HISTORIC TOUR 2009 by sdfgsg234


									HISTORIC TOUR 2009
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                                          N The Near North Neighborhood O
                                        Grand Forks’ near north side neighbor-                                             other jobs clustered downtown, so living
                                    hood is edged by the river, North Washing-                                             here meant people could easily walk to work.
                                    ton, University Avenue and Gateway Drive.                                                 Trolley cars once whisked students, pro-
                                       Each is connected to each other and each                                            fessors and staff from the near north side to
                                    helped develop this colorful, tight-knight                                             the UND campus. When that era ended,
                                    community.                                                                             trolley cars were stored in what is now C
                                       The Red River of the North once hummed                                              and R Cleaners and Laundry.
                                    with activity not just from steam boats, but                                              The near north side is all about connec-
                                    from a busy saw mill, located near the for-                                            tions. Jim Lyons, 62, remembers how his dad
                                    mer St. Anne’s Guest Home, now Riverview                                               would pack the empty lot next door with
                                    Manor apartments. The near north side al-                                              snow. “The whole neighborhood, tons of
                                    ways has been a neighborhood where homes                                               kids, would come over to play. When we got
                                    mingled with businesses. It once was pep-                                              cold, we’d come in the house, and my mom
                                    pered with dozens of mom and pop grocery                                               would always have some cookies and hot
                                    stores. It’s a neighborhood where the Irish                                            chocolate. We called it ‘Dot’s Diner.’ Then
                                    lived next to Swedes and Germans, and                                                  we’d all go out and play again—until we got
                                    where Lutherans, Catholics and Pentecostals                                            yelled at to come home.” Now Lyons’ son
                                    greeted each other on the way to services.                                             Shawn lives in the North 7th Street home
                                       The neighborhood also has a strong con-                                             where Jim and his sister Jane grew up.
                                    nection to the railroads. Early residents, es-
                                    pecially Irish immigrants who spoke English,                                             The near north side is grounded in history,
                                     were in demand as railroad workers. Many                                              eager for the future.

Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota

                                                        N The Tour Index O
Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. i                      Antenna Building (Assembly of God)
                                                                                                    401 N. 7th St.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23
Map. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii
                                                                                                Bridgeman/Land O’ Lakes Creamery
                                    The Sites                                                       9th St. N. & University Ave.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24
Riverview Manor (St. Anne’s) 813 Lewis Blvd.. ..                                      1         Augustana Lutheran 520 University Ave.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25
Grand Forks Bottling Co. 730 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. ..                                3         YWCA 311 N. 4th St... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27
Simonson’s Lumberyard 820 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. .. ..                                4         Adley Anne’s (Jack’s Roller Rink) 224 N. 4th St. .. 28
Simonson’s Gas Station 830 N. 3rd St.. .. .. .. .. .. ..                              5         Grand Forks Woolen Mills 301 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29
Hipple’s Potato Chips 901 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..                             6         Chamber of Commerce (NP Railroad Depot)
                                                                                                    202 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 30
Wilder Elementary 1009 N. 3rd St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7
The Horse Trough N. 5th St. & Gateway. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 9                                                         Neighborhood Connections

Minnesota Dairy 1601 Gateway Drive . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11                        Sports .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32
C&R (Trolley Barn) 1010 N. 5th St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12                       Politics .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 34
The Kegs 901 N. 5th St. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13        Invention .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36
Red & White Grocery N. 5th St. & 7th Ave.N. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15                                                                         Activities
St. Michael’s Church 520 N. 6th St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16                   Brownies .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 38
Grand Forks Auditorium 502 N. 5th St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19                          The All-American Turkey Show. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
M&H Gas Station 423 N. 5th St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21                     The Blizzard of 1966 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 40
Washington Elementary 422 N. 6th St. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22
                                                                                                Acknowledgements & Resources. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41

                                                                                           M ii L
         Near North                                                                                                                                                                                                     )
                                                                                                                                        GATEWAY DRIVE                                                    (KENNEDY BRIDGE
         Neighborhood                          8           7

         Historic Tour



          The Map                                                                                                                                                                        1

                                                                                                                                                                                             LEWIS BL

                                                                                                                                        5                    4


                                                                                     9                                                                       N. 3

1. Riverview Manor (St. Anne’s)

                                                                                N.                                                                             3R                        P


   813 Lewis Blvd.                                                                                                                                                D


                                                                                       H                                                                              .

2. Grand Forks Bottling Co.                                                                    .                                                                                         2



   730 N. 3rd St.

                                                marks a

                                                                                                 10                                                          N.                                                                         NO



3. Simonson’s Lumberyard                                                              N.                                                                                                                                                    RT

                                                location                                                                                                                                                                                       H

   820 N. 3rd St.                                                                               6T                                                                        ST

                                                                                                     ST                                                                        .
4. Simonson’s Gas Station 830 N. 3rd St.       indicates                                               .                                                                                                                       (FO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RM                GR

5. Hipple’s Potato Chips 901 N. 3rd St.
                                                Parking                                                                                                      11                                                                            ER


6. Wilder Elementary 1009 N. 3rd St.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  RR               AY

                                                                                                                                                                            N.                                                              N.             TR
                                                                                                                                                                                   5T                                                            3R           AC

7. The Horse Trough                                                                                                                                                                  H                             N.                                D           KS
                                      17. Bridgeman/Land O’                                                                                                                              ST                             4T                      S                  )

   N. 5th St. & Gateway                   Lakes Creamery 9th St.
                                                                                                                                                                                           . 13                           H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ST            nrhp T.


8. Minnesota Dairy 1601 Gateway Drive                                                                                                                                               nrhp                                           .                                   22
                                          N. & University Ave.


                                                                                                                                        7TH                                             12              14                                                            nrhp

9. C&R (Trolley Barn) 1010 N. 5th St. 18. Augustana Lutheran                                                                                                                                                                           19                20

                                                                                           NORTH WASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                              ST                                               15

10. The Kegs 901 N. 5th St.               520 University Ave.                                                                                      .                                                                                                  nrhp

11. Red & White Grocery                    19. YWCA 311 N. 4th St.



                                                                                                                     N. 12TH ST.
    N. 5th St. & 7th Ave. N.               20. Adley Anne’s (Jack’s


12. St. Michael’s Church 520 N. 6th St.        Roller Rink)                                                                                             N.

                                               224 N. 4th St.                                                                                                8T                                                                                    Marks a
13. Grand Forks Auditorium                                                                                                                                        H
                                                                                                                                                                      ST                                                                           building

                                           21. Grand Forks Woolen                                             5TH AVE. N.                                               .

    502 N. 5th St.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  on the

                                               Mills 301 N. 3rd St.                                                                                                                                                                                National

14. M&H Gas Station 423 N. 5th St.

                                           22. Chamber of Commerce

                                                                                                                                          N. 11TH ST.
15. Washington Elementary                                                                             4TH AVE. N.                                                                                                                                     of
                                               (NP Railroad Depot)                                                                                                                                                                                 Historic
    422 N. 6th St.                                                                                                                                                        17
                                               202 N. 3rd St.                                                                                                                                                                                       Places
16. Antenna Building (Assembly of
                                           (Sites in italic are on the
    God) 401 N. 7th St.                                                                    UNIVERSITY AVE.
                                           National Historic Register.)

                                                                                M iii L
   N St. Michael’s Hospital, Saint Anne’s Guest Home O
                                                 (Riverview Manor)                           nr
St. Michael’s Hospital was the sev-

                                                                                                                                  Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
enth hospital in the state of North
Dakota. Built in 1907, the hospital
has a sandstone and brick foundation
with Dinnie Brothers’ brick walls.
This handsome Classical Revival
style building is on the National
Register of Historic Places.
   The Hancock Brothers, the same
Fargo architects used for the current
St. Michael’s Catholic Church, de-
signed this hospital. It cost $80,000;
by comparison, the church cost
$75,000. Finished in 1908, local resi-
dents and service clubs donated the
hospital’s carpet and furnishings.
   In 1913, the nurses’ residence was
finished. Designed by Grand Forks ar-
chitect William J. Edwards the nurs-
es’ residence freed up space for more
patient beds. The three-story build-
ings were connected by a passage-        munity for 45 years. During its tenure, it’s es- Eventually St. Michael’s Hospital merged
way. In 1951, the hospital employed      timated that 100,000 patients were cared for with Deaconess to form United Hospital, fore-
23 Sisters and 95 other employees. St.   here, 10,502 babies were born here and 428 runner to Altru Health System. (continued)
Michael’s Hospital served the com-       nurses graduated from its School of Nursing.

                         N St. Michael’s Hospital, Saint Anne’s Guest Home O
                                    (Riverview Manor) continued

                                                              Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Historic Preservation Commission
Above is the original, single building for St. Michael's
Hospital. Bottom right shows the complex with the
addition of nurse's quarters. To the right, a close up
view of the entrance to the Hospital. Notice the nicely
landscaped grounds.

   In 1953, the hospital building was sold to the Sisters
of St. Francis for the St. Anne’s Guest Home for the el-
derly and infirm. Valiant local efforts saved this building
from demolition after the devastating flood of 1997—and
it has since been revamped into classic apartments.

                         N Grand Forks Bottling Company O
When O.J. Bostrom first sold cases

                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
of soda pop from him original 404 N.
7th Street location, (pictured right) he
mixed in just a few bottles of a crazy
new drink called Coca-Cola. It caught
   In 1937, his re-christened Grand
Forks Coca Cola Bottling Company
moved to a brick building on North
3rd Street, where it stood through the
1997 flood.
   “Chunk! Chunk!” Coke bottles rat-
tled on a conveyer belt as an overhead
capping machine would snap a cap
onto the lip of each bottle.
  Gary Grube could down a whole
bottle in one, long gulp. Back in the
day, pop cost just a nickel and kids in
the near north side knew that if they
dawdled around the Grand Forks Bot-
tling Company shop at the right time,
a worker might slip each of them a         workers stood beneath bright lights and       Later the brick building became the Grand
half-full bottle for free with the admo-   eyed the drinks to ensure quality. “Sweet    Forks School District’s Print Shop, its Bus
nition, “You go home, now.”                smelling foam would spill onto the floor,”   Garage and still later, its Building and
  In the North 3rd Street building,        remembered Gary Swanson.                     Grounds headquarters.

                                    N Simonson’s Lumberyard O
When the Simonson family bought

                                                                                                                                         Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage • Ron Phelps, GFND
land for the Grand Forks store in 1932,
“neighbors had been using the land for
garden plots,” said Tom Skaro, who op-
erates the store. People had planted veg-
etables all along N. 3rd Street, “from
the depot on down,” remembered
Peter Simonson, whose grandfather
Nels founded the business.
   Fire fighter Ron Phelps, now retired,
took a striking photo of the lumber yard
fire in the winter of 1961. Here is how
he remembered the first big fire he ever
fought: “It was early morning; every-
thing was lost in the back. Flames were
shooting up 100, 150 feet into the air.
Everybody in the neighborhood could
see it.”Across the street, neighbor Gary
Swanson said that with the explosion,
“it was like a giant bomb went off in the
middle of the night. Once it got going, it
burned and burned and burned for sev-
eral days. Boy, was it hot,” he said. “We
all thought we were going to lose our        fire spread to stacks of asphalt shingles, which ex-   Simonson Lumber and Hardware is owned
houses.”                                     ploded. The fire did not spread into their office, by Peter and Marilyn Simonson, and operated
   Peter Simonson relayed how the fire       or show room, due to a strong south wind. “The by sons Peter and Richard Simonson, son-in-law
started. A plug in a truck started on        firefighters were really taking a beating. It got so Tom Skaro and daughter Kim Skaro.
fire in the back of the store. Then the      hot. They had to crawl out,” Simonson recalled.

                                 N Simonson’s Gas Station O
  This small gas station on North 3rd

                                                                                                                                        Photo courtesy of Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage • Judy Lerma, Buxton ND
Street was immediately next to the
hardware store. It had just six stand-
ing tanks, but a willing service atten-
dant. Note the glass cylinders that
held the motor oil. This picture was
taken in the 1940s, and the houses in
the background then are still stand-
ing and easily recognizable.
  During the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s,
John and Peter Simonson expanded
their petroleum business through-
out North Dakota. They separated
the family’s gasoline and lumberyard
operations. Simonson Cash Supply
became Simonson Lumber and Hard-
ware, and the gasoline operation
became Simonson Station Stores,
owned and operated by John Simon-
son and his son Arch Simonson.
  The loading dock a block away                                                                     Back when this photo was taken, cus-
                                        ing oil. There is a Simonson Station Store on the edge of
in front of Prairie Harvest Founda-                                                                 tomers could still “pay at the pump."
                                        the neighborhood, located at 310 Gateway Drive. The gas
tion’s building was not Simonson’s,                                                                 Notice the smiling attendant's coin
                                        stations have expanded into convenience stores.
according the family, but was used                                                                  changer. A quick window clean was
by Cities Service Oil for transport-                                                                also included.

                                                    N Hipple’s Potato Chips O
The smell of fresh potatoes frying until
golden brown once permeated the whole
neighborhood. The two Hipple brothers
made the best potato chips ever—or at least
the best in town from the 1930s through
the 1950s.
   “I can still taste them,” said Gary Swan-
son, recalling the neighborhood potato chip
   The brothers delivered them to bars and
restaurants around Grand Forks and East
Grand Forks in little waxed paper bags that
were stapled shut.
   “If you were in a diner, you wouldn’t or-
der fries, you’d say, ‘Give me a bag of Hip-
ple’s,’ ” Swanson said.
   Everything was done by hand, so visi-
tors frequented the factory to watch the
process and buy chips over a stainless steel
counter. When the potatoes turned just the
right color, the slices were scooped out onto
the counter, and then stirred as they were
salted. A little scale held the bags as they
were filled.                                                                            Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage • Shirley Norman Stewart, GF
   “If you had a nickel, you'd go into Hip-
ple’s and they’d fill up the bag for you. Since day, one of them might have a nickel,” Swanson said.                    Hipple’s closed in the 1960s and the building was
they didn’t have to staple it, we’d get twice     “When I was home alone I’d play Hipple’s potato converted into an apartment building that was torn
as much. Then you’d share with the other factory. I’d pretend to make the fries, then stir them down to make way for the 2008 Habitat for Humanity
kids, because you never know. The next and salt them.”                                                              home built by area women.

                              N Wilder Elementary School O

                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
  Originally built in 1891, Wilder El-
ementarywas the city's third school.
That building caught fire and was de-
stroyed. Two days after the fire, the
school board enthusiastically voted
to rebuild. So, the first school, lo-
cated on the farthest north edge of
Grand Forks, was replaced in 1894.
In the fall of 1895, students attended
classes in a new 10-room school only
a few feet away from the site of the
original building.
  Generations of near north side stu-
dents attended school in the second
Wilder building which served for
nearly seven decades. But people
decided that the children needed an
expanded physical education space.
So, a new building was construct-
ed in 1955; its gym cost $48,811.
Schoolchildren played in it for the
first time shortly after January,           Above is the second Wilder School building, the original burned in 1894.
1956. A boiler room was added a          was underway. The building was built adjacent        Even though the old Wilder School was torn
short time later at a cost of $55,218.   to the gym and consisted of eight classrooms, a down, the present building continues to use
By the fall of 1964, construction of a   lunchroom, a library, and a multi-purpose room. the old address of “North 3rd Street.”
brand new Wilder Elementary School       Total cost for this project was $235,767.

                N Wilder Elementary School O continued

                                                     Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Public Library from Grand Forks Illustrated,

Above is the original Wilder School building. Built in 1891, it was considered a fine example of
educational architecture. The imposing entrance and tower only lasted three years. After the build-
ing burned, a new school was constructed immediately, although in a less stately style.

                                           N The Horse Trough O
This fountain is one of nearly 125 wa-

                                                                                                                                        Photo courtesy of Sandra Taylor
tering troughs presented to commu-
nities across the country in the early
1900s, when horses were a regular
part of everyday life. Actress Minnie
Maddern Fiske, whose husband was
president of the National Humane Al-
liance, campaigned to improve condi-
tions for workhorses and donated pro-
ceeds from her performances to fund
these watering troughs.
   Grand Forks’ trough was initially lo-
cated at the original site of the Grand
Forks County courthouse, at the in-
tersection of Walnut St. and First
Ave., in front of the Triangle Service
   Bernt Helgaas offered to let
the 5-ton fountain stand by his
Sweet Clover Creamery on South
3rd Street, near Central Park.
So, that is where the fountain was
first moved. Eventually, people put it     High School, had retired and gone on to radio all they could do to budge it. It’s made out of
on the river bank, discarded as junk.      work. The popular coach raised the money to granite.”
   Ed Bohnhoff took up the cause of        pull the horse trough out of the river.          Some businessmen offered a spot for Bohnhoff
reclaiming the trough. Bohnhoff, a           “It took tremendous effort,” Ted Jelliff re- to place the trough on Gateway and N. 5th St.
former teacher and coach at Central        called. “They used a crane and a truck. It took                                     (continued)

                                      N The Horse Trough O continued

                                                      Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, Valley and Beyond
                                                                                                                    On the left, Ed
                                                                                                                    Bohnhoff is pic-
                                                                                                                    tured in a 1932
                                                                                                                    He was then a
                                                                                                                    teacher and the
                                                                                                                    basketball coach
                                                                                                                    at Central High
                                                                                                                    School. He would
                                                                                                                    later become a
                                                                                                                    popular local
                                                                                                                    radio broad-
                                                                                                                    caster after his
                                                                                                                    retirement from

                                                                                                                                       Much as car dealers now advertise, it was once common
  The piece used to have lions on the bottom of the                                                                                    to see ads for livery stables and horse dealers. Draft horses
fountain and water would come out of their mouths.                                                                                     would be considered the equivalent of trucks in today’s trans-
But those disappeared.                                                                                                                 portation market.

                                                                                                                           M 10 L
                                          N Minnesota Dairy O
The Minnesota Dairy started with a

                                                                Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage Colleen Abar, GF
single cow barn in the Riverside Park
area in 1923. Drivers would collect
10-gallon cans of milk from near-by
farms and bring it to town to process
and bottle.
   Horses pulled milk around the neigh-
borhood until 1957, said the company’s
Tom Hagness.
   The Gateway Drive building still
holds milk, butter, yogurt, ice cream
and other goods, which truck drivers
pick up five days a week.
   George “Doc” Parent and his horse,
Jerry, are shown on their route on N.
5th Street.

                                                  M 11 L
                                                   NTrolley Barn O
                                                                C &R Laundry

                                      Photos courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage

C&R Cleaners and Laundry has been in               to house the city’s fleet of trolley cars. You people put them to creative uses. The car pic-
operation here since 1955. In the 1960s, the       can still see where large doors would open to tured above seems to have become a cottage.
business bought Model Laundry, which had           accommodate the cars.
operated since 1897.                                 The last trolley ride in the city was on
  At one point the C & R building was used         July 15, 1935. Later, some cars were sold and

                                                                                      M 12 L
                                                   N The Kegs O
When The Kegs’ owner Laura Berg-

                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
man restored the building’s siding a
few years ago, she discovered some
vintage advertising signs. Whether
the kitschy graphics are as delicious
as The Kegs’ famous Sloppy Joes,
though, is not up for debate.
  Harry Muzzy of Crookston spent
$350 to build the single Barrel eatery
here in 1935. Each barrel is made of
117 pieces of one-by-six-inch tongue
and groove fir lumber; 16-foot boards
form the outer shell. Originally, the
barrels were stained and varnished.
  The Grand Forks drive-in was one
of several Barrels in the region owned
by Harry and Martha Muzzy.
  During the 1940s, most Grand
Forks teenagers walked to the eat-
ery, and on Saturdays and Sundays,
the busiest days, many people came
on bikes, according to then-manager      closed its Wadena, Minn., drive-in and moved     Generations all have their own stories to tell
Monica Sheehan Grinde.                   that barrel to 5th Street. After that, everyone about The Kegs. Even though John Hennessy
  Hurt by gas and sugar rationing        started calling the double barrels The Kegs, worked as a “curb hop” at Wentz’s Café on
during World War II, the family          which became its name.                          Skidmore, “The Kegs was the place (continued)

                                                                  M 13 L
                                                             N The Kegs O continued

                   The Kegs haven’t changed their appearance much over the
                   years, but notice the “thatched” roof in this photo.

                                                                                                                                       Photo courtesy of Special Collections, Checster Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
                             Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage • Cheryl Gilbertson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A warm summer night, a top-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   down convertible, and a stop at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the Kegs—teen heaven!
to be seen, to sit in your car, gab and play                    It represents a more carefree era, and always
around.” Hennessy and his wife, then Lois                       signaled spring, since it’s a seasonal business.
Munro, both grew up in the neighborhood.                        When frost came, the Muzzys would put up
  People coming to Grand Forks for a school re-                 a sign, “CLOSED FOR THE SEASON—
union always make a pilgrimage to The Kegs.                     REASON—FREEzIN’ .”

                                                                                             M 14 L
                                      N Red & White Grocery O
The neighborhood was once full of

                                                                                                                                             Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Public Libarary
small family-run grocery stores, like this
one from the 1930s. Usually families
lived above or behind the stores. The
Dippe family grocery was kitty corner
from the Henry family store at the in-
tersection of N. 4th St. and 7th Ave. N.
Some were free-standing stores.
   Before the shop at 809 N. 5th St. be-
came Pavar’s Shoe Repair in the 1950s,
it had been the White Star Grocery.
In 1929 it was known as the Dean and
Warren grocery. The brick building at
N. 5th St. and University Ave. was
once Hugo’s Piggly Wiggly.
   The stock was small, often only a
few of each item, but that was enough
for the neighborhood's customers. In
easy walking distance, children would
often be given small change and told to
“run over quick and get a can of toma-       spend a pleasant ten minutes or more choosing        Eggs – 23¢, bread – 13¢, milk – 10¢
to soup for lunch," by their mothers.        from the selection available.                        A bowl of pickles on the counter, cans
   Another attraction was the cases            It must have tried the storekeeper’s patience to   of sardines, vegetables, pork & beans,
of penny candy. A small child with a         have three or four such shoppers agonizing over      boxes of cereal on the top shelf—this is
nickel or dime clutched in hand could        the best value for their money!                      a well-stocked shop.

                                                                     M 15 L
                                   N Saint Michael’s Church O                                                  nr

  St. Michael’s Church is nestled in

                                                                                                                                             Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
the heart of the near north side com-
munity. As the oldest Catholic par-
ish in North Dakota, St. Mike’s 100-
year old church is the parish’s third
church on this block.
  St. Michael’s first church was built
in 1879 downtown, at DeMers Av-
enue and 6th Street. To encourage
settlement, Grand Forks’ founder
Alexander Griggs donated land to
churches. Father Bill Sherman, a re-
tired St. Michael’s priest and histo-
rian, said that first church looked like
a machine shed with a freestanding
bell tower.
  The congregation grew from 15
families to 350 families in less than
a decade. So, church leaders decided
to move “far west, out to the very
outskirts of town”— to St. Michael’s
current site, the block of 6th Street
between 5th and 6th Avenues.               built. This church was blown apart in a wind        destroyed by fire, testing Father Conaty’s Irish
  In 1883, St. Michael’s was a wooden      storm four years later.                             patience. Leaders in the church decided to move
church faced with bricks and adorned         In 1887 it was replaced by a large brick build-   the large and elaborate parish house to the oth-
with a 105-foot steeple. Around this       ing with high ceilings, beautiful columns and       er end of the block, so that the big new church
time the 25-room parsonage was             an elaborate altar. But in 1907 this church was     they planned “would have room (continued)

                                                                     M 16 L
                                                              N Saint Michael’s Church O continued

Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota           Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Public Libarary, Grand Forks Illustrated

                                                                                                                               Shown left, in 1894, is Father Conaty driv-
                                                                                                                               ing a “cutter and span,” as the sleigh and
                                                                                                                               team were called. He served the parish from
to stretch out in all its grandeur,” Sher-                                                                                     1887 to 1911, during which three churches
                                                                                  Michael’s Romanesque church, which is on     occupied different places on the 6th Avenue
man said. That decision may have tested the                                       the National Register of Historic Places.    block. Above is the second church,on the site
stamina of the horses that pulled the rectory                                     Members want to raise $1.25 million for a    which burned.
to its current spot.                                                              geothermal heating and cooling system for
  2009 marks the 100th anniversary of St.                                         the rectory and the church, which is still the gathering place for St. Michael’s people.

                                                                                                                     M 17 L
                                N Saint Michael’s Church O continued

                                                                        This photo shows the church, and the large rectory in its original
                                                                        site on the property. This building was later relocated (with real
                                                                        horse power) when the present church was built.

In 1923, choir boys are shown in an interior shot of St. Michael’s
church. Photo courtesy Pat Dorsher, GF.

                                                                                                 Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Public Libarary, Grand Forks Illustrated

                                                               M 18 L
                               N Grand Forks Auditorium O
Once located in what is now the

                                                                                                                                    Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond •
parking lot for St. Michael’s Catholic
Church, at the corner of North 5th
Street and 5th Avenue North, the
City Auditorium featured big name
hits including Louis Armstrong and
Sousa’s Band.
   In 1908 George Stout, UND’s first
music professor, launched the Min-
neapolis Symphony. Each Spring the
Forks Oratorio Society put on the
hugely popular May Musical that last-
ed two days.
   The first show was held in Jack’s
Roller Rink, outfitted with a tem-
porary stage and filled with folding
chairs. Still the festival overflowed.
So the Oratorio Society and GF
Commercial Club sold bonds to raise
money for their own space. They
awarded K.C. Hunter a $15,000 bid
to build a city auditorium—with the
stipulation that it be completed with-     Alas, the Oratorio Society could not pay off All-American Turkey Show, a perennial event.
in 31 days! This record time for con-    the bonds and the city took over the building,    Before it was torn down in 1958, just about
struction still stands in Grand Forks,   where it housed myriad events. For example, the every north side kid had roller skated in this
according to local history buff Ted      Shrine Circus filled the building with beasts building.
Jelliff.                                 more exotic than the usual fare seen in the

                                                                 M 19 L
                                                            N Grand Forks Auditorium O continued

                                                                                                                                          This shot is taken of the Potato Show
                                                                                                                                          at the Auditorium. Note the inven-
                                                                                                                                          tive use of potato sacks as display
                                                                                                                                          table drapes. Northern Ace secured
                                                                                                                                          “brand placement” by providing

Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond

     Among many other uses, the Auditorium was
     a gathering place for the community. In 1941,
     Company M reported for duty, displayed in its
     ranks at the auditorium.

                                                                        Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond

                                                                                      M 20 L
                                         N M & H Gas Station O
The history of the neighborhood’s

                                                                                                                                 Photo courtesy of M & H Staff, from a Grand Forks Herald article
gas station and store can be found
by looking through photos taken
over the decades from the steps of
St. Michael’s Catholic Church. In
the background is M & H. You can
chart the changes in the business—
and gas prices—in the photographs.
The store has had three buildings on
this site. One previous building was
so narrow that customers had to turn
sideways in order to squeeze by each
other on the way to the cash register!
  Regulars know that workers at
M & H start their homemade dough-
nuts every morning at 3a.m. Grab-
bing freshly-brewed coffee is a morn-
ing ritual for people on their way
to work. Every weekday afternoon
the store fills with students getting
snacks as they walk home from Cen-         The store was popular during the Depres- a cup of java with a friend. M&H is a privately
tral High School. Staff say that peo-    sion, when M & H gave away glassware as held corporation, Miller and Holmes, Inc., and
ple in the neighborhood often order      premiums for buying gasoline. Every now and has headquarters in Hudson, Wisconsin.
dozens of M & H buns each spring         then a customer will bring in a cup and saucer, a
for graduation parties.                  reminder of tough times made easier by sharing

                                                                M 21 L
                         NWashington Elementary School O                                                                 nr

Washington School might have appro-

                                                                                                                                             Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
priately been named after James Din-
nie instead of the nation’s first presi-
dent. James Dinnie was an influential
north side businessman and contrac-
tor when he and William Wilder, the
namesake of Wilder School, were both
named to the school board at the same
   The city was booming and a school
was desperately needed but there was
controversy about where to put it.
The board president asked Wilder and
Dinnie to join him in recommending a
site for a new school. In 1907, contrac-
tors Melby and Standahl built Wash-
ington School in the Classical Revival
style at a cost of $39,000.
   You might notice a similar look to
several of the historic buildings in
the near north side. Architect Wil-
liam J. Edwards designed Wash-
ington School, and nearby St. Mi-          the original Central School was torn down. Re-      brick business was located in the near
chael’s Catholic School, as well as the    placed the same year in a new spot, the school      north side, both served as mayors of Grand
second Winship School, which was           was re-christened Central High School. Edwards      Forks. Washington School was added to the
demolished in favor of a more mod-         designed that school as well, which still stands.   National Register of Historic Places in 1992. It
ern structure in the 1950s. In 1917,         Brothers John and James Dinnie, whose             was recently converted into apartments.

                                                                     M 22 L
                                N Assembly of God Church O
                                                   (Antenna Building)
   The near north neighborhood was

                                                                                                                                         Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
home to a small Assemblies of God
congregation that started in 1927.
This church identified with the
worldwide Pentecostal movement,
which taught evangelical doctrines
and that biblical spiritual gifts, such
as speaking in tongues and healing,
are for today.
   This structure, built in 1949, was
the first permanent home for the
congregation. The church started
in 1927, meeting in the basement of
the public library downtown. From
1928–1935, members rented a church
at 4th Avenue South and Walnut
   In 1935, the building the church
had been rented was purchased by
another congregation, forcing mem-
bers to find another meeting place.
They bought land at 4th Avenue
North and North 7th Street and hur-       current location at 3920 Cherry Street. A bers turned to the church, which reduced their
riedly erected a small house of wor-      self-help organization bought this church and re- payments. Hundreds of people attend a variety of
ship. They built this pictured church     named it the Antenna Building. When the orga- meetings here.
in 1949 and, in 1979, moved to their      nization had trouble making the mortgage, mem-

                                                                    M 23 L
                N Bridgeman’s / Land O’ Lakes Creamery O

         Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage • Ruby Blair, GF
                                                                                                                         Then called the Bridgeman-Russel
                                                                                                                         Creamery, this photo shows employees
A major neighborhood employer, Bridge-                                     quent Bridgeman’s on the sly. “They would     outside the building in 1929.
man’s Dairy started in 1883 in Duluth and                                  throw away boxes of defective ice cream
grew into a large, Midwestern operation.                                   bars. We’d go digging in the dumpster and C.P. O’Neill, was elected mayor in 1972.
  Grand Forks Fire Chief Pete O’Neill                                      pull them out.’’ He put them into his little The building now houses Dick Walsh Con-
grew up in the neighborhood and would fre-                                 red wagon. This was well before his father, struction.

                                                                                                                M 24 L
                                    N Augustana Lutheran O

                                                                                                                                        Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
   Swedish immigrants gathered on
October 23, 1887 to organize a commu-
nity of faith in Grand Forks. City fa-
ther Alexander Griggs gave away land
to churches, near where the current Y
Family Center stands. Eventually, five
churches were clustered nearby.
   The Gustaf Adolf’s Svenska Evange-
lisk Luterska Forsamling, which trans-
lates to Gustavus Adolphus Swedish
Evangelical Lutheran Congregation,
was built at 18 North 6th Street and
dedicated in 1899.
   As they became more assimilated,
the Swedish immigrants changed the
name to Swedish Evangelical Luther-
an Immanuel Congregation in 1917.
In 1931, “in a desire to reflect the in-
clusiveness of the congregation,” the
name was changed again to Augus-
tana Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Church services remained in Swedish       The church was built at its current site at 520 is,” explained Father Bill Sherman, who is an ex-
until 1935, when services switched University Ave. in 1955. “There was a swathe of pert on the ethnic groups of North Dakota.
into to English.                         Swedes who lived just west of where the church                                        (Coninued)

                                                                  M 25 L
                                                               N Augustana Lutheran O continued

                                                                                                 Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library,
                                                                                                 University of North Dakota

                                                                                                 At left is a picture of the Augustana Church choir,
                                                                                                 taken sometime in the early 1950s.
  Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald; Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage            Above, the interior of the new Augustana Lutheran
                                                                                                 Church, built in 1955.

  The church features a colorful, striking image of Jesus, called “His Eye is On
the Sparrow.” It is huge, composed of 630 pieces of cut glass. It required 249
hours of labor. The Rev. Stephen Streed created the window over a period of
years in the 1990s.

                                                                                        M 26 L
                                                    N YWCA O
   Grand Forks 12th mayor James Dinnie

                                                                                                                                   Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Historice Preservation Commission
built this home for $5,500 in 1904. Two
years later it became a home for the Young
Women’s Christian Association. James and
Nettie Dinnie and their daughter Vivian
moved in during the final year that James’
brother, John Dinnie, served as the city’s
8th mayor. The YWCA had various locales
over the years, building a brick facility in
1951, at 121 N. 5th Street, across from Cen-
tral High School.
   Here is some background on the local
YWCA provided by Lyle Oechsle, former
executive director of the Y Family Center.
It is on file in UND’s Chester Fritz Library:
“The YWCA, a membership organization
with a religious purpose, was open to any
girl or young woman, providing the op-
portunity for physical, social, mental, and
spiritual growth. The Grand Forks YWCA
was organized on December 30, 1903, when
a committee of women met in the home of
George B. Winship, founder of the Grand         nancial conditions, there was no effort to   hired at a salary of $30 a month. The Grand
Forks Herald. The group studied the needs       solicit funds from the public, depending     Forks YWCA received its national charter
of young women in Grand Forks living            entirely upon membership dues and vol-       in October, 1906. The blue triangle of the
away from home. They adopted a constitu-        untary gifts. A YWCA Board of Directors      YWCA symbolizes the three main points
tion in January, 1904. Due to prevailing fi-    was chosen and a General Secretary was       of the organization: mind, body, and spirit.”

                                                                 M 27 L
                                           N Jack’s Roller Rink O nr
                                                     (Adley Anne's)

                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Saint Michael's Church
The Jack family once lived above their
roller rink. When the church built in
1897 burned in 1907, St. Michael’s
held services in the rink for nearly two
years before its present church opened
in 1909. This photo shows worshippers
leaving Jack’s after Mass. Later, the
rink was used as a car dealership, Forx
   There were so many other small car
lots nearby that the area was called
“Auto Alley.” When Earl Schneider
opened Dakota TV & Appliance in
the old rink, hockey great Fido Purpur
and his brother Ray helped remodel it.
Now it houses the Schneider family’s
Adley Anne’s Baby & Maternity

                                            Dressed in their Sunday best, parishioners stroll on a fine morning after Mass in their
                                            temporary meeting place. Gentlemen wore hats, and ladies wore bonnets with a variety
                                            of embellishments. A sign on the neighboring building advertises “Murphy & Murphy,
                                            The Irish Pawnbrokers.”

                                                                M 28 L
                                N Grand Forks Woolen Mills O                                                                   nr

Built in 1895, this three-story structure fea-

                                                                                                                                                                           Photo courtesy of Grand Forks Public Library, from Grand Forks Illustrated
tured many windows, allowing in natural
light so the 75 employees could see the wares.
Here people scoured and wove wool, dyed and
sewed fabric. The mill produced woolen blan-
kets, shawls, and yarn, flannel underwear,
shirts and skirts and Mackinaws, blankets or
jackets woven with large bars of color.
   Owned by George B. Clifford, a founder
of Cream of Wheat, the mill sat across the
Northern Pacific Depot and now is listed
on the National Register of Historic Places.
Architect John W. Ross of Grand Forks de-
signed this structure, as well as the Grand
Forks City Hall.
   “The most important industry in Grand
Forks—in fact, in the State—is the Grand
Forks Woolen Mills. These mills have not only
brought encouragement to those who promot-         thousands of dollars have been distributed as    Yarns, Flannels, Blankets, Cassimeres,
ed the works, but have also set forth Grand        wages and for material.                          Shirts, Skirts, Mackinaws, Underwear and
Forks in a most favorable light as a manufactur-      The building was erected in 1895. It is a     “Dacotah,” Beaver and Blanket Shawls. The
ing and distributing center. It was a happy day    large structure of three stories and complete-   officers of the Company are Messrs. George
for the city when these mills were established     ly equipped with the finest woolen mills         B. Clifford, president, and A. P. Clifford, sec-
in 1892, since which time a large number of        machinery, and 75 people are here employed       retary and treasurer." (From “Souvenir Album City of Grand
                                                                                                    Forks, North Dakota: A pictorial and prose description of the ‘Wheat City’
employees have found work there and many           in the manufacture of fine Woolen Goods,         The Metropolis of North Dakota,” 1889)

                                                                      M 29 L
                      N Northern Pacific Railroad Depot O                                                           nr
                                              (Chamber of Commerce)
The former Northern Pacific Railroad

                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Grand Forks Public Library, from Grand Forks Illustrated
Depot, 202 North 3rd Street, is on the-
National Register of Historic Places.
   Railroads helped establish com-
merce in Grand Forks; however, dur-
ing the late 1800s economic insta-
bility forced Northern Pacific into
bankruptcy. Grand Forks Herald
founder George Winship, described
immobility’s effect on the community,
“I shall never forget that winter of
1893—what with 1,100 cases of ty-
phoid fever, deaths and funerals daily,
busted banks and ruined credit, iso-
lated by quarantine from the outside
world, we were undoubtedly the most
unhappy and disconsolate people in
all the great northwest.”—From They
Came to Stay (p. 29).
   Meanwhile, the railroad regained
ground and James J. Hill visited Grand    It continues to use the building today as the combined   This photo, taken in 1897. shows
Forks in 1910.                            Chamber of Commerce for Grand Forks and East Grand       the Northern Pacific Rail Road
   The Grand Forks Chamber of Com-        Forks.                                                   Passenger Depot.
merce purchased the depot in 1981.

                                                                M 30 L
                            N Northern Pacific Railroad Depot O continued

                                                                                    The Northern Pacific Railway bridge
                                                                                    is pictured in 1910. The center pillar
                                                                                    of the turnstile bridge still exists.

        Photos courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond

This undated photo of Northern
Pacific steam engine 2153 illustrates
the mechanical power and glamour of
the steam driven age of rail transport.
Built in 1909, this Pacific type engine
was displayed in East Grand Forks,
Minnesota until 2002.

                                                                           M 31 L
                     N Neighorhood Connections: Sports O
                                                                                                                                                                           After Hunt left

                                                                                                                    Photo courtesy of Greg DeVillers, Grand Forks Herald
              Ken Hunt •                                                                                                                                                  the pros due to
              Center Fielder                                                                                                                                               an injury, he
 NY Yankees, LA Angels, Washington Senators                                                                                                                                shunned public-
                     311 N. 11th St.                                                                                                                                       ity. Ron Engen
Ken Hunt was born Friday, July 13, 1934, in St. Michael’s                                                                                                                  talked Hunt into
Hospital. “Ken’s mother was no bigger than a minute,”                                                                                                                      attending UND.
said John Hennessy, who grew up on the north side.                                                                                                                         A group of stu-
“When he was born, Ken was 13 pounds, 8 ounces.”                                                                                                                           dents would go
  Hunt attended St. Michael’s School. “Ken Hunt was a                                                                                                                      out for coffee in
superb full back, playing for St. James Academy,” noted                                                                                                                    between history
local historian Ted Jelliff. “Kenny was such a strong ath-                                                                                                                 classes. “He had
lete that he probably would have gone on to play football                                                                                                                  a great attitude,”
at UND if he didn’t play baseball. He was amazing to                                                                                                                       said Jelliff. Hunt
watch, even in Grand Forks Legion Ball, hitting home                                                                                                                       moved out west
runs over the fence at the Municipal Ballpark, by the wa-                                                                                                                  and owned a bar.
ter tower, called Chiefs Park.”                                                                                                                                            But he kept in
  Hunt was 25 years old when he broke into the big                                                                                                                         touch with the
leagues on Sept. 10, 1959, joining Roger Maris on the                                                                                                                      old neighborhood.
New York Yankees. They were room mates for awhile,
said Greg DeVillers, of the Grand Forks Herald.
  But in 1961 when Maris, playing for the Yankees, was
trying to break Babe Ruth’s 60-homerun record, he came       back and climbed the vine-covered wall in center field,
up against his boyhood friend. The Herald quotes eye-        leaping high above the wall trying to catch that ball. The
witness Frank Miller: “Roger hit his 50th home run that      whole stadium crowd quieted. When Kenny came down
day, straight away to deep center. Kenny went back and       from the wall, his glove was empty.”

                                                                   M 32 L
                     N Neighorhood Connections: Sports O

    Roger Maris                                                                                                                              School were excited. “I think it re-
                                                                                                                                              ally mattered only to the boys who
        (624 5th Ave. N., #4,
                                                                                                                                              were die-hard baseball fans,” remem-
       Hampton Apartments)
                                                                                                                                              bered Sandy Taylor, who was attend-
Before he became the nation’s home-
                                                                                                                                              ing Washington in 1961. “There was
run hero in 1961, Roger Maris was
                                                                                                                                              actually a picture in one of the class-
co-captain of the fifth grade city bas-
                                                                                                                                              rooms of Roger Maris in his class at
ketball championship team at Wash-
                                                                                                                                              school. It was a point of some pride
ington Elementary School. Collec-
                                                                                                                                              for that room.”
tors consider the picture of him with
a basketball to be Maris’ first sports
  The two-story Hampton Apart-

                                                                                                  Photo courtesy of Greg DeVillers, Grand Forks Herald
ments were built in 1922. “Hard-
wood floors and a spiral staircase
leading to the upper level made them
a prestige address,’’ wrote Virg Foss
in the Grand Forks Herald.
  Near north side neighborhood boys
“fashioned a weedy unused lot bor-
dering the railroad tracks. Any ball
hit over the tracks was an automatic
home run.”
  Roger Maris was born in Hibbing, 1942. They stayed here for three years, until a better rail-
Minn. in 1934. His father worked road job lured them to Fargo.
for the Great Northern Railroad and     In 1961, when Roger Maris was doing his run-up to
moved the family to Grand Forks in Babe Ruth’s home run record, students in Washington

                                                                M 33 L
                     N Neighorhood Connections: Politics O

  J.F.T. O’Connor

                                                                                                                                          Photo courtesy of Chester Fritz Library Special Collections, University of North Dakota
        524 North 5th Street
President Franklin Delano Roos-
evelt visited Grand Forks on Oct. 4,
1937, and heaped praise on the near
north side’s most famous son, J.F.T.
O’Connor: “He kept the banks sound
and your money safe.”
  O’Connor’s will, written in 1937,
called for that to be his epitaph. He is
buried in Calvary Cemetery.
  The president had to ask O’Connor
three times before he accepted
Roosevelt’s offer to nominate him
as U.S. Comptroller, a “policeman of
the banks.” Here’s a summary of that
turbulent time from the U.S. Treasury:
“In 1933 Roosevelt declared a four-day
“bank holiday,” and more than 1,400
national banks, owing depositors           can be saved and liquidating those that cannot.    banks are returned to depositors. O’Connor also
more than $2 billion, are declared           “To sell off bank assets, O’Connor employs       helps establish the Federal Deposit Insurance
insolvent and denied permission to         sound trucks advertising real estate owned         Corporation (FDIC) and serves as one of its
reopen. O’Connor is responsible for        by the banks; his tactics are so successful that   three directors.”
reorganizing the national banks that       93 cents out of every dollar in assets in those                                        (Continued)

                                                                     M 34 L
                                           J.F.T. O’Connor (continued)

According to historian Dan Rylance,       He served as Comptroller until

                                                                                Photo courtesy of Chester Fritz Library Special Collections, University of North Dakota
“One of O’Connor’s first duties was     1941, when Roosevelt appointed him
the organization of the new First       a U.S. District judge in southern
National Bank in Grand Forks. The       California. O’Connor never married.
original first National was one of      He died in 1949. His will remembers
the banks that did not open after       family members, St. James Academy,
Roosevelt’s bank holiday on March       St. Michael’s Hospital, St. Michael’s
6, 1933. It had been managed poorly     School, St. Mary’s School and UND.
and more significantly, it was broke.
Through O’Connor’s efforts, a new
First National Bank was opened with
a $1 million loan secured from the
Reconstruction Finance Corporation.”
   O’Connor, a lawyer, taught law at
UND and served in the North Dakota
Legislature in 1917 and 1919. In 1920
he was an unsuccessful candidate
for governor. Two years later he ran
unsuccessfully for U.S. Senate.
   He moved to California, where he
joined a prosperous and politically
active law firm In 1932 he managed
FDR’s California campaign for

                                                                 M 35 L
                  N Neighorhood Connections: Invention O

    James Lincoln

                                                                                                    Photo courtesy of Jim Common
             507 N. 4th St.
Linc Common invented Tang, the
breakfast drink of champions and as-
   He was born James Lincoln Com-
mon on Feb. 12, 1909. Here’s how he
described his boyhood: “The house
was fronted by N. 4th St. and the pass-
ing traffic was horse-drawn vehicles—
wheels in summer, runners in winter.
Flanked by ditches, the street became
our lakes for wading, splashing, falling
into, and the sailing of ‘boats’ after
heavy rains or spring thaws. Wooden
crosswalks were located at the end
of each block, and the action of hors-     is the food scientist’s son and namesake. “For     Common graduated in 1933 from UND
es’ hooves, the wheels, runners and        some reason, probably money, my dad's parents    in Chemistry and dietetics. Linc and Gladys
weather made the planking of these         moved a lot,” he said. In 1928, the inventor’s   Thorpe were married in 1934 and lived at 207
crossovers a frequent source of slivers    parents, Adam and Anna VanDusen Common,          N. 6th St. Two years later the couple moved to
for bare feet. Paving was installed in     lived at 311 6th Ave N. In 1930 and 1932, they   an apartment above Norby’s Department Store.
my early teens.”                           lived at 518 N. 7th St. “The Depression must     That was their last local home before moving to
   Jim Common, Apple Valley, Minn.,        have been tough on the family,” Jim surmised.    Minnesota, where Common got         (Continued)

                                                                    M 36 L
                                    James Lincoln Common                                                continued

                                                                                                                                     Photo courtesy of Jim Common
                                                                          Photo courtesy of Jim Common
        Pictured above is a contemporary shot of the house where
        Lincoln Common grew up. At right, Lincoln is shown on the
        porch of the house with parents Adam Common and Anna
        Van Dusen Common.

a master’s degree from U of M in 1938.   and improve the quintessential Ameri-
He went to work a year later for Gen-    can staple, Jell-0. “He was known as Manor, N.Y., not far from the General Foods research cen-
eral Foods Corporation, which has        Mr. Jell-O,” according to Bruce Gjovig ter in Tarrytown, N.Y.
six Linc Common patents, including       of UND’s Center for Innovation. The      Linc Common died in 1981.
Tang. Common also helped develop         Common family settled in Briarcliff

                                                                 M 37 L
         N Neighborhood Activities O

                                                                                          Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond
In 1942, this troop of Brownies was photographed at foot of Saint Michael’s steps. Just
visible behind them in the upper left are the pumps at M&H Gas station.

                                          M 38 L
            N Neighborhood Activities O
                 The All-American Turkey Show

                                                                                                    Photo courtesy of the Grand Forks Herald, The Valley and Beyond • Donna Brenna Partlow
The All-American Turkey Show was an annual event in the Grand Forks Auditorium. This photo
shows a row of the birds and their owners. The birds look remarkably calm, as the people coopera-
tively “watched the birdie” for the photographer.

                                             M 39 L
                 N The Blizzard of 1966 O

                                                                                                Photo courtesy of Elwin B. Robinson Department of Special Collections, Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota
In the aftermath of the March 1966 blizzard, congregants of St. Michael’s church stroll after
services. An entire generation of students remember the storm with some fondness—they got three
days off from school! Snowmobiles were just becoming popular, and the few folks who owned them
were the only ones to navigate with ease. Travel was mostly by foot or toboggan, although the snow
mobiles were used for emergency runs.

                                              M 40 L
                                        N Acknowledgements O
Content credits: Writer, Gail Hand;             Neighborhood Association’s History Com-      Church, Staff; Salvation Army, Staff; UND
Graphic Artist, Sandra Taylor; Editor,          mittee members provided research and         Center for Innovation, Bruce Gjovig; UND
Kristin Garaas-Johnson; photos courtesy of      consultation: Nathan and Hope Brisbois,      Chester Fritz Library, Elwyn B. Robinson
Grand Forks: Proud People, Proud Heritage,      Karen Bondy Dahl, Mary Fredricks, Kristin    Department of Special Collections Staff;
and The Valley and Beyond, originally print-    Garaas-Johnson, Eliot Glassheim and Fayme    Valley Christian Center, local staff and na-
ed by Grand Forks Herald; UND’s Chester         Stringer; Augustana Lutheran Church staff;   tional archivist Darrin J. Rodgers; Flower
Fritz Library, Special Collections; M&H         Grand Forks’ Office of Urban Development,    Pentecostal Heritage Center, Springfield,
Gas, Ron Phelps; G.F. Public Library, G.F.      Katie Osborn; City of Grand Forks Inspec-    MO; WDAz-TV, Terry Dullum; Judge
Illustrated, 1897; G.F. Historic Preservation   tions Department, Bev Collings; City of      Kirk Smith, retired; and Richard “Diddy”
Commission; Earl Schneider; Jim Common;         Grand Forks Planning Department, Charlie     Quesnell.
Greg DeVilliers; Sandra Taylor.                 Durenberger; Grand Forks County Histori-       The Near North Neighborhood
  Several people were very generous with        cal Society, Leah Byzewski; Grand Forks      would like to thank the John S. and
individual interviews:                          Foundation for Education, Staff; Grand
                                                                                             James L. Knight Foundation for fund-
  Casey Common, St. Paul; Delores Com-          Forks Historic Preservation Commission,
mon, Jim Common, Apple Valley, Minn.;           Peg O’Leary; Grand Forks Herald, Marsha      ing this project and the City of Grand
John French; John Hennessy; Ted Jelliff;        Gunderson, Greg DeVillers and Virg Foss;     Forks, Grand Forks Housing Author-
Leroy Kurtycka; Lucy and Olger Langheid;        Grand Forks Public Library, Grand Forks      ity, and the Community Foundation
Jim Lyons; Pete O’Neill; Bill Owen, New         Room, Reference Staff; M and H Gas, Al       of Grand Forks, East Grand Forks
York; Earl Schneider; Father Bill Sherman;      Stortroen; Katie Olson; Darren Storey;       and Region for supporting a commu-
Gary and Dottie Swanson; Dale Vioss, J.F.T.     N.D. Legislative Council, Staff, Norene A.
                                                                                             nity-wide initiative to promote urban
O’Connor relative, Wisconsin; Ron Phelps,       Roberts; Historical Research, Inc., Min-
retired firefighter; Tom Skaro, Simonson        neapolis; Historical Architectural Survey;   renewal and empowerment.
Lumber and Hardware; Tom Hagness, Min-          Applications for National Register of His-
nesota Dairy; Diana Randall; Near North         toric Places; St. Michael’s Roman Catholic

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                                      N Additional Resources O
NDSU Institute for Regional Studies on-           Joseph Knue • “History of the Red River Val-      II - Biographical • City of Grand Forks History
line Archive • Articles, pamphlets; • “Near       ley,” 1909, pamphlet • History of St. Barnard’s   http://www.grandforksgov.com/gfgov/home.
North Neighborhood Vision,” report by Don         Academy, essay from “Scattered Steeples,” Fa-     nsf/Pages/History • Grand Forks: A Pictorial
Faulkner, Atelier Heamavihio, Fargo, Sept. 30,    ther William McNamee • Valley Christian Cen-      History, Expanded Second Edition, 2005, Dr.
2008 • “N.D. Characters: J.F.T. O’Connor,” Dan    ter, Assembly of God 75th Anniversary Celebra-    D. Jerome Tweton • Grand Forks: Proud People,
Rylance • “Near Southside: A Grand Forks His-     tion, 1927-2002 • Augustana Lutheran Church       Proud Heritage, Grand Forks Herald, 1999 • The
toric District,” “Historic Reeves Drive and 6th   110th Anniversary History, October 14, 2007       Valley and Beyond, Grand Forks Herald, 2000
Street Tour,” and “National Register Historic     • Red River Foundation Calendar, 2001 • Polk      • Grand Forks Illustrated, W.L. Dudley, Grand
Properties in Grand Forks,” Grand Forks His-      Grand Forks City Directories • Sanborn Insur-     Forks, 1897 • One to Remember: The Relent-
toric Preservation Commission • “Centennial       ance Maps, 1919 • City of Grand Forks, Records    less Blizzard of March, 1966, and The Raging
Home Tour, 1989 Grand Forks,” Grand Forks         of sewer, building permits, 1890s • History of    Red: The 1950 Red River Valley Flood, Douglas
Historic Preservation Commission and G.F.         Humane Society Alliance horse troughs, http://    Ramsey and Larry Skroch • North Dakota Post-
Centennial Committee • “Downtown Grand            www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=11856              cards, 1900-1930, Images of America: North Da-
Cities Guide to History and Art,” Downtown        • YWCA history, Orin G. Libby Manuscript          kota, and North Dakota 100 Years Ago, Larry
Leadership Group • “Passport to North Dako-       Collection by Lyle Oechsle, Grand Forks           Aasen • The Frog Point Story, 1859-1989 • Uff
ta History," North Dakota Historical Society      YMCA Director, April 12, 1989 (Acc # 89-          Da, Emily Lunde • Prairie Peddlers: The Syrian
• “The Barrel Root Beer Stands of the Upper       1647). • Linc Common, Curt Eriksmoen, Fargo,      Lebanese in N.D., William C. Sherman, Paul L.
Midwest,” Steven R. Hoffbeck, Minnesota           www.eriksmoenenterprises.net • http://www.        Whitney, John Guerrero • Plains Folk: North
History, 2003 • “100 Athletes for 100 Years,”     rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wioconto/memoirs-          Dakota’s Ethnic History, N.D. Centennial Heri-
Grand Forks Herald Staff Reports, Jan. 9, 2000    Carter2.htm Linc Common Memories, with            tage Series • Ethnic Heritage in North Dakota,
• “This Was Hipple Country,” “Fear in ’49—        family permission • Linc Common, Tang arti-       edited by Francie M. Berg • Dakota Photo Docu-
Polio,’’ by Gary Swanson in “The Red Cent,”       cle, Bismarck Tribune, Sept. 4, 2006 • Family     mentary Project, 1976 • The Forum Presents the
published by Grand Forks Foundation for Edu-      history of John and James Dinnie Extracted        Century in Photos 1900-1999, Forum Communi-
cation • “Souvenir Album City of Grand Forks,     from: History of Minneapolis, Gateway to the      cations • They Came to Stay: Grand Forks, N.D.
North Dakota: A pictorial and prose description   Northwest; • Chicago-Minneapolis, The S. J.       Centennial 1974, edited by Eldon Bladow • 1919
of the ‘Wheat City’ The Metropolis of North       Clarke Publishing Co., 1923; Edited by: Rev.      Blue Book, N.D. Legislature
Dakota,” 1889 • “Of Time and the Prairie,”        Marion Daniel Shutter, D.D., LL.D.; volume

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