Neoplasia 1: Introduction terminology • oncology: the study of tumors • neoplasia: new growth (indicates autonomy with a loss of response to growth controls) types of neoplasms • benign: localized and amenable to surgical removal; patient usually survives • malignant: invasive tumor capable of destroying structures and spread to distant sites (metastasis); may result in early death of the patient examples of benign tumors • fibroma: benign tumor of fibrous tissue • lipoma: benign tumor of fat • adenoma: benign glandular tumor • chondroma: benign cartilaginous tumor leiomyomas adenoma examples of malignant tumors • sarcoma (mesenchymal derivation: fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma) • carcinoma (epithelial derivation: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma) • lymphoma/leukemia adenocarcinoma carcinoma • The terms “benign” and “malignant” describe the biologic behavior of a tumor • the biologic behavior is characterized by degree of differentiation of the tumor and by the rate of growth (and rate of cell death) differentiation • Well-differentiated tumors contain cells that resemble the normal cells of origin • poorly-differentiated or undifferentiated tumors contain cells that do not resemble their normal counterparts (ancillary studies may be needed to determine the cell of origin) well-differentiated poorly-differentiated • Benign tumors are composed of well- differentiated cells. • Malignant tumors are characterized by a wide range of cellular differentiation. • Anaplasia (cellular pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, high N:C ratio, giant cells, bizarre nuclei) is a feature of malignant tumors. anaplasia dysplasia • denotes a loss of architectural organization and a loss of cell uniformity in epithelium • pleomorphism and mitoses are more prominent than in the normal • usually graded: mild, moderate, severe, and carcinoma-in-situ • mild to moderate dysplasia is potentially reversible dysplasia normal epithelium dysplasia • Dysplasia is a non-neoplastic proliferation. • Dysplasia may or may not progress to cancer. rate of growth • In general, benign and well-differentiated malignant tumors have a slower rate of growth than moderately-differentiated and poorly-differentiated malignant tumors. • There are exceptions. Blood supply, site, and hormonal stimulation are factors that can affect the growth rate of tumors. invasion • Benign tumors usually grow by slow expansion. • Malignant tumors usually infiltrate and may destroy surrounding tissue (cell surface and the extracellular matrix play an important role). metastasis • indicates malignancy • a discontinuous spread of the tumor • Methods of metastasis include: (1)seeding of body cavities, (2) lymphatic spread, and (3) hematogenous spread. metastatic ovarian carcinoma MRI: metastatic adenocarcinoma metastatic adenocarcinoma grading and staging • Grading is based on the microscopic features of the cells which compose a tumor and is specific for the tumor type. • Staging is based on clinical, radiological, and surgical criteria, such as, tumor size, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and presence of metastases. Staging usually has prognostic value. morbidity and mortality • metastases • rupture into major vessels • compression of vital organs • organ failure • infection meningioma basal cell carcinoma melanoma diagnostic procedures • FNA (fine needle aspiration) • cytological smears • biopsy • frozen sections cytology smear: adenocarcinoma Pap smear with dysplasia frozen section staining a frozen section ancillary studies • immunohistochemistry • cytogenetics • flow cytometry • electron microscopy cytokeratin stain on a carcinoma AFP stain on a yolk sac tumor EM: neurosecretory granules EM: microvilli, tight junction in an adenocarcinoma biochemical assays • tumor markers: sometimes diagnostic or prognostic • can be helpful in monitoring effectiveness of therapy or in detecting relapses/recurrences some serological markers associated with malignant tumors hCG choriocarcinoma AFP hepatocellular ca calcitonin thyroid medullary ca prolactin pituitary adenomas CA 125 ovarian carcinoma PSA prostate carcinoma chromogranin A endocrine neoplasias summary • neoplasia- an abnormal mass of tissue which has lost its responsiveness to growth controls • benign neoplasms tend to be slow-growing, well-differentiated tumors which lack the ability to metastasize • benign neoplasms, in general, remain localized and are amenable to surgery summary • malignant neoplasms tend to be fast- growing lesions which invade normal structures • malignant neoplasms vary in the degree of differentiation and some show anaplasia • malignant neoplasms are capable of metastasis summary • The prognosis of a patient with any type of neoplasm depends on a number of factors including: the rate of growth of the tumor, the size of the tumor, the tumor site, the cell type and degree of differentiation, the presence of metastasis, responsiveness to therapy, and the general health of the patient.