11th International Conference of European Council for High Ability 2008 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE versus DEFINITIONS OF LIFE SUCCESS Izabela Lebuda, M.A. Academy of Special Education Ewa Wiśniewska, M.A. Creative Education LAB H1 INTRODUCTION - GOAL OF THE STUDY • In order to verify the H1 hypothesis, we used a one- way ANOVA analysis. Four factors that define • Finding the relations between emotional intelligence level and understanding of the success and its success according to the researched teachers formed the dependent variable. These were: (1) predictors among teachers. family; (2) studying; (3) prestige, power, fame; (4) spirituality. The factor was the level of emotional intelligence measured by means of the INTE questionnaire. • Emotional intelligence was understood as: the ability to monitor one’s emotions, differentiation of it and usage to managing thinking and acting (Jaworowska, Matczak, 2001, s. 7). • The variance analysis has shown differences in defining success by teachers, depending on the level of their emotional intelligence. In case of the three factors that determine success in the opinion • Success – the effect of work and engagement which is somehow connected with transgression in of teachers (namely family, studying, and spirituality), these differences are statistically significant. personal or social sense. It is the realization of a formulated goal which is important for the person and subjectively assessed as a success. • The people characterized by higher level of emotional intelligence define success more often in the categories of close interpersonal relations, self-fulfillment, and spiritual values. Among the teachers characterized by high EI level, family is most often provided as an indicator of success. METHOD • The part of the hypothesis that said that the people with a lower level of emotional intelligence perceive success as material goods, prestige or as external categories, has not been confirmed. Sample Teachers (N=459) Ss, 81% women (N=353) and 19% (N=83) men, age: 22-69 y.o., M=40.68 0,6 F (2.421)=22.14; p=.0001; eta=.31; F (2.421)=8.12; p=.0001; eta=.19; F (2.421)=1.85; p=.0001; eta=.093; F (2.421)=7.83; p=.0001; eta=.19; (SD=9.72). eta2=.095 0.41 eta2=.037 eta2=.009 eta2=.036 Work experience from 0.5 to 42 years, M=15.23 (SD=9.37). 0,4 0.31 0.345 Instruments 0,2 0.184 • In order to measure emotional intelligence we used the INTE Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire 0,04 of Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, Dornheim (1998, Polish adaptation by Z SCORES 0 -0.01 -0.02 -0.04 Jaworowska, Matczak, 2001). At the moment of research conduction, the INTE questionnaire was -0.06 the only standardized tool for measuring emotional intelligence available in the Polish language. It is -0,2 LOW EI (N=79) -0.24 composed of thirty positions formulated as statements to which one relates by means of choosing -0.31 one of five options from the Likert five-point scale, meaning from “I definitely disagree” to “I definitely -0,4 MEDIUM EI (N=260) agree.” The sum of obtained points is the result in this questionnaire and hence the indicator of the level of emotional intelligence. We are therefore dealing here with a single-factor solution. The -0.57 HIGH EI (N=85) -0,6 reported reliability is satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha exceeds 0.85). FAMILY STUDYING PRESTIGE, FAME, SPIRITUALITY MATERIAL GOODS • Success Feeling & Definitions Questionnaire of Lebuda (SFDQ) – a new, copyright questionnaire that consists of 40 different definitions of success, with a 5-point, Likert scale (from “definitely not” H2 to “definitely yes”). • In order to verify the H2 hypothesis, we used the variance analysis, whereby the three factors, • Success Attribution Questionnaire of Lebuda (SAQ) – a list of 25 items that describe conditions selected as a result of factor analysis, became a dependent variable – success attribute according necessary to achieve success, selected on the basis of CBOS [Research Center for Social Opinion, to the teachers: (1) cunning; (2) studying and engagement; (3) abilities; and the level of emotional transl.] research, entitled “Equality of the chances in life.” On a five-point scale, research respondents intelligence became a factor. The results of the analysis have shown that depending on the level of are to mark to what extent success achieved by them depends on the given factor. emotional intelligence, the researched people perceive the factors that are conducive to achieving success differently. HYpOTHESES • Differences with respect to all three researched factors are statistically significant. Those with lower level of emotional intelligence discern the reasons of success in such external factors as favoritism, H1 and cunning, and those characterized by high level of emotional intelligence – in internal factors Those respondents who are characterized by higher level of emotional intelligence define success in the (such as diligence or abilities). According to teachers of high IE level, studying and engagement exert category of self-fulfillment and interpersonal relations. Those with lower level of emotional intelligence the greatest influence on achieving success, whereas abilities do not have such an influence. do so as per the category of material goods, prestige, and hence they choose external categories. • Our research hypothesis has been fully confirmed. H2 0,6 F (2.422)=3.55; F (2.422)=12.69; F (2.422)=7.39; p=.03; eta=.13; p=.0001; eta=.24; p=.001; eta=.18; Those with lower levels of emotional intelligence find the sources of success in external factors (such eta2=.02 eta2=.06 0.48 eta2=.03 as favoritism, smartness), and those with high emotional intelligence do so in internal factors (such as 0,4 diligence, abilities). 0.21 0,2 RESULTS 0.10 0.06 Z SCORES 0 0.00 -0.08 Factor Analysis of the Questionnaire of Definition -0.20 LOW EI (N=79) and the Feeling of Success -0,2 -0.22 Analyses have proved that the collected data are appropriate for conducting a factor analysis – -0,4 -0.38 MEDIUM EI (N=260) KMO=0.927, c2 (df=780 )=7,393.206; p=0.0001. HIGH EI (N=85) Tab. 1. Four-factor solution -0,6 CUNNING LEARNING ABILITIES & ENGAGEMENT Factors Items Percent of Reliability of variance scales α Family happy family, good relations with parents, good relations witch children, 29,4% 0.927 SUMMARY & DISCUSSION 14 good relations with partner; 12 Studying advanced studies, pupils’ good notes, 9,1% 0.856 • Teachers characterized by high level of emotional intelligence define success through the prism of 10 participation of children in competitions; successful interpersonal relations, self-fulfillment, and living in harmony with values. They think this is mainly dependent on effort, individual care and its potential. 8 Prestige, fame, wealth, commission, high social 5,2% 0.751 • The teachers characterized by low intelligence level have a less positive vision of success, for they position, high degrees; 6 material goods think that such factors as cunning, connections and favoritism mainly influence achievement of 4 Spirituality peace, inner harmony, 3,5% 0.706 success. E igenvalue 2 spiritual development, force in • It seems that such perception of the conditions for success results from understanding of it in the accordance with religion; 0 categories of wealth, material goods and social positioning. Such attitude is especially alarming 1 3 5 7 C omponent Number 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 TOTAL 47,3% 0.931 when we remember that the role of teachers is to convey values to their students and to prepare them for effective operation in the world. Factor analysis of the Questionnaire of Success Attribution • The presented analyses indicate the need for developing emotional intelligence among teachers. Kaiser, Mayer and Olkin’s KMO measurement of the adequacy of the selection of sample for factor analysis was equal to 0.89, which legitimates conduction of factor analysis for obtained data. The REFERENCES sphericality test of Barlett has achieved the values of c2 (df= 300)=4375.956; p=0.001. Firkowska-Mankiewicz, A. (2002). Intelligence and Success in Life. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo IFiS Tab 2. Three-factor soltion PAN. Jaworowska, A. , Matczak, A. (2001). Kwestionariusz Inteligencji emocjonalnej INTE N. S. Schutte, 7 Factors Items Percent of Reliability of J. M. Malouffa, L. E. Hall, D. J. Haggerty’ego, J. T. Cooper, C. J. Goldena, L. Dornheim. Warszawa: 6 variance scales α 26,1% 0.796 Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego. 5 Cunning connections, favoritism, conformity, for example, the wealth of 4 parents, friends’ help; 3 Studying & education, graduation, hard work, 17,6% 0.831 diligence performed duties; engagement 2 Abilities 5,4% 0.752 E igenvalue ingenuity, creativity, resource, enterprise; 1 0 firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com 49,1% 0.868 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 C omponent Number TOTAL Preparation of this poster was supported by grant BW 03/06-II from Academy of Special Education to Izabela Lebuda (principal investigator).