AD 1.6 WAKE TURBULENCE AND JET BLAST

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					                              AIP New Zealand                         AD 1.6 - 1


AD 1.6        WAKE TURBULENCE AND JET BLAST

1      WAKE TURBULENCE

1.1    General
1.1.1 Wake turbulence is the term used to describe the effect of the
rotating air masses (wake vortices) generated behind the wing tips of
aircraft in flight. These vortices are two counter-rotating cylindrical air
masses trailing aft from the aircraft and are particularly severe when
generated by large and wide-bodied aircraft. The vortices are most
dangerous to following aircraft during the take-off, initial climb, final
approach and landing phases of flight. They tend to drift down, and when
close to the ground move sideways (outwards) from the track of the
generating aircraft.
1.1.2 Helicopters produce vortices when in flight and there is evidence
that, per kilogram of gross mass, their vortices are more intense than
those of fixed-wing aircraft. Helicopters should keep well clear of light
aircraft when hovering or while air-taxiing.
1.1.3 Wake turbulence separation is provided by ATC to pilots whose
aircraft may be affected by the phenomenon, except in the case of IFR
aircraft making a visual approach or a VFR arrival behind a medium or
heavy. In these cases it is the pilot’s responsibility to provide adequate
spacing from preceding arriving or departing aircraft. In these
circumstances ATC will make allowance for such pilot initiated manoeuvres
when sequencing additional following aircraft. The spacing required is
tabulated below and guidance material can be obtained from the CAA.
1.1.4 Whenever practicable, aerodrome controllers will advise pilots of the
expected occurrence of hazards caused by turbulent wake by issuing a
caution in the following form: “CAUTION — WAKE TURBULENCE”. The
occurrence of turbulent wake hazards cannot be accurately predicted, and
aerodrome controllers cannot assume responsibility for issuing advice of
such hazards at all times, or for its accuracy.
1.1.5 If a pilot considers the wake turbulence separation standards
inadequate, increased separation may be requested by specifying the
spacing required.




                             E Civil Aviation Authority
                                                          Effective: 18 NOV 10
AD 1.6 - 2                      AIP New Zealand

1.1.6 If a controller considers the wake turbulence separation provided is
inadequate, or that it need be applied for any situation not covered by a
specific minimum, the pilot will be advised and an appropriate separation
applied.
1.1.7 Notwithstanding the wake turbulence separation standards
previously outlined, if pilots consider that the effect of wake turbulence can
be nullified by ensuring that flight profiles do not cross, they may request
and be granted exemption from these separations. ATC will advise the
category or type of the other aircraft.

1.2       Weight Categories
1.2.1 For the purpose of assessing wake turbulence separation, aircraft
are divided into the following weight categories:
(a)       Heavy (H): Aircraft types of 136,000kg MCTOW or more (example:
          C17, A330, B767, or any larger aircraft).
(b)       Medium (M): Aircraft types of less than 136,000kg but more than
          7000kg MCTOW (example: SW4B/C, JS3A/32 and Beech 1900 or
          larger, up to and including B757 and A320 series).
          B757 aircraft will be categorised as a HEAVY (H) aircraft for the
          purpose of assessing wake turbulence to following aircraft.
(c)       Light (L): Aircraft types of 7000kg MCTOW or less (example: SW4A,
          JS31 and smaller).
1.2.2 The wake turbulence category for each aircraft and helicopter type
is listed in ICAO DOC 8643 (Aircraft Type Designators) and in the Airways
IFIS website — PLANNING INFO.




                               E Civil Aviation Authority
      Effective: 9 APR 09
                                AIP New Zealand                           AD 1.6 - 3


1.3      Distance Based Wake Turbulence Separation
1.3.1 The wake turbulence separation minima in Table AD 1.6-1 will be
applied to aircraft in all phases of flight when:
(a)      an aircraft is operating directly behind (0.5NM laterally) another
         aircraft at the same level or less than 1000ft below (this includes
         reciprocal track aircraft after passing); or
(b)      an aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft at the same level or
         less than 1000ft below; or
(c)      both aircraft are using the same runway, or parallel runways
         separated by less than 760m.
                            Table AD 1.6-1
           Distance Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima

      Leading aircraft      Aircraft following or            Minimum distance
                              crossing behind
           A380                    A380                             4NM
                              Non A380 HEAVY                        6NM
                                  MEDIUM                            7NM
                                   LIGHT                            8NM
          HEAVY                     HEAVY                           4NM
                                   MEDIUM                           5NM
                                    LIGHT                           6NM
         MEDIUM                      LIGHT                          5NM


1.3.2 Whenever the distance between an aircraft, at the same level or less
than 1000ft below and following an aircraft of heavier wake turbulence
category, is less than the equivalent of 2 minutes flying time, ATC will issue
a caution of possible wake turbulence.




                               E Civil Aviation Authority
                                                            Effective: 9 APR 09
AD 1.6 - 4                       AIP New Zealand


1.4       Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation:
          Same Direction Runway Operation
1.4.1 Minimum time separations are applied between:
(a)       aircraft using the same runway or grass strip; or
(b)       parallel runways or grass strips less than 760m apart; or
(c)       where there is a possibility that the projected flight paths will cross
          at the same altitude or less than 1000ft below.

Between Arriving Flights
1.4.2 The minimum separations applied between arriving flights are
provided in Table AD 1.6-2.
                               Table AD 1.6-2
             Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima —
                  Arriving Flights Same Direction Runway

      Leading aircraft        Following aircraft             Minimum time
           A380                    A380                        2   minutes
                              Non A380 HEAVY                   2   minutes
                                  MEDIUM                       3   minutes
                                   LIGHT                       4   minutes
          HEAVY                     HEAVY                      2 minutes
                                   MEDIUM                      2 minutes
                                    LIGHT                      3 minutes
         MEDIUM                      LIGHT                     3 minutes




                                E Civil Aviation Authority
      Effective: 9 APR 09
                               AIP New Zealand                            AD 1.6 - 5


Between Departing Flights
1.4.3 The minimum separations applied between departing flights are
provided in Table AD 1.6-3.
                          Table AD 1.6-3
         Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima —
             Departing Flights Same Direction Runway

                                                  Minimum spacing at time
                                                    aircraft are airborne
   Leading
                 Following aircraft       Departure from         Departure from
   aircraft
                                           same take-off          intermediate
                                             position           take-off position

    A380              A380                    2   minutes          3   minutes
                 Non A380 HEAVY               2   minutes          3   minutes
                     MEDIUM                   3   minutes          4   minutes
                      LIGHT                   3   minutes          4   minutes
    HEAVY             HEAVY                   2 minutes            3 minutes
                     MEDIUM                   2 minutes            3 minutes
                      LIGHT                   2 minutes            3 minutes

   MEDIUM             LIGHT                   2 minutes            3 minutes

1.4.4 In the case of parallel runways and/or grass strips where the
departing thresholds are not laterally aligned, a succeeding departure from
a forward threshold is deemed to be departing from an intermediate
take-off position.
1.4.5 Where the possibility exists of a departing aircraft of higher
performance overtaking a departing aircraft of lower performance, wake
turbulence separation will be applied as if the higher performance aircraft is
the leading aircraft.




                              E Civil Aviation Authority
                                                            Effective: 9 APR 09
AD 1.6 - 6                     AIP New Zealand


Between Arriving and Departing Flights
1.4.6 The minimum time separations applied between arriving and
departing aircraft, if the flight path of the following aircraft will cross the
projected flight path of the leading aircraft (e.g. when an arriving aircraft is
operating onto a runway using a displaced landing threshold) are provided
in Table AD 1.6-4.
                           Table AD 1.6-4
         Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima —
        Arriving and Departing Flights Same Direction Runway

   Leading aircraft         Following aircraft             Minimum spacing at time
                                                            aircraft are airborne or
                                                              have touched down
   A380 ARRIVAL            HEAVY DEPARTURE                        3 minutes
                          MEDIUM DEPARTURE                        3 minutes
                           LIGHT DEPARTURE                        3 minutes
   HEAVY ARRIVAL          MEDIUM DEPARTURE                        2 minutes
                           LIGHT DEPARTURE                        2 minutes
  MEDIUM ARRIVAL           LIGHT DEPARTURE                        2 minutes
  A380 DEPARTURE             HEAVY ARRIVAL                        3 minutes
                            MEDIUM ARRIVAL                        3 minutes
                             LIGHT ARRIVAL                        3 minutes
 HEAVY DEPARTURE            MEDIUM ARRIVAL                        2 minutes
                             LIGHT ARRIVAL                        2 minutes
      MEDIUM                 LIGHT ARRIVAL                        2 minutes
     DEPARTURE




                              E Civil Aviation Authority
   Effective: 7 APR 11
                              AIP New Zealand                           AD 1.6 - 7


1.5    Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation:
       Opposite Direction Runway Operation
1.5.1 Minimum time separations are applied between aircraft operating
from:
(a)    an opposite direction using the same runway or grass strip; or
(b)    parallel runways or grass strips less than 760m apart; or
(c)    where there is a possibility that the projected flight paths will cross
       at the same altitude or less than 1000ft below.

Between Arriving and Departing Flights
1.5.2 The minimum separations applied between arriving flights are
provided in Table AD 1.6-5.
                           Table AD 1.6-5
         Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima —
      Arriving and Departing Flights Opposite Direction Runway

    Leading aircraft          Following aircraft          Minimum spacing at
  taking off or landing     arriving or departing          time aircraft are
    or low or missed                                       airborne or have
        approach                                             touched down
          A380                     A380                        2   minutes
                              Non A380 HEAVY                   3   minutes
                                  MEDIUM                       3   minutes
                                   LIGHT                       3   minutes
         HEAVY                       HEAVY                     2 minutes
                                    MEDIUM                     2 minutes
                                     LIGHT                     2 minutes
        MEDIUM                       LIGHT                     2 minutes




                             E Civil Aviation Authority
                                                          Effective: 9 APR 09
AD 1.6 - 8                      AIP New Zealand


1.6       Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation:
          Crossing or Non-Intersecting Runways with Crossing Flight Paths
1.6.1 The minimum time separations applied between arriving and
departing aircraft, for operations on crossing or non-intersecting runways
or where flight paths intersect, are provided in table AD 1.6 - 6.
1.6.2 These separations apply to take-off clearances or the time a landing
aircraft crosses the threshold versus the time the leading aircraft crosses
the intersection.
1.6.3 If the leading aircraft lands prior to the intersection no wake
turbulence separation is applied.
1.6.4 If a departing aircraft commences its take-off run from past the
intersection no wake turbulence separation is applied provided that, in the
case of two departing aircraft, their projected flight paths do not cross at
the same altitude or less than 1000ft below.
                           Table AD 1.6 - 6
           Time Based Wake Turbulence Separation Minima —
    Crossing or Non-Intersecting Runways with Crossing Flight Paths

       Leading aircraft      Aircraft crossing behind       Minimum spacing
            A380                       HEAVY                   3 minutes
                                      MEDIUM                   3 minutes
                                       LIGHT                   3 minutes
           HEAVY                       HEAVY                   2 minutes
                                      MEDIUM                   2 minutes
                                       LIGHT                   2 minutes
          MEDIUM                       LIGHT                   2 minutes


2         JET BLAST AND PROPELLER SLIPSTREAM

2.1       General
2.1.1 Pilots are cautioned of the hazards caused by jet blast and propeller
slipstream to taxiing aircraft, to aircraft taking off or landing, and to
vehicles and personnel operating on the aerodrome.
2.1.2 Jet blast and propeller slipstream can produce localised wind
velocities of sufficient strength to cause damage to other aircraft, vehicles
and personnel.




                               E Civil Aviation Authority
      Effective: 9 APR 09

				
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