Australian History SC 2008 Study & Revision Session What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? communism is a system of society in which all property is owned by the community. Symbols: red, hammer and sickle Cold war and problem of nuclear weapons Communism in Europe then China 1948, Cold War came to Asia (French Indochina, Korea) What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? In Asia Korean War, 1953 PM Menzies faced little opposition; Many Australians believed it was necessary to take action to stop the spread of communism and help ‘free people’ live a democratic system of government. Troops convinced they were fighting for the safety of Australia. War portrayed as a battle between good and evil. What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? ANZUS, 1951, between Australia, New Zealand and the United States enhance our security in the region (other countries would have to come others’ defence in the event of an attack) SEATO, 1954, Australia, New Zealand, United States, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United Kingdom Formed to prevent the spread of communism in SE Asia (external aggression), and to Australia BOTH ANZUS & SEATO: gave Aust reassurance that they were no longer an isolated former British colony What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? In Australia The 1949 Election After 30 years of war and depression, Australians wanted stability and security Many Australians fearful of the Communist Party of Australia and its activities (propaganda) Liberal Party took advantage of anti-communist fear Liberals promised to stop nationalization of the banks and petrol rationing, and pledged to ban the Communist Party of Australia What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? Attempt to outlaw the Communist Party of Australia Communist Party Dissolution Act 1950 became a law in October; appealed to High Court and won (unconstitutional), Menzies held a referendum, ‘No’ vote wins. What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? The Petrov Affair, 1954 Anti-communist feeling began to grow after 1951 referendum. ‘Doc’ Evatt became ALP leader. Appeared to be able to win the 1954 election Communist ‘spy ring’ cancelled ALP support. Vladimir Petrov defected, evidence of a spy ring, uproar through Australia ALP loses election. What was Australia’s response to the threat of communism after WW2? Split of the Labor Party, 1955 ALP began to fall apart, split with the right-wing calling itself the DLP, led by B. A. Santamaria, anti-communist. Split weakened ALP support, took many years to recover, Liberal leadership for the next 18 years What were the reasons for Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Vietnam War: background Vietnam was divided along the 17th Parallel at the Geneva Conference, 1954. North: communist, under Ho Chi Minh. South: anti-communist, led by American- supported Ngo Dinh Diem. What were the reasons for Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? American Involvement South had to be defended from communism, US sent advisors to Diem, helped equip Republic of Vietnam’s Army. What were the reasons for Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Australia’s Involvement Why: American alliance through ANZUS and SEATO Fear of ‘domino theory’ and spread of communism to Australia Requests from the US and the Government of South Vietnam How: military advisors since 1962, 1965 infantry battalion Participation was gradual, troop numbers build up over a number of years as Viet Cong insurgencies increased By 1971 nearly 50 000 Australian had fought in Vietnam, large number were conscripts. 520 died, 2000 injured. Australians were experienced fighting the Viet Cong in the jungle What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Supporters of the War Australians initially supportive of the Vietnam War; as it dragged on, country became deeply divided Most newspapers supported the government, Liberal Party united behind Menzies’ decision to go to war, supported by the Democratic Labor Party (split with ALP in 1955) RSL What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Opposition to the War Anti-war protests since 1962, when first advisors sent to Vietnam, not a new event in 1965 ALP only opposition in Parliament, found it hard to keep the vote and maintain anti-war; saw the war as a civil war in which Australia should not be involved Conscientious Objectors. SOS. Trade unions followed ALP policy to support the soldiers, but not the war. Unions believed the government sacrificing lives of troops to receive US money in Aust Anti-war ideas originally cautious in universities, but eventually became one of the main sources of anti-war activities What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? The Developing Anti-War Movement 1967-69, anti-war opinion grew in Australia: Conscription, birthday lottery. Vietnam was the first time conscripts went abroad during peace-time. Groups, e.g. Save Our Sons, started anti- conscription, then became anti-war. Many men objected to National Service, refused to register of attend when called up. Result: 2-years gaol Early protests, religious groups and the Communist Party of Australia. Encouraged Pacifists – granted exemption. Anti-conscription groups: Draft Resistance Movement, Students for a Democratic Society, Youth Against Conscription, SOS TV reporting, first war with media, people saw real dangers; more anti-war opposition. Tet Offensive, 31st January 1968 – war was un-winnable By 1969, many people had become both anti-conscription and anti-war What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? The Moratorium Movement By 1970 anti-war movement changed, protests became organised, National-wide mass demonstrations. Aim: withdrawal from Vietnam, removal of National Service 1969 government promised to start the withdrawal of troops First moratorium demonstration 8th May 1970, over 200 000 people took part across Australia Two more moratorium campaigns took place in September 1970 and June 1971, showed Australian opinion was becoming increasingly anti-war As America was, Australia began to withdraw its forces, the majority of Australian troops were home by December 1971 Small advisory force was left to continue training the South Vietnamese Army December 1972 Labor won the Federal Election and immediately abolished conscription and brought the last troops still in Vietnam home Americans pulled out in 1973, by 1975, Vietnam was united under communist rule What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Indo-Chinese Refugees Over 2 million became refugees after the war, many desperate to leave Indochina, fear of government persecution under communist regimes Crowded into boats, ‘boat people’, put into overcrowded, unsanitary camps. First arrived in Australia, near Darwin April 1976 1979 Orderly Departure Program to stop the boat people Re-settlement programs to clear the refugee camps, then had to try to make new lives for themselves. Did not know the language or the culture. What were the differing Views of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War? Australian Culture By 1970s, Australia much more liberal society Politics, gender roles, fashion and beliefs all started to change ‘White Australia’ policy ended and migrants and refugees began arriving from Asia From 1975-1985, 90 000 Indo-Chinese refugees arrived Some support for Asian migration because of new multiculturalism policy Rights and opportunities for Indigenous people changed More Liberal society, promoting equality and opportunity War brought change in politics and culture Year after the war saw change in the makeup of the Australian population What were the changing rights and freedoms of Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Paternalism, 1880s-1908 Looking after someone and taking care of their interests as they cannot do it themselves. Changed because: First attempt failed, largely due to white settler resentment at the cost, reserves became overcrowded and expensive. Some whites thought that it did not lead to an improved way of life for Aborigines, children were to become servants. Really meant discrimination and loss of control over their lives. What were the changing government policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Protectionism, 1838-1943 ‘Aborigines were to be separated from white Australians and ‘protected’ for their own good.’ Were safe from the attacks from the white settlers, but they lost their independence (and their children) Also belief that something had to be done to provide for the increasing number of Aboriginal children who were ‘half-castes’. Thought that the government was doing the right thing, not all half-caste children were accepted by their tribal group. Changed because: Reserves became overcrowded and difficult to maintain Aboriginal Protection Board believed that a new policy was needed to make Aboriginal children more and more ‘European’ over generations. What were the changing government policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Assimilation, (1930s -1960s) Trying to make people change their culture or way of life so they will fit in and become part of a different culture or way of life. Govt. realised that mixed blood children were not dying out, but increasing. ‘Stolen Generation’ Impact on the Aboriginal people Based on the belief that the Aboriginal culture was inferior . Even in assimilation, white Australians were less accepting, serious discrimination, loss of identity. Forced to live on the fringes of towns where facilities were poor. Changed because: Level of discrimination, and lack of right to citizenship Aboriginal people did not want to become ‘white’ or ‘British’ and lose their traditional way of life. What were the changing government policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Integration, 1960s The idea of bringing two or more cultures together to make a unified whole. Aboriginal people expected to adapt and adopt ‘white’ Australian culture, but were given more leeway to practice traditional aspects of their own culture. Stepping stone to the new policy of multiculturalism. Changed because: Criticism that Aboriginal people were denied the right to live in their own way. Discrimination and racism still present in some towns. What were the changing government policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Self-determination, 1972-late 1990s The right of a group of people to determine what is best for them and to control their own lives. Aboriginal Australians receive the same rights and freedoms under the law as non-Aboriginal Australians They should be allowed to choose how to live their lives They should be allowed a say in the policies that affect them Changed because: Effects have been disastrous and have caused many problems which are not present in white society. What were the changing government policies towards Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century? Reconciliation, 1990s- present Why introduced? Necessary to prevent all the problems in the future which were caused by white Australians in the past – statistics show that Aboriginal Australians face many health problems, e.g. life expectancy What were the Various Experiences of the Stolen Generation? How and why were Aboriginal children removed from their families? ‘Stolen Generation’: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children who were taken from their parents and brought up in orphanages, institutions or white families, until 1969. What were the Various Experiences of the Stolen Generation? How and why were Aboriginal children removed from their families? Authorities said Aboriginal children were being neglected or were uncontrollable. As their parents did not care for them, white authorities would take them and ensure they were given adequate food, education and religious instruction. Therefore would grow up in a proper environment away from the ‘harmful influences’ of their parents. In the best interests of society. Aim to get all Aboriginal children to act white and think white, so that they were socialized into white culture and society. Aboriginal culture considered primitive and worthless – removing children would lead to the disappearance of Aboriginal culture and do good. What were the Various Experiences of the Stolen Generation? How and why were Aboriginal children removed from their families? Authorities said Aboriginal children were being neglected or were uncontrollable. Removal of half castes would lead the children to eventually no longer identify themselves as Aboriginal Unplanned removal by a reserve manager or policeman, parents not told, only told to sign a form they could not read. E.g. boys sent to Kinchela and girls sent to Cootamundra, church homes, foster homes or corrective institutions. Brothers and sisters were frequently separated and many children told their parents had died when they were still alive. Children were not allowed to speak their traditional language or follow any traditional customs or religious beliefs. Physical punishment, psychological mistreatment and also suffered sexual abuse, sometimes from religious leaders. What were the Various Experiences of the Stolen Generation? What have been the consequences of these policies? Children not allowed to become part of either black or white community, ‘no man’s land’. Loss of identity – do not know parents and siblings, no contact with Aboriginal culture and heritage. Do not fit into society and feel isolated from society, led to major social ills at far higher rates than white Australians: self- abuse alc and drugs, suicide, family dysfunction, health problems, mental illness, higher rates of domestic violence and imprisonment. Inability to function as a normal adult. Distrust between welfare officers, police and Aboriginal people, led to life marginalised, no proper education. Divisions in current white society: e.g. Paul Keating supports and recognises Aboriginal people, John Howard believed that assimilation was well-intended. The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for rights and freedoms 1967 Referendum Important step in the road towards equality for the Aboriginal people. Did NOT give Aboriginals the vote (1962), did NOT make Aboriginals citizens (1960- 1961) Did decide whether Aboriginal people were to be counted in the census, and whether the Federal govt had the power to make laws for Aboriginal people. Prior to 1967, Aboriginals who moved from state to state had different rights depending where they were. Supported by both major political parties and the media to end inequality. Both parts of the referendum were passed by 90 per cent of voters. Aboriginals were then counted in the census and Federal govt had the power to make laws for Aboriginal people. Despite the result, changes did not occur immediately (for almost a decade). The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for rights and freedoms Land rights From the start of British occupation, the land was declared empty terra nullius land of no one, by Capt. Cook in 1770 who believed there were only few Aborigines. Whitlam govt. 1972 set up an Aboriginal Affairs department and a Royal Commission on Aboriginal Land Rights 1976 Fraser govt passed the Aboriginal Land Rights Act which allowed Aboriginals to claim ‘crown land’ (land owned by the govt. that was not being used by other people), an Aboriginal Lands Council was set up to control their possession and in 1985, given ownership of Ayers Rock, now Uluru. The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for rights and freedoms Native Title and the ‘Mabo’ Case 1992 Mabo case in the High Court changed the whole issue of Aboriginal land rights: Eddie Mabo of Murray (Mer) Island and others took govt. to court, but lost, appealed to High Court, June 1992, High Court found in favour of Eddie, but he had died. Recognised Native Title, overturned ‘terra nullius’ Mabo case led to the 1993 Native Title Act which accepted the notion of native title and also recognized the land rights of owners of freehold property. Question left ‘Could Native Title exist on land that the govt leased to farmers and pastoralists?’ – dealt with at the 1996 Wik case The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for rights and freedoms Native Title and Wik Native Title continued on land that had been leased to pastoralists by the govt. Native Title rights and Leaseholder rights existed simultaneously. Wik decision upset mining companies and pastoralists. Howard introduced the Ten Point Plan and the 1997 Native Title (Amendment) Bill, which acknowledged the native title and pastoral leases can exist at the same time but if there is a disagreement between the two the rights of the pastoralist come first. Describe how Australia has behaved as a global citizen since 1945 What role has Australia played in international affairs in the post-war period? Australia’s role in: The United Nations, including UNESCO, and UN conventions Regional agreements, including the Columbo and APEC What role has Australia played in international affairs in the post-war period? Minister for External Affairs, Herbert ‘Doc” Evatt. Australia became a keen participant in UN agencies such as: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisations (UNESCO) The World Health Organisation (WHO) The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) The International Labour Organisation (ILO) What role has Australia played in international affairs in the post-war period? From the 1970s to the 1990s: The end of ‘White Australia’ saw a rapid Australian involvement in the Asia region. The Whitlam government did not share the previous Liberal government’s fear of communist China. Whitlam believed that Australia should strive to work with its communist Asian neighbours not confront them. Whitlam recognised the People’s Republic of China (1972); Whitlam visited Mao in Beijing (Nov. 1973) and the policy of ‘forward defence’ was over. There has been a growing cultural exchange since 1972 (1000s of Chinese students study in Australia). In August 2002, China signed a $25 billion oil and gas agreement with Australian firms. What role has Australia played in international affairs in the post-war period? Prime Minister Keating (1991-96) was keen to foster Australia’s relations with Asia. In October 2002, during the massive bomb attack in Bali in which almost 100 Australian died, it lead to a quick Australia-Indonesia cooperation to deal with the human tragedy and to apprehend the people behind the attack. Indonesia’s seemingly successful transition towards democracy, seen in its presidential election of 2005, has allowed relations to improve. Our generous assistance during the December 2004 Tsunami was received with sincere gratitude. During the years of the Howard government (1996-onwards), Australia’s ties with the US have strengthened dramatically. Prime Minister Howard quickly aligned Australia alongside President George W. Bush on his ‘war on terror’ Australian troops served with US forces fighting Al Qaida and Taliban forces in Afghanistan (2001-2002) Australia was quick to join the US and Britain in its invasion of Iraq in 2003. Australia negotiated a free trade agreement with the US (2004-05) Australia’s Post-War Regional Agreements: The ANZUS Treaty (1951): In September, 1951, the United States, Australia and New Zealand signed the ANZUS Treaty It implied that each nation would assist the other in the event of such an attack. The Australian government feared the aggressive communism and needed a strong ally in the dangerous cold war climate of the time (US and New Zealand). The ANZUS Treaty still exists and was used by some to justify Australia’s involvement in the Iraq War of 2003 New Zealand is currently not a part of the ANZUS Treaty. Australia’s Post-War Regional Agreements: The SEATO Alliance (1954): In September, 1954, the South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) was signed. It was a treaty between, US, Britain, Thailand, Pakistan, the Philippines, France, New Zealand and Australia. It implied the defence of each nation in the event of an attack. It bound Australia closer to the US, acknowledged the dangers in the region and backed the idea of ‘forward defence’ as it took Australia’s ‘front line’ into Asia. Australia’s Post-War Regional Agreements: The Colombo Plan (1951): Began in 1951 – Commonwealth region aid program. More developed commonwealth nations would contribute technological and economic assistance to less developed commonwealth nations. Helped to build infrastructure such as bridges and roads and to develop their education and medical systems and thus improve living standards. Help to develop skills in public administration, private development, helped to develop technologies, industry. Foster political and economic ties with these countries. Australia’s Post-War Regional Agreements: APEC (1989): Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation. Aims to promote economic trade and development amongst member states, promote free trade, reduce tariffs, and come to terms with globalization. Migrants How have the rights and freedoms of migrants changed during the post-war period? Since 1788: acceptable migrant was white, White Australia, dictation test used to exclude ‘undesirables’. 1920s increase in migration, but the Depression reduced migration Opposition: Why bring in more people when many Australians couldn’t get jobs? Supported by the Labor Party and the trade unions How have the rights and freedoms of migrants changed during the post-war period? Chifley govt changed attitude towards immigration after WWII: ‘populate or perish’ promoted by Arthur Calwell minister for immigration Economics: Australia needed to develop its manufacturing industries, make a larger consumer market and develop its vast open spaces Defence: to defend Australia in the future in case there was a direct enemy attack Humanitarian: international duty to take in some freed inmates from concentration camps and people fleeing from Eastern Europe. Australia needed to justify their occupation of this vast continent to the millions living in the north. How have the rights and freedoms of migrants changed during the post-war period? Post-war Immigration 1945 Department of Immigration established, by 1949 staff of 5000 Britain first choice for immigrants: ex-servicemen, ‘assisted passage’, sponsorship, ‘Bring out a Briton’ campaign Non-British immigrants refugees or ‘displaced persons’ from Europe under the International Refugee Organisation, by early 1960s Australia had taken 250 000 refugees Gradually widened to include many other European countries under various agreements, Malta, Italy, West Germany, Austria and Greece By late 1960s, White Australia policy abandoned: Colombo Plan for Asian students to come to Australia, 1958 Migration Act removed the dictation test, 1966 all political parties declared that the basis of deciding migrant entry should not be skin colour but the migrant’s suitability as a settler and ability to integrate into society How have the rights and freedoms of migrants changed during the post-war period? What contribution did migrants make to Australia’s social, cultural and economic development? Development of the Australian economy: migrants signed two year contracts and had to work wherever they were sent, e.g. infrastructure projects such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Also secondary industry, 50% of workforce were migrants, did not only provide labour, also consumers. New migrants brought their language, their culture, their tastes in food, music and fashion. Gradually the policy of assimilation was ended and the policy of integration became accepted. 1948 Nationality and Citizenship Act began the idea of Australian citizenship How have the rights and freedoms of migrants changed during the post-war period? Asian Immigration Most significant change has been the opening up of the country to people of Asian heritage. Many Asians tried to migrate from their Vietnam War affected communist countries to Australia if they had a fear of persecution due to links to previous non- communist govts, fear of religious persecution and the desire to seek a better and freer life. Recent years, steady flow of Asian migrants from countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia and even the People’s Republic of China Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced? Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced? Multicultural is the term used to denote a society that contains a variety of different ethnic cultures. Since the 1970s govt officially accepted policy of multiculturalism Basically, policy forced onto the Australian govt by the reality of modern Australia Some people in govt saw the great benefits a country could have by using the talents of many different ethnic groups Recent years, most migrants have come from east Asian countries Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced? Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced? Some have arrived under the business migrants plan, some come to further their education and some left their country apprehensive of communist takeovers. Accepted because previous policies of integration and assimilation had failed Only small number of British immigrants after 1945 Efforts to make Greeks and Italians British failed and these new migrant groups ended up settling into ethnic ghettos. End of the White Australia Policy meant that more and more non-Europeans were entering Australia. How has multiculturalism influenced Australian society? How has multiculturalism influenced Australian society? Benefits: substantial Negative: not all Australians have embraced it Australia is losing its true national identity Parts of Australia, e.g. Cabramatta have been transformed into foreign areas Opposition towards Asian and Middle Eastern gang cultures for crimes, e.g. Lebanese World terrorism events such as 9/11 have made many suspicious of Islamic culture Multiculturalism allows people to give their first loyalty to their own ethnic group and not to Australia How has multiculturalism influenced Australian society? How has multiculturalism influenced Australian society? Reasons behind opposition Fear of the new, the different and the strange Ignorance making one incident create a stereotype Media like to sensationalise stories involving Asians or Islamic Lebanese Economics – difficulties of unemployment What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Housing Home appliances Entertainment Transport Communications What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Housing: After 1945, there was an enormous increase in house construction as suburbs of the major cities spread out further and further. A large number of these houses were ‘fibro-houses’ and later brick veneer houses appeared. There were several reasons for this: The post-war baby boom (increase in the population, as soldiers returned home to start raising families) Large increase in immigration People’s desire to swap the inner- city terrace house for the quarter- acre block in the open suburbs. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Home appliances: Increasingly new technology made life more comfortable. Iceboxes gradually disappeared as more and more families bought refrigerators. The new machines were often placed in the living room partly for the convenience of a power source, but also to impress visitors. Freezers were very small but gradually increased in size and could do more than merely make ice cubes. More families had radios by the 1950s but a new invention called the transistor radio now made it possible to take a radio to the beach or to a picnic. Cars increasingly also had radios. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Transport and communications: In 1956, Australia turned on to television for the first time and this medium soon gained mass audiences. The most obvious change in Australian life in the 1950s was the growing use of and reliance on the motor vehicle. By 1949, 130 people out of every 1000 had a car; by 1961 the figure was 271. The dominant car of the 1950s was the Holden. The first Holden to come out of the Fisherman’s Bend plant was the 48/125 six cylinder overhead valve engine which sold for £675 plus tax. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? In 1953, Holden had introduced the FJ, of which 170 000 were sold. As Australians became more mobile, a new style of accommodation appeared from 1956 – the motel. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Cinema remained the first choice for most Australians for a ‘night out’. Most films were American or British, though some Australian films did appear such as The Glenrowan Affair, The Phantom Stockman and Summer of the Seventeenth Doll. During the 1950s, drive-in movies became very popular. In an attempt to deal with the threat of television, movies introduced new ‘trendy’ elements such as 3D, stereo- sound and cinemascope. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Television had become dominant by the end of the decade. By 1960 there were over 600 000 TV licence holders in Australia. At first, most shows were foreign but this led to a debate about ‘Australian content’. It was decided at the time that Commonwealth shows were to be considered ‘half-Australian’. This included the long-running British soap opera Coronation Street, set in working class Lancashire. By 1960, many people were becoming concerned about the amount of television young people were watching and how it might affect their behaviour. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? Australian drinking habits gradually became more civilised as the ‘Six o’clock swill’ (drinking before the pub is closed) was replaced with later opening hours. NSW gained 10 pm closing in 1954; Vic. had to wait until 1966. The new music of Rock n’ Roll became extremely popular, with Australia’s Johnny O’Keefe holding his own against American rivals. What have been the major social and cultural features of a post-war decade? By the early 1950s, 75% of all movies coming into Australia were American. Popular American movies of the 1950s and 1960s included: The Wild One and A Streetcar Named Desire starring Marlon Brando. Rebel Without a Cause and East of Eden starring James Dean Westerns, often starring John Wayne Big Hollywood musicals like South Pacific Elvis Presley films Why did American culture have such a dominating influence? Why would have some groups in the Australian community have supported the Labor Party’s policies in 1972? Young people: Labor Party planned to abolish university and college fees. Pensioners: Labor Party planned to increase the basic pension rate by 25%. Aborigines: Labor Party wanted to legislate to give the Aborigines land rights. People against Australian involvement in the Vietnam War because the Labor Party planned to abolish conscription. Mothers: Labor Party planned to make pre-school education available to every Australian child. Women: Labor Party supported women’s rights. Factors that would have influenced some Australians to vote Labor in 1972 when they had voted Liberal in previous elections… Australian involvement in the Vietnam War was very unpopular at the time. Lib. Party leadership was unstable Gough Whitlam becoming increasingly popular with his reformist policies. What made Whitlam so popular? harsh stance against Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War attractive policies free university, Medicare abolishment of conscription He was confident, vibrant, had practiced law before entering Federal Parliament meaning that he was well educated, and was a witty orator. The Whitlam Government’s Reforms For Migrants Made moves towards multiculturalism. Abolishment of White Australia policy Introduced Racial Discrimination Act 1975 Established radio programs in different languages, migrant education centres and interpreters on emergency phone calls. The Whitlam Government’s Reforms For Aborigines Established Northern and Central Land Councils to gain legal support for land rights claims. Introduced policy of self- determination. In 1975, returned land to the Gurundji people who’d been denied in the 1971 Gove Land Rights Decision. Aborigines needed no longer to gain permission to leave the country. Funding for Aboriginal Affairs increased by 6-7 times. The Whitlam Government’s Reforms For All: Abolishment of uni fees and increased spending on education Introduction of Medibank, a national health insurance scheme. Establishment of Legal Aid Office to provide legal representation for those who could not afford it.
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