On a Server Based Network What Special Computers Process Data for and Facilitate Communication Between the Other Compute by xfd71037

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									Chapter One
 An Introduction
 to Networking
            Objectives

List advantages of networked computing
relative to standalone computing
Identify elements of a network
Describe several specific uses of a
network
              Objectives

Distinguish between client/server and
peer-to-peer networks
Identify some of the certifications available
to networking professionals
Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,”
skills to help in succeeding as a
networking professional
      Networks and Standalone
            Computers
Network
   Group of computers and other devices
    connected by some type of transmission
    media
   Networks enable users to share devices and
    data, collectively called a network’s
    resources
Standalone computer
   Uses programs and data only from its local
    disks and is not connected to a network
                  Sneakernet
Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk
and carrying the disk from computer to computer




     Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks
Local and Remote Computers
Local computer
   Computer on which user is working
Remote computer
   Computer that user controls or works on via
    network connection
      Peer-to-Peer Network
Computers communicate on single segment of cable and
share each other’s data and devices
Simple example of a local area network (LAN)




         Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network
    Local Area Network (LAN)
Network of computers and other devices
confined to relatively small space
LANs involving many computers are
usually server-based
   On a server-based network, special
    computers (known as servers) process data
    for and facilitate communication between
    other computers on the network (known as
    clients)
        Networking Basics
Workstation
   Computer that typically runs a desktop
    operating system and connects to a
    network
Client/server architecture
   Networking model in which clients use
    central server to share applications,
    devices, and data
          Networking Basics
Client/server network
   Network based on client/server architecture
Network operating system
   Special software designed to manage data
    and other resources on a server for a number
    of clients
             Networking Basics



 Figure 1-3:
LAN with a file
   server
         Networking Basics




 Figure 1-4:
An example
of a complex
   network
Advantages of Server-Based
over Peer-to-Peer Networks
User login accounts and passwords can be
assigned in one place
Access to multiple shared resources can be
centrally granted
Servers are optimized to handle heavy
processing loads and dedicated to handling
requests from clients
Servers can connect more than a handful of
computers
         MANs and WANs
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
   Network connecting clients and servers in
    multiple buildings within limited geographic
    area
Wide area network (WAN)
   Network that spans large distance and
    connects two or more LANs
   The Internet is an example of a very
    intricate and extensive WAN that spans the
    globe
              WAN




Figure 1-5:
 A simple
  WAN
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks
Client
   In addition to referring to a computer on the
    network, may also refers to human user of
    client workstation
Server
Workstation
Network interface card (NIC)
   Enables workstation to connect to the network
    and communicate with other computers
   Elements Common to All
   Server-Based Networks



Figure 1-6:
A network
 interface
card (NIC)
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks
Network operating system (NOS)
Host
   Server that manages shared resources
Node
   Client, server, or other device that can
    communicate over a network and that is
    identified by a unique identifying number,
    known as its network address
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks

Topology
   Physical
    layout of
    computer
    network




                Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks
Protocol
   Rules network uses to transfer data
Data Packets
   The distinct units of data transmitted from one
    computer to another on a network
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks
Addressing
   Scheme for assigning unique identifying
    number to every workstation on network
   The number that uniquely identifies each
    workstation and device on a network is its
    address
     Elements Common to All
     Server-Based Networks
Transmission
media
   Means
    through
    which data
    are
    transmitted
    and received



               Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media
     How Networks Are Used
Services
   Features provided by a network
      File and print services
      Communications services
      Mail services
      Internet services
      Management services
           Network Services
File services
   Refers to capability of a server to share data
    files, applications, and disk storage space
   Server that provides file services is called a
    file server
Print services
   Allows printers to be shared by several users
    on a network
             Network Services
Communications services
   Allow remote users to connect to a network
      Remote user
          Person working on a computer in a different geographical
           location from the LAN’s server
   Communications server
      Server that runs communications services
      Also referred to as access servers and remote
      access servers
             Network Services
Mail services
   Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail
    between users on a network
      Gateway
          Combination of software and hardware enabling two
           different kinds of networks to exchange data

Internet services
   Enable networks to communicate with the
    Internet
          Network Services
Management services
   Centrally administer and simplify complicated
    management tasks on the network
   Numerous services fall under category of
    network management
     Important Management
            Services
Traffic monitoring and control
   Traffic
      Data transmission and processing activity taking
      place on a computer network at any given time
   Segment
      Part of LAN that is logically separated from other
      parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of
      traffic capacity
     Important Management
            Services
Load balancing
   Distributing process activity evenly across a
    network so that no single device is
    overwhelmed
Hardware diagnosis and failure alert
   Determining when a network component
    fails and automatically notifying network
    administrators through e-mail or pager
      Important Management
             Services
Asset management
   Collecting and storing data on number and
    types of software and hardware assets in an
    organization’s network
License tracking
   Determining how many copies of a single
    application are currently in use on a network
      Important Management
             Services
Security auditing
   Evaluating what security measures are
    currently in force and notifying network
    administrator if a security breach occurs
Software distribution
   Automatically transferring data file or program
    from the server to a client on the network
      Important Management
             Services
Address management
   Centrally administering a finite number of
    network addresses for an entire LAN
Backup and restoration of data
   Backing up
      Copying critical files to a secure storage area
   Restoring
      Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted
      Becoming a Network
         Professional

Mastering the technical challenges
Developing your “soft skills”
Pursuing certification
Finding a job in networking
Joining professional associations
     Mastering the Technical
          Challenges
Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting
network server software
Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting
network server hardware
Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting
network client software
Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting
network client hardware
     Mastering the Technical
          Challenges

Understanding the characteristics of
different transmission media
Understanding network design
Understanding network protocols
Understanding how users interact with the
network
       Mastering the Technical
            Challenges
Specialty areas in high demand for
networking professionals:
   Network security
   Internet and intranet design
   Network management
   Voice/data integration
   Remote and mobile computing
       Mastering the Technical
            Challenges
Specialty areas in high demand for
networking professionals (cont.):
   Data integrity and fault tolerance
   In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking
    products
   In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking
    products
   In-depth knowledge of router configuration
    and management
Developing Your “Soft Skills”
Skills not easily measured but important to
a networking career:
   Customer relations
   Oral and written communications
   Dependability
   Teamwork
   Leadership abilities
      Pursuing Certification
Certification
   Process of mastering material pertaining to a
    particular hardware system, operating system,
    programming language, or other software
    program, then proving your mastery by passing
    a series of exams
Computer Technology Association
(CompTIA)
   An association that sets industry-wide
    standards for computer professionals
       Pursuing Certification
A+
   Certification established by CompTIA
   Verifies knowledge about PC operation,
    repair, and management
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
(MCSE)
   Certification established by Microsoft
   Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about
    Microsoft’s products
       Pursuing Certification
Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)
   Certification established by Novell
   Demonstrates in-depth understanding of
    Novell’s networking software
Network+ (Net+)
   Certification established by CompTIA
   Verifies broad, vendor-independent
    networking technology skills
       Pursuing Certification
Benefits of becoming certified include:
   Better salary
   Greater opportunities
   Professional respect
   Access to better support
 Finding a Job in Networking
Search the Web
Read the paper
Visit a career center
Network
Attend career fairs
   Finding a Job in Networking



Table 1-1:
Web sites
 with job
databases
        Joining Professional
            Associations
Benefits can include:
   Connecting with people who have similar
    interests
   Providing new opportunities for learning
   Allowing access to specialized information
   Giving you tangible assets such as free goods
Joining Professional
    Associations




Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations
        Chapter Summary
A Network is a group of computers or other
devices connected by some type of
transmission media
Networks may be small or large, connecting
computers in one office or across the world
All networks offer advantages relative to the
use of standalone computers
Simplest form of a network still used today
connects a handful of computers through one
cable and uses peer-to-peer communication
        Chapter Summary
A LAN is a network of computers and other
devices confined to a relatively small space
A WAN is a network connecting two or more
geographically distinct LANs
All server-based networks share some common
elements
The physical layout of a computer network is
called a topology
Network protocols are rules the network uses to
transfer data
        Chapter Summary
File and print services provide foundation for
networking
Communications services allow remote users to
connect to the network
Mail services allow networks users to exchange
and store e-mail
Internet services enable organizations to connect
to the Internet
Network management services centrally
administer and simplify complicated management
tasks on network
       Chapter Summary
Networking professionals are in demand
Pursuing certification can benefit you in
many ways
Hone your soft skills
Numerous resources are available in
searching for networking positions
Joining associations can benefit your
professional growth

								
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