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Artifact 7b

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 16

  • pg 1
									Annette Torna
T/TH
EDF 3214
Artifact 7b


                            Assessing Learning Theories

                                       Artifact 7b



       Pavlov, Watson, Skinner: Classical Behaviorism. Classical Behaviorism was

paved by Pavlov and developed by the research of B.F. Skinner, J.B. Watson, and various

other researchers. Behaviorism studies the outward behaviors of organisms and the

situations/stimuli that cause them. The classical behaviorist theory strove to create a

“scientific” and measurable basis for the field of psychology, which had been somewhat

ridiculed upon introduction to the more empirical sciences. The term “behaviorism” was

created to denote the creation of a “study of behavior” and the classical behaviorists

concerned themselves solely with measurable activities, and the consequential ability to

control these activities. Behaviorisms dismissed earlier ideas of psychoanalysis as

intangible rubbish and the prevalent practice of “introspection” was thrown away along

with any other psychological delving of the subconscious mind.

       Classical Behaviorism relies on the S-R (Stimulus-Response) model, that

measures responses made by a subject. These bonds were formed according to the “Law

of Effect” proposed by Thorndike and other behaviorists. The process of “conditioning”

was explained by Ivan Pavlov as a response from the autonomic nervous system that was
instilled upon repeated pairing of an originally neutral (unconditioned) stimulus to that of

a stimuli known to create unconditioned responses, as a result of this pairing the response

for the known stimuli would be correlated over to the originally neutral stimulus and thus

become a conditioned response.

       Skinner‟s later contributions to behaviorism extended classical conditioning to

operant conditioning, which included the ability of an organism to “emit” a response

rather than simply have one “elicited” from them. This distinction allowed for individual

differences in learning and why the same stimulus provided to two different people in

identical scenarios would allow for two different responses. Skinner stressed the

importance of “reinforcement” (positive and negative) as the reason for behavior being

maintained or abandoned. This concept of “reinforcement” was expanded into a process

known as Behavior Modification- which includes six basic principles for altering a

person‟s behavior through reinforcement methods.

   1. Decide what your desired outcome is- what behavior are you attempting to elicit?

   2. Create a Positive Learning Environment

   3. Identify what is a reinforcer and use it appropriately (i.e. some students may enjoy

       being called upon to answer correctly and others may prefer a small note

       accompanying feedback reports)

   4. Continue reinforcement of behavior until it becomes an established pattern of

       success

   5. Gradually decrease frequency of rewards until a variable ratio schedule is

       maintained
   6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan and decide upon whether or not additional

       supports are needed and whether or not student is working effectively

       independently.

       When a behavior is consistently not reinforced, extinction occurs and the subject

no longer shows that behavior. Skinner‟s deduced several basic schedules of

reinforcement that would have varying affects on the frequency and maintenance of

emitted responses, they include:

                  Variable Interval- reinforcement of behavior occurs after X amount

                   of time has elapsed.

                  Variable Ratio- reinforcement occurs after X amount of attempts

                   made by the subject.

                  Fixed Interval- reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of time has

                   elapsed.

                  Fixed Ratio- reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of attempts

                   made by subject.

   According to Skinner‟s schedules of reinforcement the form that receives the greatest

level of persistence and is most resistant to extinction is the Variable Ratio.

       Sources:

       http://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Behaviorism/Part1/sec2.shtml

       http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html

       http://itstudio.coe.uga.edu/ebook/Behaviorism.htm

           Strategies for Implementation of Classical Conditioning Theory:
           1. All Grades, All Areas: Behavioral Contracts: A behavioral contract is

               more effective when a parent works in collaboration with a teacher to

               assure the student is following rules and appropriate behaviors. These

               behaviors must be specified in the behavioral contract, and both the

               student and the teacher must agree on the terms. The contract is given to

               the student and considered binding.

       2. All Grades, All Areas: Behavior Modification using Extinguishing

           Behaviors: To implement this theory in elementary grade classroom, the

           teacher should ignore specific inappropriate behaviors until it is extinguished.

       Sources for strategies:

       http://itstudio.coe.uga.edu/ebook/Behaviorism.htm



       Thorndike: Law of Effect. Edward Thorndike‟s theory was called the Law of

Effect because it stated that when a subject‟s response is rewarded, the behavior is likely

to be repeated given a similar situation, and when a response is punished then a behavior

is less likely to be repeated in a similar situation. The connection between pleasure and a

desired input/output is the underlying principle examined by the law of effect.

Thorndike‟s experiments involved cats and animals, and through years of tracking and

charting patterns and learning curve a generalization that “certain stimuli and responses

become connected or dissociated from each other according to the “law of effect” was

made. This generalization derived from animal studies was extended to include the realm

of humans and the purpose of Thorndike‟s studies was to learn to control “behavior”.
       Thorndike originally stated that the learned behaviors would only be repeated in

an identical environment, and later versions of his theory introduced the concept of

“belongingness” to describe the feeling of familiarity between a stimulus and response.

Thorndike was the one to introduce the “spread of effect”, which stated that a

generalization would be made by a subject between a stimulus and response and adjacent

stimuli that occur the same time as the stimulus.

       Thorndike also developed the theories of “Law of Readiness” (chains can be

created that lead to certain expected outcomes and lack of these outcomes result in

annoyance), and the “Law of Exercise” (practice makes perfect).

       Sources:

      http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html

      http://fates.cns.muskingum.edu/~psych/index.htm

      http://fates.cns.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/thorndike.htm

   Strategies for Implementation of Law of Effect Theory:

   1. Grades 3-12, Language Arts, Social Studies, Science: Positive connections to

       cooperative learning: The teacher can implement cooperative learning activities

       in the classroom in most subject areas, and as a reward for good behavior or work,

       come up with an appropriate reward system to reinforce the good behavior. The

       teacher can have a popcorn party, movie day, field trips, free time, etc.

   2. Grades 1-12, fully adaptable, All Areas: Negative connections concerning

       disruptive classroom behaviors: When a student misbehaves in a classroom a

       teacher has the responsibility to enforce negative consequences by means of

       removing a pleasurable activity. When dealing with a particular inappropriate
       behavior, the teacher should use a punishment that fits the crime. The teacher can

       take away “free time”, implement a time out corner, make the student eat lunch

       with the teacher in the classroom, etc. After the teacher repeats the disciplinary

       actions, the student should stop the behavior.



       Bandura: Social Modeling. Bandura‟s Social Modeling theory was

demonstrated when he used the “bobo” doll in an experiment he conducted with a group

of young children. In this experiment Bandura showed the children a video clip of a

young woman walking over to a punching bag doll and violently attacking it while

yelling out expressions such as “sockeroo” and “take that”. After watching this video the

children were allowed to go into a room that had an identical doll to the one the woman

had previously been seen attacking, and the result was the children in turn acted the same

way towards the doll “bobo” as the woman had (attacking it and shouting “sockeroo”).

Repeated experimentation allowed Bandura to outline his “social learning” theory which

required four main aspect which he called:

   1. Attention: Bandura felt that for any impression to be made upon a person which

       they were later to imitate, they must first be paying attention to the action to be

       imitated and competing stimuli would result in lower levels of learning.

   2. Retention: This simply put means we must remember what it is we see for

       imitation- this is the portion that involves the need for language and images as

       methods of storing information for later usages.
   3. Reproduction: This part of the learning mode requires an ability to imitate the

       behavior stored- you must have the knowledge of how something is done, and

       then you must do it.

   4. Motivation: This is perhaps the most important and yet most difficult to place a

       specific reason and/or logic to- the desire or drive that must be in place for a

       person to „want‟ to do something. Bandura named three possible motivators:

   a. past reinforcement

   b. promised reinforcements

   c. vicarious reinforcement

   Sources:

    http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html



   Strategies for Implementing the Social Modeling Theory:

       1.    Grades 3-5, Writing/Reading: The teacher can have the students write an

            essay on the most influential person in their life.

       2.    Grades 6 and up, All Areas: Students can do a role reversal for the day,

            and change places with the teacher. The student would then teach the lesson

            to the class.



       Meichenbaum: Self-regulated Learning. Self-regulated learning encourages

students to set and complete their own goals and prioritize their time effectively. The

focus of this learning is for the student him/herself to construct their own meaning out of

the information in the eternal environment and the internal environment (their personal
knowledge/minds), and to benefit from this newly constructed knowledge. Since students

are the ones who are benefiting from the learning they manage oftentimes higher than

average goals are set and reached, and failure is seen in the light of Thomas Edison not as

a terminator but as a stepping-stone to success. Goals are assessed according to a certain

rubric or standard and the self-regulated learner must decide whether or not his/her

construction of knowledge is adequate or if a change in learning is needed.

       Self-regulated learning purports the “potential for control” on behalf of the

student- this states that there are factors within students‟ control, including metocognitive

monitoring and limited control on environmental influences, which can determine

success. This theory allows for individual differences in capacities that may influences a

person‟s ability to construct meaning however maintains there are still other controllable

factors which can be utilized by the learning such as persistence and tenacity. Apart from

the inescapable controlling influences however it is the metocognitive process of an

individual assessing and monitoring their own motivation and behaviors that provides the

key for success in self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning requires students to

utilize the resources available to them and to procure any others that may be needed-

including collaboration with others.

       Sources:

       http://www.rit.edu/~609www/ch/faculty/self-reg.htm

       http://www.childtrends.com/meeting_schedule/pdf/woltersfinal.pdf



       Strategies for Implementation of Self Regulated LearningTheory:
       1.    Grade 9-12, All Areas: Having lots of experience in this area, I would

            implement reflections into the lesson plan

       2.    Grade 9 and up, All Areas: One strategy would be to implement a

            cooperative learning lesson plan, much like our arrangement, that consists of

            specific collaborative groups. The group would meet and share resources and

            learn to depend upon one another as cooperative self regulated learners. This

            strategy would slowly be faded as students became accustomed to the

            assistance provided through peer collaboration and show a consistent pattern

            of maintaining these behaviors after the mandated requirements are removed.

        Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences. Gardner‟s theory of multiple

intelligences broke through the traditional “high IQ” basis for measuring human abilities.

Gardner proposed that humans possessed natural intelligences that differed from one

another and outlined three main groups containing within seven different intelligences:

 1.    Object-related intelligence:

                      Logical-Mathematical: The ability to “be sensitive to the patterns,

                       symmetry, logic, and aesthetics of mathematics” and to understand

                       and use mathematics and concepts in everyday life and complex

                       equations.

                      Spatial: The ability to represent the spatial word accurately

                       usually through artistic means, the ability to interpret graphic ideas

                       and „transform visual ideas into expressive creations‟.
                   Bodily Kinesthetic: The ability to use ones body to communicate

                    or construct ideas and expressions, the ability to influence others

                    with the use of bodily/kinesthetic motions.

2.   Object-free intelligence:

                       Linguistic: The ability to use language as a means of

                        expression/description and to build relationships and

                        communicate.

                       Musical: The ability to understand and create music (including

                        musical forms and ideas), to respond emotionally and use

                        music as a means of meeting the needs of others.

3.   Personal intelligence:

                       Interpersonal: the ability to work cooperatively with others

                        and organize effectively/inspirationally - the use of empathy to

                        maintain positive external relationships and discrimination of

                        interpersonal cues.

                       Intrapersonal: The ability to understand and properly asses

                        owns own abilities and talents and use the efficiently in

                        formulating goals and philosophical ideas.

                       Naturalist – The inherent inclination towards classification

                        and recognition of plants, animals and other natural substances

                        and the ability to distinguish cultural man-made items.
                          Existential- The ability to think philosophically, creating and

                           pondering such questions as the meaning of life and ultimate

                           reality.

       Gardener‟s theory challenged the traditional notion theories of intelligence by

claiming that each person has certain strengths and weakness in various intelligence

forms, and that no one was more valuable than another simply unique.

       Sources:

       http://www.indiana.edu/%7Eintell/gardner.shtml

       http://www.mitest.com/omultint.htm

       http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html

       Strategies for Implementation of Multiple Intelligences:

           1. Grades 4-5, All areas: My favorite strategy is incorporating music into

               the lesson plan. This is a very effective strategy that can be used for any

               subject area.

           2. Primary grades K-3: Students are given an assignment as a class, to read

               a book to the class and then have the class come up with a word to put up

               on a word wall. The words can also be used as spelling words.

   Cattell: Cognitive Abilities. Cattell‟s theory of cognitive abilities involved a highly

correlational dependent scientific study of three different data groups he referred to as L-

data; Q-data; and T-data. The L-data is defied as one‟s Life experiences, the normal

environmental occurrences that take place throughout ones lifetime. The Q-data would

define the answers provided on various questionnaires- the largest margin of error is

found in this group because of the human tendency to lie and distort the truth to fit
whatever he/she desires or feels another person desires to hear. The T-data was placed as

a system of balance for the Q-data, and it consists of answers people would provide when

they did not know the nature of the question being asked- i.e. ink blot tests. The theory

of cognitive abilities attempts to explain- through careful analysis of these data groups,

referred to as „clusters, the probability of a person‟s behavior following a consistent

predictable pattern.

   Cattell‟s theory outlined the “Categories of Traits”- as Surface Traits and Source

Traits. Surface traits are the observable human behaviors that can be plotted and

measured. Source traits are the internal human processes that determine what the surface

traits will be- as words are somewhat clumsy in the relational representation for traits

below is a diagram displaying in an example of the traits and their relations.

   Originally the theory of Cognitive Abilities outline 15 source traits based on the L-

data obtained by Cattell. Through the results of numerous Questionnaires administered,

16 source traits were identified- 12 of which had been in the original group and 4 of

which were new to Cattell‟s outline. Research involving the objective testing of the T-

data group, provided Cattell with a total of 21 “factors” or cluster which he could use to

classify human behavioral characteristics.

       Through the analysis of the cluster groups of data, Cattell created the Specific

Equation- which was a problematic predictor of human behaviors that took into account

different environmental and genetic variables. The concept of Syntality holds that there

are both personalities (individual traits) and group traits, both of which are needed in

order to predict human behaviors.

      Sources:
      http://www.fmarion.edu/~personality/corr/cattell/cattthe.htm

      http://www.le.ac.uk/education/resources/SocSci/cattell.html

      http://www.edu.bham.ac.uk/edrt06/factor_analysis.htm



      Strategies for Implementation of Cognitive Abilities Theory:

      1.    All Grade Levels, All Areas: Collaborative learning activities can be used.

      2.    All Grade Levels, All Areas: Assessment strategies using student data can be

           implemented, like the student surveys we did at Phyllis R. Miller.

       Sources:

       http://www.edu.bham.ac.uk/edrt06/Cluster_analysis.htm



       Guilford: Cube of the Intellect. Guilford believed that there were two ways in

to classify an object, one way dealt with processes that were occurring, and the other

dealt with the material or content that was being used. When these two were combined

there was a net result of six different products that could be created. Guilford identified

five different contents, five different operations, and when those were combined with the

six different products a total of 150 “factors” of human characteristics could be created

which he illustrated as a 3-dimensional “cube” of the intellect.

       According to Guilford‟s representational cube of the intellect human intelligence

is made of Contents, Products, and Operations. The combinations of these three allowed

150 “factors” by which humans can be classified. Guilford named his model the

“structure-of-intellect model”. Based in this model Guilford created several intelligence
tests that did not rely upon the typical IQ scores and limited focus that was currently

employed to measure intellect. His five operations are:

          Cognition- advanced cognition will be characterized by unusually fast

           learning abilities; students will comprehend information upon introduction

           however retention is based on memory abilities. Low cognition is

           characterized by the need for repetitive explanation and the inability to

           comprehend information.

          Memory- The ability to retain content that is learned. Persons with advanced

           memory will recall information; however will not necessarily comprehend this

           information.

          Convergent Production- A person skilled in convergent production will be

           able to produce a precise solution to a given problem..

          Divergent Production- A skilled divergent producer will be able to create a

           variety of solutions within a given area as an answer to a problem.

          Evaluation- evaluation is the ability to make practical and productive

           decisions, taking into account the positive and negative components and the

           implications and ramifications of these decisions.

   The five content possibilities are:

          Visual- Learns best based upon what he/she sees.

          Auditory- Learns best based upon what he/she hears.

          Symbolic- Learns based upon the symbolic meaning or has a high level of

           comprehension concerning the symbolic meaning of a representational

           figures; e.g. numbers, letters, symbols, designs etc.
          Semantic (Conceptual)- The understanding of meanings found in words,

           ideas etc.

          Behavioral (Figural)- Related to the kinesthetic learning style, this is based

           on behaviors, users learn best by doing things.

       The six products that he used were:

          Units- A single piece of information (letter, word etc)

          Classes- Groupings of information (letters=alphabet)

          Relations- Associations between concepts

          Systems- A taxonomy of relations

          Transformation- The restructuring or alteration of intellectual contents

          Implications- the resulting outcomes identified based upon understood

           information

   These 3 categories are grouped together using a mnemonic system that combines

three letters from each area into a group (CSS:Cognition of Symbolic Systems) and then

used to classify people accordingly.

       Sources:

       http://tip.psychology.org/guilford.html

       http://www.aceviper.net/aceviper_net/ace_intelligence/aceviper_modern_theorists

       /acevier_modern_theorists.html

       http://benking.de/2000/augmented-understanding.html

       Strategies for Implementation of Cube of Intellect Theory:

       1. Grades 3-5, Math: The teacher can set up a reward system that uses

           monopoly money. The student can then use the money to purchase items
   from a small store. This strategy teaches the concept of money as well as

   adding, subtracting and multiplication skills.

2. Grades 3-8, Art: Students can create their own diorama of a prehistoric

   dinosaur scene in a box. Just print out the dinosaurs, paste, color, cut, arrange

   them in the box. This strategy teaches the student to build cognition skills

   concerning the possibilities of geometric transformation.

Sources for Strategies:

http://pachome1.pacific.net.sg/~soi/SOI_Learning_Abilities.htm

http://www.yourfamilyclinic.com/ld/SOIathome.html

								
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