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					Australian History SC 2008

   Study & Revision Session
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?
   communism is a
    system of society in
    which all property is
    owned by the
    community.
   Symbols: red, hammer
    and sickle
   Cold war and problem of
    nuclear weapons
   Communism in Europe
    then China 1948, Cold
    War came to Asia
    (French Indochina,
    Korea)
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?
  In Asia
  Korean War, 1953
   PM Menzies faced little
      opposition; Many Australians
      believed it was necessary to take
      action to stop the spread of
      communism and help ‘free
      people’ live a democratic system
      of government. Troops
      convinced they were fighting for
      the safety of Australia.
   War portrayed as a battle
      between good and evil.
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?
     ANZUS, 1951, between Australia, New Zealand and
      the United States
         enhance our security in the region (other countries would
          have to come others’ defence in the event of an attack)
     SEATO, 1954, Australia, New Zealand, United States,
      France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the
      United Kingdom
         Formed to prevent the spread of communism in SE Asia
          (external aggression), and to Australia
     BOTH ANZUS & SEATO: gave Aust reassurance that
      they were no longer an isolated former British colony
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?
  In Australia
  The 1949 Election
   After 30 years of war and
     depression, Australians
     wanted stability and security
   Many Australians fearful of
     the Communist Party of
     Australia and its activities
     (propaganda)
   Liberal Party took advantage
     of anti-communist fear
   Liberals promised to stop
     nationalization of the banks
     and petrol rationing, and
     pledged to ban the
     Communist Party of Australia
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?

   Attempt to outlaw the Communist
   Party of Australia
       Communist Party Dissolution Act 1950
        became a law in October; appealed to High
        Court and won (unconstitutional), Menzies
        held a referendum, ‘No’ vote wins.
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?
  The Petrov Affair, 1954
   Anti-communist feeling began
    to grow after 1951
    referendum.
   ‘Doc’ Evatt became ALP
    leader. Appeared to be able
    to win the 1954 election
   Communist ‘spy ring’
    cancelled ALP support.
   Vladimir Petrov defected,
    evidence of a spy ring, uproar
    through Australia
   ALP loses election.
What was Australia’s response to the
threat of communism after WW2?

  Split of the Labor Party, 1955
   ALP began to fall apart, split with the
    right-wing calling itself the DLP, led by B.
    A. Santamaria, anti-communist.
   Split weakened ALP support, took many
    years to recover, Liberal leadership for
    the next 18 years
What were the reasons for Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  Vietnam War:
    background
   Vietnam was divided
    along the 17th Parallel
    at the Geneva
    Conference, 1954.
   North: communist, under
    Ho Chi Minh.
   South: anti-communist,
    led by American-
    supported Ngo Dinh
    Diem.
What were the reasons for Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?

  American Involvement
   South had to be defended from
    communism, US sent advisors to Diem,
    helped equip Republic of Vietnam’s
    Army.
What were the reasons for Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  Australia’s Involvement
   Why:
         American alliance through ANZUS
          and SEATO
         Fear of ‘domino theory’ and spread
          of communism to Australia
         Requests from the US and the
          Government of South Vietnam
     How:
         military advisors since 1962,
         1965 infantry battalion
         Participation was gradual, troop
          numbers build up over a number of
          years as Viet Cong insurgencies
          increased
         By 1971 nearly 50 000 Australian
          had fought in Vietnam, large
          number were conscripts. 520 died,
          2000 injured.
         Australians were experienced
          fighting the Viet Cong in the jungle
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?

  Supporters of the War
   Australians initially supportive
    of the Vietnam War; as it
    dragged on, country became
    deeply divided
   Most newspapers supported
    the government,
   Liberal Party united behind
    Menzies’ decision to go to
    war, supported by the
    Democratic Labor Party (split
    with ALP in 1955)
   RSL
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  Opposition to the War
   Anti-war protests since 1962, when
     first advisors sent to Vietnam, not a
     new event in 1965
   ALP only opposition in Parliament,
     found it hard to keep the vote and
     maintain anti-war; saw the war as a
     civil war in which Australia should not
     be involved
   Conscientious Objectors. SOS.
   Trade unions followed ALP policy to
     support the soldiers, but not the war.
     Unions believed the government
     sacrificing lives of troops to receive
     US money in Aust
   Anti-war ideas originally cautious in
     universities, but eventually became
     one of the main sources of anti-war
     activities
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  The Developing Anti-War Movement
  1967-69, anti-war opinion grew in Australia:
          Conscription, birthday lottery. Vietnam
           was the first time conscripts went
           abroad during peace-time. Groups, e.g.
           Save Our Sons, started anti-
           conscription, then became anti-war.
           Many men objected to National Service,
           refused to register of attend when called
           up. Result: 2-years gaol
          Early protests, religious groups and the
           Communist Party of Australia.
           Encouraged Pacifists – granted
           exemption.
          Anti-conscription groups: Draft
           Resistance Movement, Students for a
           Democratic Society, Youth Against
           Conscription, SOS
          TV reporting, first war with media,
           people saw real dangers; more anti-war
           opposition. Tet Offensive, 31st January
           1968 – war was un-winnable
          By 1969, many people had become
           both anti-conscription and anti-war
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  The Moratorium Movement
     By 1970 anti-war movement changed, protests
      became organised, National-wide mass
      demonstrations. Aim: withdrawal from Vietnam,
      removal of National Service
     1969 government promised to start the
      withdrawal of troops
     First moratorium demonstration 8th May 1970,
      over 200 000 people took part across Australia
     Two more moratorium campaigns took place in
      September 1970 and June 1971, showed
      Australian opinion was becoming increasingly
      anti-war
     As America was, Australia began to withdraw its
      forces, the majority of Australian troops were
      home by December 1971
     Small advisory force was left to continue training
      the South Vietnamese Army
     December 1972 Labor won the Federal Election
      and immediately abolished conscription and
      brought the last troops still in Vietnam home
     Americans pulled out in 1973, by 1975, Vietnam
      was united under communist rule
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  Indo-Chinese Refugees
   Over 2 million became refugees
     after the war, many desperate to
     leave Indochina, fear of
     government persecution under
     communist regimes
   Crowded into boats, ‘boat
     people’, put into overcrowded,
     unsanitary camps.
   First arrived in Australia, near
     Darwin April 1976
   1979 Orderly Departure Program
     to stop the boat people
   Re-settlement programs to clear
     the refugee camps, then had to
     try to make new lives for
     themselves. Did not know the
     language or the culture.
What were the differing Views of Australia’s
involvement in the Vietnam War?
  Australian Culture
    By 1970s, Australia much more liberal
     society
    Politics, gender roles, fashion and beliefs
     all started to change
    ‘White Australia’ policy ended and
     migrants and refugees began arriving from
     Asia
    From 1975-1985, 90 000 Indo-Chinese
     refugees arrived
    Some support for Asian migration because
     of new multiculturalism policy
    Rights and opportunities for Indigenous
     people changed
    More Liberal society, promoting equality
     and opportunity
    War brought change in politics and culture
    Year after the war saw change in the
     makeup of the Australian population
What were the changing rights and freedoms of
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?

  Paternalism, 1880s-1908
   Looking after someone and taking care of their
    interests as they cannot do it themselves.
   Changed because:
        First attempt failed, largely due to white settler
         resentment at the cost, reserves became
         overcrowded and expensive.
        Some whites thought that it did not lead to an
         improved way of life for Aborigines, children were to
         become servants.
        Really meant discrimination and loss of control over
         their lives.
What were the changing government policies towards
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?

  Protectionism, 1838-1943
   ‘Aborigines were to be separated from white Australians and
    ‘protected’ for their own good.’
   Were safe from the attacks from the white settlers, but they lost
    their independence (and their children)
   Also belief that something had to be done to provide for the
    increasing number of Aboriginal children who were ‘half-castes’.
   Thought that the government was doing the right thing, not all
    half-caste children were accepted by their tribal group.
   Changed because:
         Reserves became overcrowded and difficult to maintain
         Aboriginal Protection Board believed that a new policy was needed
          to make Aboriginal children more and more ‘European’ over
          generations.
What were the changing government policies towards
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?

  Assimilation, (1930s -1960s)
    Trying to make people change their culture
     or way of life so they will fit in and become
     part of a different culture or way of life.
    Govt. realised that mixed blood children
     were not dying out, but increasing.
    ‘Stolen Generation’
    Impact on the Aboriginal people
          Based on the belief that the
           Aboriginal culture was inferior .
          Even in assimilation, white
           Australians were less accepting,
           serious discrimination, loss of
           identity.
          Forced to live on the fringes of towns
           where facilities were poor.
    Changed because:
          Level of discrimination, and lack of
           right to citizenship
          Aboriginal people did not want to
           become ‘white’ or ‘British’ and lose
           their traditional way of life.
What were the changing government policies towards
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?


  Integration, 1960s
   The idea of bringing two or more cultures together to
     make a unified whole.
   Aboriginal people expected to adapt and adopt ‘white’
     Australian culture, but were given more leeway to
     practice traditional aspects of their own culture.
   Stepping stone to the new policy of multiculturalism.
   Changed because:
         Criticism that Aboriginal people were denied the right to live in
          their own way.
         Discrimination and racism still present in some towns.
What were the changing government policies towards
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?


  Self-determination, 1972-late 1990s
   The right of a group of people to determine what is
    best for them and to control their own lives.
   Aboriginal Australians receive the same rights and
    freedoms under the law as non-Aboriginal Australians
   They should be allowed to choose how to live their
    lives
   They should be allowed a say in the policies that affect
    them
   Changed because:
         Effects have been disastrous and have caused many
          problems which are not present in white society.
What were the changing government policies towards
Aboriginal people in Australia in the 20th century?


  Reconciliation, 1990s-
    present
   Why introduced?
         Necessary to prevent
          all the problems in the
          future which were
          caused by white
          Australians in the past
          – statistics show that
          Aboriginal Australians
          face many health
          problems, e.g. life
          expectancy
What were the Various Experiences
of the Stolen Generation?
    How and why were
     Aboriginal children
     removed from their
     families?
        ‘Stolen Generation’:
         Aboriginal and Torres
         Strait Islander children
         who were taken from
         their parents and
         brought up in
         orphanages, institutions
         or white families, until
         1969.
What were the Various Experiences
of the Stolen Generation?
  How and why were Aboriginal children removed
   from their families?
  Authorities said Aboriginal children were being
   neglected or were uncontrollable.
        As their parents did not care for them, white authorities would
         take them and ensure they were given adequate food,
         education and religious instruction.
        Therefore would grow up in a proper environment away from
         the ‘harmful influences’ of their parents.
        In the best interests of society.
        Aim to get all Aboriginal children to act white and think white,
         so that they were socialized into white culture and society.
        Aboriginal culture considered primitive and worthless –
         removing children would lead to the disappearance of
         Aboriginal culture and do good.
What were the Various Experiences
of the Stolen Generation?
  How and why were Aboriginal children
   removed from their families?
  Authorities said Aboriginal children were being
   neglected or were uncontrollable.
        Removal of half castes would lead the children to eventually no longer identify
         themselves as Aboriginal
        Unplanned removal by a reserve manager or policeman, parents not told,
         only told to sign a form they could not read.
        E.g. boys sent to Kinchela and girls sent to Cootamundra, church homes,
         foster homes or corrective institutions.
        Brothers and sisters were frequently separated and many children told their
         parents had died when they were still alive.
        Children were not allowed to speak their traditional language or follow any
         traditional customs or religious beliefs.
        Physical punishment, psychological mistreatment and also suffered sexual
         abuse, sometimes from religious leaders.
What were the Various Experiences
of the Stolen Generation?
 What have been the consequences of these
    policies?
   Children not allowed to become part of
    either black or white community, ‘no man’s
    land’.
   Loss of identity – do not know parents and
    siblings, no contact with Aboriginal culture
    and heritage.
   Do not fit into society and feel isolated
    from society, led to major social ills at far
    higher rates than white Australians: self-
    abuse alc and drugs, suicide, family
    dysfunction, health problems, mental
    illness, higher rates of domestic violence
    and imprisonment.
   Inability to function as a normal adult.
   Distrust between welfare officers, police
    and Aboriginal people, led to life
    marginalised, no proper education.
   Divisions in current white society: e.g.
    Paul Keating supports and recognises
    Aboriginal people, John Howard believed
    that assimilation was well-intended.
The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for
rights and freedoms
  1967 Referendum
    Important step in the road towards equality
     for the Aboriginal people.
    Did NOT give Aboriginals the vote (1962),
     did NOT make Aboriginals citizens (1960-
     1961)
    Did decide whether Aboriginal people
     were to be counted in the census, and
     whether the Federal govt had the power to
     make laws for Aboriginal people.
    Prior to 1967, Aboriginals who moved from
     state to state had different rights
     depending where they were.
    Supported by both major political parties
     and the media to end inequality.
    Both parts of the referendum were passed
     by 90 per cent of voters.
    Aboriginals were then counted in the
     census and Federal govt had the power to
     make laws for Aboriginal people.
    Despite the result, changes did not occur
     immediately (for almost a decade).
The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for
rights and freedoms
  Land rights
   From the start of British occupation,
     the land was declared empty terra
     nullius land of no one, by Capt. Cook
     in 1770 who believed there were only
     few Aborigines.
   Whitlam govt. 1972 set up an
     Aboriginal Affairs department and a
     Royal Commission on Aboriginal
     Land Rights
   1976 Fraser govt passed the
     Aboriginal Land Rights Act which
     allowed Aboriginals to claim ‘crown
     land’ (land owned by the govt. that
     was not being used by other people),
     an Aboriginal Lands Council was set
     up to control their possession and in
     1985, given ownership of Ayers
     Rock, now Uluru.
The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for
rights and freedoms
  Native Title and the ‘Mabo’ Case
   1992 Mabo case in the High Court
     changed the whole issue of
     Aboriginal land rights: Eddie Mabo of
     Murray (Mer) Island and others took
     govt. to court, but lost, appealed to
     High Court, June 1992, High Court
     found in favour of Eddie, but he had
     died.
   Recognised Native Title, overturned
     ‘terra nullius’
   Mabo case led to the 1993 Native
     Title Act which accepted the notion
     of native title and also recognized the
     land rights of owners of freehold
     property.
   Question left ‘Could Native Title exist
     on land that the govt leased to
     farmers and pastoralists?’ – dealt
     with at the 1996 Wik case
The struggle of Aboriginal peoples for
rights and freedoms
  Native Title and Wik
   Native Title continued on land
     that had been leased to
     pastoralists by the govt. Native
     Title rights and Leaseholder
     rights existed simultaneously.
   Wik decision upset mining
     companies and pastoralists.
   Howard introduced the Ten Point
     Plan and the 1997 Native Title
     (Amendment) Bill, which
     acknowledged the native title
     and pastoral leases can exist at
     the same time but if there is a
     disagreement between the two
     the rights of the pastoralist come
     first.
Describe how Australia has behaved as
a global citizen since 1945

   What role has Australia played in
    international affairs in the post-war
    period?
   Australia’s role in:
       The United Nations, including UNESCO,
        and UN conventions
       Regional agreements, including the
        Columbo and APEC
What role has Australia played in international
affairs in the post-war period?

     Minister for External Affairs,
      Herbert ‘Doc” Evatt.
     Australia became a keen
      participant in UN agencies
      such as:
        The United Nations
         Educational, Scientific
         and Cultural
         Organisations (UNESCO)
        The World Health
         Organisation (WHO)
        The United Nations
         Children’s Fund
         (UNICEF)
        The International Labour
         Organisation (ILO)
What role has Australia played in international
affairs in the post-war period?
     From the 1970s to the 1990s:
     The end of ‘White Australia’ saw a
      rapid Australian involvement in the
      Asia region.
     The Whitlam government did not
      share the previous Liberal
      government’s fear of communist
      China. Whitlam believed that
      Australia should strive to work with
      its communist Asian neighbours not
      confront them. Whitlam recognised
      the People’s Republic of China
      (1972); Whitlam visited Mao in
      Beijing (Nov. 1973) and the policy of
      ‘forward defence’ was over.
     There has been a growing cultural
      exchange since 1972 (1000s of
      Chinese students study in Australia).
     In August 2002, China signed a $25
      billion oil and gas agreement with
      Australian firms.
What role has Australia played in international
affairs in the post-war period?
   Prime Minister Keating (1991-96) was keen to foster Australia’s relations
    with Asia.
   In October 2002, during the massive bomb attack in Bali in which almost
    100 Australian died, it lead to a quick Australia-Indonesia cooperation to
    deal with the human tragedy and to apprehend the people behind the
    attack.
   Indonesia’s seemingly successful transition towards democracy, seen in
    its presidential election of 2005, has allowed relations to improve. Our
    generous assistance during the December 2004 Tsunami was received
    with sincere gratitude.
   During the years of the Howard government (1996-onwards), Australia’s
    ties with the US have strengthened dramatically.
         Prime Minister Howard quickly aligned Australia alongside President George
          W. Bush on his ‘war on terror’
         Australian troops served with US forces fighting Al Qaida and Taliban forces
          in Afghanistan (2001-2002)
         Australia was quick to join the US and Britain in its invasion of Iraq in 2003.
         Australia negotiated a free trade agreement with the US (2004-05)
Australia’s Post-War Regional
Agreements:
     The ANZUS Treaty (1951):
     In September, 1951, the United States, Australia and New
      Zealand signed the ANZUS Treaty
     It implied that each nation would assist the other in the event of
      such an attack.
     The Australian government feared the aggressive communism
      and needed a strong ally in the dangerous cold war climate of the
      time (US and New Zealand).
     The ANZUS Treaty still exists and was used by some to justify
      Australia’s involvement in the Iraq War of 2003
     New Zealand is currently not a part of the ANZUS Treaty.
Australia’s Post-War Regional
Agreements:
   The SEATO Alliance (1954):
   In September, 1954, the South East Asian
    Treaty Organisation (SEATO) was signed.
   It was a treaty between, US, Britain, Thailand,
    Pakistan, the Philippines, France, New
    Zealand and Australia. It implied the defence
    of each nation in the event of an attack.
   It bound Australia closer to the US,
    acknowledged the dangers in the region and
    backed the idea of ‘forward defence’ as it took
    Australia’s ‘front line’ into Asia.
Australia’s Post-War Regional
Agreements:
     The Colombo Plan (1951):
     Began in 1951 – Commonwealth region aid program.
     More developed commonwealth nations would
      contribute technological and economic assistance to
      less developed commonwealth nations.
     Helped to build infrastructure such as bridges and
      roads and to develop their education and medical
      systems and thus improve living standards.
     Help to develop skills in public administration, private
      development, helped to develop technologies,
      industry.
     Foster political and economic ties with these countries.
Australia’s Post-War Regional
Agreements:

   APEC (1989):
   Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation.
   Aims to promote economic trade and
    development amongst member states,
    promote free trade, reduce tariffs, and
    come to terms with globalization.
Migrants
  How have the rights and freedoms of
   migrants changed during the post-war
   period?
  Since 1788: acceptable migrant was white,
   White Australia, dictation test used to exclude
   ‘undesirables’.
  1920s increase in migration, but the
   Depression reduced migration
  Opposition: Why bring in more people when
   many Australians couldn’t get jobs? Supported
   by the Labor Party and the trade unions
How have the rights and freedoms of migrants
changed during the post-war period?

  Chifley govt changed attitude towards immigration
    after WWII: ‘populate or perish’ promoted by
    Arthur Calwell minister for immigration
   Economics: Australia needed to develop its
    manufacturing industries, make a larger consumer
    market and develop its vast open spaces
   Defence: to defend Australia in the future in case there
    was a direct enemy attack
   Humanitarian: international duty to take in some freed
    inmates from concentration camps and people fleeing
    from Eastern Europe.
   Australia needed to justify their occupation of this vast
    continent to the millions living in the north.
How have the rights and freedoms of migrants
changed during the post-war period?

  Post-war Immigration
   1945 Department of Immigration established, by 1949 staff of 5000
   Britain first choice for immigrants: ex-servicemen, ‘assisted passage’,
    sponsorship, ‘Bring out a Briton’ campaign
   Non-British immigrants refugees or ‘displaced persons’ from Europe
    under the International Refugee Organisation, by early 1960s Australia
    had taken 250 000 refugees
   Gradually widened to include many other European countries under
    various agreements, Malta, Italy, West Germany, Austria and Greece
   By late 1960s, White Australia policy abandoned: Colombo Plan for
    Asian students to come to Australia, 1958 Migration Act removed the
    dictation test, 1966 all political parties declared that the basis of deciding
    migrant entry should not be skin colour but the migrant’s suitability as a
    settler and ability to integrate into society
How have the rights and freedoms of migrants
changed during the post-war period?

  What contribution did migrants make to Australia’s social,
    cultural and economic development?
   Development of the Australian economy: migrants signed two
    year contracts and had to work wherever they were sent, e.g.
    infrastructure projects such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme.
    Also secondary industry, 50% of workforce were migrants, did not
    only provide labour, also consumers.
   New migrants brought their language, their culture, their tastes in
    food, music and fashion.
   Gradually the policy of assimilation was ended and the policy of
    integration became accepted.
   1948 Nationality and Citizenship Act began the idea of Australian
    citizenship
How have the rights and freedoms of migrants
changed during the post-war period?

  Asian Immigration
   Most significant change has been the opening up of
    the country to people of Asian heritage.
   Many Asians tried to migrate from their Vietnam War
    affected communist countries to Australia if they had a
    fear of persecution due to links to previous non-
    communist govts, fear of religious persecution and the
    desire to seek a better and freer life.
   Recent years, steady flow of Asian migrants from
    countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia and
    even the People’s Republic of China
Why was the policy of
multiculturalism introduced?
 Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced?
    Multicultural is the term used to denote a society that
     contains a variety of different ethnic cultures.
    Since the 1970s govt officially accepted policy of
     multiculturalism
    Basically, policy forced onto the Australian govt by the
     reality of modern Australia
    Some people in govt saw the great benefits a country
     could have by using the talents of many different
     ethnic groups
    Recent years, most migrants have come from east
     Asian countries
Why was the policy of
multiculturalism introduced?
 Why was the policy of multiculturalism introduced?
  Some have arrived under the business migrants plan,
   some come to further their education and some left
   their country apprehensive of communist takeovers.
  Accepted because previous policies of integration and
   assimilation had failed
       Only small number of British immigrants after 1945
       Efforts to make Greeks and Italians British failed and these
        new migrant groups ended up settling into ethnic ghettos.
       End of the White Australia Policy meant that more and more
        non-Europeans were entering Australia.
How has multiculturalism
influenced Australian society?
 How has multiculturalism influenced Australian
   society?
  Benefits: substantial
  Negative: not all Australians have embraced it
       Australia is losing its true national identity
       Parts of Australia, e.g. Cabramatta have been transformed
        into foreign areas
       Opposition towards Asian and Middle Eastern gang cultures
        for crimes, e.g. Lebanese
       World terrorism events such as 9/11 have made many
        suspicious of Islamic culture
       Multiculturalism allows people to give their first loyalty to their
        own ethnic group and not to Australia
How has multiculturalism
influenced Australian society?
 How has multiculturalism influenced
   Australian society?
  Reasons behind opposition
      Fear of the new, the different and the strange
      Ignorance making one incident create a stereotype
      Media like to sensationalise stories involving Asians
       or Islamic Lebanese
      Economics – difficulties of unemployment
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?

     Housing
     Home appliances
     Entertainment
     Transport
     Communications
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Housing:
     After 1945, there was an enormous
      increase in house construction as
      suburbs of the major cities spread
      out further and further.
     A large number of these houses
      were ‘fibro-houses’ and later brick
      veneer houses appeared. There
      were several reasons for this:
     The post-war baby boom (increase in
      the population, as soldiers returned
      home to start raising families)
     Large increase in immigration
     People’s desire to swap the inner-
      city terrace house for the quarter-
      acre block in the open suburbs.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Home appliances:
     Increasingly new technology made
      life more comfortable.
     Iceboxes gradually disappeared as
      more and more families bought
      refrigerators. The new machines
      were often placed in the living room
      partly for the convenience of a power
      source, but also to impress visitors.
      Freezers were very small but
      gradually increased in size and could
      do more than merely make ice
      cubes.
     More families had radios by the
      1950s but a new invention called the
      transistor radio now made it possible
      to take a radio to the beach or to a
      picnic. Cars increasingly also had
      radios.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Transport and communications:
     In 1956, Australia turned on to
      television for the first time and this
      medium soon gained mass
      audiences.
     The most obvious change in
      Australian life in the 1950s was the
      growing use of and reliance on the
      motor vehicle.
     By 1949, 130 people out of every
      1000 had a car; by 1961 the figure
      was 271. The dominant car of the
      1950s was the Holden.
     The first Holden to come out of the
      Fisherman’s Bend plant was the
      48/125 six cylinder overhead valve
      engine which sold for £675 plus tax.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
   In 1953, Holden had
    introduced the FJ, of
    which 170 000 were
    sold.
   As Australians
    became more
    mobile, a new style
    of accommodation
    appeared from 1956
    – the motel.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Cinema remained the first
      choice for most Australians
      for a ‘night out’. Most films
      were American or British,
      though some Australian films
      did appear such as The
      Glenrowan Affair, The
      Phantom Stockman and
      Summer of the Seventeenth
      Doll.
     During the 1950s, drive-in
      movies became very popular.
      In an attempt to deal with the
      threat of television, movies
      introduced new ‘trendy’
      elements such as 3D, stereo-
      sound and cinemascope.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Television had become dominant by
      the end of the decade.
     By 1960 there were over 600 000 TV
      licence holders in Australia.
     At first, most shows were foreign but
      this led to a debate about ‘Australian
      content’.
     It was decided at the time that
      Commonwealth shows were to be
      considered ‘half-Australian’. This
      included the long-running British
      soap opera Coronation Street, set in
      working class Lancashire.
     By 1960, many people were
      becoming concerned about the
      amount of television young people
      were watching and how it might
      affect their behaviour.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     Australian drinking habits
      gradually became more
      civilised as the ‘Six o’clock
      swill’ (drinking before the pub
      is closed) was replaced with
      later opening hours. NSW
      gained 10 pm closing in
      1954; Vic. had to wait until
      1966.
     The new music of Rock n’
      Roll became extremely
      popular, with Australia’s
      Johnny O’Keefe holding his
      own against American rivals.
What have been the major social and
cultural features of a post-war decade?
     By the early 1950s, 75% of all
      movies coming into Australia
      were American. Popular
      American movies of the
      1950s and 1960s included:
     The Wild One and A
      Streetcar Named Desire
      starring Marlon Brando.
     Rebel Without a Cause and
      East of Eden starring James
      Dean
     Westerns, often starring John
      Wayne
     Big Hollywood musicals like
      South Pacific
     Elvis Presley films
Why did American culture have such
a dominating influence?
Why would have some groups in the Australian
community have supported the Labor Party’s policies in
1972?

     Young people: Labor Party planned
      to abolish university and college
      fees.
     Pensioners: Labor Party planned to
      increase the basic pension rate by
      25%.
     Aborigines: Labor Party wanted to
      legislate to give the Aborigines land
      rights.
     People against Australian
      involvement in the Vietnam War
      because the Labor Party planned to
      abolish conscription.
     Mothers: Labor Party planned to
      make pre-school education available
      to every Australian child.
     Women: Labor Party supported
      women’s rights.
Factors that would have influenced some Australians to
vote Labor in 1972 when they had voted Liberal in
previous elections…

    Australian involvement
     in the Vietnam War was
     very unpopular at the
     time.
    Lib. Party leadership
     was unstable
    Gough Whitlam
     becoming increasingly
     popular with his
     reformist policies.
What made Whitlam so popular?

    harsh stance against
     Australia’s involvement in the
     Vietnam War
    attractive policies
         free university,
         Medicare
         abolishment of
          conscription
    He was confident, vibrant,
     had practiced law before
     entering Federal Parliament
     meaning that he was well
     educated, and was a witty
     orator.
The Whitlam Government’s
Reforms
 For Migrants
  Made moves towards
   multiculturalism.
  Abolishment of White
   Australia policy
  Introduced Racial
   Discrimination Act 1975
  Established radio
   programs in different
   languages, migrant
   education centres and
   interpreters on
   emergency phone calls.
The Whitlam Government’s
Reforms
 For Aborigines
  Established Northern and
   Central Land Councils to gain
   legal support for land rights
   claims.
  Introduced policy of self-
   determination.
  In 1975, returned land to the
   Gurundji people who’d been
   denied in the 1971 Gove
   Land Rights Decision.
  Aborigines needed no longer
   to gain permission to leave
   the country.
  Funding for Aboriginal Affairs
   increased by 6-7 times.
The Whitlam Government’s
Reforms
 For All:
  Abolishment of uni fees and increased
   spending on education
  Introduction of Medibank, a national
   health insurance scheme.
  Establishment of Legal Aid Office to
   provide legal representation for those
   who could not afford it.

				
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