Ohs Hazard Worksheet - PowerPoint

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SECTION 5 –The 5 Steps
Health & Safety
Human Resource Services
NB: It is important to involve and consult with staff at each
stage of this process. This draws on the knowledge,
experience and ideas of employees and encourages
ownership and participation in OHS in the workplace.

1. Identifying Hazards
Is the process of investigating any activity, situation,
product, service or thing that could affect the health, safety
and welfare of persons at the place of work.
The workgroup should be encouraged to participate in
hazard identification by actively reporting hazards as they
arise and to make suggestions as to the controls needed
to rectify the hazardous situation.

2. Assess the Risk
How likely is the hazard to affect the health, safety and well being of persons and what degree
of harm could occur?

When there is more than one risk we need to prioritise the risks so that we can act on the
highest risk first.

Whilst we must prioritise and act on risks in order of priority, in reality, we may be able to fix
simple hazards immediately, so we must also use our common sense when prioritising.
Prioritising is good practice when we need to allocate resources and keep records of the
3. Documenting
Documenting the process allows us to systematically address the hazards present in the

Once the process is documented, action plans can be formulated and responsibilities allocated
for controls implemented to eliminate or reduce the risk of those hazards.

4. Controlling
Intrinsic hazards that may arise because of the nature of the University's operations and
activities, products or services, plant and machinery, and the work environment itself may
require specific action plans based on the "hierarchy of controls".

Controls may also include documented policies and procedures (e.g. Standard Operating

Controls should take account of non-compliance of workgroup members; ask, "What would
happen if a person took a short-cut to bypass the controls?"

5. Ongoing Monitoring
Ongoing monitoring is one way to ensure that the implemented controls are working effectively
and that new hazards have not been introduced into the workplace.
RISK ANALYSIS – Identifying The Hazard
When looking for hazards consider:
   the systems of work comprising of: people, plant and
    equipment, work methods and procedures, materials,
    and the work environment;
   suitability of tools, equipment, materials and systems
    for the task;
   how people use the tools, equipment and materials;
   the experience of the persons performing the task or
    process or in the vicinity of the task or process while it
    is being performed;
   if something goes wrong with any tools, equipment,
    materials or work systems how will it affect employees
    and other people?;
   how employees and other people may be affected by
    hazards such as noise, fumes or work processes etc;
   how employees and other people may be hurt by
    chemicals or other damaging energies in the workplace.
RISK ANALYSIS – Identifying The Hazard

Asking the question - "What if?"

A simple tool you can use to identify hazards is the question "What if?"

 Ask "What could happen if…?" - "What could happen if a young or untrained worker used
  that unguarded machine?"
 Ask, "What could go wrong if...?" - "What could go wrong if students are left unsupervised?"
 'What if' a ten-year-old entered your place of work, what would you warn them to be careful
RISK ANALYSIS – Assessing The Risk
After identifying the hazards the next step is to assess the
potential risk to the health, safety and welfare of persons.
What is a risk?
It it is the likelihood of injury, illness or death occurring.
The three components of risk:
RISK ANALYSIS – Assessing The Risk
The three components of risk
The duration of exposure, most likely outcome from exposure and the frequency of exposure
determine the degree or the magnitude of the risk.

What is a risk assessment?
A risk assessment is the process of determining the level of risk involved and the likelihood of
injury, illness or death occurring.

Risk assessment tool
The following Hazpak matrix is one example of a risk assessment tool.
RISK ANALYSIS – Assessing The Risk
   RISK ANALYSIS – Assessing The Risk
          How to use the risk assessment tool
Step 1 – Determine how likely (frequency and duration) it is that the identified hazard will occur.
Step 2 – Determine how sever the injury/illness posed by the hazard would be.
Step 3 – If more than one hazard has been identified the PRIORITISE the risks in order of the
         severity rating score from 1 to 6 where:
            1 = Top Priority: Do something immediately
            6 = Low Priority: Do something when possible.
          When assessing the likelihood and severity of potential hazards you may find that the
          same hazard could lead to several different outcomes.
          Assessing how likely or severe something is, is often subjective and therefore you can
          only use your best judgment in assessing risks.
          You may find safety in numbers when assessing risks by forming teams and consulting
          with those exposed to the hazard. If your group all have different risk ratings for a
          particular hazard then it may be safer to document and act on the highest rating
          assigned OR you may decide to appoint a person who takes responsibility for deciding
          the priority rating should disagreement arise.
  RISK ANALYSIS – Assessing The Risk
Step 4 – Document the assessment (eg Hazpak) for future reference and review. Documentation
         demonstrates that you are working towards elimination/control of hazards in a systematic
         fashion and it also demonstrates compliance with the requirements of the OHS
RISK ANALYSIS – Documenting
Why document hazards?
By keeping the record sheets from Hazpak or entering the
information on a Hazard Register you are demonstrating that you
are systematically identifying risks and are improving safety.
Paper trails are extremely important in demonstrating compliance
with the OHS legislation. The courts and the WorkCover Authority
take the stance that if it was not documented it did not happen.
Why you should keep a Hazard Register
As part of the Risk Management process each hazard should be
recorded in a Hazard Register along with its priority risk rating,
the suggested controls, responsibility for implementing controls,
when the controls are to be implemented by and a time for review
of the controls implemented.
A review is to be undertaken to identify whether the controls
implemented have eliminated or satisfactorily reduced the risk,or
if any further hazards have arisen as a result of the newly
implemented controls. If there are further hazards introduced into
the system of work then the Hazpak risk assessment process
starts again until all hazards are eliminated.
RISK ANALYSIS – Documenting
Entering our Hazpak record into a Hazard Register

Although the Hazpak worksheet can be kept as the record of risk analysis you should consider
entering relevant information into a Hazard Register. In this way hazards can be centralized into
one area.
By grouping hazards in one register you can get a feel for types of hazards continually arising in
your work area and for the controls used to manage them.
RISK ANALYSIS – Documenting
An example of a Hazard Register
RISK ANALYSIS – Documenting
Who may want to review the Hazard Register?

Copies of the Hazard Register should be made available to any relevant OHS Committee to
enable the committee to make recommendations regarding the hazards and subsequent
controls implemented in their particular workgroup/area.

Copies of the Hazard Register should also be made available to any WorkCover Inspector who
requests to see them.
RISK ANALYSIS – Controlling
In general there are four ways of dealing with hazards. The
four ways are based on the hierarchy of controls provided
for the OHS Regulations. The controls adopted should
always be the highest level that can be reasonably
attained. That is you should eliminate the hazard and if
that is not reasonably practicable then you should consider
changing equipment and materials and so on. This is an
expressed requirement of the OHS Legislation.

The first thing to consider when dealing with hazards is
"can the hazard be eliminated?" "Do we really need this
hazardous process?"
Elimination of the hazard must always be the first priority.
Elimination may not always be possible, as there may not
be a reasonable and viable alternative. If this is the case
then the second line of defence against the risks posed by
hazards is to change the equipment, materials or
RISK ANALYSIS – Controlling
Change equipment or materials
This may be done by redesign of equipment, materials or processes through:
1. Substituting safer equipment or materials for hazardous equipment or materials.
2. Isolating the hazard or potential damaging energy by space, time or the use of physical
Changing equipment, materials or processes may not always be possible in which case the
third line of defence against risks posed by hazards is to change the methods of work.

Change work methods
These are often referred to as 'administrative controls'. For example, job rotation is a form of
administrative control as it reduces a person's exposure time to a particular hazard. Training is
a form of administrative control.
  RISK ANALYSIS – Controlling
Use personal protective equipment
The final and last resort method of dealing with hazards is to utilise personal protective equipment
While you may have to use PPE while you find better ways of dealing with a hazard, systems should be
put into place to ensure that the interim PPE control measure does not become the long-term control.
PPE is only useful when it is appropriate for the task, in good condition, worn when required and worn
correctly. Any failure to utilize PPE correctly, exposes the person to the hazard.
In reality a combination of two or more of the above controls may need to be considered when dealing
with a potential hazard and its associated potential damaging energy. For example, when manual
handling bulk products a combination of substitution, administrative controls and personal protective
equipment may be considered the appropriate way to deal with the hazard. Under controls in our
Hazpak record or Hazard Register we would enter:
1. substitute smaller packaging for bulky items;
2. supply training in appropriate manual handling techniques; and
3. provide appropriate gloves for gripping the load and handling the items.
Once the controls have been implemented then the effectiveness of the controls must be
monitored and reviewed.
RISK ANALYSIS – Ongoing Monitoring

Legislative requirement

Management and employees must consider the
OHS implications of all controls introduced that
cause changes to plant and equipment, substances
and materials and processes. One way of
demonstrating consideration is to constantly monitor
and review. Remember you must document the
review of the risk analysis to demonstrate legal
 RISK ANALYSIS – Ongoing Monitoring

Ongoing monitoring and review ensures that the controls have been effective in controlling the
hazard, and has the following benefits:

1. Measures the effectiveness of the risk controls.
2. Identifies any new hazards that may have been subsequently introduced into the system of
3. Validates any new controls that may have been successfully introduced into the system of
4. Documented monitoring and review systems provide formal evidence of health and safety
5. Contributes to a safer place of work.
6. Involves those in the workplace in ongoing continual improvement.
RISK ANALYSIS – Ongoing Monitoring
OHS Committees and Representatives role

Monitoring and review is one of the OHS Committee's/Representatives most important

Let your OHS committee know of your successes as well as your issues. This helps the OHS
Committee to short-track the risk analysis of similar hazards in other areas of the University.
RISK ANALYSIS – When To Conduct A Risk Analysis
Hazards - When to identify
OHS laws require managers and supervisors to ensure that effective
 procedures have been implemented to identify hazards at a place of
 When using a premises as a place of work;
 Before introducing or commencing a work procedure, process or
  system of work;
 If work procedures, processes or systems of work are already in place
  then as soon as reasonably practicable given the nature of operations
 Before changes to work systems are introduced into the place of work
 Before hazardous substances are introduced into the place of work;
 Before and during installation, erection, commissioning and alteration
  of plant;
 While work is being carried out;
 When new or additional health and safety information from an
  authoritative source becomes available.
RISK ANALYSIS – Risk Assessment Score & Control
This model is similar to both the Hazpak and Cost Calculator
models. It quantifies the level of risk using indices.
 Quantifies the level of risk.
 Quantifies the risk reductions that can be achieved.
 Includes an 'Action Plan' as part of the assessment process.
 Includes roles, responsibilities and review as part of the 'Action
 Risks can be prioritised.
 Can be set up as a pro forma.

The assessment process is subjective in nature.
   RISK ANALYSIS – Risk Assessment Score & Control
Risk Assessment Score

Example: Spraying
weeds with toxic weed
killer (daily task)

Once the risk has been
assessed (Part A),
complete the control
Strategies and actions
(Part B)
RISK ANALYSIS – Risk Assessment Score & Control

Control Strategies:
1.   Elimination: Remove the hazard altogether, eg ask "Is there a need to use that type of
     weed killer chemical?"
2.   Substitution: Use an alternate non-hazardous substance or process.
3.   Isolation: Separate the damaging energy from people by utilising space, time or barriers
4.   Engineering: Modify the plant or equipment e.g. install guards.
5.   Administrative: Provide training, modify procedures, implement job rotation, work-
     scheduling techniques, and provide signage.
6.   Personal Protection Equipment: Provide safety; gloves, respirators, spectacles, ear
     plugs, etc.
 RISK ANALYSIS – Risk Assessment Score & Control

REVISED RISK SCORE after controls are implemented:
Likelihood X Consequences X Exposure= Acceptable
For all enquiries regarding Risk Management and Analysis, please contact:
       Health and Safety Team
       Phone: 4921 7262
       Email: tina.crawford@newcastle.edu.au

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