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					                                                                                                 11th International Conference of European Council for High Ability 2008

                                                                                                                                                EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
                                                                                                                                                                                       versus
                                                                                                                                       DEFINITIONS OF LIFE SUCCESS
Izabela Lebuda, M.A.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Academy of Special Education
Ewa Wiśniewska, M.A.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Creative	Education	LAB


                                                                                                                                                                                               H1
                                                                INTRODUCTION - GOAL OF THE STUDY
                                                                                                                                                                                               •	 In	order	to	verify	the	H1	hypothesis,	we	used	a	one-	way	ANOVA	analysis.	Four	factors	that	define	
•	 Finding the relations between emotional intelligence level and understanding of the success and its                                                                                            success according to the researched teachers formed the dependent variable. These were: (1)
   predictors among teachers.                                                                                                                                                                     family; (2) studying; (3) prestige, power, fame; (4) spirituality. The factor was the level of emotional
                                                                                                                                                                                                  intelligence measured by means of the INTE questionnaire.
•	 Emotional intelligence was understood as: the ability to monitor one’s emotions, differentiation of it
   and usage to managing thinking and acting (Jaworowska, Matczak, 2001, s. 7).                                                                                                                •	 The	variance	analysis	has	shown	differences	in	defining	success	by	teachers,	depending	on	the	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  level of their emotional intelligence. In case of the three factors that determine success in the opinion
•	 Success – the effect of work and engagement which is somehow connected with transgression in                                                                                                   of	teachers	(namely	family,	studying,	and	spirituality),	these	differences	are	statistically	significant.	
   personal or social sense. It is the realization of a formulated goal which is important for the person
   and subjectively assessed as a success.                                                                                                                                                     •	 The	people	characterized	by	higher	level	of	emotional	intelligence	define	success	more	often	in	the	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  categories	of	close	interpersonal	relations,	self-fulfillment,	and	spiritual	values.	Among	the	teachers	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  characterized by high EI level, family is most often provided as an indicator of success.
                                                                                                              METHOD                                                                           •	 The part of the hypothesis that said that the people with a lower level of emotional intelligence
                                                                                                                                                                                                  perceive	success	as	material	goods,	prestige	or	as	external	categories,	has	not	been	confirmed.
Sample
Teachers (N=459) Ss, 81% women (N=353) and 19% (N=83) men, age: 22-69 y.o., M=40.68                                                                                                               0,6         F (2.421)=22.14;
                                                                                                                                                                                                              p=.0001; eta=.31;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          F (2.421)=8.12;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          p=.0001; eta=.19;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       F (2.421)=1.85;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       p=.0001; eta=.093;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    F (2.421)=7.83;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    p=.0001; eta=.19;

(SD=9.72).                                                                                                                                                                                                    eta2=.095
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          eta2=.037                    eta2=.009                    eta2=.036



Work experience from 0.5 to 42 years, M=15.23 (SD=9.37).                                                                                                                                          0,4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.345


Instruments                                                                                                                                                                                       0,2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0.184

•	 In order to measure emotional intelligence we used the INTE Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire                                                                                                                       0,04
   of Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, Dornheim (1998, Polish adaptation by                                                                                                   Z SCORES   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -0.01                -0.02                                -0.04
   Jaworowska, Matczak, 2001). At the moment of research conduction, the INTE questionnaire was                                                                                                                                                                                   -0.06

   the only standardized tool for measuring emotional intelligence available in the Polish language. It is                                                                                      -0,2                                                                                                                             LOW EI (N=79)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0.24
   composed of thirty positions formulated as statements to which one relates by means of choosing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.31
   one	of	five	options	from	the	Likert	five-point	scale,	meaning	from	“I	definitely	disagree”	to	“I	definitely	                                                                                 -0,4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MEDIUM EI (N=260)
   agree.”	The	sum	of	obtained	points	is	the	result	in	this	questionnaire	and	hence	the	indicator	of	
   the level of emotional intelligence. We are therefore dealing here with a single-factor solution. The                                                                                                         -0.57                                                                                                           HIGH EI (N=85)
                                                                                                                                                                                                -0,6
   reported reliability is satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha exceeds 0.85).                                                                                                                                              FAMILY                   STUDYING               PRESTIGE, FAME,                  SPIRITUALITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MATERIAL GOODS
• Success Feeling & Definitions Questionnaire of Lebuda (SFDQ) – a new, copyright questionnaire
   that	consists	of	40	different	definitions	of	success,	with	a	5-point,	Likert	scale	(from	“definitely	not”	                                                                                  H2
   to	“definitely	yes”).
                                                                                                                                                                                               •	 In order to verify the H2 hypothesis, we used the variance analysis, whereby the three factors,
• Success Attribution Questionnaire of Lebuda (SAQ) – a list of 25 items that describe conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                  selected as a result of factor analysis, became a dependent variable – success attribute according
   necessary to achieve success, selected on the basis of CBOS [Research Center for Social Opinion,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  to the teachers: (1) cunning; (2) studying and engagement; (3) abilities; and the level of emotional
   transl.]	research,	entitled	“Equality	of	the	chances	in	life.”	On	a	five-point	scale,	research	respondents	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  intelligence became a factor. The results of the analysis have shown that depending on the level of
   are to mark to what extent success achieved by them depends on the given factor.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  emotional intelligence, the researched people perceive the factors that are conducive to achieving
                                                                                                                                                                                                  success differently.
                                                                                                     HYpOTHESES                                                                                •	 Differences	with	respect	to	all	three	researched	factors	are	statistically	significant.	Those	with	lower	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  level of emotional intelligence discern the reasons of success in such external factors as favoritism,
H1                                                                                                                                                                                                and cunning, and those characterized by high level of emotional intelligence – in internal factors
Those	respondents	who	are	characterized	by	higher	level	of	emotional	intelligence	define	success	in	the	                                                                                          (such as diligence or abilities). According to teachers of high IE level, studying and engagement exert
category	of	self-fulfillment	and	interpersonal	relations.	Those	with	lower	level	of	emotional	intelligence	                                                                                       the	greatest	influence	on	achieving	success,	whereas	abilities	do	not	have	such	an	influence.	
do so as per the category of material goods, prestige, and hence they choose external categories.                                                                                              •	 Our	research	hypothesis	has	been	fully	confirmed.

H2                                                                                                                                                                                                0,6         F (2.422)=3.55;             F (2.422)=12.69;             F (2.422)=7.39;
                                                                                                                                                                                                              p=.03; eta=.13;             p=.0001; eta=.24;            p=.001; eta=.18;
Those	with	lower	levels	of	emotional	intelligence	find	the	sources	of	success	in	external	factors	(such	                                                                                                      eta2=.02                    eta2=.06            0.48     eta2=.03


as favoritism, smartness), and those with high emotional intelligence do so in internal factors (such as                                                                                          0,4

diligence, abilities).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  0,2


                                                                                                              RESULTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0.06
                                                                                                                                                                                               Z SCORES




                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -0.08
Factor Analysis of the Questionnaire of Definition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -0.20                                                                                          LOW EI (N=79)
and the Feeling of Success
                                                                                                                                                                                                -0,2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.22


Analyses have proved that the collected data are appropriate for conducting a factor analysis –                                                                                                 -0,4                                                                      -0.38                                                  MEDIUM EI (N=260)

KMO=0.927, c2 (df=780 )=7,393.206; p=0.0001.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HIGH EI (N=85)
                                                                     Tab. 1. Four-factor solution                                                                                               -0,6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CUNNING                   LEARNING                       ABILITIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           & ENGAGEMENT
                                                                                                  Factors           Items                                          Percent of Reliability of
                                                                                                                                                                   variance    scales α
                                                                                                  Family            happy family, good relations with
                                                                                                                    parents, good relations witch children,
                                                                                                                                                                         29,4%      0.927                                                              SUMMARY & DISCUSSION
              14
                                                                                                                    good relations with partner;
              12
                                                                                                  Studying          advanced studies, pupils’ good notes,                 9,1%       0.856     •	 Teachers	characterized	by	high	level	of	emotional	intelligence	define	success	through	the	prism	of	
              10
                                                                                                                    participation of children in competitions;                                    successful	interpersonal	relations,	self-fulfillment,	and	living	in	harmony	with	values.	They	think	this	
                                                                                                                                                                                                  is mainly dependent on effort, individual care and its potential.
               8
                                                                                                  Prestige, fame,   wealth, commission, high social                      5,2%        0.751     •	 The teachers characterized by low intelligence level have a less positive vision of success, for they
                                                                                                                    position, high degrees;
               6
                                                                                                  material goods                                                                                  think	 that	 such	 factors	 as	 cunning,	 connections	 and	 favoritism	 mainly	 influence	 achievement	 of	
               4
                                                                                                  Spirituality      peace, inner harmony,                                3,5%        0.706        success.
E igenvalue




               2                                                                                                    spiritual development, force in                                            •	 It seems that such perception of the conditions for success results from understanding of it in the
                                                                                                                    accordance with religion;
               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                  categories of wealth, material goods and social positioning. Such attitude is especially alarming
                   1   3       5   7

                   C omponent Number
                                           9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
                                                                                                  TOTAL                                                                 47,3%        0.931        when we remember that the role of teachers is to convey values to their students and to prepare
                                                                                                                                                                                                  them for effective operation in the world.
Factor analysis of the Questionnaire of Success Attribution                                                                                                                                    •	 The presented analyses indicate the need for developing emotional intelligence among teachers.
Kaiser, Mayer and Olkin’s KMO measurement of the adequacy of the selection of sample for factor
analysis was equal to 0.89, which legitimates conduction of factor analysis for obtained data. The                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES
sphericality test of Barlett has achieved the values of c2 (df= 300)=4375.956; p=0.001.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Firkowska-Mankiewicz, A. (2002). Intelligence and Success in Life. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo IFiS
                                                                                                                                                                 Tab 2. Three-factor soltion   PAN.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Jaworowska, A. , Matczak, A. (2001). Kwestionariusz Inteligencji emocjonalnej INTE N. S. Schutte,
               7
                                                                                                  Factors           Items                                          Percent of Reliability of
                                                                                                                                                                                               J. M. Malouffa, L. E. Hall, D. J. Haggerty’ego, J. T. Cooper, C. J. Goldena, L. Dornheim. Warszawa:
               6                                                                                                                                                   variance    scales α
                                                                                                                                                                         26,1%       0.796     Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
               5
                                                                                                  Cunning           connections, favoritism, conformity,
                                                                                                                    for example, the wealth of
               4
                                                                                                                    parents, friends’ help;

               3
                                                                                                  Studying &        education, graduation, hard work,                    17,6%       0.831
                                                                                                                    diligence performed duties;
                                                                                                  engagement
               2


                                                                                                  Abilities                                                              5,4%        0.752
E igenvalue




                                                                                                                    ingenuity, creativity, resource, enterprise;
               1


               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        izalebuda@aps.edu.pl; ewa.wisniewska@interia.eu
                                                                                                                                                                        49,1%        0.868
                   1       3           5     7    9   11   13   15    17   19   21   23     25

                   C omponent Number                                                              TOTAL                                                                                        Preparation	of	this	poster	was	supported	by	grant	BW	03/06-II	from	Academy	of	Special	Education	to	Izabela	Lebuda	(principal	investigator).	

				
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