Opinion formed beforehand: a preformed opinion, usually an unfavorable one,
based on insufficient knowledge, irrational feelings, or inaccurate stereotypes
Prejudice is the negative feeling or attitude towards a person or a group even if it
lacks basis (Allport, 1958).
Prejudice is based on a self-centered judgment that there is only one correct way of
experiencing the world (Aboud, 1998).
Stereotype refers to the negative opinion about a person or group based on incomplete
Discrimination refers to negative actions toward members of a specific social group that
may be manifested in avoidance, aversion or even violence (Franzoi, 1986).
Stereotype → Prejudice → Discrimination → Conflict/Violence
Types of Prejudice:
Racism - The belief that one‟s own cultural or racial heritage is innately superior to that of
others, hence, there is the lack of respect and appreciation to those who
belong to a „different race‟.
Sexism - Prejudice based on sex involves the belief that one sex is superior to the other.
Classism - Distancing from and perceiving the poor as „the other‟ (Lott, 1995).
Linguism - Negative attitudes members of dominant language groups hold against non-
dominant language groups (Chen-Hayes, Chen & Athar, n.d.)
Ageism - Negative attitudes held against the young or the elderly
Lookism - Prejudice against those who do not measure up to set standards of beauty.
The usual victims are the overweight, the undersized, and the dark skinned
Religious intolerance - Prejudice against those who are followers of religions other that
Ableism - Ableism is discrimination against or mistreatment of people with mental,
emotional or physical disabilities. People with these prejudices believe that
they are superior to people with disabilities.
Theories on Prejudice (Causes of Prejudice):
Social Learning Theory (Altemeyer, 1981) – Prejudice is simply passed along,
sometimes for generations, and is reinforced in various institutions including the
family, school and media.
Prejudice is said to stem as well from ignorance or from lack of information
Effects of Prejudice:
Psychological, social, political, and economic domains (distrust, loss of self-worth, a
sense of alienation from the wider society, and economic inequalities)
Prejudice and Discrimination lead to disunity which results in the dissolving of
society (SWAB: 31), through strife and war. World peace will elude our grasp while
prejudice and discrimination continue to bedevil the collective life of humanity (PUP:
Education for Tolerance
Tolerance – the respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of
cultures and various forms of human expression (UNESCO, 1995)
Options in Facing Violence:
a. Ignore, to do nothing
b. Respond with violence
c. Respond nonviolently
Nonviolence – or ahisma, is the refusal to do harm to other humans as life is sacred and
is an absolute value. It is anchored in the belief that humans have the potential to change
It is both an ethical and moral choice
Destruction is not the law of humans (Gandhi, 1931)
Nonviolence is a practical choice. Tools and effects of violence are costly
Nonviolence Direct Action
Nonviolent action is a technique by which people who reject passivity and submission,
and who see struggle as essential, can wage their conflict without violence. Nonviolent
action is not an attempt to avoid or ignore conflict. It is one response to the problem of
how to act effectively in politics, especially how to wield powers effectively.
(Sharp, 1973, p. 64)
Examples of Nonviolent Direct Action
Nonviolent protest and persuasion seeks to produce awareness of the dissent.
These methods include marches, vigils, pickets, and the use of posters, street
theatre, painting and protest meetings.
Noncooperation involves the deliberate withdrawal of cooperation with the
person, activity, institution or regime. These methods include the provision of
strikes and boycotts
Nonviolent intervention challenges the opponent more directly
Steps in Doing Nonviolent Direct Action
1. Collect data to ascertain that injustice exists
2. Raise consciousness of people about the issue.
3. Organize constituents and build coalitions
4. Employ various methods of nonviolent action
Challenging the War System
came from the Frankish-German word „werra‟, which means confusion, discord, or
conflict: a serious struggle, argument, or conflict between people
Possible Causes of War:
A lack of tolerance for differences and conflicts
Internal strife or dramatic change (e.g. death of monarch).
Measuring relative strength
Effects of War:
Destruction of homes of thousands of people
Deaths and Casualties
Centralization and Enslavement
Ultimate Consequences: Dystopia by War
Various treaties, agreements and conventions were drafted to mitigate the effects
Resolving and Transforming Conflicts
Conflict is from the Latin word „conflictus‟ which means striking together with force.
It occurs when one‟s action or beliefs are unacceptable to, and, are, hence
resisted by the other (Forsyth, 1990)
a disagreement or clash between ideas, principles, or people
differences → tension → conflict
Why Do Conflicts Arise? (Causes of Conflicts):
People differ, so they:
o see things differently
o have different thinking styles, which prompts them to disagree
o have ideological and philosophical differences
o have different goals and approaches
o are influenced by fear, force, fairness or funds
There is unresolved disagreement that has escalated to an emotional level
There is miscommunication leading to unclear expectations
There is underlying stress and tension
There are combinations of the above
Hampers the decision making process
Causes the formation of competing coalitions
Main Options in Dealing with Conflicts (Possible Solutions):
Improving your communication skills
Conflict management styles
o Avoidance/Flight: Avoid the situation or withdraw
o Fight: Move against
o Accommodating: Give up or give in
o Compromising: Both sides meet "halfway"
o Face/Collaborate: If it can be achieved, the ideal solution is one where both
parties emerge as "winners."
Sharing the Earth’s Resources
State of lacking resources that would provide people with basic necessities, or that
force people to go without certain needed things like three meals a day or shelter
Causes of Poverty:
Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources
Over-utilization of resources
Lack of opportunities such as employment and education
Lack of opportunities
Mental and physical aliments
Increase in crimes and violence
Child and woman abuse
Improving the quality of education for poor children and education opportunities
Wealthy countries should open up their markets to poor countries without
Rich countries should open access to technologies since it helps propel
Reduce military expenditures
Economic globalization is a worldwide phenomenon wherein countries‟ economic
situations can depend significantly on other countries. Many allied countries would supply
to each other resources that the other countries do not have. Many have been observing
that this phenomenon may lead to a “one-world government,” which consists of a
centralized government for all nations.
One popular activity under the economic globalization is international trade, in which
products and services are exchanged between or among nations. International trade has
been existent for centuries, as evidenced by the Silk Road that connects Asia and
Europe for trading purposes.
Caring for the Earth - Environmental Issues
Destruction of Marine Life
Increasing World population and poverty
Increasing waste generation
International protocols regarding environmental issues
5R‟s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Renew, Respect)