하하하!
Korean/Lesson I4                                                                                                                          64



    Korean/Lesson I4
    <<Lesson 3]] | '''Lesson 4''' | [[Korean/Lesson I5|Lesson 5>>


    Colors
    As well as having two sets of numbers, Korean also uses two sets of colors, one being the native Korean set, the
    other being derived from Chinese characters hanja 한자 (漢字).


    Native Korean set
    Various like dozens of Korean words represent similar colors but express the different impression of colors. The
    following Korean words about color are the most neutral and normal words.
    Korean colors may be followed by native word, bit 빛 or bitkkal 빛깔, or followed by saek 색 (色) which is derived
    from Chinese characters. Each word means color.

        Name                 Adjective        Translation Notes

        ppalgang 빨강          ppalgan 빨간       red

        parang 파랑            paran 파란         blue

        borasaek 보라색         purple

        chorok(pulbit) 초록(풀빛) pureun 푸른       green        The adjectives for blue may be used with green. Pulbit 풀빛 means grass-light.

        norang 노랑            noran 노란         yellow

        hayang 하양            hayan 하얀, hin    white
                             흰

        geomjeong 검정         geomeun 검은       black


    •    ppal gan ib sool 빨간 입술 red lips
    •    pa ran ha neul 파란 하늘 blue sky
    •    pu reun cho won 푸른 초원 green grassland
    •    no ran byeong a ri 노란 병아리 yellow chick
    •    hin nun(hin noon) 흰 눈 white snow
    •    geom eun nun dong ja 검은 눈동자 black pupil


    Chinese character set

                                                jeok, hong 적 (赤), 홍 (紅) red

                                                cheong      청 (靑)            blue

                                                nok         녹 (綠)            green

                                                hwang       황 (黃)            yellow

                                                ju hwang    주황 (硃黃)          orange

                                                nam         남 (藍)            navy

                                                ja ju       자주 (紫硃)          purple

                                                hwe         회 (灰)            gray

                                                baek        백 (白)            white

                                                heuk        흑 (黑)            black
Korean/Lesson I4                                                                                                                                   65


    •   baek in 백인 (白人) white person
    •   heuk in 흑인 (黑人) black person
    •   heuk baek pilleum 흑백필름 (黑白 film) black & white film
    •   jeok saek s(h)in ho 적색신호 (赤色信號) red light signal
    •   cheong ba ji 청바지(靑바지) blue jeans
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar



    Korean/Lesson I5
    <<Lesson 4]] | '''Lesson 5''' | [[Korean/Lesson I6|Lesson 6>>


    Vocabulary
    •   Taxi 택시
    •   Hour 시간
    •   Minute 분
    •   Won (Korean currency) 원
    •   Around, About ~ 정도


    Conversation
    Joie: 강남역까지 가고 싶습니다. / I want to go to Kang-nam station
    Taxi driver: 네 강남역까지 가겠습니다. / Yes I will drive to Kang-nam station
    Joie: (거리가) 얼마나 걸립니까? / How long does it take?
    Taxi driver: 20분 정도 걸립니다. / It takes around 20 minutes
    Joie: 얼마입니까? / How much is it?
    Taxi driver: 5000원 입니다. / It is 5000 wons
    Joie: 감사합니다. / Thank you
    •   How far is it there? (거리가) 얼마나 멉니까?
    •   How long does it take? (거리가) 얼마나 걸립니까?
    •   Turn left 왼쪽으로 돌으십시오.
    •   Turn right 오른쪽으로 돌으십시오.
    •   Go straight 직진 하십시오.
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
Korean/Lesson I5                                                                                                                                   66


    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar



    Korean/Lesson I6
    <<Lesson 5]] | '''Lesson 6''' | [[Korean/Lesson I7|Lesson 7>>


    Vocabulary
    •   할아버지 Grandfather
    •   할아버님 Grandfather (formal)
    •   할머니 Grandmother
    •   할머님 Grandmother (formal)
    • 아버지 Father (formal)
    •   아버님 Father (very formal)
    •   아빠 Father (informal)
    •   어머니 Mother (formal)
    •   어머님 Mother (very formal)
    •   엄마 Mother (informal)
    •   형 Elder brother (of a male)
    •   누나 Elder sister (of a male)
    •   오빠 Elder brother (of a female)
    •   언니 Elder sister (of a female)
    • 남동생 Younger brother
    • 여동생 Younger sister
    • 동생 Younger sibling
    • 성함 Name (formal)
    • 이름 Name (Informal)
    1) 님 words such as 아버님, 어머님 are very formal.


    Conversation
    Kim: 안녕하세요.
    John: 안녕하세요.
    Kim: 성함이 어떻게 되세요?
    John: John이에요. 저는 선생님에요. 그쪽은 성함이 어떻게 되시나요?
    Kim: 김이에요.
    John: 만나서 반갑습니다.
    Kim: 미국 사람이세요?
    John: 네, 미국에서 왔어요.
    Kim: 가족은 몇 분이세요?
Korean/Lesson I6                                                                                                                                   67


    John: 다섯 명 있어요. 형과 여동생이 있어요. 형은 의사예요. 여동생은 대학생이에요. 김씨는 형제분이
    계시나요?
    Kim: 없어요. 저희 다시 뵈요.
    John: 안녕히 가세요.


    Translation
    Kim: Hello.
    John: Hello.
    Kim: What's your name.
    John: I'm John. I'm a teacher. What's your name?
    Kim: I'm Kim.
    John: Nice to meet you.
    Kim: Are you American?
    John: Yes, I came from America.
    Kim: How many people are in your family?
    John: There are 5 people. I have an older brother and a younger sister. My brother is a doctor. My sister is a
    University student. Do you have siblings?
    Kim: I don't. Let's meet again.
    John: Good Bye.
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
       2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                  Advanced
                                                   Grammar
Korean/Lesson I7                                                                                                                                       68



    Korean/Lesson I7
    Vocabulary
    • bathroom 화장실(化粧室)
    • kitchen 부엌
    •    bedroom 침실(寢室)
    •    living room 거실(居室)
    •    garden 정원(庭園)
    •    garage 차고(車庫)

                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                     Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                                   Conversation
        1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
                2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                      Grammar




    Korean/Lesson I8
    Using the Telephone
    • 여보세요? Yeoboseyo? Hello?
    • John 계십니까? John gyesimnikka? Is John there?
    • 누구십니까? Nugusipnikka? Who's calling?

                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                     Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                                   Conversation
        1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
                2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                      Grammar
Korean/Lesson I9                                                                                                                                   69



    Korean/Lesson I9
    <<Lesson 8]] | '''Lesson 9''' | [[Korean/Lesson I10|Lesson 10>>

    •   Kindergarten 유치원 (yu chi won)
    •   Elementary school 초등학교 (cho deng hak gyo)
    •   Middle school 중 학 교 (jung hak gyo)
    •   High school 고등학교 (go deng hak gyo)
    •   University 대 학 교 (dae hak gyo)
    •   Graduate School 대 학 원 (dae hak won)
    •   Major 전 공 (jeon gong)
    •   Minor 부 전 공 (bu jeon gong)
    •   Study 공 부 (gong bu)
    •   Dorm 기 숙 사 (gi suk sa)
    •   School 학 교 (hak gyo)
    •   College 대 학 (dae hak)
    •   Philosophy 철 학 (cheol hak)
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar
Korean/Lesson I10                                                                                                                                  70



    Korean/Lesson I10
    <<Lesson 9 | Lesson 10

    Onomatopoeia 의성어 (擬聲語) ui seong eo are words used to imitate sounds.
    •   빵 (ppang) - Bang!
    •   아야 (a-ya) - Ouch!
    •   앗 (at) - Oops!
    •   음 (eum) - Um...
    •   냠냠 (nyam-nyam) - sound made when chewing food
    •   쾅 (kwang) - Crashing sound
    •   멍멍 (meong-meong) - Dog barking
    •   칙칙폭폭 (chik-chik-pok-pok) - train sound
    •   꿀꿀 (kkul-kkul) - Pig noise
    •   펄럭펄럭 (peol-leok-peol-leok)- flapping of cloth
    •   삐약삐약 (ppi-yak-ppi-yak) - chicks chirping
    •   야옹 (ya-ong) - meow of cat
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                               Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                          Conversation
    1급: Beginner — 1. Greeting • 2. Forming sentences • 3. Connective forms and negation • 4. Colors / Shopping • 5. Recreation / In a taxi • 6.
                        Family • 7. Around the house • 8. The workplace / Using the telephone • 9. School • 10. Onomatopoeia
        2단계: High beginner • 3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계:
                                                   Advanced
                                                    Grammar
                                                                                                                                                       71




                   Chapter 5- Conversation Level II

Korean/Lesson II1
                                                                                [1]
                                                                  [panel edit      ]
                                                                Other languages...
                                           Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                   Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                     care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                     3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                 Grammar



Vocabulary
•   축구 soccer
•   농구 basketball
•   배구 volleyball
•   야구 baseball
•   테니스(정구) tennis
•   수영 swimming
•   골프 golf
•   스키 skiing
                                                                 [panel   edit [1]]
                                                              Other languages...
                                       Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                              Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
 2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8.
                                                     Medical care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
            3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                  Grammar
Korean/Lesson II2                                                                                                                                          72



    Korean/Lesson II2
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar



    Vocabulary
    •   경찰관 police officer
    •   소방수 fire fighter
    •   선생 teacher
    •   학생 student
    •   미술가 artist
    •   의사 doctor
    •   간호사 nurse
    •   이발사 barber
    •   회사원 office worker
    •   운동 선수 athlete
    •   과학자 scientist
    •   가수 singer
    •   군인 soldier
    •   조종사 pilot
    •   기사 engineer
    •   수리공 mechanic
    •   음악가 musician
Korean/Lesson II3                                                                                                                                          73



    Korean/Lesson II3
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar



    Vocabulary
    •   Movie theater 극장(劇場)
    •   DVD room DVD 방
    •   PC room PC 방
    •   small restaurant 식당


    Conversation
    • PC방이 어디에 있어요? Where is the PC room?
    • 영화가 언제 시작해요? When does the movie start?



    Korean/Lesson II4
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar


    • Bus 버스 (beoseu)
    • Taxi 택시 (taek shi)
    • Train 기차 (gi cha)[This is just train in general. KTX is the new bullet train in Korea and they will know what
      you are talking about if you ask for the location of KTX, but remember that KTX is more expensive. You can also
      ride the 새마을 for about $10 less or the 무궁화 for half the cost of KTX, but neither are as fast nor as well kept.]
    • Subway 지하철 (ji ha cheol)
    • Car 차 (Cha)[also the word for tea]
    • Station 역 (yeok)[as in subway/train station. For example, Seoul station is 서울역]
    • Subway line or route 선 (seon). [For example, if you took the yellow subway route, or the 분당선, there is a stop
      at 야탑 where there is an awesome public park and bungee jumping.]
Korean/Lesson II5                                                                                                                                          74



    Korean/Lesson II5
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar


    호텔 (hoe-tel), Hotel 예약 (ye-yahk) reserve, make a reservation


    Dialogue
    여기 위키 호텔인가요? 방 있어요?



    Korean/Lesson II6
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar



    Vocabulary
    • 도서관(圖書館): library
    • 잡지 : magazine
    • 책 : book
Korean/Lesson II7                                                                                                                                          75



    Korean/Lesson II7
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar



    Vocabulary
    •   sheep 양
    •   field 밭
    •   cow 소
    •   rice paddy 논
    •   farmer 농부



    Korean/Lesson II8
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar



    Vocabulary
    • hospital 병원
    • ambulance 구급차(救急車)
    • doctor 의사
    • nurse 간호사
    •   fever 신열(身熱)
    •   flu 인플루엔자
    •   catch a cold 감기 걸리다
    •   illness 병
Korean/Lesson II9                                                                                                                                          76



    Korean/Lesson II9
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar




    Vocabulary
    •   비 rain
    •   눈 snow
    •   맑다 sunny
    •   흐리다 cloudy



    Korean/Lesson II10
                                                                                    [1]
                                                                      [panel edit      ]
                                                                    Other languages...
                                               Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                                       Conversation — 1단계: Beginner •
    2급: High beginner — 1. Sports • 2. Jobs • 3. Downtown • 4. Public transportation • 5. At the hotel • 6. At the library • 7. At the farm • 8. Medical
                                                         care • 9. The Weather • 제10과
                         3단계: Low intermediate • 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                     Grammar




    Vocabulary
    •   영화 film, movie
    •   극장 theater
    •   멀티플렉스 Multiplex
    •   화면 screen
                                                                                                                                77




               Chapter 6- Conversation Level III

Korean/Lesson III1
                                                                      [1]
                                                        [panel edit      ]
                                                      Other languages...
                                        Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                     Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를 사랑해?
                                     • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                                 4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                               Grammar


•   머리 head, hair
•   머리카락 hair
•   뇌 brain
•   눈 eye
•   눈썹 eyebrow
•   코 nose
•   볼 cheek
•   입 mouth
•   이 teeth
•   턱 jaw, chin
•   목 neck
•   어깨 shoulder
•   팔 arms
•   손 hand(s)
•   손가락 finger(s)
•   손톱 fingernail
•   배 stomach, belly
•   다리 leg(s)
•   무릎 knee
•   발 foot
•   발가락 toe(s)
•   뼈 bone
•   살 flesh
•   귀 ear
                                                      [panel   edit [1]]
                                                    Other languages...
                                Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                              Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
 3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를
                                사랑해? • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                         4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
Korean/Lesson III1                                                                                                                  78


                                                             Grammar



    Korean/Lesson III2
                                                                          [1]
                                                            [panel edit      ]
                                                          Other languages...
                                            Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                         Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
    3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를 사랑해?
                                         • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                                     4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                   Grammar



    Introduction
    This section covers the terms related to religion and encourage the student to speak about his/her religious beliefs
    using the Korean language. When learning about religion in the Korean language, there are some important factors to
    consider. First of all, there are 7 different speech levels in the Korean language accompanied by a set of honorific
    forms for each speech level. In the Korean Bible, the translators use the Hasoseoche(하소서체) form for many of the
    verses. For daily speech, the reader should use one of the lower speech forms instead.
    The second thing that the reader needs to do is be prepared to learn the hanja for many of the words used in the
    religious texts. If the reader learns a few hanja every week, that reader will be able to be able to learn the vocabulary
    more quickly. The hanja are used in the mixed script Korean Bible, 백팔대참회문, as well as some other Korean
    religious texts.


    Vocabulary
    종교 - Religion
    하느님 - God
    여호와 - Jehovah (God's name)
    하늘 - Heaven
    악마 - The Devil(사탄-satan)
    지옥 - Hell
    성신/성령 - Holy spirit/Holy Ghost
    영적인 - spiritual
    교회 - Church
    성경(聖經) - The Bible
    절 - Buddhist Temple
    무교 - no religion
    불교 - Buddhism
    불경 - Buddhist Bible
    부처님 - Buddha
    교파 - sect
    영원히 - eternally
Korean/Lesson III2                                                                                                              79


    낙원 - paradise
    화신 - reincarnation
    부활 - resurrection
    예수 그리스도 - Jesus Christ
    사도 - apostle
    기도하다 - to pray
    응답 - an answer(spiritual)
    믿다 - to believe
    이해하다 - to understand
    오해 - misunderstanding
    헷갈리다 - to be confused(혼란스럽다 too)
    경전 - scriptures
    성전(聖殿) - Temple
    인자(人子) - Son of Man
    구원(救援) - salvation
    표적(表迹) - miracle
                                                          [panel   edit [1]]
                                                        Other languages...
                                   Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                 Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
     3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를
                                    사랑해? • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                            4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                      Grammar
Korean/Lesson III3          80



    Korean/Lesson III3
    Vocabulary
    • 바다 sea
    • 산 mountain, hill
    • 강 river, creek



    Korean/Lesson III4
    Vocabulary
    •   the Universe 우주
    •   astronaut 우주인
    •   star 별
    •   constellation 별자리
    •   sun 태양
    •   solar system 태양계
    •   Mercury 수성
    •   Venus 금성
    •   Earth 지구
    •   Mars 화성
    •   Jupiter 목성
    •   Saturn 토성
    •   Uranus 천왕성
    •   Neptune 해왕성
    •   Pluto 명왕성
    •   Comet 혜성
Korean/Lesson III5                                                                               81



    Korean/Lesson III5
    Vocabulary
    •   책 book
    •   독서 reading
    •   서점 bookstore
    •   잡지 magazine



    Korean/Lesson III6
    <<Lesson 5]] | '''Lesson 6''' | [[Korean/Lesson III7|Lesson 7>>


    제6과: 어느 정도로 나를 사랑해?
    • 대화
    A:영희야 너 철수 얼마만큼 사랑해? B:하늘만큼 땅만큼 A:그렇게 많이? B:그럼 넌 부모님을 얼만큼 사랑하는
    데? A:그거야 헤아릴 수 없지
    • 어휘
    만큼 : as much as 하늘 : sky 땅 : earth, ground 부모 : parent 헤아리다 : consider: weigh(=재다;measure)
    • 유용 표현
    하늘만큼 땅만큼 : very very much
Korean/Lesson III7                                                                                                                  82



    Korean/Lesson III7
    <<Lesson 6 | Lesson 7


    제7과: 컴퓨터 사용하기
    •   컴퓨터 computer
    •   랩탑 컴퓨터 / 노트북컴퓨터 laptop computer/notebook computer
    •   모니터 monitor
    •   마우스 mouse
    •   소프트웨어 software
    •   온라인 online
    •   인터넷 internet
    •   홈피 homepage (slang for 홈페이지)



    Korean/Lesson III8
                                                                          [1]
                                                            [panel edit      ]
                                                          Other languages...
                                            Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                         Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
    3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를 사랑해?
                                         • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                                     4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                                   Grammar


    제 8과 : At the restaurant


    단어

    •   밥 rice
    •   국 soup
    •   김치 kimchi
    •   고기 meat
    •   단무지 pickled radish
    •   된장 doenjang, soybean paste, miso
    •   찌개 jjigae, pot stew
    •   물 water
    •   와인 wine
    •   주방장 head cook
    •   요리사 cook
    •   커피 coffee
    •   음료 beverage
    •   빵 bread
    •   소금 salt
    •   설탕 sugar
    •   간장 soy sauce
Korean/Lesson III8                                                                                                              83


    단위

    • 밥 한 공기 a bowl of rice
    • 커피 한 잔 a cup of coffee


    문장

    •   주문하시겠습니까? May I take your order?
    •   물은 셀프 taking water is self-service
    •   얼마입니까? How much is this/are these
    •   오늘의 추천 메뉴 Today's recommeded menu
                                                          [panel   edit [1]]
                                                        Other languages...
                                   Learn Korean (Introduction) — Reading and writing •
                                 Conversation — 1단계: Beginner • 2단계: High beginner •
     3급: Low intermediate — 1. The human body • 2. Religion • 3. Nature • 4. The universe • 5. Reading a book • 제6과:어느 정도로 나를
                                    사랑해? • 7. Using computers • 8. At the restaurant • 제9과 • 제10과
                            4단계: High intermediate • 5단계: Low advanced • 6단계: Advanced
                                                      Grammar
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                                   84



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Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                         85

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors                                                                                                                                                   86



    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
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    아흔
    Image:Korean_vowels.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Korean_vowels.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:아흔
    Image:Giuk_stroke_order.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Giuk_stroke_order.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity, Kjoonlee
    Image:Niun_stroke_order.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Niun_stroke_order.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Kjoonlee
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    Image:Jigut_stroke_order.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jigut_stroke_order.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity
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    Image:Tiut stroke order.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tiut_stroke_order.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Kjoonlee
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    Image:Hiut_stroke_order.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hiut_stroke_order.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity, Kjoonlee
    Image:Korean_vowel_strokes.gif  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Korean_vowel_strokes.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity
    Image:Hangul2compundtable.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hangul2compundtable.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity
    Image:Hangul3compundtable.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hangul3compundtable.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamgravity
License                                                     87



    License
    Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
    http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/