The Abbassid Khilafah Accomplishments of the Abbassids The Abbasid Khilafah lasted from 750-1258 CE. Khalifah Abu Jafar Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Khalifah, moved the capital of the Islamic Empire from Damascus in Syria to Baghdad in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was the richest province in the empire in tax and agricultural productions. Baghdad was between the Tigris and Euphrates River so it became the center of trade, learning, and government. Economy Baghdad's economy relied on taxes, and wealth generated by trade and manufacturing. The empire was rich in gold, silver, copper, and iron and used them in trade. Farmers grew dates, rice, and other grains. In addition, the Abbasids introduced new breeds of livestock. They also spread cotton. Traders from Scandinavia to Africa came to Baghdad for the products of its industries too. Leather goods, textiles, paper, metalwork, and perfumes were sold in the city. The Abbasids developed something very similar to the banking system. They did not have bank buildings but business people invested in long distance trade and goods were bought on credit. They also had a postal system. Muslim rule unified the eastern world. They introduced a uniform coinage system that made commerce easier. The Abbasids treated non-Muslims well. In their time, there were 11000 Christian churches, and hundreds of synagogues and fire temples. Learning The great wealth made the Abbasids able to support learning and arts. Muslims believed long before Columbus's time that the earth was round. They invented algebra. They wrote the first accurate descriptions of measles and smallpox. They had clean hospitals. They built the Bayt-al- Hikmah (House of Wisdom) in which scholars from different lands came and studied. It served as a museum, library, translation office, school, and meeting center. Books about mathematics, meteorology, optics, mechanics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, etc. were translated into Arabic from Hebrew, Greek, Persian, Syriac, and other languages. Al-Razi, Ibn Sina, Al-Biruni, and Al-Khwarizmi were some of the famous scholars of that time. Muslims collected writings of the schools of Alexandria and the best philosophical works of ancient Greek. There were special departments under qualified professors for promotion and prosecution of special branches of study. Astronomical observations were made in Mamun's reign. Among these equinoxes, eclipses, the apparitions of comets and other celestial bodies was most important. The size of the earth was calculated from the measurement of a degree on the shores of the Red Sea. At this time, Europe was asserting the flatness of the earth. Abul Hassan invented the telescope. The telescope was improved and used in the observatories of Maragha and Cairo with great success. The first observatory of Islam was made in Mamun's reign at Shamassia on the plains of Tadmur. Afterwards several more were created. Timeline of The Abbassid Khilafah 752 CE, 134 A.H Beginning of Abbasid Khilafah. 755 CE, 137 A.H Revolt of Abdullah bin Ali. Murder of Abu Muslim. 756, 138 A.H Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain. 763 CE, 145 A.H Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain. 767 CE, 150 A.H Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. 786 CE, 169 A.H Haroon Rashid becomes Khalifah. 792 CE, 175 A.H Invasion of South France. 800 CE, 184 A.H Scientific method is developed. Algebra is invented by Al-Khawarizmi. 805 CE, 189 A.H Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress. 809 CE, 193 A.H Death of Haroon Ar-Rashid. Accession of Amin. 814 CE, 198 A.H Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Khalifah. Bayt-ul-Hikmat is founded in his time. 900 CE, 287 A.H Pendulum developed by Yunus Al-Masri. 976 CE, 365 A.H Muhammad bin Ahmad introduces the number Zero. 1000 CE, 390 A.H Al-Haytham discovers that white light consists of various rays of colored light. The building of the Great Mosque of Cordoba is completed. 1005 CE, 395 A.H Mahmood Ghaznavi captures Multan and Ghur. 1055 CE, 447 A.H Baghdad is conquered by the Seljuk Turks. Abbasid-Seljuk rule starts, which lasts until 1258 when Mongols destroy Baghdad. 1085 CE, 477 A.H Christians get Toledo (in Spain). 1091 CE, 484 A.H Normans capture Sicily, ending Muslim rule there. 1095 CE, 488 A.H The first crusade takes place. 1099 CE, 492 A.H Crusaders capture Jerusalem. They mercilessly slaughter everyone inside its walls. 1100 CE, 493 A.H Muslims introduce negative numbers. 1144 CE, 538 A.H Imam-ud Din captures Edessa from Christians. Second crusade takes place. 1187 CE, 583 A.H Salahuddin captures Jerusalem from Christians in the most peaceful way possible. Third crusade takes place in which Christians only get Acre after months of bloodshed. 1194 CE, 590 A.H Muslims occupy Delhi, India. 1236 CE, 633 A.H Christians conquer Cordoba (in Spain). 1258 CE, 656 A.H Mongols sack Baghdad. Thousands of people killed and great libraries burned. Fall of Baghdad. End of Abbasid rule.
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