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					                      Stephen Hawking




                          Stephen’s Wheelchair



ALS: The Disability
                                                 Stephen’s Talking Computer
             Stephen Hawking: The Man
 Stephen William Hawking was born on        In 1962, he left Oxford for Trinity
  January 8, 1942 (300 years after the      Hall, Cambridge, where he engaged
  death of Galileo) in Oxford, England.     in the study of theoretical astronomy
 At eleven Stephen went to St Albans       and cosmology.
  School, and then on to University          Almost as soon as he arrived at
  College, Oxford, his father's old         Cambridge, he started developing
  college.                                  symptoms of amyotrophic lateral
 Stephen wanted to do Mathematics,         sclerosis.
  although his father would have             In 1965, Stephen met Jane Wilde,
  preferred medicine. Mathematics was       a language student and his first wife.
  not available at University College, so   They had three children together.
  he did Physics instead. After three        In 1991, the couple separated
  years and not very much work he was       (and later divorced) due to the
  awarded a first class honors degree in    pressures of Stephen’s fame and his
  Natural Science.                          increasing disability.
             Stephen Hawking: The Man
 After completing his doctorate in 1966      From 1970 Hawking began to apply
  Hawking was awarded a fellowship at          his previous ideas to the study of black
  Gonville and Caius College,                  holes.
  Cambridge.                                  Continuing this work on black holes,
 In 1973 he left the Institute of             Hawking discovered in 1970 a
  Astronomy and joined to the                  remarkable property. Using quantum
  Department of Applied Mathematics            theory and general relativity he was
  and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge.        able to show that black holes can emit
  He became Professor of Gravitational         radiation.
  Physics at Cambridge in 1977. In 1979       In 1984, while in Geneva, Stephen
  Hawking was appointed Lucasian               caught pneumonia and was rushed to
  Professor of Mathematics at                  the hospital. At the hospital, his wife
  Cambridge. The man born 300 years            was told that it was not worth keeping
  to the day after Galileo died now held       the life support machine on. However,
  Newton’s chair at Cambridge.                 Jane did not accept that and Stephen
 Between 1965 and 1970 Hawking                was flown back to Addenbrook
  worked on singularities in the theory of     Hospital in Cambridge. A tracheotomy
  general relativity devising new              was performed, that saved his life, but
  mathematical techniques to study this        he lost his voice forever.
  area of cosmology.
                       What is ALS?
 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease, first
  described in 1869 by the noted French neurologist Jean-Martin
  Charcot. Although the cause of ALS is not completely understood,
  the last decade has brought a wealth of new scientific understanding
  about the disease that provides hope for the future.

 Most commonly, the disease strikes people between the ages of 40
  and 70, and as many as 30,000 Americans have the disease at any
  given time.

 Lou Gehrig first brought national and international attention to the
  disease in 1939 when he abruptly retired from baseball after being
  diagnosed with ALS.
                                        Lou Gehrig
                         What is ALS?
 ALS is a progressive, usually fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by
  the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous
  system that control voluntary muscle movement.
 The disease belongs to a group of disorders known as motor neuron
  diseases, which are characterized by the gradual degeneration and death of
  motor neurons.
 ALS causes weakness with a wide range of disabilities. Eventually, all
  muscles under voluntary control are affected, and patients lose their
  strength and the ability to move their arms, legs, and body. When muscles
  in the diaphragm and chest wall fail, patients lose the ability to breathe
  without ventilatory support. Most people with ALS die from respiratory
  failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. However,
  about 10 percent of ALS patients survive for 10 or more years.
 No cure has yet been found for ALS. However, the Food and Drug
  Administration (FDA) has approved the first drug treatment for the
  disease—riluzole (Rilutek).
 Clinical trials with ALS patients showed that riluzole prolongs survival by
  several months, mainly in those with difficulty swallowing. The drug also
  extends the time before a patient needs ventilation support.
 More significant advances of research into ALS has occurred in the last
  decade than all of the time since Charcot identified the disease.
   Stephen’s Ferrari: The Quantum Jazzy 1440
Wheelchair
Designed for people with high-end rehab needs,
the 1400 offers a wide range of standard rehab
features:

Made by Pride Mobility

This is a power-wheel chair which relies on
electricity to run

The Synergy Seating System

Swing-away footrests

Fully programmable digital controller that
utilizes plug and play technology to interface with
various specialized drive controls

Typical cost is from $1,700 to $7,500
Stephen’s Communication Device
                  Stephen has always used IBM
                  compatible computers on his wheel chair

                  Computer runs on a battery which is
                  stored under the wheelchair

                  The screen is mounted on the arm of
                  the wheelchair for visibility

                  Runs on a program called Equalizer,
                  designed by Words Plus, Inc. and uses a
                  switch to move the cursor

                  Stephen uses a speech Synthesizer to
                  create sentences

                  He is able to input his equations in
                  words and the computer translates them
                  to numbers

                  As the disease has worsened, Stephen
                  relies on an eye-movement device
                  (attached to his glasses to detect
                  motion), to control his computer
                         Works Cited
   http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hawking.html
   http://www.hawking.org.uk/about/aindex.html
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking
   http://www.alsa.org/als/default.cfm?CFID=6200583&CFTOKEN=1d3e4fe-
    e7c7a3aa-7234-4664-ac69-6597bc8c6633
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis
   http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/amyotrophiclateralsclerosis/detail_amyot
    rophiclateralsclerosis.htm
   http://www.thewheelchairsite.com/motorized-wheelchairs.aspx
   http://www.hawking.org.uk/info/news2001.html
   http://www.hawking.org.uk/text/disable/computer.html
   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/cambridgeshire/4213082.stm
   http://www.quantumrehab.com/seating/index.html

				
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