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					                                                               APPROVED
                                                   BY MR. KAPLANISHVILI
                                                 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF
                                                           JSC MADNEULI


                                                                  July 29, 2008

                                   Social and Environmental Impact Assessment
                                                                      Copy #




                              JSC Madneuli

 ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT




Vendor:
ECWATEC Consulting Ltd
Z. Gelfgat, General Manager




                                 Tbilisi, 2008
       Name of Company                                JSC Madneuli

       Company Location                       Bolnisi Region, Kazreti Hamlet


  Judicial Address of Company            1103, Bolnisi Region, Kazreti Hamlet


       Field of Operation              Extraction of Copper Ore and Production
                                                 of Copper Concentrate


 Executive Director of Company                   Mr. Janiko Kaplanishvili


          Contact Tel                                8 (95) 300 015


Company Official Responsible for        Ilia Mtskhvetadze, Head of Environment
    Environmental Issues                            Department under
                                         Labour Safety, Health and Environment
                                                 Service of the Company
                                                  Tel. 8 (95) 300 124


    Environmental Authority                  Ministry of Natural Resources and
                                                 Environment of Georgia


   EIA has been prepared by                     ECVOTECH Consulting Ltd
                                                        Tbilisi
                                                 Tel: 8 (79) 40 21 78

                                   E




                                         2
                                            PREFACE


The present Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) commissioned by JSC Madneuli is perceived
as an integral part of documents confirming adherence to environmental legislation of the country,
developed in accordance with the applicable requiremetns of the Law of Georgia On Environmental
Impact Permits, and other primary and secondary legislation thus leading to granting the
environmental operation permits to eligible companies.


The present report elaborates on threshold emmission levels for background, quality norms, sanitary
and hygiene requirements by taking into consideration the company location, wather conditions and
other applicable factors.


With the purpose of defining the environmental and social impact levels and degrees the present
report defines factors of influence, major facilities and coverage area. It also assesses the types of
impact, potential of their occurance and analysis of causalities and results, possibilities to limit
potential occurances and theoretical plausability of the company operation on social and economic
conditions of general public.


EIA also elaborates on the methods of impact control and monitoring, measures for avoiding or
mitigating potential negative environmental impact.


EIA has been prepared for internal use only and is available in 7 copies:


Copies from #.1 to # 5 shall be submitted to the permit issuing authority;
Copy # 6 shall be kept by JSC Madneuli;
Copy # 7 shall be kept by EQVOTECH Consulting Ltd.




                                                  3
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

• Introduction
• Terms And Definitions
• Environmental Policy And Legislation Of Georgia
• International Environmental Conventions
• Laws On Environment
• Procedure for Granting Licences And Permits
• Environmental Standards And Regulations
• General and Local Economic Background with Contributions of JSC Madneuli
• Brief Description Of Local Climate Conditions
• Weather Conditions
• Description Of Local Surface Water Facilities
• Main Hydrological Parameters Of River Mashavera
• Brief Geological Description Of Copper-Barit-Polymetalic Deposit Of Madneuli JSC
• Deposit Ores And Non-Metallic Minerals
• Ore Treatment And Enrichment
• Brief Summary Of Technological Process
• Design Of Technological Process
• Auxiliary Industrial FacilitiesE
• Licenses And Permits Granted In Line with Environmental Operation Documentation And
   Current Legislation of Georgia
• Environmental Documentation
• Licenses And Permissions
• Protection Of Water Resources
• Contamination Sources Of Surface Water
• Diffusive Sources Of Contamination
• Point Sources Of Contamination
• Other Sources Of Contamination
• Calculation Of Affluent Rate Thresholds
• Protection Of Atmospheric Air

                                            4
• Description Of Hazardous Substance Emmission And Contamination Sources Into
• The Atmospheric Air
• Method of Calculation for Hazardous Substance Emission Volumes Into Atmospheric Air
• Report On Hazardous Substance Emission Volumes Into Atmospheric Air
• Proportion Percentage Of Hazardous Substance Emission
• Hazardous Substance Emission Parameters Into Atmospheric Air
• Report Of Emission Of Hazardous Substances Into Atmospheric Air
• Method of Calculation for Hazardous Substance Emission Volumes Into Atmospheric Air
• Rate Determination Methodology for Hazardous Subtance Emission Threshold Rates Into
   Atmospheric Air
• Report On Atmosphere Contamination, Caused By Emission Of Hazardous Substances
   From Different Sources Of Contamination
• Report On Atmosphere Contamination, Caused By Emission Of Hazardous Substances
   From Line Sources
• Report On Atmosphere Contamination, Caused By Emission Of Hazardous Substances
   From Groups Of Contamination Sources And Scale Contamination Sources
• Brief Description Of Calculation Summary And Software Used For Reportinf On Emission
   Of Hazardous Substances Into Atmospheric Air
• Analysis Of Report Findings On Emission Of Hazardous Substances Into Atmospheric Air
• Analysis Of Graphic Material
• Threshold Rate Of Hazardous Substance Emmissions Into Atmospheric Air
• Waste Management
• General Principles Of Waste Management
• Existing Condition Of Waste Management
• Copper-Pyrite And Barit Tailing Dumps Of JSC Madneuli
• Waste Recycling
• Recultivation
• Main Landscapes, Flora And Fauna
• Implementation Of Proposals According To Environmental Audit Recommendations
• Evaluation Of Impact On The Social Factors
• Employment Condition

                                         5
• Stucture Of Environmental Department
• Labor And Technical Safety
• Noise
• Conclusions And Recommendations
• Plan Of Obligatory Measures To Comply With Threshold Of Affluent Rate
• Plan Of Obligatory Measures To Comply With Threshold Of Emission Rate
• Monitoring
• Company Liquidation
• References



                                    ENCLOSURE
• Appendix 1. Scheme Of Enrichment Plant
• Appendix 2 . Scheme Of Pit
• Appendix 3.     Topographic Map With Drawings of Main Sources of Effluent Water
   Formation And Dippening Points at JSC Madneuli
• Appendix 4. Topographic Map With Drawings of River Mashavera And River Poladauri
   Water Quality Monitoring Points in the Vicinity of JSC Madneuli
• Appendix 5. Evolution Of Heavy Metal Ion Concentration Unsteadiness In Rechargable
   Water From Copper Tailing Dump In the Period Of April-June 2008
• Appendix 6 . Evolution Of Heavy Metal Ion Concentration Unsteadiness In River
   Mahsavera During Period Of April-June 2008 (Hydro Power Plant Mashavera 500)
• Appendix 7. Primary Reporting Forms and Procedural Norms for Utilization of Water
   Resources In Line with Order 65 Of the Minister Environment And Natural Resources
   issued on May 7, 1998
• Appendix 8. Water Expense, Water Flow Rate And Drainpipe (River, Channel, Pipe) Cut
   Area Defining Methods
• Appendix 9. Parameters of Ecologist Software Developed in St. Petersburg Used for
   Threshold Calculation
• Appendix 10. Location Diagram Scale 1:50000 (1 square to 1 km.)
• Appendix 11 . Report On Volumes Of Harmful Substance Emission In To Atmospheric Air



                                          6
   • Appendix 12. Operation Section of Accident Mitigation Plan for Hydro-Technical Facility
       (Tailing Dam) of Enrichment Plant at JSC Madneuli



                                      INTRODUCTION

This report is prepared in line with Laws of Georgia and regulations issued as supplementing
secondary legislation. The present report consisits of information, which is essential for desicion
making purposes on granting environmental permit to the applicant. It elaborates quantitative and
qualitative indicators of environmental impact caused by JSC Madneuli operating in Kazreti Hamlet
of Bolnisi Region.


The present EIA has been prepared in full accordance with the requirements of the currently
enforced Environmental Legislation of Georgia. Presented indicators elaborate on: existing
environmental position, operating technology process, potential influence and socio-economic
factors stemming from the company operation.


EIA has been prepared on the basis of supplementing regulations and design-engineering indicators
of the company.




                                                7
                                 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Terms used in the present document have the following definitions:


Air contamination potential (ACP) –complex of weather conditions,            which causes air ability to
dilute existing admixtures in the air;


Threshold concentration of hazardous substances in the atmospheric air – Maximum
concentartion of hazardous substances in the definite period of time (20-30min, 24 h) which has not
immediate or any affect on the human body, its present and future generations, including distant
results, does not lower ability to work and does not detoriarate their feelings;


Environment contamination (emission of hazardous substances) – existance of impurities in
environment, or change in normal relation of temporarily existing substances in its composition,
that can negatively affect populations’ live conditions and health, although on external factors;


Evaluation of exposure on environment – study and survey procedure of planed action, which aim
to protect seperate elements, human beings, although landcape and cultural heritage, study direct and
indirect (potential) possible exposure on human health and safety, flora and fauna, soil, atmospheric
air, water facilities, climate, ecosystem, historical and cultural monuments, or unity of all the
aforesaid factors (also, influence of these factors on the cultural heritage and socio-economic values)
shows, describes and analyses the environment of new conditions.


Nature – unity of natural environment and modified (cultural) environment by humans, which
consisits of being in relationship with alive and lifeless, preserved and modified by human being
natural elements.


Environment – unity of adminstrative, ecomic, technological, political-judicial and social
measures, which preserves and restores the existing natural balance;
Environmental management system –component of facility management system and business
strategy, which consists of direct or indirect environmental impact on the operation of facilities and
all the related aspects (including environment management plan, environment policy, organization
and human resources);


Investor –implementing authority, who initiates the activity and applies to permit issuing authority
under the procedured determined by the law;


Environmental norms – Norms of environmental impactto provide environmental balance.
Established quality normes of environment condition          –    in atmospheric air, water and ground
human health and natural environment concentarion of hazardous substances and microorganizm
amount    threshold norms, noise, vibration, ultrasonic and any another kind of physical exposure
threshold norms, radiation influence threshold norms, emission of hazardous substances in to
environment and threshold norms of environment contamination by microorganizms, norms of using
harmful substancesin environment,, ecological requirements to production, norms of load on
environment;


Licence – The right on certain sorts the activity, given out by administrative body on the basis of
the administrative certificate to persons, whose activity conforms to conditions of the law.;


Utilization license – type of license, that gives person right to use government resources;


Activity license – type of license, that gives person right to implement determined specific
licensable activity;


General licenses– right, when person on the basis of united general license can implement activities
of similar type and isn’t obliged to take separately license for each activity;


Special license –right, when person can implement any kind of activity from general type of
licensable activity and is obliged to show only special license terms satisfying actual circumstances;



                                                   9
License document –License right confirming document;


Steady development – System of Society development that by interests of society economical
development and environment provides increase of quality in scale of living of human being and
right of future generations to use maximally protected natural resources and environment from
irreversible quantity and quality changes;


Important reconstruction, technical and technological renovation – Reconstruction, technical
and technological renovation, that changes whole activity parameters and for implementing of them
is necessary to prepare technical-economical improvement project;


Permit – According to the law, definite or indefinite time implementation of activity, which is
bounded to object and confirms accordance of this intention to established terms by law;


Best technology- it easily applied during protection of an environment and, economic technology
which is most effective when business concerns its protection against harmful influence or its
finishing up to a minimum. Probably, this technology is not applied widely and is unknown to broad
masses, but its introduction and use is possible from the technical point of view and is accessible
from the economic point of view to the subject who is engaged; activity in sphere of protection of an
environment.


Activity – Industrial, agricultural or any other activity, implementation of projects and plans of
renovation and development, Infrastructure projects, reactivation and sector development plans,
Protection of water, forest, ground, bowels and other natural resources existing on territory of
Georgia, Including realization of utilization and use projects and programs, also reconstruction of
existing Companys and technical and technological renovation;


Background contamination - – The general action of all existing sources of environment
components contamination, that established in certain area for the moment of new object
construction or presumable expansion of existing sources;




                                                10
POLICY AND LEGISLATION OF GEORGIA IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENT
Increase of economic potential of Georgia should not be carried out due to negative and irreversible
influence on environment. At construction of the vital objects it is necessary to consider both carrying
out of undertakings on protection of an environment, and conservation of ecological equilibrium.


The guarantee of a life of people in healthy conditions is provided with the Constitution of Georgia
(article 37) .Защита these rights is stipulated by the legislation of Georgia. Appropriating laws reflect
a position of the state in this area, provide requirements of some the international conventions and
include all complex of undertakings on protection of an environment. Below laws of Georgia and the
international conventions which are directly connected with a problem of a tentative estimation of
influence of in hand object on an environment are listed.


                                    ENVIRONMENT LAWS
In Georgia the following laws, protection of an environment concerning questions are passed:


                    LAW OF GEORGIA ON ENVIRONMENT (1996);
The law adjusts legal relations between the state authorities both physical and legal persons (in
independence from organizational-legal and patterns of ownership) in questions on protection of an
environment and using natural riches.


The primary goals of the Law:
   a)       To protect and keep safe for health of people an environment;
   b)       To provide a legal protection of harmful influence of an environment;
   c)       To provide a legal basis for preservation and improvements of a qualitative condition of
             an environment;
   d)       To provide optimum ecological, economic both social attitudes of a society and their
            harmonious development;
   e)   To provide a legal basis of using with natural resources, in view of their potential
        opportunities and steady further development.




                                                 11
At planning and implementation the state authorities, and also physical and legal persons are obliged
to be guided by main principles on protection of an environment.


Main principles of protection of an environment: » the Principle of data of risk up to a minimum », »
the Principle of stability », » a principle priority » » the Principle of payment at using natural
resources », » the Principle of preservation of biological variety », “the Principle of data up to a
minimum of the rests”, “a principle of recycling” “the Principle of restitution” “the Principle of an
estimation of influence on an environment” “the Principle of participation of a society at decision-
making”, “the Principle of availability of the information”. According to “the Law on an
environment” Company is obliged: to make the integrated control of protection of an environment
over pollution. To have with corresponding bodies the precise plan of the coordinated actions for
cases of technogenic failures and natural accidents on prevention, and in their case - on liquidation of
their consequences, systems Regularly to spend operative preventive actions. To create and have in a
condition of alertness service on liquidation of consequences of the accidents, equipped by necessary
technics, In case of the expected or happened accident in due time to inform the state authorities and
the population. Requirements of ecological safety and protection of health of the population should be
carried out.- unda Requirements of ecological safety and protection of health of the population should
be carried out. Thus actions on protection of an environment, on rational use of natural resources,
regenerative works with allocation of necessary financial assets should be stipulated and carried out.


The law of Georgia « About licenses and sanctions » (2005)


The law of Georgia « About licenses and sanctions » adjusts that field of activity or actions which
include exclusively important for the state or infringing interests of a society questions of using
natural resources. The law puts in order adjustable by the license and the sanction a field of activity,
defines the list of kinds of licenses and sanctions, establishes rules of their delivery or recognizes their
void, makes to them changes


The law of Georgia « About licenses and sanctions » adjusts that main principles and the purposes of
regulation of licenses and sanctions: Maintenance and protection of safety of a life and health of
people; maintenance and protection местопроживания people; protection of the state and public
interests. The law stipulates necessity of purchase of licenses for 84 sorts of activity, among which:

                                                   12
Company of products of a children's feed, the sort of activity connected with Company of nuclear
and radioactive elements,, Company electricity-transfer, scheduling and distribution, distribution
and transportation of natural gas, клинико-иммунологическое and allergic hospitalization, in
particular activity in sphere of treatment of especially dangerous infections, therapeutic, surgical and
other character hospitalization, extraction of minerals, etc.


The law provides delivery of the sanction to the certain kinds of activity, among which and the
sanction to influence to an environment.


The law of Georgia » About licensing and sanctions » About modification in the law » (2007)


The present law forbids sanctions to a fence and plums of water from / in objects of superficial
water.


The law of Georgia » About ecological examination » (2007)
This law adjusts following questions:
     a) Ecological экспертиза-necessary action for protection of an environment which is carried
         out during decision-making to delivery of the sanction to a sort of activity at which occurs
         influence on an environment or at the sanction to the beginning of construction;
     b) The Law of Georgia defines during acceptance of the decision about the sanction to activity
         of influence to an environment and at delivery of the sanction to the construction, the full
         list of sphere of this activity.
     c) The purpose of ecological examination is maintenance of preservation of ecological 
         equilibrium of an environment, in view of its needs, rational use and principles of steady 
         development;
     d) The Positive conclusion ecological экспертизы‐a basis for delivery of the sanction on the 
         beginnings of works on influence on an environment and on construction.
         - Procedure of ecological examination is defined by the decision « About carrying out of
         ecological examination » which is approved by Minister of Environment and Natural
         Resources. The conclusion ecological экспертизы-a component for reception of the
         sanction to influence on an environment or the beginning of construction,



                                                   13
Condition for the sanction which is obligatory for its owner, at influence on an environment or at
the beginning of construction.


The law of Georgia « About the sanction to influence to an environment. This law has been
accepted on December, 14th, 2007. At acceptance of this law, previous « About the sanction to
influence to an environment » from October, 15th, 1996 to consider void. (parliamentary sheets 27-
28/4 from 21 ноября1996г, стр.5._


           • 154 governmental orders of Georgia from September, 1st, 2005 (the Bulletin of the
               Georgian legislature. 02.09.2005, clause 1161 стр 104.. » About rules of delivery of
               sanctions about influence on an environment and about conditions of the statement
               of decisions »
           •    59 Decision of Minister of Georgia on protection of an environment and natural
               resources against May, 16th, 2002. « About an estimation of influence on an
               environment, about the statement of decisions and the enclosed instructions,.
               Concerning projects of the main pipeline » (the Bulletin of a legislature of Georgia,
               24.05.2002,50, article 470)
           • The decision of Minister of Georgia on protection of an environment and natural
               resources against June, 15th, 2005 139 « About the statement of the rules of special
               advice on influence on an environment of the Ministry of Georgia on protection of
               an environment and natural resources » (the Bulletin of a legislature of Georgia »
               2005, 74, clause 791)


The area of regulation of the above-stated law concerns unlimited number of the persons involved
in organized activity or actions and described raised danger to a life or health of people. This law
defines an indispensability of submission of all persons, ecological examination in territory of all
Georgia in its full volume and for reduction the given out permit to influence on an environment,
after reception of permit carrying out of ecological examination, During, decision-making on a
summer residence of permit to influence on an environment involving and knowledge of wide
layers of a society on the basis of rules of law.


Into objectives and problems of this law enters:

                                                    14
   • Protection during activity of health of people, environments, and also cultural and material
       assets;
   • The right given by the Constitution of Georgia to citizens of the country – to receive the full,
       objective and duly information on a condition of an environment residence the subject, and
       volume of executed works, and also maintenance of participation of a society in acceptance
       by the state of the important decisions in sphere of protection of an environment.
   • Taking into account of ecological, social and economic interests of the state and society
       during activity at acceptance of the important decisions.


Formation and protection of the rights and duties in a field of activity at delivery of the sanction,
and activity;


Maintenance of favorable conditions and their rational use, protection of an environment and
natural resources from irreversible quantitative and qualitative change.


Key points of the law:
1, the Conclusion of ecological examination is permit of activity
2. For everyone who is captured by the activity which has been not stipulated in the law,
compliance with the technical rules is obligatory.
3. The permit will be given out only in case of the positive conclusion of ecological examination.
4. Procedure and the requirements occurring in threshold evaluation are defined with the law of
Georgia and Position “About an assessment of influence on an environment” which affirms with
Minister on the basis of the lawful statutory act;
5. In case of reception of the sanction to the beginning of construction, both during construction,
and after input of object in operation, should            comply with the conclusions of ecological
examination certain by conditions of the sanction.
6. The sort of activity subject to ecological examination, caused by this law which have been begun,
before coming into force of the law « About protection of an environment », should submit
discussed with the Ministry on protection of an environment and natural resources to the plan
(Under the program), receptions of the sanction to influence on an environment till January, 1st,
2009. In this case the report on an assessment of influence on an environment which should contain



                                                     15
as the analysis of an existing condition of an environment (ecological audit), and the plan of current
influence for an environment, caused should be presented by spent works.


                  LAW OF GEORGIA ON WATER RESOURCES (1997)
The present Law adjusts the basic legal relations between bodies of the government both physical and
legal entities in area of protection - studying and uses of water.


Aim of the law:
   a) Maintenance of carrying out of a unified state policy in area of protection and use of water;
   b) Protection of water objects and rational use of water resources;
   c) Maintenance first of all needs of the population for pure potable water;
   d) Protection of legitimate rights and interests physical or legal entities in area of protection and
        use of water.


In a view of the law of Georgia « About Water » Company is obliged: All underground water-
   receivers should be equipped by the devices supervising regularly a mode of water and
   hydrometers – for definition of the debit of water while in service.


To provide rational use of water and to care of preservation and restoration of quality;


To keep in order clearing and other constructions, the technical devices influencing a condition of
   water, to improve their operational quality;
to keep account uses of water in the established lawful order;


Following 84 paragraph of the law, the user of water should develop limit rates of issue of
substances on water object. On each concrete water object specifications of polluting substances are
defined in view of technological features and impurity of concrete area so that to not exceed
admissible norms of concentration of issue of substances and microorganisms that they did not
exceed an admissible level of concentration.


Definition of specifications is necessary for existing, operating, under construction and
reconstructed objects (without dependence from an accessory and the organizational-legal form)

                                                  16
which are borrowed on water object agriculture-household, industrial, drainage and flowing water,
also descent of residual waters in malioration systems.


      LAW OF GEORGIA ON PROTECTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR (1999)
The law adjusts protection of atmospheric air against harmful anthropogenous air in territory of all
Georgia.


The primary goals of the law:
   a) To achieve and provide safety of influence on health of people and an environment of
       atmospheric air, to keep this position and to improve it;
   b) To provide a legal basis in case of emission in an atmosphere of substances harmful to an
       organism.


Under the law of Georgia « About protection of atmospheric air » Company обязано:
1. To provide correct self-monitoring in case of emission of harmful substances from stationary
sources;
2) To provide Company by filtering adaptations and to observe rules of their operation;
3) To create passports for cleaning adaptations;
4) To create the inventory report on sources of harmful substances;
5) On the basis of inventory to develop from the found out sources maximum permissible norm and
a limit of emission of harmful substances in an atmosphere.


The law of Georgia « About harmful chemical substances » (1998)
The law adjusts legal relations between the state both the physical and legal persons, an engaged
Company, carrying out of experiences and state expert appraisal, standardization, учетностью and
registration, Company, packing, marks and etiquettes, transportation, the use, export-import,
processing, neutralization, distribution, restriction, an interdiction and withdrawal from the use,
And also develops rules of the state and departmental control.


The law of Georgia « About safety of dangerous industrial objects » (1997) 
The law defines legal bases of safety of dangerous industrial objects, adjusts attitudes between
executive authority both physical and legal persons, leaning on the legislation of Georgia and the

                                                   17
requirement of the international requirements in sphere of safety. The primary goal of the law-
maintenance during labor activity of safety of a life and health of workers.


The law of Georgia « About protection of ground » (1994)
Protection of ground a-problem of the state importance .Aim of the law: to provide integrity of a soil
cover, growth and preservation of its efficiency. To define the rights and duties of users, owners and
the states in sphere of protection of ground and Company of ecologically pure products.; at growing
fruitfulness of ground to not admit negative results.


The law of Georgia « About protection of plants against wreckers » (1994)
Protection of plants against wreckers a-common cause of the state and a society. Maintenance of the
environmentally bening environment creating a security for health of the present and the future
generation, alive organisms, atmospheric air, ground, influence depends on them in a greater degree
completely and completely on balance of the nature, as well as maintenance of the population with
environmentally bening products.


The law of Georgia « About bowels » (1996)
The purpose of the law to provide rational use of bowels and minerals in view of natural balance and
potential opportunities, considering thus principles of their steady development for the blessing of
present and future generation. Following the law « About bowels » Company is obliged:
1. To take the license for use of the certain bowels,
2) To use the bowels only according to the taken license,
3) To provide complex, rational use of resources, protection of bowels and environments,
4) In a complex to study the bowels to provide geological and surveyor substantiation, Company of
the documentation and their safety. The license is given out by the Ministry of Economics of Georgia. 

 
The law of Georgia « About transit of the rests and about import territory of Georgia » (1995)
In territory of republic Georgia it is forbidden:
Transit and import of the toxic and radioactive industrial and household waste of Company, their
recycling in territory of Georgia with the purpose of their neutralization, processing, a burial place or
with any other purpose.


                                                    18
Neutralization, burial place or protection of other industrial wastes is forbidden. Transit and import of
the rests territory of Georgia is resolved only in that case when it does not break and conforms to the
legislation of republic Georgia and the country-importer.


The law of Georgia » About fauna » (1996)
The fauna living on an overland part of Georgia, in its air space, on a continental shelf and within the
limits of a special economic zone is the property of the state Georgia and is protected by the state. The
basic purpose of the law to provide protection of an inhabitancy of fauna, its reproduction, to keep
variety of kinds and their genetic feature, to create conditions for their steady development in view of
interests of the present and the future generation.


The law of Georgia « About the compensation of the loss put by harmful substances » (1999)
Objective of the law without dependence from fault of responsible persons to provide the
compensation to persons which the loss has been caused by influence of harmful substances, became
threat of their life and to health, has affected negatively Wednesday of their residing, on objects
historical and a cultural heritage, on their property and the loss has been caused to their economic
well-being.


The law of Georgia » About system of protection of protected territories » (1996)
The protected territories in Georgia are generated in connection with their big value, in view of their
uniqueness and rareness; typical for them ecosystem, animal and the flora, natural formations and a
cultural zone of habitation-demand protection, safety and reproduction for the present and future
generations. It is necessary to provide the favorable environment for scientific and educational activity
to develop recreational and natural resources with objective of progress of sparing Company and its
use.



              PROCEDURES FOR LICENCE AND PERMIT APPLICATION:
The law of Georgia « About Licensing and sanctions »
4-th item of 3 chapters, 4ой clauses 24 of the paragraph of the law « About licensing and sanctions»
comprises the sanction to influence to an environment, given out on the basis of the law of Georgia


                                                 19
« About the sanction to influence to an environment ». Following requirements of the legislation,
the conclusions of ecological examination are a condition of the sanction.         For all sorts of activity,
which are not stipulated in the resulted list (Following this law), obligatory it is considered
compliance with the technical rules approved by the statutory act of Minister on natural resources. «
About permit to influence to an environment » the law of Georgia assumes public discussion of the
report of an assessment on influence on an environment.                  Estimation of influence on an
environment-it the planned activity confirmed documentary. During activity the made decisions
defining presumably qualitative influence on a source of influence, and also an estimation of the
planned activity in a view of its ecological, social and economic consequences. Procedure of an
assessment of influence on an environment and requirements to its content are defined by the
legislation of Georgia and position « About the Assessment of influence on an environment »
which, the statutory act affirms with Minister on protection of an environment and natural
resources. For reception of the permit, the presented Report on an assessment of influence on an
environment, should contain as the analysis of a condition of an environment on the present instant
(Ecological audit), and the plan current activity caused by actions of influence on environment.


In that case when realization of the above-stated activity does not require permit to construction, it
will give out on the basis of the conclusion of the state ecological examination permit to influence
to an environment. (about delivery of this permit Minister on protection of an environment and
natural resources will publish the statutory act). The conclusion state ecological экспертизы-an
integral part of permit to influence on an environment.          The law of Georgia « About permit to
influence to an environment » assuming, subject to ecological examination all the activities begun
before coming into force of the law « About protection of an environment » обьязует to take permit
till January, 1st, 2009 according to the plan established by the ministry on protection of an
environment and natural resources (Following the program) .  In  this  case  for  reception  of  the 
sanction  the  presented  report  should  comprise  the  analysis  of  an  existing  state  of  affairs 
(ecological  audit),  and  a  plan  of  action,  caused  by  influence  in  the  course  of  activity  on  an 
environment.  


Readout of coming into force of administrative Company begins from the date of submission by the
competitor of the request for the sanction, датированной in the afternoon of submission and
contains 20 days..

                                                     20
               ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
In Georgia, within the limits of protection of an environment the whole complex of standards
operates. Qualitative norms of a condition of an environment contain requirements качественности
and define ся maximum permissible for health of people and an environment norms of a content of
harmful substances in water, air and in ground.
 
_ The content of the admissible sizes of concentration of harmful substances in reservoirs is strictly
regulated. On their basis definition of excess of norms of concentration of harmful substances in case
of their emission in water is possible..
_ « Rules of protection of superficial water of Georgia from pollution » are approved by Minister on
protection of an environment and natural resources the order 130 from 17.09.1996г. Dump of water
in a water basin is resolved only in the event that it will not cause in a water basin of growth of the
polluting substances exceeding installed norms and the user of water will provide a filtration of
flowing water up to a level of the norms established by the ministry. The quality standards of water
developed in Georgia in Georgia completely correspond to recommendations of the International
organization of standardization (ISO) 
_ The quality standards of air lean on the law of Georgia « About atmospheric air ». ЗДК flying
substances in air it is certain in 0,5 in current of day on averages in the sizes leans on that
concentration of chemical substances which does not suppress reflex respiratory activity.


Following the legislation of Georgia and the order of the president, activity which can create danger
to historical and cultural monuments of Georgia is possible only after the coordination with the
Center of researches at the Academy of sciences and with appropriating service at the Ministry of
culture, protection of monuments and sports.


      JSC MADNEULI AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ECONOMY,
                           GEOGRAPHY OF ITS LOCATION
Location region of JSC Madneuli distinguish itself by useful Geographical, Economical and
Climate terms. Region is importantly used, it has frequent net of roads, has been connected to
Tbilisi by railway electrification Tbilisi-Marneuli-Kazreti and with highway (80km).


                                                  21
Rgion is densely populated. Leading direction of agriculture is vine-growing etc. Industry has been
developed after commissioning of Madneuli enrichment plant.


Relief of plant location area is mountainous. Absolute indices fluctuate from 500m to1300m. Nearest
water artery is presented by river Mashavera and its right inflows- Poladauri and Ukangora.



Region is characterized by temperate warm climate with average annual temperature + 11        C, annual

precipitation is 700mm.


Region distinguish itself by wealth of mineral raw materials: polymetals, Barit, Copper, Gold, silver
and many other building materials (tuff, basalt, limestone, volcanic slag, perlite, clay, ceramic raw
materials) in the nearby territory to plant (three kilometres) is located two operational bore hole of
mineral water. Each debit is 400m3 /24hours.


Copper-barit-polymetallic deposit itself is located in Bolnisi region, 6km away from Kazreti county
connected with it    by concrete highway. After building the enrichment plant in the 1975, deposit
was commissioned with copper ore output annual capacity of - 1360 thousand tons.


Deposit has been processed by open-pit method. With mining electrical equipments (drilling rigs
and 5-8-10m3 excavators). Rock mass is hauled by tracks Belaz with capacity of 42 and 55 ton.


Electrificated railway enters plants industrial territory, which connects to seaport (distance to the
port is 500km).


Madneuli enrichment plant is supplyed by power, technical and drinking water and domestic
infrastracture (Kazreti county).


At present in the plant has been treated only copper ore. Operating conditions of plant is continues
(365 working day/year, 24 hours/day.)




                                                     22
Brief description of natural-climate conditions in the region of Company location

                                    WEATHER CONDITIONS
                       Average annual temperature of atmospheric air by month

#        Name               I         II         III        IV          V        VI        VII       VIII       IX     X       XI   XII    Average
 1       Bolnisi           0.3         2         5.9        11.3     16.4       20.2      23.6       23.3      18.8   13.3     7    2.3      12

                   Average annual minimal temperature of atmospheric air by month

#        Name          I          II           III         IV        V          VI        VII    VIII          IX      X     XI     XII    Average
 1      Bolnisi       -3.4       -2.2          0.9         6.2      11.1        14.5      17.8       17.7      13.6   8.5    3.1    -1.3     7.2

            Average annual absolute minimal temperature of atmospheric air by month

#        Name          I          II            III        IV        V          VI        VII    VIII          IX      X     XI     XII    Average
 1      Bolnisi       -24        -21           -15          -6       -1          5         7          7         -1     -6      -8   -20      -24

                   Average annual maximal temperature of atmospheric air by month

#       NName          I         II            III         IV        V          VI        VII    VIII          IX      X     XI     XII    Average
 1      Bolnisi       5.3        7.1           11.3        17.1     22.1        26.3      29.8   29.4          24.5   18.7   11.5   7.3      17.5

            Average annual absolute maximal temperature of atmospheric air by month

#        Name          I          II            III        IV        V          VI        VII    VIII          IX      X     XI     XII    Average
 1      Bolnisi       19         22             28          32       33          36        38        39        36     32     27     24       39



                      35
                      30
                      25
                      20
                      15
                      10
                       5
                       0
                      -5
                     -10
                                 1         2          3      4      5       6         7    8     9        10    11    12 saS

                                                          saSualo           maqsimumi                     minimumi




                                                                                23
                                   Average annual ground temperature (0C) by month

#                 Name         I       II     III           IV          V         VI        VII      VIII         IX         X          XI           XII   Average

                 Average       -1      2          8         14          22        27         31      30           22         15         7            2       15
Bolnisi




             Average
                               12     16      24            33          44        50         55      53           42         33         19           12      33
             maximum
                 Average
                               -6      -5         0           5         10        14         17      17           13         7          2            -4       6
                 minimum



                         60                                                           55     53
                                                                            50
                         50                                       44                                 42
                         40                                                                                  33                             33
                                                       33
                                                                                      31        30
                         30                  24
                                                                             27
                                                                   22                                22
                                                                                                                       19
                         20    12
                                      16                14                                                   15                  12         15
                                              8                                        17                              7
                         10                                                  14
                                                                                             17
                                                                                                     13
                                      2                            10                                                            2               6
                               -1                        5                                                   7
                           0                                                                                           2
                                              0
                                                                                                                                       -4
                      -10      -6      -5
                               1      2       3         4          5         6         7        8    9       10        11         12        saS


                                                         Average                  maximal                Minimum



                               Average annual wind direction repeatability                                                 (%)

                                    North-                             South-                            South -                             North-
          Name        North                           East.                                South                            West.                           Calm
                                     East                               East                              West                               West
      Bolnisi              3          6                24                12                 2              8                 36                9             24




                                                                                 24
                                                                North
                                                             40
                                  North-West                 30                       North-East
                                                             20
                                                            910 3         6
                                                 36                             24
                                  West.                       0                             East
                                                            8     2
                                                                          12

                                  South-West                                          South-East


                                                                South.



                      Average monthly and annual wind speed                                         (m/sec)

Name       I     II         III        IV          V        VI            VII        VIII     IX          X        XI          XII   Average
Bolnisi   1.8    2          2.2        2.5         2.3      2.5           2.5        2.5      2.2         1.9      1.6         1.7     2.1



                                                                       m/sec

            3
                                             2,5            2,5                 2,5
          2,5
                                                                       2,5                                               2,1
            2 1,8                     2,2             2,3                             2,2
                             2
                                                                                             1,9
          1,5
                                                                                                     1,6        1,7

            1

          0,5

            0
                 1      2         3          4        5     6         7         8      9     10      11         12 saS



                                                                Wind speed m/sec
   Year
           0-1        2-3             4-5             6-7        8-9      10-11              12-13         14-15         16-17       18-20
    %      55         29.5            10.8            2.7        0.9       0.2                0.3           0.2           0.3         0.08




                                                                  25
    Wind speed
                                 1,5               3,5              5,5                  7,5              9,5           13,5
       m/sec
   Repeatability%                55                84,5            95,3              98,0             98,9              99,1


          U* = 3,5 + (5,5-3,5) / (95,3-84,5) X (95-84,5) = 5,44 m\sec ≈ 5,0 m\sec

                                                    Relative humidity (%)

Name            I       II             III   IV          V    VI        VII       VIII         IX    X          XI    XII      Average
Bolnisi        72       68             69    66          68   63        56         56          65    72         77    75         76



          90
                                                                                                72              75
          80
                             68
          70                                                                         65              77
                72                 69                                                                                  76
          60                                  66         68         56
                                                              63
          50                                                                  56
          40
          30
          20
          10
          0
                    1        2           3    4          5    6         7     8          9      10   11         12   Ave.



                                             Atmospheric percipitations (mm)

Name            I       II             III   IV          V    VI        VII       VIII         IX    X          XI    XII      Average
Bolnisi        20       24             38    59          79   78        41         31          42    43         39    18         512




                                                                   26
                                                                          mm

             100
                                                                   78
              80
                                                59    79
              60
                                                                                                       43
              40                                                                       31
                          24        38                                        41                  42             39
              20
                   20                                                                                                     18
               0
                    1      2         3          4         5         6         7         8         9         10   11       12


                                          Total precipitation in points (%)

Month   I     II    III        IV          V         VI            VII        VIII          IX         X         XI         XII   Average
0-2     32    28    23         24          24        34            39         42            40         36        28         33    32
3-7     14    15    15         16          20        23            22         22            17         8         14         15    17
8-10    54    57    62         60          56        43            39         36            43         56        58         52    51



              70
                                    62      60
                          57                                                                                58
              60   54                                 56                                          56             52
              50                                               43                      43                              51
                                                                         39       42
              40                                                                                  36
                    32                                                                      40
                          28                                            39        36                    28
              30                                              34
                                    23      24       24                                                          33      32
              20                                              23         22       22
                                                     20
                                           16                                           17        8                      17
              10          15        15                                                                           15
                    14                                                                                      14

               0
                    I               III              V                  VII             IX              XI            Average

                                                          <2             <7             <10


                                         Lower precipitation in points (%)

Month   I     II    III        IV          V          VI           VII         VIII          IX        X         XI         XII   Average
0-2     49    47    41         42          41         48           53          54            47        50        43         50    47
3-7     14    15    17         18          24         23           21          20            18        15        14         12    18
8-10    37    38    42         40          35         29           26          26            35        35        43         38    35


                                                                   27
             60                                             54
                                                      53
                     49                                           47    50        50
             50           47                    48                                      47
                               41                                            43
                                     42   41
             40                42
                                     40                                      43
                    37    38              35    29                                38
             30                                       26    26    35    35              35

                                     18   24
             20           15                    23
                                                      21    20    18                   18
                               17                                       15   14
             10      14
                                                                                  12

               0
                     I    II   III   IV   V     VI    VII VIII    IX    X    XI   XII Ave.


                                           <2          <7         <10




          DESCRIPTION OF REGION’S SURFACE WATER FACILITIES

River Mashavera
River Mashavera is produced by result of joint of River Sarfdere and river Naziklich. This rivers
inflow from eastern slope of mountain Emlikli (3053.6m). Mountain is located on the hill called
Sveli Mtebi (Kechuti), down the village Pantiani by 0.2km, at the height of 1358m.


River Mashavera inflow to river Qtsia-Hram from right bank from its mouth on the 41 km, 35 km
south to village Arukhlo, at the height of 390m from sea level.
Length of the river is 66km, total fall 968m, average inclination-14,7%, catchment basin area-
1390km2, average height- 1240m. Privileged


Rvers main tributaries: River Safrdere (length-19km), Nazikklich( 12m),Kamarlo (18km), Mamutli
(21km) Karakliska (13km), Moshevani (25km), Ukangori (13km), Kheta (22km), Bolnisi (same
Poladauri) (42km) and Talaverchai (17km). All tributaries inflow into river Mashavera in the




                                                 28
mountainous part of catchment basin till village Qvesha. In the rivers lower part during the
distance of 27km it hasn’t any large tributary except river Bolnisi ( same Poladauri).


Width of river, changes from 2m (near village Bolnisi), to 20m (at village Javakhi), primary- 12m.


Depth of the river is 0.4-0.6m (in rapid current areas) and 0.8-1.2m in deep places, primary -0.8m.


Water flow rates are respectively: 1.5-2m/sec, 0.6-0.9m/sec, primary -1.2m/sec.


Study of rivers water regime has been started from 1927 year.


River Mashavera is characterized by spring inundation and unstable shallow In the rest of the time
of year. Spring inundation level starts to increase from the beginning of April, while in the lower
part- in the middle of the March. Inundation reaches its maximum in the middle of the May.
Intensive use of water due to irrigation necessity causes decrease of water level.


Dangerous hydrological phenomenas do not meet on the river. River is fed by snow, rain and
ground water. By result of this water level starts to fall. Maximum registered flow rate has been
108m³/sec (19.05.1959), while minimum - 0.65 m³/sec(Village Didi Dmanisi 16.03.1945). Annual
flow is shared unequal: in spring compiles 40.0% of annual flow, in summer – 30.8%, in winter –
12.4%. Main Hydrological parameters of river Mashavera are shown in the table:


       MAIN HYDROLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RIVER MASHAVERA
                                                     Section of calculation
                          Beginning     Prior to mouth Village Didi       Prior to       Mouth
                                        of               Dmanisi          mouth of Rv.
                                        Rv.Moshevani                      Bolnisi
Catchment basin, km2          147              373             570              855          1390
Average height of                             1820            1660             1390          1240
basin, m                      2240




                                                  29
Average annual flow
rate of water, m3/sec.
• Average of many
    years                      1,90   3,77           5,09       5,90   7,78
• With 75% -
    providing                  1,37   2,72               3,72   4,26   5,62

•   With 97%-                  0,79   1,57               2,13   2,46   3,24
    providing


Maximum water flow
rate, m3/sec.
• Average of many
    years                -             -             60,8        -      -

•   With 1% providing          129    221                283    355    467
•   With 2%-providing
•   With 5%-providing          109    186                239    300    394
•   With 10%-
    providing                80,8     138                177    222    292


                               68,7   117                150    180    248


Minimal average
monthly winter water
flow rate, m3/sec.
• With 75%-
    providing                  1,46   1,88               2,35   2,42   2,88
• With 97%-
    providing                  1,02   1,32               1,64   1,69   2,02
Level fluctuation
amplitude of many
years, m (average               -      -         0,96/           -      -
maximum)                                         1,97




                                            30
                                 River Mashavera – „Background“

Laboratory surveyes on the quality of water of river Mashavera is conducted by Georgia Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources Monitoring and Prediction Centre from mouth of river
Kazretula down to 500m. According to the mentioned data, in 2005-2007 years concentrations of
contaminating substances fluctuated in following limits:
Copper – 0,007-0,7 mg/l
Zinc – 0,01-3,9 mg/l
Iron – 0,17-0,36 mg/l.
Assays on Cadmium was not made.


River Kazretula is right tributary of river Mashavera. Lenght of river Kazretula is – 2.5km,
average annual water flow rate is -0.03m3/sec, maximum flow rate -0.3m3/sec.


Regular hydrological surveys and monitoring of water quality is not carryed out. There are data of
various organizations, which anounce that river is polluted by heavy metals.


It has to be marked that after begining of mining whole capacity of the pit, river Kazretula actually
is flow of pit and under dump“Acid” water.



                                                 31
River Poladauri (Khachinchai, Bolnischai, Pirpinjinchai, Akh-Kerpichai) takes begining from
existing pass on the north-east slope of Armenia hill, away from Jvari mountain (1979m.) to the
north away to 1.5km at the height of 1480m and joins river Mashavera from the right side, 12km
away from begining at the village Jafarlo, at the height of 452,3m from sea level.    Lenght of the
river is 42km, total fall 1028m, average inclination 24,5%, basin area is 373km2, average height
from sea level is 1100m. Main tributaries are river Giulmagometchai (lenght 14km) andriver
Lokchai (lenght 15km) rest of the 58 tributaries are small and totaly 112km. Density of river net is
0.49km/km2.


Width of the river vary from 4m (0.9km down to village Khkerpi)             to 12m (at the village
Tsitelisofeli) 6m prevail. Depth changes from 0.3m to 0.6m, 0.4m –prevail. Flow rate is 0.8-
1.3m/sec, prevail 1.1m/sec.


Average of many years water flow rate of the river in Samtverisi crossing -1.88m3/sec.


All three rivers belong to economy-agricultural water utilization.category water objects and
“Georgia rules of protection surface water from pollution” ( approved by Georgia Minister of
Environment and Natural Resources in the 17 september of 1996 by order No 130) accordingly to
their water content and established norms of features due to main contaminating substances are
following:



                 Oxygen soluted in water                   > 4 mg/l
                 Chemical requirement of                   30 mg/l
                 Oxygen
                 Zinc                                      1,0 mg/l
                 Cadmium                                  0,001 mg/l
                 Nickel                                    0,1 mg/l
                 Copper                                    1,0 mg/l
                 Iron                                      0,3 mg/l
                 Sulphates                                 500 mg/l




                                                32
                                              River Poladauri



  BRIEF GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF COPPER-BARIT-POLYMETALIC
                                   DEPOSIT OF MADNEULI
Madneuli deposit is located in Bolnisi ore region, which is the part of Armenia-Karabach
metalogenic zone.     Structuraly this region is volcanogenic curve of upper chalk. This curve is
filled with complex of Jurassic, chalk and paleogene volcanogenic-sediment.


Regions upper chalk volcanogenic-sediment thickness contains of copper, barit, polymetalls, gold
and silver ore identification and deposits.


From above mentioned deposits the bigest is Madneuli Copper-barit-polymetallic deposit.


Turon-Santon (KK (t-s) ) volcanogenic rocks take part in geological structure of Madneuli
deposit:    tuffes, tuff-breccias, tuff-sand-stones, which can be divided into three pack:
       1.          Lower pyroclastic pack (dacitebis tuffes and tuff-breccias) contain copper
                   ore main bodies. Capacity of this pack is over 500m.
       2.          Middle volcanogenic–sediment pack            (tuffes, tuff-sand-stones, tuff-siltstones,
                   sagebSi tuff-conglomerates and tuff-gravelite). Upper part, Hydrothermaly

                                                    33
                 changed tuffs and tuff-sand-stones contain bottom-up: zinc-copper ore, barit-
                 polymetallic ore and at the top gold containing secondary quartzites. Capacity of
                 the pack is 80-100m.
       3.        Upper effusive pyroclastic pack (Fluidal liparite lavas, tuff lavas and tuffes). In
                 the upper part pisolit-tuffes and lakhal - breccias are striped. Capacity 100-150 m.


                     DEPOSITS ORE AND NON-METALLIC MINERALS
                                      Madneuli Deposit Ores
Are presented by five main industrial types:
               _ Copper ore;
               _ Zinc-copper ore;
               _ Barit polymetallic ore;
               _ Barit-gold containing quartzite;
               _ Gold containing quartzite.
Copper ore – is presented by vein and impregnated ores. Containing rocks – secondary
quartzites, quartzitesed tuffes. Main ore minerals. Primary – Chalcopyrite, pyrite, rarely
sphalerite, secondary – covelin, chalcosite, boric, cuprate, insignificantly copper sulphates and
carbonates. According to mineralogical makeup and technological indicators copper ore is divided
into three types (percentage of whole reserve):
       -              Chalcopyrite-pyrite – 50%
       -              Chalcopyrite – covelin – chalcosite – pyrite – 17%
       -              Covelin – chalcosite – pyrite – 28%
Zinc- copper ore – presents steep stockworks. Containing rocks- secondary quartzites, quartzitised
tuffogenic rocks. Main ore minerals: primary chalcopyrite, Sphalerite ( Cleofan), pyrite;
Secondary- Covelin, chalcosite, copper carbonates and sulphates.


Barit-gold containing secondary quartzites appear in polymetallic ore upper part, in leaching zone.
Containing rocks-secondary quartzites. Mineralogical makeup: Barit, quartz, sericite, kaolin,
pyrite, iron hydroxides and other oxidation zone minerals.




                                                  34
Gold containing secondary quartzites- are located in cracks, oxidation zones and in central part of
the deposit, metasomaticly changed tuffs, tuff-breccias. Mineralogical makeup: quarts, sericite,
hematite, limonite, jarosite, rarely native sulphure, pyrite (1,5-2,05), in upper part of body often
kaolin, alunite and alofan.


                                           Non-Metallic Minerals
Distinguishes three variety:
   • Rhyolites,
   • Turquoise
   • Quartzitesed tuff;
   • Ignimbrites,
   • Rhyolites are presented by acid tuffogenic rocks:


Liparite porphyry-tuffes and tuff-breccias, tuffs are used in ceramical Company. Total reserve in
nature and dumps is 3 million tons.


Turquoise is mined in Madneuli deposit copper ore contacts. Containing rocks – secondary
quartzites, chlorite-sericite-quartz metasomathites. Turquoise of Madneuli stands out with its high
density and true different tonality of blue color.


Quartzitised tuffs are mined almost in every section of the pit. Total reserve (bowels+dumps) is
several houndred million tones. By conducted industrial tests has been ascertained possibility of
using it as active composite of cement.




                               Treatment and enrichment of the ore
Ore received from the pit is transfered to enrichmnet plants coarse crushing workshop, where it is
crushed. After that ore moves to middle and fine crushing workshop and then to mills, where it is
grinded.


                                                     35
              BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS
Enrichment plant JSC Madneuli is operating since 1975. It has been mining Copper, barit, gold-
silver containing quartsite and polymetallic ores, after that primary treatment of copper and barit
from them, enrichment and selling of received product- copper concentrate. At present Company
treats only copper ore., which amount in 2007 year reached-1980 thousand tons.


Used raw materials: Copper pyrites ore.
Chemical composition of raw materials:
Copper– 0,92%
Sulphure – 3-4%
Silicon oxide – 67,2%
Aluminium oxide – 1,5-2%
Iron – 2,8%
Flow rate of raw materials on products unit – 22 t/t.


Company consists of open-pit and enrichment plant, from nearest settlement –Kazreti county are on
the distance of 2,7 and 1,7km respectively. Mining of copper ore is conducted by methods of
drilling-blasting. Drilling of bore-holes in diameter 190mm is carryed out by drilling rigs of the
brands “Tamrock” D25KC, “Tamrock” D40KC, “Tamrock” D45KC                     and “Ingersollani” T4.
Blasting of dilluted bore-holes is carryed out by       explosive _ “Geonit-750”, while in dry bore-
holesis used local produced explosive Igdanit (AN-FO). Explosive “Powerjele-magnum” is used
as booster. Initiation of charges is carryed out by “Noneli” system non-electrical detonators. Mined
ore from the pit with excavators is loaded into heavy weight tracks ( Belaz), after that ore is
transported to the enrichment plant, where it is gathered at ore receiving site, while idle rocks are
hauled to special dumps.There by loaders (one of existing dumps is conserved) is formed dumps.
Pit infrastructure overviews is presented below.




                                                   36
            Overview of the pit                           Work of excavator in the pit




                                                         Drilling rig “Tamrock”




            Transport in motion                              Ore composed benches




Technological process of enrichment plant is combined of collecting of the raw materials on
receiving site, coarse, middle and fine crushing, ore grinding, flotation, thickening, precipitation,

                                                 37
filtration, drying, concentrate extraction and packing, loading of prepared production and
transportation.


Collected ore On the receiving site of the ore by means of transport is transfered to crushing
workshop, where coarse, middle and fine crushing of the ore is carried out. Then crushed ore is
transfered to the mills for grinding, where with metal balls ore is wet grinded till 5 microne.


Grinded ore moves to flotation units, where by means of technologically foreseen reagents is
carried out flotation process and derivation of copper concentrate.


During flotation are used following chemical reagents:
   -   Xanthate – 32 gr/1 t ore,
   -   Foaming oil T-80 – 50 g/1 t ore.


Technologicaly foreseen alkali environment is reached by addition of lime milk, which is produced
in lime workshop (lime – 8,22 kg/1 t ore).


Derived concentrate moves to plants filtration-drying workshop and after drying finished product is
received –copper concentrate.


Filtrated concentrate by special filters is provided to the hopper, where it is packed and loaded in to
railway vagons for further transportation. In Company formated liquid waste is pomped to tailing
dumps by pipeline.




                                                  38
 Belt conveyer
                          Coarse crusher




Balls of the mill
                         Flotation process




   Thickener             Flotation process




                    39
Loading of end product        Packed produce




    Final produce              Tailing dump




Dam of Tailing dump           Filling collector




                         40
            Surface of tailing dump                             Pipeline of tailing dump




To see the flowsheet of the company’s technological process please turn to the next page.




                                                41
                        Mining of the ore from the pit




Transportation of the ore to the                  Transportation of the idle rock
      enrichment plant                                    to the dump




       Ore receiving site




   Coarse, medium and fine
     crushing of the ore




      Grinding of the ore




           Flotation




          Thickening




           Filtration




            Drying




     Receiving of the copper
    concentrate and packing




Loading of prepared production on
      the transport vehicle




                                            42
                          AUXILIARY INDUSTRIAL OBJECTS

Except structural subunits that immediately participate in technological process, according to
Company activity specification and existing requirement JSC Madneuli also has objects that are
located on the Company territory.


They are following::
       _ Workshop of technological transport;
       _ Central stock;
       _ Railway section;
       _ Petroleum storage depot;
       _ Station of liquid petroleum gas.


Tecnnological (heavy weight) transport workshop was built on the Quartzite dumps. “Belaz’s
(heavy –weight) tracks are standing there, repaired and fueled.


Lubricating-ointment materials are used in workshop, that are packed in 200 litre metal barrels.


Central stock is located on nearby territory of railway workshop, which by means of railway and
highway transport receive different type and purpose goods, stores and distribute between Company
subdivisions.


For some kind of goods central store is interim place of storage, from where its loaded to main
place of storage.


All goods entering JSC Madneuli are stored in central stock.


Railway workshop of Company serves eighter different type and purpose goods receiving and
unloading and also accordingly to technological regulations received final product, packing-loading
and transporting of prepared product.




                                                 43
Petroleum storage depot presents Companys auxiliary workshop, that mainly serve technological
transports (here implied heavy-weight Belazs, also railway trains) providing existing diesel fuel and
lubricating-ointment materials according to existing requirements.


On this object must be adjusted existing dump around storage plant to be localized in case of
breakdown split.




                                                 44
 LICENCES AND PERMITS GRANTED TO THE COMPANY IN LINE WITH
THE CURRENTLY ENFORCED ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND
                       LEGISLATION

                            ENVIRONMENT DOCUMENTATION

                                     On the basis of what
                              legislative/regulation act must be           Actual state
        Document                     prepared/registered

1. Protection of             Georgia law “about Protection of       Inventory is lead, approved
atmospheric air              atmospheric air”, 22.06.99,            and coordinated by the
- Inventory of sources of    Approved by order #69                  Ministry of Environment
emission of harmful          27.08.2001of Minister of               and Natural Resources of
substances                   Environment and Natural Resources”     Georgia (25.09.07w.),
                             “Regulation about contamination
                             stationary object identification and
                             inventory rule”


- Register primary
accounting of emission of    Law of Georgia “About Protection of
hatrmful substances in to    atmospheric air” 22.06.99, Approved    Primary accounting is
atmospheric air              by order #66 27.08.2001 of Minister    conducted according to
                             of Environment and Natural resource    approved form of register
                             “Registering and accounting
                             instruction of emission of harmful
                             substances from stationary
                             contamination sources”                 The State statistical forms
                                                                    of accountingis annualy
                             Law of Georgia “About Protection of    (once in a year) filled in by
- The state statistical      atmospheric air” 22.06.99, Approved    Company and presented to
account of emission of       by order #66 27.08.2001 of Minister    Ministry of Environment
harmful subtances in to      of Environment and Natural resource    and Natural Resources
atmospheric air              “Registering and accounting
                             instruction of emission of harmful
                             substances from stationary
                             contamination sources”


                             Law of Georgia “About Protection of    Threshold     norms      of
                             atmospheric air” 22.06.99, (Article    emission    of      harmful
                             29)Approved by order, #70              substances             into
- Threshold norm of          31.12.2000                             atmospheric air is prepared
emission of harmful          of Minister of Environment and         approved and agreed with
                             Natural resource `Regulation about     Ministry of Environment

                                               45
substances into                threshold value of annual emission of   and Natural Resources of
atmospheric air and limit      harmful substabnces and annual          Georgia (25.09.07),
of harmful substances          emission of harmful substances
emissioned into                temporary agreed value calculation
atmospheric air                method and limit fill in rule”

    2. Water resources:        Law of Georgia “About water”,           Threshold       dippening
- Treshold dippenning          16.10,1997, (Article 84),approved by    norms are lead, approved
norms       of      harmful    order#105,12.08.1996, of ministry of    and agreed with Ministry
substances together with       Environment and Natural Resources       of    Environment     and
effluent water in to surface   of Georgia               “Calculation   Natural    Resources   of
water object                   methods of effluent water together      Georgia (#09-02/17-97,
                               with threshold norms of dippening of    29.09.07).
                               harmful substances”


                               Law of Georgia “About water”, Primary reporting on
- Conducting of register of    16.10,1997, (Article 76), approved water utilization is done in
primary accounting of          by order #65, 07.05.1998, by pre-defined logs.
water usage                    minister of Environment and Natural
                               Resourc      `Forms   of    primary
                               accounting of water usage and rule
                               of its conducting”

-The State statistical          Law      of     Georgia    “About      Statistical     accounting
account of water               water16.10,1997,    Approved     by     norms       annualy    are
                               order#63, 03.11.2004 by The State       presented to Ministry of
                               Statistic Department of Ministry of     Environment and Natural
                               economy                                 Resources



                                  LICENCES AND PERMITS


         Document               On the basis of what legislative act         Actual condition
                                        must be prepared

Licence of mineral mining      Law of Georgia “About bowels”,           Licence is granted by
                                           17.05.1996                   Ministry of Environment
                                                                        and Natural Resources of
                                                                        Georgia, 12.04.1994 (Serie
                                                                        05.3, #00.11, type11 AC),
                                                                        Period of validity – till
                                                                        12.04.2014



                                                 46
\Permit      to     operate    Law of Georgia “About basisi of            Permit is granted by State
Madneuli       Copper-barit-   industrial activity licensing and permit   Inspection of Technical
polymetallic deposit pit       granting”                                  Supervision of Georgia in
with     existing   mining     law of Georgia `About safety of            19 MArch 2007.,
transport in technological     dangerous industrial objects~              #01/132,
cycle                                                                     Period of validity-till
                                                                          19.03.2009



Permit to use industrial       Law of Georgia “About `about               Permit is granted by State
explosive                      basisi of industrial activity licensing    Inspection of Technical
                               and permit granting”                       Supervision of Georgia in
                               law of Georgia`About industrial            16 February of 2007,
                               explosives~                                #02-11,
                                                                          Period of Validity _
                                                                          permanent.



                               Georgia law of licences and permits”
Permit of extraction water
from object of surface
water                                                                     Permit is granted by
                                                                          Ministry of Environment
                                                                          and Natural Resources of
                                                                          Georgia in 5January of
                                                                          2007, (seria wa, #00032,
                                                                          Period of validity – till
                                                                          05.01.2012



                           PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES
                                  WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
Water on Company is used in industrial and drinking-agriculture purposes. Due to technological
norms for treatment of 1t of ore is necessary 0.3m³of drinking water and 4.5m³ industrial water.


Taking water for drinking-agriculture and partially industrial purposes happens from Bolnisi water-
pipe. For industrial water supply is used pit water.




                                                   47
According to government statistics account form #04-1-01 in 2007 year from Bolnisi water-pipe
totally was taken:


– Drinking water – 1676,372 thousand cubic meters (hence for drinking agriculture purposes is
used 203,106 thousand cubic meters, for industrial purposes - 1473,266 thousand cubic meters,
water flow rate in recycling water system is -904,65thousand cubic meters, while in circulating
water supply system - 8900,0thousand cubic meters. In Companys dozen oint points are mounted
watermeters, according to their readings is implemented water primary calculation.


Filling of circulating water supply leakage is done by pit acid water.


Mentioned water is supplied to enrichment plant from prepared N@#2 dump existing dam basin,
where pit discharged acid water is collected. Water supply is done by following diagram:
neutralization chamber → tailing dump → enrichment plant, average 100m3/h.


In enrichment plant pit acid water is collected in 5000m3 capacity thickener, which plays flow rate
regulating capacity   role. After passing conformable units copper is extracted from water and
solutions are neutralized. At the end water together with pulp is pumped into tailings, where
remained metals are precipitated.     From tailings water is recycled to enrichment plant and is
involved in the closed technological circuit.


Mentioned technological cycle provide for whole recirculation of industrial water, that prevents
discharge of industrial water into environment.


                      ROTATING WATER SUPPLY PARAMETERS:
                                                                8900
                                3
Rotating water rate, thousand m /y
Rotating water pipe-line:
diameter, mm                                                    400
line lenght, m                                                  3700
Pressure portion losses, m/m                                    0,0146


                                                  48
Flow rate, m/sec.                                             2,08


Agriculture – domestic waste water according to government statistical account form-
182.8thousand m3/y.) is involved in Kazreti county drainage system.


            TOGETHER WITH WASTE WATER THRESHOLD NORMS OF
    HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DISCHARGE SURFACE WATER OBJECT


In 2007 JSC Madneuli was worked out together with wastre water threshold norms of hazardous
substances discharge surface water object.


Mentioned norms are determined as maximal mass of contamination substances into waste water.In
the range of threshold norms of discharge of harmful substances doesn’t damage environment,
provide water object with ecological safety and gives opportunity to use water objects in proper
purposes.


Treshold norms are calculated specifically for harmful substances that developed during Company
object operating and which discharge into water object influence or may exposure negatively on
water object.


Treshold discharge norms are determined by foreseeing that        threshold norm of concentration
must not exceed after dicharge of waste water in influent chamber to avoid its contamination.


Calcuating of threshold norms are performed on the basis of existing regulation acts by using
proper technical documentation.


In this case calculation is made by computer software «TDN-Ecolog", which is developed by firm
“Integral” (Sanct- Peterburg)and is intended for water quality monitoring and control realization of
surface water objects.




                                                49
                  CONTAMINATION SOURCES OF SURFACE WATER

Pollution diffusive sources:
   1. Little part ofEdischarge and seepage water of dumps No 1 and 2 is leaking from existing
         holding dam and inflows into river Kazretula.
   2. Discharge and seepage from idle rock dumps No3 and No 4, that are located east to open-
         pit – inflows into river Poladauri.


Must be mentioned that at present Nno3 and No4 dumps are not used by Company, actualy
contamination is caused by collected idle rock corrosion during dozen of years and presents
“Historical contamination”




              #3 Flow of discharge water from the dump (historical contamination)
Coducted assays by independent laboratory shows that concentration of          heavy metals in river
water under the dumps changes insignificantly:

Ingredients                      Concentration in river water   Concentration in river water
                                 over dumps (background),       under                dumps
                                 mg/l                           (background), mg/l
Copper                           0,034                          0,11
Zinc                             0,034                          0,88

                                                  50
Iron                          0,44                          0,55
Cadmium                       <0,001                        0,003

   3. Diffusive discharge of seepages from some areas of enrichment plant.
   4. Its necessary to take proper measures to avoid river contamination (See. Main measures).


   Contamination point sources:


   1. Drained water from tailing dump inflows under the joint point of river Kazretula and river
   Mashavera.
     As it was determined during field works maximal hourly rate of water is -250m³/h.




                        Drained and seepage waters from tailing dump

According to the data received from laboratory assays in April-may of 2008 year, drained water
content is following:
   Copper – 0,1 – 2,5 mg/l
   Zinc – 0,04 – 2,2 mg/l
   Iron –   0,05 – 1,8 mg/l


                                 Other sources of contamination:



                                               51
During extreme situations (heavy rains) its possible that part of collected water near dump on the
river Kazretula may pass into river.     To avoid such situations near enrichment plant is foreseen
arangement of adjustment capacity. Where additional water will be collected and recycled into
technological cycle, while in case of plenty water, afetr treatment with lime discharge into river
Kazretula. Maximal amount of this water is approximately -300m3/h.




                               CALCULATION OF T.D.N. NORMS

Threshold dipping norms (T.d.n.) of dipping pollutant substances, together with waste water are
based upon enterprise specificity and are calculated for heavy metals (Copper, Zinc, Iron, Cadmium
da Sulphates).
       T.d.n. is established for two organazed (pointty) dippings :
    1. Dipping of drain water in the river Mashavera
    2. During extreme cases, periodical dipping of acumulated water (after special treatment) in
        regulating reservoir near concentrating mill.


As for diffusional sources of pollution, after carrying out respectively arrangments, prevention of
seepage and leakage in river Kazretula must be achieved.


                                       Dipping of drain water
Following initial data is input in software „Ecologist“ for definition of waste water acceptable
dipping norms.


(The most disadvantageous Hydrological conditions are taken)


   -   River Mashavera depth – 0,6 m
   -   River Mashavera speed – 0,9 m
   -   River Mashavera minimal expense of many – 1,64 m3/sc.
   -   drain water expense – 0,069 m3/wm.



                                                 52
                 -    Because dipping will happen after Joining of river Kazretula, influence of river Kazretula is
                      taken into account for calculation and also expense of river Kazretula 0,3 m3/sc is input.
                 -    Background concentrations of river mashavera water (are defined during field work, Assays
                      are carried out in two independent labboratories and avarage indexes are received.):
                                            Copper – 0,02 mg/l
                                            Zinc – 0,024 mg/l
                                            Iron – 0,27 mg/l
                                            Cadmium <0,001 mg/l


              Background concentration of sulphates are hesitating in important limits (18 _ 50). According to
              that, average concentration - 30 mg/l is taken into account for calculation




                 Data from computer processeing:

              Ingredients              Acceptable                Acceptable    dipping Anual       limit       of
                                       concentration mg/l        g/hr                  dipping, t/year.
              Copper                            2,75                     687,5                  6,02
              Zinc                              2,79                     697,5                    6,1
              Iron                              2,0                       500                    4,4
              Cadmium                          0,005                      1,25                   0,01
              Sulphates                        1346                     336500                 2947,7

              Note: Maximal acceptable concentration for iron is equal to-2,0 mg/l, as it is in European countries
              (Austria, Switzerland)


              For comparison, here are established acceptable concentrations of metals for waste waters, in
              developed world countries
Ingredients          Switzerland        Holland           Denmark     AAustrya      Bulgaria       Romania     Japan
Copper                      O0,5              0,05           0,1         0,5             0,5          0,1
Zinc                         2,0                -             -          2,0             0,5          0,1              5,0
Iron                         2,0                -             -          2,0              -            -                -
Cadmium                      0,1              0,005           -          0,1             0,1          0,2
                      A

                FORESEEN FOR EMERGENCY (EXTREME) SITUATIONS ADJUSTMENT
                 CAPACITY OF COLLECTED WATER PERIODICAL DISCHARGE INTO
                                    RIVER KAZRETULA

                                                                53
As mentioned above collected water in adjustment capacity is periodically discharged and their
presumable maximal rate is -300m3/h.


Foreseeing that threshold concentrations of contaminat substances in river water is exceeded,
Treshold of discharge is determined for agriculture –economical category rivers on the level of
threshold concentration and to achieve this level are planed necessary measures. (see. Chapter
“Plan for necessary measurements for protection of threshold discharge norms”).


       Data received by result of calculations:

              Ingredients              Threshold                Threshold discharge,
                                       concentration, mg/l      g/h.
              Copper                             1                      300
              Zinc                               1                      300
              Iron                              0,3                      90
              Cadmium                          0,001                     0,3
              Sulphates                         500                    150000


                              Protection of atmospheric air
Perspective of Company development, place physical-geographical conditions, parameters of
emission of harmful substances in to atmospheric air and foreseeing emission calculation, each
source of contamination and for each harmful substance are determined threshold norms of
emission, that is indivisible part of limit of harmful substances emission in to atmospheric air and
basis of its development and approvemnet.


Description of hazardous substances emission into atmospheric air and contamination sources
By result of Companys main activity in atmospheric air is released dust, carbonic acid, nitrogen
oxides, sulphur dioxide, soot, hydrocarbon, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbon (as gas with thermo
effect). During electric arc welding operation iron and magnesium oxides and aerial fluorides.


Above mentioned substances (except carbon) has ability of harmful influence on environment.


Carbon is not a harmful substance, but is considered as gas with thermo effect.



                                                  54
Carbonic acid – with its toxicity to concern to 4 class. Strongly dangerous poisoning, as has not
smell and color. Is formed by result of incomplete burning of inorganic substances. First attributes
of a poisoning : headache and dizziness, after that loosing conscious. Poisoning by carbon is favourable
also because of blood hemoglobin 200 times greedily absorb carbon then oxygen. Lack of oxygen in blood –
hypoxemia, or oxygen absence- anoxemia.


Nitrogen oxides – from nitrogen oxides most harmful is nitrogen oxide, but in the atmospheric
air its rapidly oxidised to nitrogen dioxide. That’s why in Company source of poisoning by
nitrogen oxides is considered nitrogen dioxide. First attributes of a poisoning : coughing, weakness,
headache. After that swelling of lungs and leakage of oxygen.Then heart pain. By its toxicity
nitrogen dioxide concern to 2 class. In calculations are considered nitrogen oand nitrogen dioxides
excrete in differential amount according to received practice.


Sulphure dioxide - Even in small quantity causes unpleasant taste in a mouth, irritates salivary
glands. Even 0,2% of sulphure dioxide in organizm causes wheeze, loss of breathing, inflammation
of raspiratory organs, constipation. By toxicity concerns 3-class.


Soot - By toxicity concerns to 3 class. It is considered cancerogenic substance


Hydrocarbons-      Substance of narcotic action. Highest alkanes except narcotic action has ability to
cause convulsions. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons causes irritation of mucuos tunic, effects blood, blood
formating organs, poisoning danger is caused by its evaporability, Therefore they belong to such
class of substances, that are called « voa » volatile organic admixture.


In table 6.1. is shown treshold concentartion norm of hazardous substances


                                                                              Table 6.1
                          Name of                         Threshold concentration, mg/m3
       Code              hazardous
                                                 Type                C received       C Used in report
                         substances
       0123              Iron oxide         TC ave.daily. * 10          0,04                0,4
                      Magnesium and
       0143                                      TCmax                  0,01                0,01
                       its impurities
       0304           Nitrogen oxide             TC max                 0,4                 0,4



                                                   55
     0328                Soot               TC max   0,15   0,15
     0330          Sulpure dioxide          TCmax     0,5   0,5
     0337           Carbonic acid           TCmax     5,0   5,0
     0342           Air fluorides           TCmax    0,02   0,02
                   Slightly soluble
     0344                                   TCmax    0,2    0,2
                       fluorides
     2732            Oil fraction                    1,2    1,2

                      C12-C19-
     2754                                   TCmax     1      1
                       Fraction


                    Inorganic dust
     2908                                   TCmax    0,3    0,3
                    70-20% SiO2



     0301          Nitrogen dioxide         TCmax    0,2    0,2




6039 Total group
                       Group                  -       -      -
  (2)330+342



6043 Total group
                       Group                  -       -      -
  (2)330+333



6046 Total group
                       Group                  -       -      -
  (2)337+2908



6303 Total group
                       Group                  -       -      -
(3)304+330+301


     Contamination sources of atmospheric air:
     In the Pit:
     _ Drilling and blasting works;
     _ Excavators and bulldozers works;
     _ Dump and ore transportation works;


                                             56
        _ Open stocks of dump formation and locating.
        In the enrichment plant:
        _ Workshops of coarse, medium and fine crushing;
        _ Lime workshop;
        _ Main building (accumulative hoppers division);
        _ Refuelling station;
        _ Electromechanical workshop;
        _ Welding points.


     CALCULATION METHOD OF EMISSION AMOUNT OF HAZARDOUS
                        SUBSTANCES INTO ATMOSPHERIC AIR
During mining on the pit emission of hazardous substances in to atmospheric air take place during
drilling and blasting works of mountain rock , work of excavators and bulldozers, mountain rock
and mined ore transportation, formation of dumps and their locating from open stocks.



                                             Drilling works

 Overall dust emission is calculated by formula:
        M = Qmm x Qdril x T x Ny x K2 x N / 1000 t/y,
Where
        Qmm _ From borehole rock drilling grindstone capacity output, m3/h;
        Qdril _ Specific dust release, kg/m3;

        T _ Pure operating time of shift, hour;

        Ny_ Number of the working days (shifts) in a year;

        R2 _ The factor considering humidity of material

        N _ Number of concurrently working technical units;
        Qmm = 0,785 x d 2 x Qtm m3/h,
Where
        d _ Borehole diameter, m;




                                                57
        Qtm _ volume of machine tool productivity for drilling rock from bore hole,
m/h;
        Qtm = 60/(Tbd + Tdd) = 60/(60/Vbs + Tdd) m/h,
Where
        Tbd – time of drilling 1 bore hole , min/m;
        Tdd _ specific time of auxiliary operation, min/m;
        Vbs _ Drilling rate, m/h.
Maximum-single emission of a dust is defined under the formula:
        G = Qmm x Qbur x N / 3,6    gr/sec


                                             Blasting works
Gross release of harmful gases is defined under formula:
        M = K x A x (QmR + Qsm) x N/1000000 t/sec,
Wehere
        K _ Calculation coefficient, that is dependent on determining harmful gas (For- CO
K=1,25gr/l, for- NO2 K=1,4gr/l.);
        A _ amount of blasting explosives, kg;

        QmR _ Specific composition of harmful gases in powder-gas cloud (PGC)

during explosion 1kg ВВ, l/kg;
        Qsm _ Specific composition of harmful gases in broken rock mass, l/kg;

        N – Number of blasting in a year
        Gross dust emission is defined under the formula
        G = K x A x QmR / TsaS      g/wm,
Where
        Tave. _ 20- minute’s averaging, 1200 sec.

Gross dust emission is defined under the formula:
        M = Qmoc. x QkuT x K2 x N / 1000 t/sec,
Where
        Qmoc _ Volume of blasted rock mass, m3;
                                                    3
        QkuT. _ Specific dust release from 1 m , kg/m3


                                               58
       R2 _ The factor considering humidity of material;

Maximum-single emission of a dust is defined under the formula:
       M = 1000 x Qmoc x Q kuT x K2 / TsaS                 g/wm




                                                Transportation
Emission of      suspended solids (dust) according to [9]-during working transport in the pit is
defined under formula:


M (g/wm) = C1 x C2 x C3 x K5’ x Q1 x C7 x N x L/3600+C4 x C5 x K5 x Q x F x n;



M (t/wel) = (C1 x C2 x C3 x K5’ x Q1 x C7 x N x L/3600+C4 x C5 x K5 x Q x F x n) x A x 31.536




              Code                 Name                      Mass (gr/sec)       Mass (t/y)
              2908        Inorganic dust 20-70% SO2               0,71017        21,500084




                                        Data about source:
Source emission intensity annual Coefficient                      (A): 0,96   (350dR/365dR=0,96)
Material: Ore
            Q = 0,002
Material surface Humidity : 5.0-7.0 %
            K5= 0,6

maximal number of concurrently working machines at the pit (n): 24
Number of transport travels there and back per hour (N): 2
Average time of one travel in pit km            (L): 5

Average carrying capacity of motor transport: 40 t
            C1= 3

Average speed of motor transport at the pit: 10 km/hr
            C2= 1


                                                      59
avtotransportis Zaris gegmilis farTi, m2 (F): 15
avtotransportis ZarisaTvis S faqt/ S gegmil                                 (C4): 1,3
Specific dust release 1 km. passing road, gr; (Q1): 1450
Road condition: Road metal coverage
C3= 0,5
Road surface humidity : 5.0-7.0 %
              K5’ = 0,6

Part of dust taken away in atmosphere from road surfaces (C7): 0,01
Speed of engine blowing: 5 m/sec
              C5= 1,2
Road dusting:
              0,03625 gr/sec                            1,097453 t/y
Engine dusting:
              0,67392 gr/sec                            20,402631 t/y


                  Emission of harmful substances by result of car fuel burning
Total emission of harmful substances by result of car fuel burning is defined according to           [7]]-
Note: Capacity of Belazi’s       >260     kwt.

airadi nivTierebebis emisiis gaangariSebis Sesabamisi cxrili
warmodgenilia qvemoT. (Emission is given in units – gr/min).



    Power
                  CO gr/smin        CH gr/min                 NOx gr/min          C gr/min     SO2 gr/min
   kilowatt

                  Hot     Cold     Hot           Cold      Hot       Cold       Hot     Cold   Hot     Cold
    >260          5.3     6.47     1.79          2.15     10.16      10.16      1.13     1.7   0.8      0.98


Drilling rig, excavator and bulldozers capacity is 161-260 kwt. Gas emission calculating table is
presented below (Emission is given in units -gr/min).




                                                         60
   Power         CO gr/smin         CH gr/min             NOx gr/min      C g/min       SO2 g/min
   kilowatt      Hot     Cold      Hot     Cold        Hot       Cold   Hot     Cold   Hot     Cold
   161-260      3.37     4.11     1.14        1.37     6.47      6.47   0.72    1.08   0.51    0.63



                                                Loading/unloading
During work of single-bucket excavator total emission of the dust is defined by formula [6]:


        M = (3,6 x Qeqs x E x Keqs x K1 x K2 x T x Nwl x N)/(1000 x Tec) t/w,
sadac
        Qeqs = Specific dust release from 1m3 loaded material, gr/m3;
        E _ Capacity of bucket of excavator, m3;
        Keqs_ Excavation coefficient;
        Tec _ cycle time of excavator, sec.
        R1 _ The factor considering speed of the wind;
        R2 _ The factor considering humidity of material;
        T _ Pure operating time of shift, h;
        Nwl _ Number of the working days (shifts) in a year;
        N _ Number of concurrently working technical units;
        Tec _ Working time of excavator during one cycle, sec.
Maximum-single emission of a dust is during working of single-bucket excavator
is defined under the formula:
        G = Qeqs x E x Ke x K1 x K2 x N/Tec          gr/sec
        Gross power surge of dust during working of Bulldozer is defined under
the formula:
 M=(3,6 x Qbul x Qm x V x        K1 x K2 x T x Nwl x N) / (1000 x Tbc x Kgk ) t/sec,
Where
        Qbul _ Specified release of dust 1t, from transfered material, gr/t;
        Qm _ Solidity of material, t/m3;
        V _ Capacity of prism movement, m3;
        Tbc _ Time of work of one cycle of bulldozer, sec ;
        Dust maximal one-time emission during work of bulldozer is defined by formula :
        G = (Qbul x Gm x V x K1 x K2 x N)/(Tbc x Kgk), gr/sec

                                                     61
        Total emission of harmful substances during work of bulldozer fuel burning is defined by
following formula :
        Qus x Tus + Qnd x Tnd + Qmd x Tmd) x T x Nwl x N / 100000               t/w,
Where
        Tus, Tnd, Tmd _ Percentage division of engine work in different modes (empty movement,
part load, maximal load) ;
        Qus, Qnd, Qmd       _ Specific emission of harmful substances in case of work of engine in
different    (empty movement, part load, maximal load), kg/h;
        Maximal one-time emission of harmful substances during fuel burning of bulldozer is
defined by formula:
        G = Qmd x N / 3,6 gr/sec
        Total emission of sulphur dioxide during bulldozer fuel burning is defined by formula:
        M = 0,02 x Bsx x Cs x N           t/sec,
Where
        Bsx _ Fuel annual total cost, t/sec;
        Cs _ Content of sulphure in fuel, %.
        Maximal one-time emission of sulphur dioxide during bulldozer fuel burning is defined by
formula:


        G = (M x 1000000) / (3600 x T x Nwl)            gr/sec.


                                                   Dumps
Total emission of dust during dump storage is defined by formula:
M (g/wm) = K3 x K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 x Q x F;
M (t/y) = K3 x K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 x Q x F x A x 31.536 .
Annual coefficient of source emission intensity (A): 0,7          (255 dR /365 dR = 0,7)
Material: Ore
        Q = 0,002
        Medium size of material pieces : 5-10 mm
        K7= 0,6
Material surface humidity: 5.0-7.0 %

                                                   62
       K5= 0,6
Protection from surrounding conditions : open from four sides
       K4 = 1
amtverebis farTi gegmilSi, m2 (F): 200
S actual/ S planed     (K6): 1,3


      Calculation of amount of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric
                                                     air

Calculation of amount of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air was mainly
done according to methods [6,7,8,9,10,11] using special computer programs, results are shownin
appendix 1
Drilling works [6] main results of calculation is given in table.                               Table
                                                               Maximal
                   Substan                                                     Total emission
                                   Substance name          emission (gr/sec)
                    ce code                                                        (t/y)

                     2908     Inorganic dust (70-20% O2)       0.32538             1.640
                     2908             For 4 rig                 1,301              6,56



Total emissiopn of the dust is defined by formula:
M=Qоп·Qbur·T·Nг·K2·N·10-3 t/y
Brand of the rig   - СБШ-250
Ore density f=4-6
Qbur(till cleaner) = 24.1 kg/m3 - Specific dust release
Dust silencer system is not used.
T=10 h- Pure time of work in the shift
Nг=700 – Number of the working days (shifts) in a year
K2=0.20 – The factor considering humidity of material (Humidity: 9.1-10%)
N=1 – Number of concurrently working technical units
Qоп=Qлп· ·d2/4=0.0486 м3/ч – Ore drilling rig volume output
d=0.19 m –Bore-hole diameter


                                                     63
Qлп=60/(Tо+Tв)=60/(60/(Vб+Tв))=1.7143 m/h – Rig technical dazgis teqnikuri
warmadoba
Tо=30 min/m –time of drilling bore-hole 1 m
Tв=5 min/m –Specific time of auxiliary operations
Maximal one-time emission is defined by formula:
G=Qоп·Qбур·N/3.6 gr/sec
Emission of gas substances is calculated according to [7] -
Note: Capacity of drilling rig, excavator and bulldozer is 161-260 kwt. Below is showed gas
substances emission calculation order for machines and unit with that capacity. (emission is given
in units – gr/min).


    Power         CO gr/min               CH gr/min                NOx gr/min             C gr/min               SO2 gr/min
     KW          Hot           Cold      Hot        Cold          Hot        Cold       Hot        Cold         Hot        Cold
   161-260      3.37           4.11     1.14        1.37          6.47       6.47      0.72        1.08         0.51           0.63



For transition season KK=0,9; (Except nitrogen oxides);
then gr/min
     Power
                        CO gr/min              CH gr/min             NOx gr/min               C gr/min           SO2 gr/min
       KW
     161-260               3.7                    1.233                   6.47                 0.972                   0.567



Gr/sec (Coefficient of Nox – ; NO2-0.8; NO-0.13)
     Power                                                                NO2
                  CO gr/sec           CH gr/sec      NOx gr/sec                     NO gr/sec       C gr/sec          SO2 gr/sec
      KW                                                                 gr/sec
    161-260            0.061           0.020              0.107          0,0856       0,014            0.0162          0.00945



Totaly theer are four drilling rigs, “Tamrock” D25KC-1piece, “Tamrock” D40KC-1piece
“Tamrock”,D5KC -1piece and “Ingersolan” T4-1piece (Simultaneously work 3 rigs. Accordingly
annual emission coefficient of gases will be:
K=3600sec x 10h x 2 shift x 350d / 10-6 = 25,2;
     Power
                      CO t/y           CH t/y         NOx t/y            NO2 t/y     NO t/y            C t/y            SO2 t/y
      KW



                                                              64
    161-260            1,537             0.504           2,7           2,157          0,353     0,408            0,238



Figures are for one rig, while for 4 accordingly will be:
    Power                                                               NO2
                       CO t/y          CH t/y          NOx t/y                        NO t/y    C t/y           SO2 t/y
      KW                                                                t/y
    161-260             6,148            2,016          10,8            8,628          1,412    1,632            0,952



Blasting [6]
                                  Calculation main results are shown in the table
                                                                                                                    Table
 Substan
                            Substance name                          Maximal emission (gr/sec)   Total emission (t/y)
 ce code
  0301                     Nitrogen dioxide                                 69.82500                    25.919
  0337                          Carbonic acid                              124.68750                    51.072
  2908                 Inorganic dust: 70-20% O2                            32.66667                    9.408



                                          Calculation formulas, Initial data
Total emission of harmful gases is calculated by formula:
M=K·A·(Qпго+Qгм)·N·10-6 t/y
А=13300 kg – one-time amount of explosives
N=240 – Amount of blasting in the year
Explosive: Igdanit
Density of ore: 9-10
 Qпго – Specific content of 1kg explosive in powder-gas cloud
Qгм – Specific content of harmful gases in blasted rock mass
   Calculation coefficients meaning and specific content of harmful gases in powder-gas cloud and
   in existing conditions of blasted rock mass
           Substance                       K (gr/l)                      Qпго (l/kg)                Qгм (l/kg )
              CO                                1.25                            9                        3.8
              NO2                               1.40                            4.5                      1.3



Maximal one-time emission of harmful gases is defined by formula:
G=K·A·Qпго/Tоср gr/sec

                                                               65
Tоср=1200 с - 20 minute’s averaging
Total emission of Dust is defined by formula:
M=Qп·K2·Qоб·N·10-3 t/y
Qоб = 2800 m3 – Volume of blasted rock mass
Qп=0.07 kg/m3 – Specific dust release from 1 m3 rock mass
K2=0.20 – The factor considering humidity of material (humidity: 9.1-10%)

Maximum-single emission of a dust is defined under the formula:
G=Qп·K2·Qоб·103/Tоср g/wm.
Single –bucket excavator [6]
General results of calculation is given below in the table
5m3- -3 pieces, 8m3- 1 piece. Simultanously working 3 pieces
                                                 Excavator
                                                                                                      Table
Substance
                         Substance name                  Maximal emission (gr/sec)   Total emission(t/y)
  code


  2908             Inorganic dust: 70-20% SiO2                   0.10368                   2.613



  2908                                                            0,414                    10,452
                       For all 4 excavator

                                  Calculation formulas, initial data


Technique type: single-bucket excavator CAT 50/90
Ore density: f=8
Total emission of dust during work of single-bucket excavator is deined under the formula :
M=Qэкс·(3.6·E·Kэ/Tцэ)·T·Nг·K1·K2·10-3·N t/y;
Qэкс=7.2 gr/m3 – Specific release of dust 1m3 loadingable material
E=6 m3 - Capacity of bucket of excavator
Kэ=0.6 (Straight spade; Density of ore - 2.8 t/m3
Tцэ= 60 sec - cycle time of excavator
K1=1.20 - The factor considering speed of the wind (speed: 2.1-5 m/sec)
K2=0.20 - The factor considering humidity of material (humidity:: 9.1-10%)
T=10 hr – Pure operating time of shift


                                                    66
Nг=700 – Number of the working days (shifts) in a year
N=1 – Number of simultaneously working technical units


Maximum-single emission of a dust is during working of single-bucket excavator
is defined under the formula:
G=Qэкс·E·Kэ·K1·K2·N/Tцэ g/wm.
Gas subtanse emission is calculated according to [7]
Note: Power of excavators is 161-260 KW.


   Power         CO gr/min            CH gr/min                 NOx gr/min             C gr/min              SO2 gr/min
    Kw          Hot         Cold     Hot        Cold            Hot       Cold       Hot       Cold          Hot        Cold
  161-260       3.37        4.11     1.14       1.37            6.47       6.47      0.72       1.08         0.51       0.63


For transitional season K=0,9; (except nitrogen oxides);
Then gr/min
     POwer
                      CO gr/min          CH gr/min                  NOx gr/min          Cgr/min              SO2 gr/min
         KW
     161-260                3.7                1.233                    6.47                0.972                   0.567



Gr/sec    (Coefficient Nox –; NO2-0.8; NO-0.13)


                                                                        NO2
   Power KW       CO gr/sec        CH gr/sec      NOx gr/sec                      NO gr/sec     C gr/sec        SO2 gr/sec
                                                                       gr/sec
    161-260         0.061            0.020              0.107          0,0856       0,014           0.0162          0.00945



Total 4 excavator CAT 50/90 5m3- -3 pieces, 8m3- 1 piece. Simultaenously working-3 piece.
Accordingly gas emission for each unit :
K=3600sec * 10hr * 2 shifts * 350 / 10-6 = 25,2


     Power
                   CO t/y           CH t/y             NOx t/y         NO2 t/y     NO t/y           C t/y            SO2 t/y
      KW
    161-260        1,537            0.504                2,7           2,157        0,353           0,408            0,238



                                                               67
While for 4
   Power KW            CO t/y      CH t/y         NOx t/y   NO2 t/y     NO t/y     C t/y        SO2 t/y
     161-260           6,148          2,016        10,8      8,628      1,412      1,632         0,952



Transportation by Belaz’s       [9]
Dust emission is calculated according to [9] . ("RNV-Ecolog" version 3.2.1.38
At calculation is used ” Methodical grant by calculation of emissions from unorganized sources in the
industry of building materials ", Novorossisk, 1989 ".)


                                      Calculation formulas, initial data


Source type: motor transport works
Maximal emission: 0,71 gr/sec; Average annual emission: 21,5 t/y.


Average coefficient of emission intensivity (A): 0,96             (350/365=0,96)
Material: Ore and idle rock
               Q = 0,002
Humidity of material surface: 5.0-7.0 %
               K5= 0,6
Amount of simultaneously working machines (n): 24
Number of transport travels there and back per hour (N): 2
Average time of one travel in pit km (L): 5
Average carrying capacity of motor transport: 40 t
               C1= 3
Average speed of motor transport at the pit: 10 km/hr
               C2= 1

Motor transport engine area m2          (F): 15
Sactual/Splan for engine (C4): 1,3
Dust release of road surface for 1km race         (Q1): 1450 gr
Road condition: road with crushed stone runway surface
               C3= 0,5


                                                       68
Humidity of road surface: 5.0-7.0 %
              K5’ = 0,6
Part of dust emissioned in atmosphere from road surfaces (C7): 0,01
Speed of wind blowing at the motor transport: 5 m/sec
              C5= 1,2
Road dusting:
              0,03625 gr/sec                           1,097453 t/y
Engine dusting:
              0,67392 gr/sec                           20,402631 t/y
Calculating formulas
M (gr/sec) = C1 x C2 x C3 x K5’ x Q1 x C7 x N x L/3600+C4 x C5 x K5 x Q x F x n
M (t/y) = (C1 x C2 x C3 x K5’ x Q1 x C7 x N x L/3600+C4 x C5 x K5 x Q x F x n) x A x 31.536
Emission of harmful gases was discussed above and according to calculations for one machine we
will have:


Gr/min
Note: Power of Belaz’s >260 KW



    Power          CO gr/min         CH gr/min               NOx gr/min       C gr/min          SO2 gr/min
     KW
                  Hot      Cold     Hot        Cold       Hot       Cold    Hot        Cold     Hot       Cold
    >260          5.3      6.47     1.79       2.15      10.16      10.16   1.13          1.7   0.8           0.98



For transitional season K=0,9; (except nitrogen oxides);
                                                 Then gr/min
   Power KW             CO gr/min          CH gr/min          NOx gr/min       C gr/min          SO2 gr/min
      >260                5.823              1.935               10.16             1.53               0.882



Gr/sec
     Power              CO gr/sec
                                           CH gr/sec           NOx gr/sec         C gr/sec       SO2 gr/sec
         KW


                                                        69
             >260              0.09705               0.03225          0.169               0.0255            0.0147



Coefficient of -Nox ; NO2-0.8; NO-0.13
Gr/sec
         Power                                                         NO2
                         CO gr/sec        CH gr/sec      NOx gr/sec            NO gr/sec       C gr/sec     SO2 gr/sec
             KW                                                       gr/sec
         >260            0.09705           0.03225         0.169      0.1352   0.02197             0.0255     0.0147



Daily total work 24 machines i.e.: total emission M = gr/sec x 24;


         Power                                                         NO2
                         CO gr/sec        CH gr/sec      NOx gr/sec            NO gr/sec       C gr/sec     SO2 gr/sec
             KW                                                       gr/sec
         >260             2.3292            0.774          4.056      3.2448      0.527            0.612      0.3528



In on year: k = 3600sec * 20hr * 350day * 10-6 = 25.2
Gco= 25.2 x 2.3292 = 58.695 t/y;
GCH = 25.2 x 0.774             = 19.505 t/y;
GNO2     =    25.2 x 3.2448 = 81.77 t/y;
GNO      =   25.2 x 0.527 = 13.28 t/y;
Gc   =   25.2 x 0.612      = 15.422 t/y;
GSO2     =   25.2 x 0.3528 = 8.890 t/y.
Throwing ore from machines into hopper [9]
"RNV-Ecolog" version 3.2.1.38
(From the pit into coarse crushers hopper).
                                             Calculation formulas, initial data
                                         Source type: Throwing ore into the hopper
             Maximal emission : 0,373333gr/sec; Average annual emission: 8,241408 t/y.
Average coeficient of emission intensity (A): 0,7
Material: ore K1= 0,04                    K2= 0,02
Maximal amount of material in tones, in conditions of 20 mk in moving (G): 40
Average size of material: 100-500mm
                    K7 = 0,2


                                                               70
Humidity of material’s surface: 9.0-10.0 %
            K5 = 0,1
Protection from external factors: four –side open                                        K4 = 1
During unloading height of material throwing: 2.0 m
            B’ = 0,7
           Wind speed, m/sec (K3)            Max.emission (gr/sec)              Annual emission (t/y)
                  2 m/wm                            0,373333                            8,241408



                                           Calculating formules
                M (gr/sec) = 106 x K1 x K2 x K3 x K4 x K5 x K7 x 3 x G x B’/3600

           M (t/y) = 106 x K1 x K2 x K3 x K4 x K5 x K7 x 3 x G x B’/3600 x A x 31.536
                                                 Bulldozers. [6]
General results of calculations is given in table
(by issued reference of Company annual fuel expense is 324 t)


 Substan
                        Substance name                      Maximal emission (gr/sec)      Total emission (t/y)
 ce code
  0301                  Nitrogen dioxide                             0.07800                       1.145
  0304                   Nitrogen oxide                              0.01267                       0.186
  0328                         Soot                                  0.01222                       0.181
  0330                  Sulphure dioxide                             0.07714                       1.944
  0337                     Carbonic acid                             0.09500                       1.723
  2732             Hydrocarbons (oil fraction)                       0.07639                       1.470
  2908             Inorganic dust : 70-20% O2                        0.17136                       4.318



Technic type: Bulldozer
Material density: Ore f=4
Total emission of dust during bulldozer work is defined by formula:
M=Qбул3.6·Gm·V·T·Nг·10-3·K1·K2·N/(Tцб·Kр) t/wel
Qбул=0.85gr/t –Specific release oft he dust for 1 ton loadable material
Gm=2.8 t/m3 – Material density
V=6 m3 – Capacity of bulldozer moving prism

                                                       71
Tцб=80 wm – Cycle time of bulldozer
Kр=1.5 (Ore density - 2.8 t/m3
K1=1.20 – The factor considering speed of the wind (speed: 2.1-5 m/sec)
K2=1.20 - The facor considering ore humidity (humidity : 3.1-5%)
T=10 hr – Pure operating time of shift
Nг=700 – Number of the working days (shifts) in a year
N=1 – Number of simultaneously working technical units.

Maximum-single emission of a dust is during working of Bulldozer is defined under the
formula:
 G=(Qбул·Gm·V·K1·K2·N)/(Tцб·Kр) gr/sec;
Total emission of gas contaminating substances during work of bulldozer is defined by formula:
M=(Qхх·Tхх+Qчм·Tчм+Qмм·Tмм)·10-2·T·Nг·N·10-3 t/y;
Tхх=20%
Tчм=40%
Tмм=40% - - Percentage distribution of working time of engine in case of different regimes (Idling /
partial capacity / maximal power)

   Specific emission of contaminating substances during engine working in according regime
                                            kg/hr




       Substance                    Qхх                     Qчм                      Qмм
           CO                     0.1370                   0.2050                   0.3420
           NOx                    0.0540                   0.1330                   0.3510
           CH                     0.0720                   0.2140                   0.2750
            C                     0.0030                   0.0190                   0.0440


Coefficients of transformation of nitrogen oxide:
Kno=0.13
Kno2=0.8
Maximum-single emission of contaminating substances during fuel burning by Bulldozer is
defined via straight calculation from specific emission under the formula :
G=Qмм·N/3.6 gr/sec
Total emission of gas contaminating substances during fuel burning ny bulldozers is defined by

                                                    72
formula:
M=0.02·Bтг·Cs·N t/y;
Bтг=324 t/y – Total annual expense of fuel;
Cs=0.3% - Sulfur content in fuel;
Estimation value of maximal-single emission is defined by straight calculation from total emissions
under the formula:
G=(M·106)/(3600·T·Nг) gr/sec;
Tree units are working simultaneously, accordingly this data is multiplyed on 3 and we have:


 Substa
                                                            Maximal emission
  nce                   Substance name                                         Total emission (t/y)
                                                                (gr/sec)
  code
  0301                  Nitrogen dioxide                         0,234                3,435
  0304                   Nitrogen oxide                          0,038                0,558
  0328                        Soot                               0,037                0,543
  0330                  Sulphure dioxide                         0,231                5,832
  0337                    Carbon acid                            0,285                5,169
  2732             Hydrocarbons (oil fraction)                   0,229                4,410
  2908             Inorganic dust: 70-20% O2                     0,514               12,954
Dumps [9]
(Average areaof dusting 200 m2) general results of calculation is shown in table
Source type: Windy dusting


Maximal emission, gr/sec: 0,187         average annual emission, t/y: 4,132
Average coefficient of emission intensivity      (A): 0,7
Material: ore Q = 0,002
Medium size of material: 5-10mm
         K7= 0,6
Humidity of material surface: 5-7 %
         K5= 0,6
Prrotection from surrounding factors: O four side pen           K4= 1
Area od dusting surface , m2. (F): 200


                                                   73
Sfact/Splan(K6): 1,3


         Wind speed,m/sec (K3)        Maximal emission (gr/sec)         Total emission t/y)
                 2 m/sec                            0,1872                  4,132477




Calculation formulas:
M (g/wm) = K3 x K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 x Q x F:
M (t/wel) = K3 x K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 x Q x F x A x 31.536.
Total are three dumps, accordingly data is multiplyed on 3.




         Wind speed,m/sec (K3)        Maximal emission (gr/sec)         Total emission t/y)
                 2 m/sec                            0,561                     12,396


Welding operations [8]
.General results of calculation is given in table


                                                                   Emission
                       Code           Substance name
                                                               Gr/sec        t/y
                       0123              Iron oxide           0.0074088 0.018670
                                    Magnezium and its
                       0143                                   0.0006946 0.001750
                                         impurities
                       0342            Gas fluorides          0.0010151 0.002558
                       0344      Weakly soluble fluorides     0.0009350 0.002356
                                  Inorganic dust: 70-20%
                       2908                                   0.0009350 0.002356
                                            SiO2


Calculation formulas:
      Mjam. =Yi x M/1000000*(1-n) [t/y]


                                                     74
      Mmaqs.=Yi x M/T/3600*(1-n) [gr/sec]
Initial data
   Technological operation: Manualo electro ars welding
   Brand of material: УОНИ-13/80
   Specific release of harmful substances:


                       Code       Substance name              Yi [gr/kg]
                       0123          Iron oxide               8.3200000
                                Magnesium and its
                       0143                                   0.7800000
                                     impurities
                       0342      Gaseous fluorides            1.1400000
                       0344   Weakly soluble fluorides        1.0500000
                              Inorganic dust: 70-20%
                       2908                                   1.0500000
                                        SiO2


Downtime of welding post per year (T): 700 [hr] 0 [min]
Mass of used materials (М): 2640 [kg]
Formation norms of candle end from electrode expense (n): 0.15
Filling station [11]
"AZS-Ecolog" version 1.6.4.49
General results of calculation is given in the table
Initial data
Type of release source: tanks of petroleum storage depot
Maximal emission, gr/sec: 0,163; Average annual emission , t/y: 0,020
Data about source:
Name of oil product: Diesel fuel.
Operation mode: Fuel;
technical facilities of emission reduction: No;
Climate zone: 3;
Construction of reservoir: Land-based horizontal;
Category of oil product: В


                                                   75
Lower and side concurrently heating of reservoir: No;
Mass of liquids poured in reservoires, ton:
Per year: (B): 5760
Number of reservoirs: (Np): 6;

Volume of reservoir, (Vp), m3: 75;

Steamairish impurities maximal volume         , m3/hr; (Vчmax): 150
Calculation constants:


C1= 3,92 Y2= 2,36                                 Y3= 3,15

Kpmax= 1 Gхр= 0,27                                Kнп= 0,0029


Percentage of emission of harmful substances:
   Code           Name of substance                   %        Mass(gr/sec    %       Mass (t/y)
    333          Sulphuretted hydrogen               0,28      0,0004573     0,28     0,0000576
   2754 hydrocarbons ( C12-C19-is fraction) 99,72               0,162876     99,72    0,0205092


Calculating formulas
Maximal      emission,      gr/sec:      M       =        C1    x    Kpmax     x     Vчmax/        3600

Annual emission, t/year: G = (Y2 x Bоз+ Y3 x Bвл) x Kpmax x 10-6+ Gхр x Kнп x Np
Machine tools.
In Company are 40 benchs with power - 20-300KW. 10 simultaenously working unit is taken,
among them 2 Oval abrasive bench with diameter 155mm (0.117kg/hr), 4 toothed abrasive benches
(0,039 kg/hr and 4 grinding machine with diameter of 100mm (0,04 kg/hr); Total:
(2 x 0,117+4 x 0,039+4 x 0,04) x 1000/3600=0,55 x 1000/3600= 0,152 gr/sec
Data received from calculation is multiplied to coefficient            0,2 (The methodical grant by
calculation, normalization and the control of emissions of polluting substances over
atmospheric air. St.-Petersburg 2005). [(gv.14)].
0,152 x 0,2 = 0,0304 gr/sec; Daily average 2 hours of working we will receive : 0,0304 gr/sec x
3600 x 2 x 350 / 10-6 = 0,076 t/y metal dust.



                                                     76
In enrichment plant 4 emission source is organized, which are equipped with aspiration systems.


ЦС-19 type scrubber is mounted on coarse Jaw –crushers. Absorbing pipeline joining air duct
from jaw-crusher with diameter of 0,6m, while from transformer with diameter of 0,75m dusty
air enters ЦС-19 type scrubber. From scrubber air passing       Д-13,5 smoke recovery pipe, with
800mm diameter pipeline at the height of 18m connects to atmosphere.     Air volume entering from
                    3                            3
both sides is 9,75m /sec, while ouput -10,67 m /sec, (absorbtion-8,61%); Amount of emissioned
dust into atmosphere is-1,65gr/sec, while effectiveness is equal to 40%. (Operation time-4740hr/y).
Emission per year 28,155t/y.

Medium and fine crushers are equipped with           ЦС-21 type scrubber. Dust is absorbed from
three places. Above crusher is located ГИТ-52М type screen, from body of crusher and crushed
ore transportation belt throwing place. Coming from transportation belt with diameter 0,4m pipeline
is connected at the screen and absorb pipelines with diamter 0,2m where dust is collected in
collectro.   From collector dusty air wit pipeline of diameter of 0,8m moves to ЦС-21 type
scrubber. From this point cleaned air with square pipeline (0,9m x 0,9m) is absorbed by Д-13,5
smoke recovery and after that with square pipeline (1,1m x 0,7m) at the height of 36m joins
atmosphere. Amount of air entering scrubber is 10,26 m3/sec, outlet - 11,25 m3/sec, amount of
emissioned air into atmosphere is 0,843gr/sec, effectiveness of system 71%. (Operating hours –
4740hr/y) Emission per year 14,385t/y.


Section of accumulative hoppers of main building         - Main source of dust formation is dust
formed by result of throwing ore from second conveyer to third conveyer.      ЦС-9 Type scrubber
is used. Absorbed dust into the cover untill cleaner moves by square air duct (0,35 x 0,35m).
Fffrom scrubber comparatively cleaned air goes throuth ЦС-7-40 type fan with (0,25 x 0,25m)
pipelinine, at the height of 34m. Joins atmosphere. Amount of influent air into scrubber is 0,94
m3/sec, outgoing 2,33 m3/sec. Amount of emissioned dust ia 0,298 gr/sec, effectiveness of system
85% (Operating hours-4740hr/y), Emission per year 5,085 t/y.


Lime workshop – Main sources of dust formation are 2 jaw-crushers and and 2 МШР-1,5 type
mill. Amount of crushed and grinded lime is - 15780 t/y. From all four source dust is absorbed into
aspiration system and after passing through tailored made scrubber with of 0,4m. diameter pipe


                                                77
joins atmosphere at the height of 15m. Amount of scrubber air input is -1,32 m3/sec, output-1,36
m3/sec. Amount of emissioned dust into atmosphere is 0,22g/sec, Effectiveness of system 62%.
(Operation hours-7600hr/y). Emission per year 6,128t/y.


Parameters of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air
As it was mentioned in introduction part threshold of emission of harmful substances into
atmospheric air is determined for conditions of probable maximal capacity of load of Company.
Parameters of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air was determined on the basis of
inventory materials of Company (atmospheric air contaminating sources and emission by them of
harmful substances inventory technical report). For this pourpose was used general data provided
by namufacture about activity of object and existing different bibliography and calculation methods.
Calculation was carryed out using calculation methods.


For more obviousness and in purpose of facilitation of analysis, was composed 9.1. Table, where
is given emission parameters of harmful substances, which are necessary for calculation of emission
of harmful substances.




                                                78
                                                P      Emission parameters of hazardous substances into atmospheric air
                                                                                                                                                                              Table 9.1.
                                                                                               Emission source                                                                                           Coordinates of
                                                                                                                     Dusty air parameters at the outlet of            Amount of emission of harmful
                      Hazardous substance emission source   Amount of annual working hours parameters of hazardous                                                                                      emission source,
                                                                                                                              emission source              Code of    substances into atmospheric air
                                                                                                     ,m                                                                                                        m
Name of production,                                                                                                                                        harmful
  workshop, site                                                                                                                                          substance
                                                             Twenty-four                                             Speed      Volume                        s
                                     Name                                     In the year    Height     Diameter                              Temperature                Gr/sec             t/year
                      Numbe                                    hours                                                 m/sec    speed, m3/sec                                                               X         Y
                                                    Hfjl8
                        r
        1              2               3              4           5               6            7            8         9            10              11        12            13                14           15       16

Lime production        1      Aspiration system       1          24             7600           15         0,4        10,8         1,36             35        2908       0,224              6,128          0         0

Coarse crushing
    section
                       2      Aspiration system       2          24             4740           18         0,8        21,2        10,67             35        2908        1,65             28,155         332      -259


Medium and fine                  Aspiration                                                                                                                                                                        -
ctrushing section
                       3
                                  system
                                                      3          24             4740           36           1        14,3        11,25             35        2908       0,843             14,385         242
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  248

 Main building         4      Aspiration system       4          24             4740          34,5        0,56       9,7          2,39             35        2908       0,298              5,085         228      -178

                                                                                                                                                             304        0,014              0,353



                                                                                                                                                             328        0,0162             0,408



       Pit             5        Unorganized           5          20            7000             -           -         -             -               -        330       0,00945             0,238        2880      -980



                                                                                                                                                             337         0,061             1,537



                                                                                                                                                             2732        0,02              0,504




                                                                                                       79
                                                                 2908    0,325    1,640



                                                                 301    0,0856    2,157



                                                                 304     0,014    0,353



                                                                 328    0,0162    0,408



                                                                 330    0,00945   0,238



Pit   6   Unorganized   6   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   337     0,061    1,537   2880 -1130



                                                                 2732    0,02     0,504



                                                                 2908    0,325    2,613



                                                                 301    0,0856    2,157



                                                                 304     0,014    0,353

Pit   7   Unorganized   7   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -                            2850 -1300

                                                                 328    0,0162    0,408



                                            80
                                                                 330    0,00945   0,238



                                                                 337     0,061    1,537



                                                                 2732    0,02     0,504



                                                                 2908    0,325    1,640



                                                                 301    0,0856    2,157



                                                                 304     0,014    0,353



                                                                 328    0,0162    0,408



                                                                 330    0,00945   0,238

Pit   9   anorganized   9   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -                            3080 -1100

                                                                 337     0,061    1,537



                                                                 2732    0,02     0,504



                                                                 2908    0,103    2,613



                                            81
                                                                   301    0,0856    2,157



                                                                   304     0,014    0,353

Pit   10   Unorganized   10   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -                            2550   -950

                                                                   328    0,0162    0,408



                                                                   330    0,00945   0,238



                                                                   337     0,061    1,537



                                                                   2732    0,02     0,504



                                                                   2908    0,103    2,613



                                                                   301    0,0856    2,157



                                                                   304     0,014    0,353



Pit   11   Unorganized   11   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   328    0,0162    0,408   2400 -1480



                                                                   330    0,00945   0,238



                                              82
                                                                   337     0,061    1,537



                                                                   2732    0,02     0,504



                                                                   2908    0,103    2,613



                                                                   301    0,0856    2,157


                                                                           0,187
Pit   12   Unorganized   12   24   6120   -        -   -   -   -   2908             4,132   1558 -1398



                                                                   304     0,012    0,186



                                                                   328    0,0122    0,181



                                                                   330     0,077    1,944

Pit   13   Unorganized   13   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -                            1651 -1559

                                                                   337     0,095    1,723



                                                                   2732   0,07639   1,470



                                                                   2908    0,171    4,318



                                              83
                                                                   301     0,078    1,145


                                                                           0,187
Pit   14   Unorganized   14   24   6120   -        -   -   -   -   2908             4,132   3190 -1962



                                                                   304     0,012    0,186



Pit   15   Unorganized   15   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   328    0,0122    0,181   3266 -2004



                                                                   330     0,077    1,944



                                                                   337     0,095    1,723



                                                                   2732   0,07639   1,470



                                                                   2908    0,171    4,318



                                                                   301     0,078    1,145


                                                                           0,187
Pit   16   Unorganized   16   24   6120   -        -   -   -   -   2908             4,132   2995   -428



Pit   17   Unorganized   17   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   304     0,012    0,186   2962   -501



                                              84
                                                                   328     0,0122    0,181



                                                                   330     0,077     1,944



                                                                   337     0,095     1,723



                                                                   2732   0,07639    1,470



                                                                   2908    0,171     4,318



                                                                   301     0,078     1,145



                                                                   143     0,0074    0,0017



                                                                   342    0,00069    0,0025

Pit   18   Unorganized   18   2    700    -        -   -   -   -
                                                                   344     0,001     0,0023



                                                                   2908   0,000935   0,0023



Pit   19   Unorganized   19   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   304     0,527     13,280   2182 -1223



                                              85
                                                                                328     0,612    15,422



                                                                                330     0,352     8,890



                                                                                337     2,330    58,695



                                                                                2732    0,774    19,505


                                                                                        0,710
                                                                                2908             21,500



                                                                                301     3,244    81,770


 avtogasamarTi
     sadguri
                   20   Unorganized   20   24   8760   -        -   -   -   -   333    0,00045   0,00005   69     416



                                                                                2754    0,162     0,020



sawarmoo korpusi   23   Unorganized   23   20   7000   -        -   -   -   -   2908    0,373     8,241    382    -259



      Pit          24   Unorganized   24   8    350    -        -   -   -   -   123     0,03      0,076    2400   -550




                                                           86
              Calculation of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air

       Method of Calculation of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air


 Terms of determination of threshold emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air

For determining threshold norm of emission must be used following terms:
                                      Cm
                                                   ≤ 1,            (1)
                                     zdk.      m

Where:
         Cm _ Calculated Fmaximal concentration of harmful substances in Overground layer of
atmosphere (mg/m3) from all contaminating sources;


         zdk. m _ Corresponding harmful substances maximal single threshold concentration,
mg/m3.
      In case of existance of several simultaneously total influence on atmospheric air must be
used following terms:
                       C m.1   C m .2           C m .n
                             +         + ... +          ≤ 1,                    (2)
                      zdk. m1 zdk. m 2         zdk. m.n
   Where:
      Cm.1, Cm.2...Cm.n _ Calculated maximal concentration of harmful substances at the same
place of oevrground layed of atmosphere, mg/m3;
      zdk.   m1,   zdk.   m2...   zdk.   m.n   _ Relevant maximal single threshold concentration of
harmful substances, mg/m3.
      In formulas (1 – 2) the 1 in right part must be replaced by 0,8For health-resort zones,
sanatoriums and resting house locations, althouth for other territories With requirement of a
quality atmospheric air for harmful substances which maximal single threshold concentration
norms, its possible to use average twenty-four hour ten fold norms, while in case of their
absence- approximate safety level influence of harmful substances.
      In case of existence of background concentration in atmospheric air (Cf) in formula(1)-
instead of Cm must be taken Cm+ Cf , while in (2)formula instead of Cm.1, Cm.2...Cm.n – must be
used Cm.1 +Cf.1, Cm.2 +Cf.2...Cm.n +Cf.n .
      Operating and reconstructable Companys during determination of treshold emission
instead of Cf –is used C 'f ,which is background concentration, where Company share is
excluded:
                                                    Cm
                              C 'f = Cf (1-0.4         ), When Cm ≤ 2Cf                  (3)
                                                    Cf
                                   C 'f= 0.2Cf , When Cm >2Cf                      (4)


         For Companys under consrtuction for defining of threshold emission norms


                                  C 'f= 0.2Cf                                            (5)


         Values of background concentration is defined by hydrometeorological office on the
basis of data of regular surveys on atmosphere contamination posts.In case of absence of this
data background concentration terms are calculated on the basis of emission iventory parameters
by following formula:


                        ⎡                   ⎤
                        ⎢                   ⎥
                             Mi
                 C 'f = ⎢1 −                ⎥ ⋅ zdk,                               (6)
                        ⎢    Nn
                                 Mj         ⎥
                        ⎢ Hi ∑              ⎥
                        ⎣    j=1 H j        ⎦


Where:


         C 'f _ i- Company background concentration (mg/m3);
         Nn – Number of Company in the city, settlement;
         Mi _ totsl amount of emissions by i Company (gr/sec);
         H i _ Average height of emission of- i-Company (m).
                         5M ( 0−10 ) j + 15M (11− 20 ) j + 25M ( 21−30 ) j + ...
                 Hj =                                                              (7)
                                                  Mj

                 M j = M ( 0−10 ) j + M (11−20 ) j + M ( 21−30 ) j + ...           (8)

Where:
         M(0-10)j, M(11-20)j and etc. _ total emission at j-Company height relevant intervals.


 CALCULATION OF ATMOSPHERE CONTAMINATION, CAUSED BY EMISSION
          OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM SEVERAL POINT SOURCES OF
                                                CONTAMINATION



                                                              88
Maximal meaning of harmful substances concentration on overground Cm (mg/m3), that is
reached in unfavourable meteorological conditions several point oval pipe contaminating source
of emissioned lighted air gaseous impurities, that is far from Xm (m), is defined by formula:


                                       AMFmnη
                                 Cm=                 ,          (1)
                                       H 2 3 V1 ∆T

Where:


         A   _ Atmosphere temperature startification coefficient is     (wm2/3. 0C1/2, mg/gr), for
Georgia conditions _ A=200
         M _ is mass of emissioned harmful substances in period of time, (gr/sec). Its dtermined
by calculation on the basis of standards for particular Company (processes);
F   _DDimensionless coefficient of precipitation speed of harmful substances into atmospheric
air. For gaseous harmful substances and slightly dispersive aerosols (dust, ashes) F=1; coarse
dispersive dust and strips- when cleaning coefficient average operating meaning    >90%, When
F=2; when meaning of this coefficient is among 75%-and 90%, then F=2.5; when menaing of
this coefficient is <75%-or cleaning is not performed, then F=3 .
         H _ Height of emission source from ground surface       (m).
         ∆Τ _ Difference between emissioned air-gaseous impurity temperature and ambient
termperature (0C).
         η _ Dimensionless coefficient describing influence of relief if place on air-gaseous
impurity emission.For plain area, when place factor height fall for 1km is no more then, η =1. In
other cases η -is deremined on the basis of cartographic materials, which represent relief of area
far from Company at height of 50miles radius, but no less then 2km. ( η - value must be agreed
with Ministry of Environment and natural resources)
         V1 _ Expense of air-gaseous impurity (m3/sec), that is defined by formula:
                                           πD 2
                                    V1 =          ωo ,    (2)
                                            4
Where:
         D _ Diameter of pipe of emission source, (m);




                                                   89
       ωo _ Average rate of outflow of air-gaseous impurity from emission source pipe ,
(m/sec);
       m and n _ Dimensionless coefficients describing outflow conditions of air-gaseous
impurity from emission source pipe , difined by formula
                                                      1
When f <100,          then    m=                                        (3)
                                   0.67 + 0.1 × f + 0.34 × 3 f
                                           1.47
When f ≥100,          then           m=       3
                                                                 (4)
                                                  f
When fe<f<100, then coeffiecient m is caclulated by formula (3) with f=fe factor


If f <100 and
When Vm≥2, then      n=1                                         (5)


When 0.5 ≤Vm<2,      then    n=0.532 Vm2-2.13 Vm+3.13            (6)


When Vm<0.5,         then    n=4.4Vm                                    (7)


If f≥100, then coeffiecient n is caclulated by formula s(5-7) Vm=Vm values.


Parameters f, Vm, and fe are defined by following formulas:


                                           ωo D
                                            2
                               f = 1000                                 (8)
                                          H 2 ∆T

                                                  V1 ∆T
                             Vm = 0.65 × 3                              (9)
                                                    H
                                          ωoD
                             V m = 1 .3
                               '
                                                                        (10)
                                          H


                              fe = 800(Vm ) 3
                                        '
                                                                        (11)


During cold air-gaseous impurity emission from seperate point, oval pipe contamination source
                             ′
(When f ≥ 100 or ∆Τ ≈ 0 and Vm ≥ 0.5 ) Cm –value is calculated by formula:




                                                      90
                                      AMFnη D
                              Cm =           ×             ,                     (12)
                                       H 4/3   8V1
Where:
                                                ′
         n is calculated by formula (5-7) Vm = Vm with avlue, While when f<100 and Vm<0.5 or
             ′
f ≥ 100 and Vm < 0.5 (In case of little threshold value of wind dangerous speed), then:


                                      AMFm ′η
                               Cm =           ,                          (13)
                                       H 7/3
Where:                m ′ = 2.86m, when f<100, Vm<0.5             (14)


                      m ′ = 0.9, when f ≥ 100,Vm < 0.5
                                               ′                         (15)


         Distance away from contaminating source Xm (m), in case of unfavourable weather
conditions overground concentrationa C (mg/m3) reches maxsimal value Cm, is defined by
formula:
                                      5−F
                              Xm =        dH ,                           (16)
                                       4
Where d – is dimensionless coefficient,that is calculated by formulas:


If f<100 and


When Vm ≤ 0.5,        then d = 2.48(1 + 0.283 fe )                (17)



When 0.5 < Vm ≤ 2, then d = 4.95Vm (1 + 0.283 f )                 (18)


When Vm>2,            then d = 7 Vm (1 + 0.283 f )                (19)


If f>100 and


      ′
When Vm ≤ 0.5,        then d=5.7                                         (20)


            ′                    ′
When 0.5 < Vm ≤ 2, then d = 11.4Vm                                       (21)



                                                 91
      ′
When Vm > 2,                         ′
                        then d = 16 Vm                                           (22)




Dangerous wind rate       um (m/sec at the level of weathercock)         (10m from the ground), where
maximal concentartion of hazardous substances is Cm, is dermined by formula:


If f<100 and


When Vm ≤ 0.5,          then um=0.5                                       (23)


When 0.5 < Vm ≤ 2, then um=Vm                                             (24)


When Vm>2,              then u m = Vm (1 + 0.12 f )                              (25)


If f ≥ 100 and


      ′
When Vm ≤ 0.5,          then um=0.5                                       (26)


            ′
When 0.5 < Vm ≤ 2, then                ′
                                 um = um                                         (27)


      ′
When Vm > 2,            then               ′
                                 u m = 2.2Vm                                     (28)


In case of unfavourable weather conditions and wind speed u (m/sec)                (Diffrent from wind
dangerous speed um (m/sec), maximal value of harmful substances overground concentration
Cm.u (mg/m3) is defined by formula:


                                         Cm.u=rCm,                               (29)


Where r – witout dimension value, defined by formulas:


When u / u m ≤ 1, then r = 0.67u / u m + 1.67(u / u m ) 2 − 1.34(u / u m ) 3     (30)



                                                     92
                                      3(u / u m )
When u / u m > 1 , then r =                                                  (31)
                              2(u / u m ) 2 − u / u m + 2


Distance from emission source Xm.u (m), in case of unfavourable weather conditions and wind
speed u (m/sec) is reached maximal value of overground concentartion of harmful substances
Cm.u (mg/m3), is defined by formula:


                                  Xm.u=pXm ,                                 (32)


Where p – dimensionless coefficient,that is defined by formulas:


When u / u m ≤ 0.25 ,          then p=3                                                (33)


When 0.25 < u / u m ≤ 1 ,      Then p = 8.43(1 − u / u m ) 5 + 1                       (34)


When u/um>1,             Then p=0.32(u/um)+0.68                      (35)




Overground concentration of harmful substances C (mg/m3), in case of                    dangerous wind speed
um (m/sec) arise from emission source x (m) along to rotch axis, is defined by formula:
                                         C = S1C m ,                                   (36)


Where S1 _ Dimensionless coefficient, defined by formulas:


When x / x m ≤ 1 ,             Tnen S1 = 3( x / x m ) 4 − 8( x / x m ) 3 + 6( x / x m ) 2     (37)


                                                    1.13
When 1 < x / x m ≤ 8 ,         Then S1 =                                               (38)
                                             0.13( x / x m ) 2 + 1


                                                             x / xm
When F ≤ 1.5 da x/xm>8,        then S1 =                                                      (39)
                                             3.58( x / x m ) + 35.2( x / x m ) + 120
                                                            2




                                                     93
                                                                 1
When F>1.5 da x/xm>8,            then S1 =                                                     (40)
                                               0.1( x / x m ) + 2.47( x / x m ) − 17.8
                                                             2




For low height contamination (2 ≤ H < 10) x/xm<1 with value, in formula (36) value S1 must be
replaced by value S1H, which is defined by formula:


                         S1H = 0.125(10 − H ) + 0.125(H − 2)S1                                 (41)


Overground concentration of harmful substances Cy (mg/m3), in case of                     dangerous wind speed
u (m/wm) arise from emission source y (m) atthe distance to roth axis to perpendicular
destination, is dfined by formula:


                                          Cy=S2C ,                                             (42)


Where S2 _ is dimensionless coefficient, which is defined by formula:
                                                  1
                         S2 =                                           ,                      (43)
                                (1 + 5t y + 12.8t + 17t y + 45.1t y ) 2
                                                 2
                                                 y
                                                        3         4



Where:
                                   uy 2
When u ≤ 5 ,             then t y = 2                                                          (44)
                                    x
                                   5y 2
Where u>5,               then t y = 2                                                          (45)
                                    x


Maximal concentration of harmful substances Cm.x (mg/m3), in case of                      dangerous wind speed
um (m/sec) arise from emission source x (m) along to rotch axis, is defined by formula:
                                                   ′
                                          C m.x = S1C m ,                                             (46)
       ′
Where S1 _ is dimensionless oefficient, that is defined by formula:

When x / x m ≤ 1 ,                     ′
                                 then S1 = 3( x / x m ) 4 − 8( x / x m ) 3 + 6( x / x m ) 2    (47)
                                                       1.1
When 1 < x / x m ≤ 8 ,                 ′
                                 then S1 =                            (48)
                                               0.1( x / x m ) 2 + 1
                                                     2.55
When 8 < x / x m ≤ 24 ,                ′
                                 then S1 =                                              (49)
                                              0.13( x / x m ) 2 + 9




                                                       94
                                                                      x / xm
                                           ′
When 24 < x / x m ≤ 80 and F ≤ 1.5 , then S1 =                                                        (50)
                                                      4.75( x / x m ) − 140( x / x m ) + 1435
                                                                       2



                                                                      2.26
                                        ′
When 24 < x / x m ≤ 80 and F>1.5, then S1 =                                                  (51)
                                                      0.1( x / x m ) + 7.41( x / x m ) − 160
                                                                  2



                                                            x / xm
                                 ′
When x/xm>80 and F ≤ 1.5 , then S1 =                                                           (52)
                                            3.58( x / x m ) − 35.2( x / x m ) + 120
                                                            2



                                                                        1
When x/xm>80 da F>1.5,                        ′
                                        then S1 =                                                     (53)
                                                      0.1( x / x m ) + 2.47( x / x m ) − 178
                                                                   2



Wind rate um.x is determined by formula:
                                        um.x=f1um ,                                            (54)
Where f1 _is dimensionless coefficient, defined by formula:


When x / x m ≤ 1 ,           then f1=1                                                         (55)


                                   0.75 + 0.25( x / x m )
When 1 < x / x m ≤ 8 , then f1 =                                                    (56)
                                      (x / 9xm )9 + 1


when 8 < x / x m ≤ 80 ,      then f1=0.25                                           (57)


when x / x m ≥ 80 ,          then f1=1                                                         (58)


Calculation of contamination of atmospheric air by emission of harmful substances from square
pipeline contaminating sourceis defined by above mentioned formulas, only when air-gaseous
impurity outflow average rateis ( ω o , m/sec), pipeline effective diameter- (D=Def , m) and in
period of time in atmosphere air-gaseous impurity outflow effective rate is (V1=V1.ef , m3/wm)
with value:


                                               V1
                                        ω0 =                                                   (59)
                                               LB


                                               2LB
                                        Def=                                                   (60)
                                               L+B




                                                      95
                                                   πDef
                                                     2

                                          V1.ef=          ω0 ,                (61)
                                                    4


WhereL _ is pipeline lenght (m), while B _ is pipeline width (m).


Radius for each influence zone of contaminating source is calculated, as far from two
contaminating sources x1 and x2 bigest among distances, Where x1=10xm, while x2 is distance
from contamination source, for it C ≤ 0.05 is threshold concentration norm.


    CALCULATION OF ATMOSPHERE CONTAMINATION, CAUSED BY
      EMISSIONS OF HARMFUL SUBTANCES FROM LINEAR SOURCE
Maximal concentartuion of harmful substances Cm (mg/m3), which is reached with L lenght
linear contamination source (e.g.. ventilation skylight) along to wind destination at the Xm
distance from the source, although Xm distance is defined by formula:
                                                    ′
                                          C m = S3C m                         (1)

                                                             ′
                                          X m = L / 2 + S4 X m ,              (2)
        ′       ′
Where C m and X m - is considered as equal tovalues Cm and Xm, which are corresponding to
seperate point contaminating source with same emission capacity M, oval pipeline with diameter
Def and in case of emissioned air-gaseous impurity rate V1.ef–. Although
                                       2LV1
                             Def=                                             (3)
                                     L ω 0 + V1
                                      2



S3 and S4 – are dimensionless coefficients, that are defined by formulas:
                                                               L
                                                 1 + 0.45
                                                                ′
                                                               Xm
                              S3 =                                      2
                                                                              (4)
                                              L       ⎛ L           ⎞
                                     1 + 0.45    + 0.1⎜
                                                      ⎜ X′          ⎟
                                                                    ⎟
                                               ′
                                              Xm      ⎝ m           ⎠
                                             1
                              S4 =                                            (5)
                                             L
                                     1 + 0.6
                                              ′
                                             Xm


Wind dangerous speed um is defined under formula:


                                                ′
                                          um = um                             (6)



                                                          96
Concentartion of harmful substances (mg/m3), which developes from centre of linear
contamination source at the distance- Xm, directed along the source when wind speed is um
(m/sec) is defined by formula:


                                     ′    ′ ′ ′
                               C = (S5 − S5′) X mC m / L ,                      (7)


                                                                                      2X + L
       ′      ′
Where S5 and S5′ - are dimensionless coefficients, that are defined accordingly              and
                                                                                         ′
                                                                                       2Xm
2X − L
       .
   ′
 2Xm

When u ≠ u m , value of - C is defined under formula:
                               ′    ′ ′ ′
                      C = pr (S5 − S5′) X mC m / L ,                            (8)

                                                                   ′          ′      ′
Where r and p are dfined by formulas (B b) with value 30-35) u / u m , while S5 and S5′ _

              2X + L     2X − L
accordingly          and        .
                   ′
              2 pX m          ′
                         2 pX m


Maximal concentration of harmful substances Cm (mg/m3) directed along linear contamination
source when wind speed is       ′
                              u m (m/wm) is defined by formula:
                                          ′
                               C m = ε 1C m ,                                   (9)
Where ε 1 _is dimensionless coefficient, which is defined by formulas:
When a ≤ 0.255 ,              then      ε 1 = 0.923a                            (10)

When 0.225 < a ≤ 2.32 ,       then ε 1 = 1.13a 2 /(a + 0.3) 2            (11)

When a>2.32,              then ε 1 = a 2 /(a 2 + 0.7) ,                  (12)
                             ′
                            Xm
Where                 a=         , when u ′ ≤ 5                          (13)
                               ′
                                          m
                           L um

                                         ′
                                        Xm
                               a = 45               ′
                                           , when u m > 5                       (14)
                                        L
Distance from linear contamination is           Xm (m), where maximal concentration of harmful
substances is reached Cm (mg/m3), is defined by formula:
                                                 ′
                                        Xm = ε2 Xm ,                            (15)
Where:


                                                   97
When a ≤ 0.25 ,                then ε 2 = 3                                    (16)
                                            1.5
When 0.25 < a ≤ 2.25 ,         then ε 2 =                                      (17)
                                              a
When a>2.25,          then ε 2 = 1                                      (18)


Concentartion of harmful substances C (mg/m3), that developes from centre of linear
contamination sourceat the distance - X (m), am directed along staright axis of source when wind
speed is u (m/sec), is defined by formula:
                                                     ′
                                        C = S1S 6 rC m                                (19)
Concentartion of harmful substances Cy (mg/m3), developed at the distanse from rotch axis y
(m), is defined by formula:
                                    ⎡⎛ 2y ⎞             2y ⎞ ⎤
                                               ′ ⎛
                              rS1
                      Cy =
                               2
                                                             ′ ′
                                    ⎢⎜1 + L ⎟S 6 + ⎜1 − L ⎟S 6′⎥C m ,                 (20)
                                    ⎣⎝      ⎠      ⎝       ⎠ ⎦
                                                                                       ′
Where S1 _ is dimensionless coefficient, that are defined by formulas(b) 37-41) x / px m with
value;
      ′    ′
S6 , S6 , S6′ _ are dimensionless coefficients, that are defined by formula (21) accordingly L
(m), (2y+L) (m) and (2y-L) (m) depending on values:
                                  ⎡                        ⎤
                                  ⎢                        ⎥
                                  ⎢           1            ⎥
                      S 6 = 0.57g ⎢1 −                   4 ⎥
                                                             ,                        (21)
                                       ⎛ 0.44 0.58 0.49 ⎞ ⎥
                                  ⎢ ⎜1 +     + 2 + 4 ⎟
                                  ⎢ ⎜
                                  ⎣ ⎝     g    g    g ⎟ ⎥
                                                        ⎠ ⎦
Where:
                                    x
When u ≤ 5 ,          then g =        u                                        (22)
                                    L
                                        x
When u > 5 ,          then g = 0.45                                            (23)
                                        L
If g > 6.74 , Then S6 –value must be considered equal to-1.


Linear contamination source (ventilation skylight ) at any direction of the wind, this source is
considered as similar, equally far point source group. Maxiamal concentration of harmful
substances to eac of this point sources Cm (mg/m3), corresponding distance Xm (m) and wind
dangerous rate um (m/wm) are defined by formulas:
                                     ′
                               Cm = Cm / N                                            (24)


                                                   98
                                      ′
                                Xm = Xm                                              (25)
                                      ′
                                um = um ,                                            (26)
Where N – is amount of similar equally far point contamination sources, that is defined by
formula:

                                     5L u
                                N=        ,                                  (27)
                                       X
Where:
         X – is least distance from ventilation skylight to place calculation point(m);
         y - wind calculation speed.


For similar, equally far point contamination source calculations of overground concentration of
harmful substances are defined by same formulas,as for ventilation skylight, During calculation
              ′     ′       ′
of values - C m , X m and u m instead of - Def- and V1.ef- values are useda D and V1 average
values, as it was typical for seperate point contamination sources.


    CALCULATION OF ATMOSPHERE CONTAMINATION, CAUSED BY
           EMISSION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM GROUPS OF
 CONTAMINATION SOURCES AND AREA CONTAMINATION SOURCES
Overground concentration of harmful substances C (mg/m3) at any point of place N in case of
existence of contaminatin sources is defined as sum of harmful substances                   from each
contamination source wind direction and speed value:
                                C = C1 + C 2 + ... + C N ,                           (1)


Where C1 + C 2 + ... + C N _ is concentration of harmful substances, accordingly from first, N
contamination sources.


Value of total maximal concentration of harmful substances, developed from separate
contamination sources located near from each other             N, that have same height, pipeline
diameter, air-gaseous impurity outflow rate and temperature is defined by formula:


                                       AMFmnη 3 N
                                Cm =         ×     ,                                 (2)
                                         H2    V∆T



                                                   99
Where M – is total mass of emissioned harmful substances into atmosphere in the period of time
(g/sec);


V – Total expense of air-gaseous impurities emissioned into the atmosphere by all contamination
sources (m3/sec), that are defined by formula:
                                V = V1N                                            (3)


         Vm – Parameter value is calculated by formula:

                                                              V∆T
                                        Vm = 0.65 × 3                              (4)
                                                              NH
In other cases, near located to each other, similar seperate contamination sources group
concentration of harmful substances calculation doesn’t differ from above mentioned calculation
of seperate contaminaton source overground calculation.


For decreasing of calculations unity of same contamination sources is considered as area
contamination source. For each seperate point contamnation source overground maximal
concentration is Cm (mg/m3), Xm (m) distance and dangerous speed of wind um (m/sec) values
aree calculated by formulas:
                               ′′
                         Cm = Cm / N                                               (5)
                                  ′
                          X m = X m′                                               (6)
                               ′′
                         um = um ,                                                 (7)
Where         ′      ′′      ′′
            C m′ , X m and u m _ for seperate point contamination source (which unity is area
contamination source) defined by values Cm , Xm and um-.


N _ Unity of similar, even located seperate contamination sources, that is defned by formula:
                                             25S f u
                                        N=          2
                                                          ,                        (8)
                                               Lf

Where:
         Sf _ Area of contamination source (m2);
         Lf _ Distance from area contamination source centre till calculation point . (m);
           u _ is wind calculation speed, m/sec.




                                                        100
  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF CALCULATION SUMMARY AND SOFTWARE
 USED FOR REPORT OF EMISSION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES INTO
                                      ATMOSPHERIC AIR


Calculation of emissioned harmful substances into atmosperic air was carryed out by automatic
computer software        “Эколог~ -, that satisfy requirements of emission norms of harmful
substances.


Initial data required for calculation of emission of harmful substances:
       - Company general layout with emission sources displayed on it;
       - Company general location plan;
       - Company location región climate and phisical- geographical indicies.;
       - Parameters of emission of harmful subtances into atmospheric air from Company;
       - Threshold norms of concentration of harmful substances in atmospheric air for
settlement.


Calculation of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air is carryed out for different
parameters of emission of harmful substances. After selection from conditions unfavourable and
for such case is calculated probable maximal concentration of harmful substances in to
atmospheric air. During computer calculating it is determined in specially selected points and,
altghough calculation grid. As calculation grid is considered square shape area in lenght 7000m,
width 7000m, steps 1000m.


Computer system gives whole initial data and resulsts of report for every harmful substance.


Calculations results of emission of harmful substances into atmospheric air is presented
inappendix -2 printed report and includes:
       -      Parameters of harmful substances emission source;
       -      Company location region typical climate and weather parameters, different
              calculation rates of wind;
       -      Total emissions of harmful substances from sources;
       -      Maximal concentrations of harmful substances for caclulation net each x and y
              points;


                                                101
       -     Maximal concentration points of harmful substances for summer and winter seasons;
       -     Maps of emission of harmful substances.



       ANALYSIS OF REPORT FINDINGS ON EMISSION OF HARMFUL
                     SUBSTANCES INTO ATMOSPHERIC AIRAA
Report of emission of harmful substances showed that maximal concentration value calculated
for harmful substances in survey square (7000 X 7000m, steps 1000m). And in control point
(X=-700; Y=850m secondary school of Kazreti County) is not above threshold concentration
norms, thats why receieved values of of emission of harmful substances can be considered as
threshold emission norms.      Defining quality of atmospheric air main harmful substances are
dust and nitrogen dioxide. Portion of other harmful substances in formation of quality of
atmospheric air is more less. Calculation of emission has been carryed ou considering harmful
substances with total influence effect.


Below are presented emission calculation graphical figures in existing conditions. (Without
blasting).




                                              102
Spatial distribution of the iron oxide (code – 123)




Spatial distribution of magnesium    (code – 143)




                       103
Spatial distribution of nitrogen (Code – 304)




  Spatial distribution of soot (Code – 328)




                    104
 Spatial distribution of sulphure dioxide (Code– 330)




Spatial distribution of hydrogen sulphuride (Code – 333)




                          105
Spatial distribution of carbonic acid (Code – 337)




Spatial distribution of fluorides gas (Code – 342)




                       106
Spatial distribution of weakly dissolving fluorides (Code – 344)




Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon oil fraction   (Code– 2732)




                              107
Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon heavy fraction (Code – 2754)




    Spatial distribution of inorganic dust   (Code – 2908)




                               108
        Spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide (Code -301)




Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6039   (330+342)




                                109
Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6043 (330+333)




Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6046 (337+2908)




                               110
           Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6303 (301+304+330)



Below are presented emission calculation graphical figures in existing conditions (during
blasting process).




                    Spatial distribution of carbonic acid   (Code – 337)




                                             111
Spatial distribution of inorganic dust      ( Code – 2908)




 Spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide     (Code -301)




                           112
  Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6046 (337+2908)




Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6303 (301+304+330)




                                 113
Near JSC Madneuli is operating “Quartzite” ltd, by foressenig of its emission (so called
background) has been calculated emission of all source total imfluence. Graphical material is
shown below.




                      Spatial distributions of iron oxides   (Code – 123)




                                               114
Spatial distribution of magnesium oxides    (Code – 143)




 Spatial distribution of nitrogen oxides   (Code – 304)




                           115
      Spatial distribution of sulphure dioxide (Code – 330)




      Spatial distribution of carbonic acid    (Code – 337)




Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon oil fractions   (Code – 2732)




                                116
Spatial distribution of inorganic dust (Code – 2908)




Spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide (Code -301)




                        117
Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6039 (330+342)




Spatial distribution of general influence of group 6043 (330+333)




                              118
  Spatial distribution of general influence of group   6046 (337+2908)




Spatial distribution of general distribution of group 6303 (301+304+330)




                                   119
                       REVIEW OF GRAPHICAL MATERIAL

                                                              Maximal concentrations
                     Maximal concentration calculated
                                                            calculated by result of joint
                       by result of emission of JSC
                                                          emission of JSC Madneuli and
                         Madneuli (Threshold
    Substance code                                          Quartzite Ltd (Threshold
                              concentration)
                                                                   concentration)
                       1km distance     At controlling    1km distance      At controlling
                      from Company          point        from Company            point
         0123             < 0.05           0.0015            < 0.05             0.0015
         0143             < 0.05          0.00076            < 0.05            0.0044
         0304             < 0.05            0.010             0.05              0.020
         0328              0.10             0.040             0.10              0.060
         0330             < 0.05           0.0098             0.05              0.020
         0333             < 0.05           0.0031            < 0.05             0.0087
         0337             < 0.05           0.0051            < 0.05            0.0082
         0342             < 0.05          0.00055            < 0.05             0.0019
         0344             < 0.05         0.000051            < 0.05            0.00082
         2732             < 0.05           0.0076            < 0.05              0.010
         2754             < 0.05            0.020            < 0.05             0.030
         2908              0.30             0.240              0.4               0.280
         0301              0.50             0.170              0.6              0.250
         6039
      (330+342)             <0.05            0.01              0.05             0.020
         6043
      (330+333)             <0.05            0.01              0.05             0.020
         6046
                            0.40             0.24              0.6              0.280
     (337+2908)
         6303
                            0.50             0.17              0.6              0.250
   (301+304+330)



From analysis of graphical material can be seen that formed concentration maximum is not
above settled norms in settlement, therefore actual values of emission can be considered as
threshold emission norms.


In addition, has to be noted, that despite of concentration norms is not        exaggerated in
settlementmeasures to ecrease dust emission in stationary organized sources(enrichment plant)is
necessary to reach   design performance of cleaning equipment (scrubber).That in existing
conditions are 62, 40, 71 and 85%- accordingly for first, second, third and forth emission
sources, which design cleaning quality (≥ 95%) realization provides of aspirated air maximal
localization and in working area decrease of dust concentration to threshold norm. After



                                             120
realization of aspiration system design according to the law is foreseen technical passport for
each unit and control of their performace effectiveness by tools and recording actual data in the
passport.


For unorganized sources (mainly fleet)in summer hot and dry weather is recommended to water
occasionally main roads of transportation that decreases to minimum dusting from this type of
sources. Frequency of watering must be decided experimentally.


Bon the basis of above mentioned, first of all is necessary to develop restore-rehabilitation
projects (until end of the 2008) for all aspiration system and dust-collecting equipments of
enrichment plant coarse (emission source No2), medium and fine (emission source No3),
although lime workshops (emission source No1) and main building (emission source No4). After
developing of this project they must be practiced in 2009-2010. After implementation of this
projects dust-collecting equipments will collect 95% of dust and dust emission in the year will
decrease: in ore coarse crushing workshop by 25809t, in ore medium and fine crushing
workshopby 11905t, in lime workshop by 5322t, in main building by 3390t, i.e. totally by 46426
tones.


     TRESHOLD EMISSION NORMS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES INTO
                                    ATMOSPHERIC AIR
According to current legislation only stationary sources are exposed to limitation, below are
displayed threshold emission norm indicies of harmful substances into atmospheric air without
transport emissions and dispersive sources.


Threshold norms of emisson of harmful substances into atmospheric air is displayed in the table.


                                       Threshold emission norms of hazardous substances , t/sec
    Name of hazardous substances
                                    2007w.       2008w.         2009w.        2010w.        2011w.

                 Dust               61,994        61,994        61,994        61,994        61,994
         Hydrocarbons(C12-C19-s
                                    0,020         0,020         0,020          0,020         0,020
               fraction)
               Iron oxide           0,094         0,094         0,094          0,094         0,094

     Magnesium and its impurities   0,0017        0,0017        0,0017        0,0017        0,0017




                                                121
          Gaseous fluorides          0,0025     0,0025      0,0025      0,0025      0,0025

       Weakly soluble fluorides      0,0023     0,0023      0,0023      0,0023      0,0023

        sulphuretted hydrogen       0,00005    0,00005      0,00005    0,00005     0,00005



                                      WASTE MANAGEMENT
                    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste management issue in developed countries hold priority place. Above is displayed
general requirements of waste mangement implementation.


                                   Waste management hierarhy

   •    Avoidance;
   •    Reuse;
   •    Recycling;
   •    Sterilization.
                                        Decrease of waste

       Decrease of waste is reached by:
   •    Avoidance of waste developement;
   •    Reuse of output;
   •    Reproducing of raw material;
   •    Material recycling;
   •    Composting
   •    At the stage of planning foreseeing waste recycling and environment standards.

                         Structure of complete plan of waste managemment

                In complete plan must be considered all aspects of waste management:
   •    Legislation and institutional issues;
   •    Waste statistic and forecast;
   •    Generation of waste;
   •    collecting/segregation;
   •    Transportation;
   •    Recycling;
   •    Activity of contractors;
   •    Management of dangerous waste;
   •    Sterilization;


                                              122
   •   Financial aspects;
   •   Informing society;
   •   Relationship with nongovernmental organizations.

                                      Role of contractor

In complete plan must be detalized role of contructor companies:
    • What service can provide contractor and how;
    • Tender processes and contract agreement, on basis of it will proceed private activity of
      contractor;
    • Minimal standards of implementation provided by contractor;
    • Monitoring over contractors operator;
    • Identification of contarctor operating risks.

                                          Waste types

   •   Dangerous;
   •   Not dangerous;
   •   Inert.

                                     Other type of waste
  •    Industrial waste;
  •    Canalization;
  •    Dangerous waste;
  •    Oil products waste;
  •    Amortized transport;
  •    Agricultural waste;
  •    Mining waste;
  •    Other.




                                        Prices

                                 Waste management Typical
                                      prices, USA$/t
MTypem of service                Developing countries            Developed countries
Collecting of waste                         20-50                          80-150
GHaulage                                    10-20                           20-30
Recycling                                    0-50                           0-100
Composting                                  0-150                          50-150
DBurning                                   60-100                         300-600


                                              123
KControlable waste dump                      10-30                          50-150




              EXISTING CONDITION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

Main mass of waste in JSC Madneuli is presented by technological waste, particularly:
       - Idle rocks, which are mined during pit processing for the ore,
       - Liquid waste (tailings), which are produced during ore processing on enrichment plant.
       Idle rocks are located on the 4 dumps near pit, while liquid waste by pumps are moved to
Tailing dump, which is complex hydrotechnical construction and is located 2,5km far from
enrichment plant in the `bolis-khevi~ streams valley. Tailing dump data is reviewed below.


                                              Idle Rock
Mined idle rocks from the pit is haulaged by “Belaz” to specially organized dumps.




                                               124
Heavy- weight technological transport




                125
                                          Dump
At present Company has four dumps. Data of area and dimensions is displayed in the table.
                   Object                   area (hectare)                Capacity (thousand.
                                                                          Cubic meter)
               Dump#1                            59,0                           25986,7
               Dump #2                           78,0                           36809,5
               Dump #3                           79,0                           27120,7
               Dump #4                           23,2                            4680,1
                Total                            239,7                          94597,0




                 Copper pyrite and barite tailing dumps of JSC “Madneuli”
According to project of St-Petersburg’s Scientific-research and designing institute “Mechanobri”
concentrating technology of the factory foresees ore concentrating, also different types of Barite
including ore must be processed by interchanging on separate sections.




                                               126
Projects of organization and exploitation of copper- pyrite and barite tailing dumps, were
developed by the same institute for putting in warehouse so called “tails” – waste mass from
concentrating of marked ore, according to which formation and exploitation of them was
processed. Copper- pyrite tailing dump is exploited also nowadays, and barite containing ore
after stoppage of enrichment last 16 years.


Marked tailing dump is under temporary closing and sedimentation in them isn’t processed.
Copper-pyrite tailing dump is located in 2.5 km distance from concentrating mill, in “Bolis-
Khevis” ravine. Absolute marking of adjacent reliefs hesitates between 700-820m and above.


Tailing dam formation of starts from 685-699 m markings of pioneer dam, 3 meter length raw of
separate layers is located above which, formation of which till 745.5 m is fulfilled by 1:4 relative
inclination.


In total 15 3 m layers are formed in this marked area, approximately 70 m width horizontal
platform is left on 745.5 m marking, from where formation of 16 layers is continued with 1:6
relative inclination, their height hesitates between 3-4 m. formation of 31st layer of 807.5 m
marking is finished for today.


Hydro technical building is formed between 685-807.5m markings at present, which in vertical
height is 122m with 700m inclination, it occupies approximately 70 hectare area and 30 million
tones of concentrating waste mass (tails) is precipitated.


Final designing marking of copper-pyrite tailing is 819-820m and current height will increase
approximately by 12m for exploitation end.


Current tailing dump will provide exploitation of concentrating mill for next 4 years, by foreseen
the fact that tailing dump in current productivity conditions of concentrating mill, increases in
height approximately for 3-3.5.


As for barite tailing dump, which is under temporary closing now, it occupies approximately
16.3 hectare are and 2.9 million tones of “tail’ mass is settled. It is located adjacent to copper-
pyrite tailing dump.



                                                127
Pioneer dam of 655.0 m marking is formed by 3m layers, 1:4 relative inclinations. Number of
layers is 8, it is foreseen by project to form dam till 723.0m.


By foreseen seismic conditions of region, by planner’s calculated coefficient of hydro technical
buildings stability reserves is established for copper-pyrite tailing dump _ 1.39, and for barite
tailing dump - 1.46, this satisfies requirements of standards for I category hydro technical
buildings.


Copper-pyrite tailing dump economy building system consists of:




             1. Hydro transport and building of tails precipitation, which consists of
   -   Pumping station established in concentrating mill main building
   -   Two steel main pulp taps (tube size Д 426×10mm) one of them is working other
       reserve line. road length is ≈2.2km
   -   Dam, which is formed between 685-807.5m markings for today
   -   Two distributor pulp tap lines (steel tubes Д 426×10 mm) is located on last layer of dam
       (at present 807.5 m) ignition (sediment) tubes are established in every 10 m distance
   2. Rotary water supplying system and water and water resistant building, with following
   composition:


   -   Two floating pup stations on pontoons, (one working, one reserve) which consists of two
       pumps and are serving for giving return waters from tailing dump to concentrating mill.
   -   Tube of water returned to factory (Ду 400 mm);
   -   Upper weir of tailing dump at 816-819 m marking, which locks extreme part of puddle
       from “Bolis Khevi”
   -   water collector of 1200m diameter steel tubes in iron concrete cover, for leaking “Bolis
       khevi’ stream and other waste water
   -   Water catching ditches of slope, which are for collecting atmospheric sediments from
       nearby reliefs and for sending to water collector


   1. Draining building, which is part of:
   -   Drain ditches on forward boards of dam;



                                                 128
    -   collector dam for drain water in front of pioneer
    -   Drain water pimp station.


Following technological scheme is used for filling of copper pyrite tailing dump: concentrate
ore waste (tails) and all other technological seepages flow in water collecting “Zumf” of
concentrating mill, then pulp hydro transportation via pumps and 400m main piping on 22 km
distance and then along working layer.


Pulp distributor 100mm diameter tubes are joining to marked pulp tap in every 10 m, via them
pulp consecutive planned precipitation on tailing dump beach is processed.


According to the project minimal width of beach mustn’t be less then 200m. Tailing dump
surface is formed into two zones, as a result of pulp precipitation, beach and puddle, in which
two float    (of pontoon) pump stations are installed, from where         cleaned water pumping
(returning) to concentrating mill is processed, for using again in technological process.


Corresponding observations and control for safe exploitation of hydro technical buildings are
foreseen by project, depression angle condition control in dam mass is one of the main among
their parameters, Piezometers are installed on separate layers of dam, via them filtration process
control is fulfilled.


Tailing dump industry exploitation foresees environment protection arrangements in case to
prevent pollution of water resources and air basin.


Rotary water supplying system of tailing dump industry excludes dipping of water processed in
concentrating mill, into the surface water object. Water, after cleaning, returns to the closed
cycle of concentrating mill.


In case to reduce negative influences on atmosphere, technology of tails layered precipitation is
obtained – with 0.5m thickness, against spreading fine dispersive dust of tails in air. This
provides conserving of beach zone in damp (wet) condition, and cultivation of plants on
platforms and slopes of dam layers is fulfilled.




                                                   129
For safety exploitation of all buildings of tail dump industry, continually control and
observations on qualitative and quantitative indexes of hydro technical buildings operating
mode, is accomplished by corresponding services of JSC “Madneuli”.


The main controling parametres are considerd by the project:
- Difference between heights of upper platform of dam and mirror surface of puddle must be
preseved within the limits of 2.5m .
-      Minimal width of tailing dump beach must be minimum 200m.
-      consistence of pulp 1:6, thickness – 1.107 tn/m³;
-      General inclination of dam layer sloping till 15th layer must be 1:4, and 1:6 above;
-      Width of tails synchronous precipitation front must be no more than 100-120m.
#1, 2, 3 Calculation for detecting actual conditions of depression angle is processed monthly
via piezometers on control axis.


Revision on pulp tap is accomplished quarterly.




                                   General view of tailing dump




                                       Tailing dump view


                                               130
Dam of Tailing dump




       131
Filling collector



      132
Surface of tailing dump


         133
                                            Other waste


Except main technological wastes in JSC “Madneuli” – idle rock, tails, there are also four
categories of waste:
                                 •   building refuse;
                                 •   Industrial waste;
                                 •   Domestic waste;
                                 •   Scrap waste.


Building refuse
Many repair and building works were carried out on enterprise territory. Building refuse, which,
usually, consists of concrete pieces, brick pieces and wooden material, is thrown near grove,
between mechanical workshop and tailing piping zones.


Unused buildings in opencast pit zone, near workshop zone, are destroyed by internal contractor
and materials are recycled. Other buildings as boiler-house and unused fuel stations are
abandoned.


Industrial waste
Industrial waste are: produced oil, old tires, containers, filtration materials and etc.
Produced oil firstly is collected individually on separate objects, and then is gathered in
petroleum storage depot near railway.



                                                 134
Old tires are carried to idle rock dump, part of them is used for strengthening boards of internal
roads. Opportunities of using or processing these tires are studied at present. Other parts of
marked waste are thrown on area near tailing dump piping and along factory territory. It is
necessary these waste to be recycled or collected by contractor and to be taken to special places.


Domestic waste
Collecting and carrying out of domestic waste is accomplished by contractor to municipal
landfill, which is located outside of Kazreti county territory.
Scrap waste
Scrap waste of enterprise is collected at the workshop industry territory. Its carrying is
accomplished by contractor.


Secondary use of waste
1) In Jsc “Madneuli” “acid” water formed within the frames of mine property and adjacent
territory is collected via using special water industry system (Dam, pump equipment, piping,
regulation volumes, etc. ) and than is sent to concentrating mill.


To clean marked acid water from copper ions, technological mehod of copper cementation is
established in concentrating mill, via using activated iron powder, for that 5 conical shape
reactors are installed in the factory.


Reactors work via uninterrupted acting mode. Productivity of Each of them is 50cbm/hr; in total 250
cbm/hr. Average annual seepage of pit acid water is 880.0 thousand cbm/hr, approximately 100 cbm per
hour. Accordingly total strength of reactors is twice more powerful than seepage. Water processed in
reactors is sent to neutralization camera.



water recieved after its leaching            is pumped ti tailing dump, where it also undergoes
neitralization, after this it is finnaly cleaned from heavy metals and is returned to closed
technological cycle.


2. 3. Opportunities of, processing waste colected in copper-pyrite tailing dump, via new
technology      is studied at present time. Mentioned Company is located in the area of JSC
Madneuli idle rock dumps.




                                                   135
3. At present is studyed possibility of treatment waste collected in copper-pyrite tailing dump by
new technology.
Preliminary resultes are hopeful.


                                           Recultivation
During open pit ore processing natural landscape is influenced, its biological components and
ecological foundation transformed, issue is very difficult.


One of the harmful influence on the ground is idle rocks stocked around the pit.
   Four dump is prepared.
   In purpose to avoid this problem in Company operates recultivation area.
    Recultivation works started approximately 15 years ago.
Total areas of recultivation occupied by JSC Madneuli are:
   1.   Pit – 140 hectar
   2.   Dump #2 – 76.0 Hectar
   3.   Dump #3 – 65.5 Hectar
   4.   Dump #4 – 22.7 Hectar
            Tailing dump
   5.   Hor: 803 – stage XXX – 1.44 Hectar
   6.   Hor: 898 – stage XXIX – 1.76 Hectar
   7.   Hor: 790 – stage XXVIII– 2.4 Hectar
   8.   Hor: 785 – istage XXVII – 2.1 Hectar
   9.   Hor: 745 – stage XV – 2.3 Hectar

 Total: 314.2 Hectar

    For today recultivated:


   •    On the dump #3 – 14 hectar;
   •    Copper tailing dump - 10,1 Hectar;
   •    Barit tailing dump – 3,9 Hectar;
   •    Road lead in to copper tailing dump – 2 Hectar;
   •    On the different areas of territory – 4 Hectar.


Trees are planted on tailing dam and also on the dump of idle rocks, without humus or with
minimal layers.




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In 2005 year was planted 7500 acacia sapling on copper tailing dam , in 2006 year was planted
5000 acacia sapling on copper tailing dam and its nearby territory, in 2007 year on copper
tailing dam and dumps was planted 10100 acacias. In 2008 year is planned to plant 10000
saplage, from here 5000 sapling is already planted.


it, #1, #2 and #4 dumps are in operation now, recultivation of occupied territory will be
carryed out after finishing of its operation.


For increase of recultivation effectiveness is foreseen arrangement of own saplage thrift.




                                 Recultivated area on tailing dump


                                    MAIN LANDSCAPES
                                      FLORA AND FAUNA
Flora and Fauna are very important for human existence and therefore during evaluation of direct
or indirect influence of human being on environment is necessary to know what damage can be
done to nature during Company operating period.


During many years influence of Company has been soread near territory, where concentration of
heavy metals was high, therefore is discussed only existing plants at this area, which mainly is
presented by typical desert and semidesertplant unities. Where leading value has such sort of
habitats as : Salsola dendroides,        Salsola ericoides, Alhagi pseudoalhagi,        Centaurea



                                                137
solstitialis,   Zygophyllus      fabago,    Cynanchum acutum and etc.    Near channels and humid
places are offerd by Arundo donax, Typha latifolia,          Tamarix ramosissima, Salix alba and
other fragments of small area. In groves main wood plants are Populus alba, Salix alba and
Tamarix ramosissima.


In Kvemo Kartli region fauna of living or migrating vetrebrate animals is very various and
displayed below in the list according to classes (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibias and fishes):


                                                Mammals
        Species:
       1.       Erinaceus concolor
       2.       Talpa levantis
       3.       Sorex volnuchini
       4.       Suncus etruscus
       5.       Crocidura gueldenstaedti
       6.       Crocidura leucodon
       7.       Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
       8.       Rhinolophus hipposidero
       9.       Myotis blythi
       10.      Myotis nattereri
       11.      Myotis emarginatus
       12.      Myotis mystacinus
       13.      Myotis daubentoni
       14.      Plecotus auritus
       15.      Pipistrellus pipistrellus
       16.      Pipistrellus pygmaeus
       17.      Pipistrellus nathusii
       18.      Pipistrellus kuhli
       19.      Hypsugo savii
       20.      Nyctalus noctula
       21.      Nyctalus leisleri
       22.      Eptesicus serotinus




                                                   138
23.   Vespertilio murinus
24.   Lepus europaeus
25.   Myoxus glis
26.   Dryomys nitedula
27.   Cricetulus migratorius
28.   Mesocricetus brandti
29.   Arvicola terrestris
30.   Microtus majori
31.   Microtus socialis
32.   Microtus arvalis
33.   Meriones libycus
34.   Sylvaemus uralensis
35.   Sylvaemus fulvipectus
36.   Sylvaemus ponticus
37.   Mus musculus
38.   Mus macedonicus
39.   Rattus rattus
40.   Rattus norvegicus
41.   Canis aureus
42.   Canis lupus
43.   Vulpes vulpes
44.   Martes foina
45.   Mustela nivalis
46.   Meles meles
47.   Lutra lutra
48.   Felis chaus
49.   Felis silvestris
50.   Felis libyca




                               Birds


                               139
Species:
1.    Phalacrocorax carbo
2.    Phalacrocorax pygmaeus
3.    Botaurus stellaris
4.    Ixobrychus minutes
5.    Nycticorax nycticorax
6.    Ardeola ralloides
7.    Bubulcus ibis
8.    Egretta garzetta
9.    Egretta alba
10.   Ardea cinerea
11.   Ardea purpurea
12.   Ciconia nigra
13.   Ciconia ciconia
14.   Plegadis falcinellus
15.   Platalea leucorodia
16.   Anser anser
17.   Anas Penelope
18.   Anas strepera
19.   Anas crecca
20.   Anas platyrhynchos
21.   Anas querquedula
22.   Anas clypeata
23.   Tadorna feruginea
24.   Marmaronetta angustirostris
25.   Netta rufina
26.   Aythya nyroca
27.   Aythya fuligula
28.   Mergus albellus
29.   Mergus serrator
30.   Oxyura leucocephala
31.   Pernis apivorus




                                    140
32.   Milvus migrans
33.   Haliaeetus albicilla
34.   Neophron percnopterus
35.   Gyps fulvus
36.   Aegypius monachus
37.   Circaetus gallicus
38.   Circus aeruginosus
39.   Circus cyaneus
40.   Circus macrourus
41.   Circus pygargus
42.   Accipiter nisus
43.   Accipiter brevipes
44.   Accipiter gentilis
45.   Buteo buteo
46.   Buteo rufinus
47.   Buteo lagopus
48.   Aquila rapax
49.   Aquila chrysaetos
50.   Falco tinnunculus
51.   Falco vespertinus
52.   Falco columbarius
53.   Falco subbuteo
54.   Falco peregrinus
55.   Falco cherrug
56.   Falco biarmicus
57.   Alectorius chucar
58.   Phasianus colchicus
59.   Perdix perdix
60.   Coturnix coturnix
61.   Rallus aquaticus
62.   Porzana porzana
63.   Porzana parva




                              141
64.   Porzana pusilla
65.   Crex crex
66.   Gallinula chloropus
67.   Fulica atra
68.   Porphyrio porphyrio
69.   Grus grus
70.   Anthropoides virgo
71.   Tetrax tetrax
72.   Himantopus himantopus
73.   Burhinus oedicnemus
74.   Glareola pratincola
75.   Charadrius dubius
76.   Charadrius hiaticula
77.   Chettusia gregaria
78.   Vanellus vanellus
79.   Calidris canutus
80.   Calidris alpine
81.   Calidris temminckii
82.   Calidris ferruginea
83.   Gallinago gallinago
84.   Scolopax rusticola
85.   Limosa limosa
86.   Numenius phaeopus
87.   Numenius arquata
88.   Tringa erythropus
89.   Tringa tetanus
90.   Tringa stagnatilis
91.   Tringa nebularia
92.   Tringa ochropus
93.   Tringa glareola
94.   Xenus cinereus
95.   Actitis hypoleucos




                              142
96.   Larus ichthyaetus
97.   Larus melanocephalus
98.   Larus minutes
99.   Larus ridibundus
100. Larus canus
101. Larus fuscus
102. Larus cachinnans
103. Sterna caspia
104. Sterna hirundo
105. Sterna albifrons
106. Chlidonias niger
107. Chlidonias leucopterus
108. Syrrhaptes paradoxus
109. Alcedo atthis
110. Merops apiaster
111. Merops superciliosus
112. Coracias garrulus
113. Upupa epops
114. Columba livia
115. Columba oenas
116. Columba palumbus
117. Streptopelia turtur
118. Streptopelia decaocto
119. Pterocles orientalis
120. Cucuclus canorus
121. Otus scops
122. Bubo bubo
123. Athene noctua
124. Strix aluco
125. Asio otus
126. Asio flammeus
127. Aegolius funereus




                              143
128. Carimulgus europaeus
129. Apus apus
130. Picus viridis
131. Dendrocopos syriacus
132. Dendrocopos medius
133. Dendrocopos major
134. Dendrocopos minor
135. Calandrella brachidactila
136. Galerida cristata
137. Alauda arvensis
138. Melanocarifa calandra
139. Riparia riparia
140. Hyrundo rustica
141. Delichon urbica
142. Anthus campestres
143. Motacilla alba
144. Motacilla flava
145. Motacilla cinerea
146. Luscinia megarhynchos
147. Saxicola torquata
148. Oenanthe oenanthe
149. Oenanthe pleschanka
150. Oenanthe isabellina
151. Oenanthe hispanica
152. Monticola solitaris
153. Turdus merula
154. Turdus pilaris
155. Turdus iliacus
156. Turdus viscivorus
157. Turdus phylomelos
158. Cettia cettia
159. Silvia communis




                                 144
160. Silvia curruca
161. Silvia atricapilla
162. Silvia borin
163. Silvia nisoria
164. Sylvia borin
165. Muscicapa striata
166. Ficedula parva
167. Ficedula albicollis
168. Ficedula semitorquata
169. Parus major
170. Parus ater
171. Parus caeruleus
172. Remez pendulinus
173. Panurus biarmicus
174. Sitta neumayer
175. Sitta europaea
176. Tichodroma muraria
177. Lanius colurio
178. Lanius senator
179. Lanius excubitor
180. Lanius minor
181. Oriolis oriolis
182. Sturnus vulgaris
183. Sturnus roseus
184. Garrulus glandarius
185. Piaca pica
186. Corvus corax
187. Corvus frugilegus
188. Corvus cornix
189. Corvus monedula
190. Troglodytes troglodytes
191. Prunella modularis




                               145
192. Passer domesticus
193. Passer montanus
194. Fringilla coelebs
195. Fringilla montifringilla
196. Carduelis spinus
197. Carduelis chloris
198. Caruelis carduelis
199. Carduelis cannabina
200. Emberisa citronella
201. Emberisa hortulana
202. Emberisa cia
203. Emberisa melanocefala
204. Milaria calamdra


                                Reptiles
Species:
1.    Mauremis caspica
2.    Emis orbicularis
3.    Testudo graeca
4.    Tenuidactylus caspius
5.    Stellio caucasica
6.    Ophysurus apodus
7.    Anguis fragilis
8.    Eumeces schneideri
9.    Eremias arguta
10.   Eremias velox
11.   Ophysops elegans
12.   Lacerta strigata
13.   Typhlops vermicularis
14.   Eryx jaculus
15.   Natrix natrix
16.   Natrix tesselata




                                  146
17.   Coronella austriaca
18.   Coluber jugularis
19.   Coluber schmidti
20.   Coluber najadum
21.   Coluber ravergieri
22.   Elaphe dione
23.   Elaphe hohenakeri
24.   Elaphe quatuorlineata
25.   Telescopus fallax
26.   Eirenis collaris
27.   Eirenis modestus
28.   Vipera libetina


                                  Amphibians
Species:
29.   Triturus cristatus
30.   Pelobates syriacus
31.   Bufo viridis
32.   Hyla arborea
33.   Hyla savignii
34.   Rana ridibunda


                                     Fish
Species:
1.    Rutilus rutilus
2.    Leuciscus cephalus
3.    Aspius aspius
4.    Chondrostoma cyri
5.    Chalcalburnus chalcoides
6.    Acanthalburnus microlepis
7.    Alburnoides bipunctatus
8.    Blincca bjoerkna



                                     147
       9.   Abramis brama
       10. Rhodeus sericeus
       11. Cyprinus carpio
       12. Cyprinus carassius
       13. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
       14. Aristrichthys nobili
       15. Cobitis aurata
       16. Cobitis taenia
       17. Gobio persa
       18. Barbus lacerta cyri
       19. Barbus capito
       20. Barbus mursa
       21. Varicorhinus capoeeta
       22. Silurus glanis
       23. Gambusia affinis
       24. Nemachilus brandti
       25. Neogobius cephalarges



Breeds included in the Red List of Environmental Protection of Geogia and the World.




   MEASURES TO BE EXECUTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL
                                 AUDIT RECOMMENDATIONS


Protection of Water Resources
   •   Development of threshold water discharge norms for pollution substances in efflient and
       surface water facilities – Executed;
   •   Measurement (by various plants and facilities) of drinking water expenditures –
       Executed;
   •   Adjustment of reporting data in line with measurement indicators – Executed;
   •   Definition of locations for water meters and selection of meteting types – Executed;




                                              148
   •   Analysis of rational water utilization, verification with the current norms and definition
       of reasons for their violations – Under Progress;
   •   Verification of monitoring locations and parameters of effluent and surface waters –
       Executed;
   •   Sampling under the given definition and consistent lab testing – Under Progress;
   •   Development of a monitoring programme for surface and effluent waters – Executed;
   •   Development of short and long term plan of measures for water resources protection –
       Executed.


Protection of Atmospheric Air
   •   Inventory of sources for pollution of atmospheric air with harmful substances by taking
       into account all the applicable guidelines and provisions – Executed;
   •   Definition of threshold air pollution norms with harmful substances on the ground of the
       referred inventory – Executed;
   •   Improvement of primary and state statistical reporting on pollutants of atmospheric air –
       Executed;
   •   Adjustment of reporting data in line with the measurement results – Executed;
   •   Development of a monitoring programme – Executed;
   •   Assessment of aspiration systems and submission of proposals for modernization.


Protection of Soil
   •   Definition of precise locations of damaged and erosion soil – Executed;
   •   Study of mechanical and water-born erosion of soil, definition of mitigation measures;
   •   Study and assessment of recultivation methodology;
   •   Assessment of efficiency in view of implemented recultivation activities;
   •   Definition of potential recultivation land size and priority land plots – Executed;
   •   Definition of short and long term plan of recultivation actions – Under Progress.


Waste Management
   •   Analysis of annual trends of waste management;
   •   Study of organized and unorganized waste management locatons and situation analysis;
   •   Study of hydro-chemical parameters of surface waters in the vicinity of waste (idle layers
       of land) management locations – To Be Completed (Monitoring Enforced);


                                               149
   •   Analysis of waste recovery possibilities – To Be Completed


Prevention of Potential Industrial Accidents
   •   Development of potential accident mediation plan – Executed; Enforcement of
       permanent control on the following:
   •   Pipeline safety – To Be Completed;
   •   Hermetization systems – To Be Completed;
   •   Separate channels of effluent waters – To Be Completed;
   •   Tail safety – To Be Completed.


Operation segment of accident mediation plan on hydro-technical facilities (tails) of the
enrichment plant of JSC Madneuli is presented in Annex 12.


                              ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL IMPACT
One of the most important factors for socio-economic development of Georgia is to harmonize
the utilization of natural resources of the country, along with generation and consumption of
material wealth. Towards this end it is essential to introduce environmentally friendly and safe
methods. It is necessary to adhere to sustainable development requirements based on
international practice. Sustainable development is the system of public development whereby a
mixture of economic development of the society and environmental protection ensures the
development of living standards of general public and right of the future generations to benefit
from natural resources and environment being uttetly protected from unrecovered quantitative
and qualitative changes.


Introduction of principles for sustainable development should be based on the primary
enforcement of the following principles acknowledged with international relations:


   •   People have right to harmonious co-existance with nature and have healthy and fruitful
       lives;
   •   States have sovereign right to use their own resources under environmental and economic
       policies and be liable for avoiding harm to nature from activities under their controle on
       territories of foreign countries;




                                               150
•   Implementation of development right should be enforced so that the needs of current and
    future generations are met for economic development and environmental protection;
•   To achieve sustainable development the environmental protection should become an
    integral part of development process and shall not be viewed as a separate goal;
•   Essential pre-condition of sustainable development is the eradicate poverty. Every state
    and nation should cooperate towards this end to reduce sharp differences between the
    living standards and to meet the basic needs of general public globally;
•   Special importance should be given to the condition and needs of economically and
    environmentally disadvantaged countries;
•   States cooperate with a global cooperation aspiration, to maintain, protect and recover
    healthy eco-system and unity of the planet. Every state shares common responsibility
    over the degradation of global enviromment pari passu their “contribution”. By
    participating in the international cooperation for sustainable development, the developed
    countries acknowledge relevant responsibility by taking into account the extent of their
    impact over environment, along with technological and financial possibilities;
•   To ensure sustainable development and higher living standards of each individual the
    states should limit and abolish unviable models of production and utilization, and
    implement applicable demogrphc policies;
•   States should cooperate towards strengthening comprehensive national scientific-research
    potential to achieve the sustainable development through experience sharing in scientific-
    technical progress;
•   States issue legal instruments in the field of environment on the grounds of their domestic
    specifics as socio-economic standards of one country may not be adaptable to others –
    especially in emerging markets;
•   To solve the environmental problems the States should cooperate to establish favourable
    and open international system, which shall ensure economic growth and sustainable
    development in any given country;
•   States shall facilitate international streamlining of environmental expenditures and
    application of such economic instruments, that enables for the polluting entity pay the
    compensation to the damaged party. In addition, it is essential to avoid breaching the
    public interests, international trade and investments covenants;
•   In environmental problem solving it is utterly important to empower the indegenious
    population, paying due respect to their knowledge and traditional practice. States should



                                            151
       support the self-identification of local population, their culture and interests, shall also
       ensure their efficient cooperation in attaining sustainable development;
   •   Peace, development and protection of environment are inter-related and integral
       concepts.


                           STATUS OF LABOR & EMPLOYMENT
Out of the social factors dealt by Madneuli JSC the increased employment of local population
(acknowledged as positive factor of infrastructure in Kazreti District in particular and Bolnisi
Region at large).


In relation with the aforesaid, it needs to be noted that in the recent past the number of staff
employed by Madneuli JSC has been increased from 830 to 1476, out of which 356 are engineers
and 1120 – labour force. It is also worth mentioning that 400 people are recruited under the
Presidential employment programme.


Every staff member of Madneuli JSC has medical insurance. In 2007 every individual employed
by the company passed medical check-ups at advanced health clynic. People diagnosed with
some medical complications have been treated under the corporate insurance funding.


From November 1, 2006 Madneuli JSC has launched Labour Safety, Health and Environment
Service, which covers the Department of Environment.
Organizational Chart of the Department is presented below:




                                               152
153
Major operational trends of the Department of Environment are as follows:


   •     Regular control over environmental position of the company;


   •     Lab operation with advanced express analyzers;


   •     Monitoring of pit and surface water quality;


   •     Streamlining and analysis of monitoring data;


   •     Planning, organization and implementation of recultivation works;


   •     Submission of statistical reporting forms to the Ministry of Natural Resources and
         Environment of Georgia;


   •     Application to operational licences and permits in the field of environment;


   •     Participation in environmental audits, agreements on cooperation with various
         institutions and memorandums of understanding;


   •     Development of short and long term environmental plans and programmes.


Improvement of environmental position of the company is greatly facilitated by scientific-
research laboratory and recultivation team of the company’s Environmental Department, which
is currently staffed with 13 people, though has a roster of people who are hired on as needed
basis.


       Short overview of environmental activities carried out by the company:
         •   Over 15100 acacias have been planted in recultivation area in the period of 2007-
             2008;
         •   Regular monitoring is conducted on current environmental position;
         •   Lab analysis of samples taken at pre-defined locations, desk research and
             streamlining;
         •   State authorities are submitted environmental statistics reports as defined in the
             legislation of Georgia.


Operation of water cleaning unit of the Enrichment plant helps prevent the environmental
hazards. Its major duty is to clean acidified pit waters from heavy metals. The company applies
copper cementation technology, which primarily substantially reduces ione copper concentration
in the water and at a later stage it pumps the treated water and pulp to the tailing dams. The latter
allows for grounding of heavy metals in tails. Water is then neutralized with the help of lime
milk. As a result, the water gets to the condition of technical water resource and is recovered to
the enrichment plan for further use in flotation process. Currently, the existing technical base is
being modernized. It is planned to boost the extraction of copper and other metals from the
water.


After the new management came to the office, Madneuli JSC has been paying special attention
to the resolution of environmental challenges – technological units like pipes and pumps have
been changed. The company has been actively cooperating with the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment of Georgia, other government agencies and mass media.


In line with the consultations with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of
Georgia and results of international tendering, which received bids from seven world known
foreign companies and joint ventures from France, Germany, Poland, USA, UK, South Africa
and Switzerland, the winner was Golder Associates commissioned to deliver environmental &
social audit of Madneuli JSC under IFC standards.


Memorandum of Understanding was entered with the ministry on February 10, 2007 to define
environmental measures to be carried out by the company and is signed by Minister of Natural
Resources and Environment of Georgia and General Director of Madneuli JSC.


                               LABOR AND TECHNICAL SAFETY
Terms and conditions for labor safety and social security of the company employees are defined
in the national by-laws and standards of Georgia.




                                                155
Major procuction process of Madneuli JSC is carried out in two facilities – pit and enrichment
plant. They are as follows:


                                                PIT:
    -   Drilling, blasting, excavation of the blasted land, transportation of ore to the enrichment
        plant and idle land to the waste rock tailings.


                                     ENRICHMENT PLANT:
    -   Ore handling, crushing, milling, flotation (enrichment), preparation of final product
        (copper concentrate) for sales, hydro-transportation of enrichment waste (tails) to the
        tailing dams. Production process at the facilities are managed by qualified technical
        personnel, who pass labor and technical safety tests along with updates of applicable
        primary and secondary legislation once in every 3 years. Employees within their
        specialisation hold technological background and pass obligatory medical check ups prior
        to their recruitment. Staff are regularly given labor and technical safety instructions prior
        to their operation – primary guidance at the work station and periodic ones every quarter.
        Knowledge of company staff on safety methods and rules is inspected once a year. Staff
        permitted to operate mining and transport fleet, heavy cargo trucks, gas and electric
        appliances, blasting works and power utilities are only those who passed specialised
        trainings by competences and are relevantly certified. Every engineer technologist and
        labor force, who deal with principle and subsidiary production technological process
        have been provided with individual protection means of relevant standards (uniforms,
        footware, protective hamlets, gloves, masks and respirators, etc.).
    -   Power safety of production facilities, machinery and personnel is conducted by
        complying with the existing standards and power safety regulations, which comprises a
        system of organizational and technical measures.


Technical  –  protection  of  power  utilities,  aggregates,  communications  with  insulation, 
fensing,  protective  switch  offs,  insulation  of  work  stations,  electric  blocks,  protective 
grounding (central and local), nulling and other methods. 
 
Organizational  –  access  of  labor  force  to  electronic  appliances  is  permitted  solely  after 
appointment  of  authorized  persons  with  relevant  qualifications  and  groups  through 



                                                 156
clearance  forms  and  with  permanent  monitoring  of  their  performance  and  provision  of 
protective  means  (dielectronic  gloves,  boots,  carpets,  isolation  leverages,  poles,  pressure 
meters and other). 
 
Fire safety of production units and the labor force is achieved by adherence to the enforced 
standards and fire safety requirements. Buildings and constructions, as well as individual 
facilities  are  contructed  by  taking  into  consideration  the  fire  safety  categories.  Work 
stations  are  mainly  provided  with  primary  fire  extinguishing  and  water  supply 
mechanisms.  Oil  base,  explosion  materials  warehouse  and  hydro  power  sub‐stations  are 
equipped  with  thunder‐protection  systems.  Handling,  storage  and  dispatch  of  easily 
inflammable and blasting materials is carried out in full compliance with safety rules. 
 
Plans  for  liquidation  of  potential  accidents  (inter  alia  including  fires)  at  production 
facilities, as well as labor force evacuation plans have been developed and are reviewed on 
an annual basis. 
 
Parameters  of  major  mining,  transport,  technological  and  electronic  machinery  and 
mechanisms in current operation have been selected in line with requirements of technical 
safety standards and rules of operation, thereby fully meeting their terms and conditions. 
 
Work  stations,  facilities,  transport  communications,  power  utilities  are  mainly  equipped 
with warning, prohibitive  and reference display signs. 
 
For  purposes  of  organization  and  coordination  of  labor  and  technical  safety  issues  the 
company  has  established  Labor  Safety  Department  to  carry  out  control  over  production 
process  safety,  performance  of  responsible  mid‐management,  engineers,  technicians  and 
labor  force  in  terms  of  safety  provisions.  The  Department  also  carries  out  trainings, 
qualification courses and capacity building. 
 
There is a three‐tier control mechanisms introduced in the company for labor and technical 
safety  thereby  being  the  major  form  of  operational  control  on  labor  safety  at  individual 
work  stations,  units,  facilities,  production,  shifts,  etc.  on  a  weekly  and  monthly  basis.  Its 
major  goal  is  to  supervise  production  process,  compliance  of  machinery,  equipment  and 


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work  stations  with  safety  requirements,  along  with  performance  monitoring  of  mid‐
management, engineers and technical personnel. 
 
                                                     NOISE 
Hazard  impact  assessment  has  been  carried  out  in  relation  with  the  production  noise.  
Labor safety and social security requirements of production personnel are promulgated in 
the  existing  national  primary  and  secondary  legislation  of  the  Republic  of  Georgia  and 
applicable  standards.  Technological  machinery  and  equipment  used  in  the  production 
process fully meet current requirements. 
 
Provisions related to production noise are promulgated in the following documents: 
    • Law of Georgia on Environment, issued in 1996; 
    • Law of Georgia on Health Care, issued in 1997; 
    • Labor Code of Georgia, issued in 2006; 
    • Law of Georgia on Protection of Atmospheric Air, issued in 1999. 
 
Major provisions regarding the noise control define levels of noise emission for machinery 
and equipment, mechanization both for household and industrial buildings and streets. 
 
In  assessing  the  noise  levels  of  source  machinery  and  equipment  it  is  essential  to  ensure 
the following: 
    -   Assess  the  potential  noise  level  at  operating  facilities  and  residential  areas  and  if 
        applicable – to develop mitigation measures; 
    -   Permitted  thresholds  of  noise  pressures  and  levels  in  residential  areas  are 
        presented in the Table below. 

Table 1.
Distance                              Average Geometric Frequences of Octavic Waves           Permitted Thresholds of 
from               63      125          250     500         1000      2000     4000    8000           Noise 
Residential                                      Levels of Noise Pressures                            Levels
Area 
Size  
Residential        67            57        49       44         40       37        35     33              45
Area


According  to  the  technical  parameters  of  machinery  and  equipment  maximum  level  of 
noise at work stations may be 85 degrees. Actual impact of noise depends on the location of 


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machinery  and  equipment,  real  emission  of  noise  and  local  ratio  of  noise  dousing  in 
atmospheric air as indicated in Table 2.  

          Average 
    Geometric Frequences 
         of Octavic               63     125     250     500       1000       2000       4000       8000
           Waves
            Noise 
     Dousing degrees/km           0      0,7     1,5      3          6         12         24         48
 
Table 2 shows noise dousing ratio (by taking into account the distance from the source of 
atmospheric noise) for open areas which does not envisage any natural barriers between 
the sources and residential areas which would reduce the level of noise. 
 
The  aforesaid  needs  to  be  taken  into  account  while  selecting  residential  and  recreational 
areas, i.e. maximum noise intensity for industrial activities with the use of machinery and 
equipment  in  accordance  of  technical  parameters  is  85  degrees,  while  45  degrees  or  less 
should be ensured for residential and recreational areas. 
 
Due to the fact that the industrial facility is located far from residential area local residents 
are not disturbed by noise. 
 
Support  staff  and  the  labor  force  operating  heavy  machinery  and  equipment  or  at  other 
noisy locations may be impacted by excess noise. The permitted noise level is 85 decibells. 
 
Current situation at the Enrichment Plant of JSC Madneuli is as follows: 
 
              PRINCIPLE BUILDING OF ENRICHMENT PLANT AT JSC MADNEULI 
− Situation with natural lighting is satisfactory and meets sanitary requirements; 
−  The only exception from the above is Mills 4 and 5;
− Artificial lighting at the Principle Building is satisfactory;
− In  warm  periods  of  the  year  meteorologic  factor  from  hygene  perspective  is  also 
     satisfactory;
− In cold periods of the year the warmth is not satisfactory, due to the low temperature;
− Noise intensity is mainly within the pre‐defined norms (85 decibells).
 


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Excess norms are observed in Mills, as follows: 
               Mill 4 within 5‐11 decibells; 
               Mill 7 within 5‐13 decibells; 
               Mill 8 within 4‐10 decibells; 
Pressure range is 125‐8000 herz. 
 
At flotation chambers in close vicinity of the machinery the noise intensity at work stations 
is in excess of the pre‐defined norms by 2‐7 decibells. Pressure range is 250‐8000 herz. 
 
Noise excessively is observed also in controle flotation chambers –  at first section by 3‐5 
decibells, and 4‐7 decibells in general at the chamber. 
 
Major source of noise at the principle building are the mills and vertical pumps. 
 
 
 
           CRUNCHING WORKSHOP OF ENRICHMENT PLANT AT JSC MADNEULI 
    • In  terms  of  natural  daylight  the  situation  is  satisfactory  and  meets  the  applicable 
       sanitary requirements; 
    • Artificial lighting in crushing plant is even, localized and also satisfactory. The level 
       of  light  distribution  in  the  space  meets  the  applicable  sanitary  requirements.  The 
       only  exception  is  a  number  of  individual  locations,  which  lacks  bulbs  as  they  are 
       either out of order or replacements are badly needed; 
    • In warm periods of the year the climate factor inside the building in terms of hygene 
       norms is also satisfactory; 
    • In cold periods of time temperature is unsatisfactory due to being low; 
    • Noise  intensity  is  mainly  within  the  norms  (85  db)  with  the  following  locations 
       being over the threshold only: 
           o Large ore segregation plant – by 2‐3 db, with currency range being 500‐8000 
               herz; 
           o Medium ore segregation plant – by 207 db, with currency range being 250‐
               8000 herz; 




                                                160
           o Fine ore segregation plant – by 4‐7 db, with currency range being 250‐4000 
                  herz. 
    • Major sources of noise at the crushing plant is sieve and crushing machinery. 
 
Filtering and Drying Workshops of Enrichment Plant of JSC Madneuli 
    • In  terms  of  natural  lighting  the  situation  is  satisfactory  and  meets  the  applicable 
        sanitary requirements; 
    • Artificial lighting in crushing plant is even, localized and also satisfactory. The level 
        of  light  distribution  in  the  space  meets  the  applicable  sanitary  requirements.  The 
        only  exception  is  vacuum‐filtering  chamber,  where  a  number  of  bulbs  are  out  of 
        order; 
    • In warm periods of the year the climate factor inside the building in terms of hygene 
        norms is also satisfactory; 
    • In cold periods of time temperature is unsatisfactory due to being low; 
    • Noise  intensity  is  mainly  within  the  norms  (85  db),  with  excessive  intensity 
        witnessed  only  at  the  following  locations:  vacuum‐filtering  and  air‐blowing 
        chambers:  by  2‐18  db  at  air‐blowing  chamber  with  currency  range  being  250‐500 
        herz and by 2‐6 db at the compressor with currency range being 250‐8000 herz; 
    • Major sources of noise at filtering‐drying plant are compressors and air‐blowers. 
     
Personnel  of  the  company  who  work  directly  in  the  excessively  noisy  locations  of  the 
enterprise  are  equipped  with  protective  earpieces  and  they  have  been  trained  in  their 
application. The company staff are required to use them until the noise measuring devise 
indicates that protection is no more needed. In addition, earpieces are available for use to 
other employees when they are instructed to work in the vicinity of heavy machinery or in 
such locations where the noise level is over 85 db. 
 
In general, it needs to be noted that there are no precise criteria developed for noise impact 
from construction and production activities. In this regard, the other alternative is to use 
threshold  developed  in  soviet  rule  existing  back  in  USSR  –  85  db  during  daytime.  It  also 
needs  to  be  taken  into  account  that  guiding  principles  and  recommendations  of  World 
Health Organization indicate 50 db as a permitted threshold of noise for people working in 




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offices,  and  85  db  for  people  working  directly  at  heavy  machinery  and  industrial 
production lines. 
 
It also needs to be mentioned that the company noise does not disturb the local population 
as the aforesaid operations are pretty much distanced from the nearest residential area of 
Kazreti. 
 
Below are the assessments given for the existing noise levels in the vicinity of operational 
locations  and  around  the  nearest  sensitive  receptors  of  production  facilities.  Analysis  of 
sources  of  noise  from  the  technological  cycle    and  measures  applied  for  noise  reduction 
require the sensitivity definition of existing background levels and local receptors (impact 
receivers).  In  locations,  which  are  spotted  as  potentially  significantly  impacted  ones,  it  is 
essential to plan respectively for actions to be implemented for noise reduction – both for 
people working directly at noisy locations and those who are stationed far from the noise 
producing locations. 
 
                               FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
                              PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES 
            1. The  company  has  one  permanent  and  organized  discharge  point  (draining 
                channel  at  tailing  dam)  and  one  periodic  discharge  point  for  emergency 
                situations from regulation facility in the vicinity of the enrichment plant (for 
                effluent waters treated accordingly). 
                Discharge  of  the  said  waters  in  surface  water  facilities  is  permitted  if 
                threshold norms are adhered to and provided that measures will be taken for 
                gradual  reduction  and  ultimate  elimination  of  any  diffusion  discharges 
                (please  see  the  following  chapter  on  essential  action  plan  for  adherence  to 
                threshold norms). 
            2. Discharge  water  from  tailing  dams  3  and  4  from  Rv.  Poladauri  are 
                categorized  as  “historical  pollution”  rather  than  the  result  of  current 
                operation of the company. 
                In relation with this it needs to be mentioned that lab tests have confirmed 
                that  impact  of  the  discharge  waters  on  Rv.  Poladauri  water  basin  is 
                insignificant.  Tailor‐made  software  ECOLOG  applied  regularly  by  the 


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               company  for  sampling  has  identified  that  similar  positive  results  are 
               observed elsewhere. 
               Considering the fact that the impact of discharge waters from tailing dams 3 
               and  4  on  Rv.  Poladauri  are  not  adequately  studied  and  the  only  data  is 
               available  from  periodic  observations  by  sole  initiative  of  JSC  Madneuli.  It  is 
               essential  to  introduce  regular  monitoring  on  Rv.  Poladauri  water  quality  as 
               indicated in the attached schedule. 
                
                                ATMOSPHERIC AIR PROTECTION 
Report  on  the  spread  of  harmful  substances  has  indicated  that  values  of  none  of  the 
calculated  maximum  concentration  of  harmful  substances  in  monitoring  square 
(7000x7000m, steps 1000m) and in observation location (x=700, y=850m, a public school 
in Kazreti district) exceeds the  threshold norm of permitted concentration. Hence, values 
for  the  spread  of  harmful  substances    may  be  regarded  as  permitted  thresholds.  Major 
harmful substances classifying the quality of atmospheric air quality are the dust and azot 
dioxide. Share of other harmful substances in formation of the atmospheric air quality are 
substancially lower. 
 
                                     WASTE MANAGEMENT 
Further disposal of waste should meet the waste management strategy. Waste deposited at 
the enterprise territory should be classified and transported to the relevant location along 
with the polluted soil. A plan needs to be developed for covering the said locations and the 
latter should be restored. 
 
Inertive construction waste should be deposited to the designated areas with a preminary 
agreement of local authorities. 
 
                                        FLORA AND FAUNA 
The  above  listed  types  are  distributed  in  a  fragmented  manner  as  small  groups  or 
individual  species in  the  vicinity  of  JSC  Madneuli.  These are trivial plants  found  in  south‐
east of Georgia. There are no Red Data Book species found locally. 
 




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Operation of JSC Madneuli in the indicated territory will not cause any type of damage to 
the natural habitat, and namely to its plants. With the purpose of production growth and 
development the company has processed new locations mainly covered with woods. This 
action  was  in  full  compliance  with  the  permit  issued  to  the  company  by  the  Ministry  of 
Environment and Natural Resources, after the applicable fee was paid to the state budget. 
 
In  terms  of  the  local  animal  stock  the  situation  is  more  complicated,  as  the  polluting 
ingredients, and heavy metals among them even in small dozes have a negative impact on 
them.  Georgia  has  acceded  to  the  Bonn  (Migration  Species)  and  Ramsar  (Protection  of 
Boggy Ecological Systems) Conventions, according to which all the birds of passage, wing‐
hand and spine aminal stock residing in the vicinity of multiple water basins are subject to 
special  care  and  attention.  This  fact  has  conditioned  the  great  number  of  protected  dairy 
cattle and birds and thus the company has an increased responsibility over them. 
 
Considering  the  fact  that  JSC  Madneuli  over  the  last  two  years  has  implemented  a  set  of 
measures it achieved full qualitative recovery of Rv. Mashavera and operation of the said 
company is fully acceptable. 
 
          ESSENTIAL PLAN OF ACTIONS FOR ADHERENCE TO THRESHOLD NORMS 
Action                              Period        Implementing Agency        Water Protection Result (Effect) 
1. Development and                 2007-2008           JSC Madneuli          Elimination of leakages from pit 
implementation of a new                                (Completed)           and underneath the tailing dam 
stand‐by dam design for                                                      discharges 
lower segment of Rv. 
Kazretula 
2. Refurbishment and 
increase of the capacity (for        2008              JSC Madneuli          Adherence to the threshold norms 
floods)  of the existing water                         (Completed)           of discharge pollution substances 
treatment facility for acid pit                                              in the effluent waters 
waters 
3. Construction of a stand‐        2008-2009           JSC Madneuli          Avoidance of emergency 
by facility in the vicinity of                                               discharges into the surface water 
the enrichment plant to hold                                                 facilities 




                                                 164
potential leakages or 
diffusion discharges. 
Recovery of collected water 
in the technological process 
or regular treatment of the 
said waters for their further 
outflow in the surface water 
facilities. 
4. Identifiation of              2010         JSC Madneuli    Adherence to the threshold norms 
possibilities for the                          (Pending)      of polluting substances discharged 
construction of a                                             with effluent waters 
contemporary alternative 
water treatment facility for 
the improved and more 
efficient treatment of 
acidified pit waters  
5. Introduction of regular       2008         JSC Madneuli    Avoidance of water pollution in Rv. 
monitoring on water quality                    (Pending)      Poladauri 
of Rv. Poladauri to study the 
utilization potential of 
discharge waters at tailing 
dams 3 and 4
                                          




                                        165
         ESSENTIAL PLAN OF ACTIONS FOR ADHERENCE TO THRESHOLD NORMS 
Despite the fact that the maximum level of formed concentration does not exceed the pre‐
defined  norms  in  residential  areas,  it  is  essential  to  implementat  the  dust  emission 
reduction  measures  towards  the  on‐site  and  organized  sources  (enrichment  plant).  This 
will  enable  the  company  to  reach  design  engineering  parameters  of  cleaning  facilities 
(scrubbers), which up until now have been 62, 40, 71 and 85% for discharge sources 1, 2, 3 
and  4  respectively,  while  the  design  engineering  parameters  of  cleaning  for  the  latter  is 
around  95%  through  maximum  localization  aod  aspiration  air  and  reduction  of  dust 
concentration  in  work  areas  to  the  permitted  levels.  After  the  resolution  of  design 
engineering  systems  of  aspiration  the  law  envisages  the  development  of  applicable 
technical  passports  for  each  individual  mechanism  and  quarterly  measurement  of  their 
effectiveness thereby being captured in actual data log. 
 
For  unorganized  sources  (mainly  the  transportation  units)  it  is  recommended  in  hot  and 
dry  climates  of  summer  to  ensure  regular  and  intensive  watering  of  main  roads  to 
minimize the dust from such sources. Frequency of watering needs to be defined internally 
by the company on the grounds of identified needs. 
 
Considering  all  the  above  mentioned,  primarily  restoration  and  rehabilitation  projects 
need to be developed (by the end of 2008) for all the aspiration systems and dust collection 
machines  for  large  (source  2),  mediaum  and  fine  crushing  (source  3)  of  the  enrichment 
plant,  along  with  lime  workshop  (source  1)  and  the  main  building  (source  4).  This  will 
enable the practical implementation of the said projects in 2009‐2010. After they are put in 
place  and  the  dust  collection  machines  ensure  95%  collection  the  air  aspiration  will  be 
limited throughout the year by the following: 25,809 tons in large, 11,905 tons in medium 
and  fine  crushing  segments  of  the  enrichment  plant,  5,322  tons  in  lime  workshop,  and 
3,390 tons in the main building, i.e. by 46,426 tons in total. 
 
                                           MONITORING 
                    OVER THE QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER FACILITIES 
Lab  control  over  the  adherence  to  the  threshold  norms  is  conducted  with  the  internal 
resources  available  at  the  Environmental  Department  of  the  company.  In  some  cases 
competent labs are also outsourced (on a contractual basis). The said control comprises the 


                                                 166
definition of pollution concentrates in the effluent waters, as well as into the Rv. Mashavera 
(Mashavera  Background,  Mashavera  500)  and  Rv.  Poladauri  at  pre‐defined  locations 
(please see the attachments) in view of the following ingredients: 
 
                     MASHAVERA BACKROUND AND MASHAVERA 500 
INGREDIENT               SAMPLING PERIODS  
ph                       Three times a week  
Copper                   Three times a week
Zink                     Three times a week
Iron                     Three times a week
Cadmium                  Twice a year, in charactetristic periods by contracted certified labs 
Sylfates                 Once a week 


                   POLADAURI BACKGROUND AND POLADAURI‐KHATISOPELI
INGREDIENT             SAMPLING PERIODS  
ph                     Once a month
Copper                 Once a month
Zink                   Once a month
Iron                   Once a month
Cadmium                Twice a year, in charactetristic periods by contracted certified labs 
Sylfates               Once a month

Lab  sampling  methods  should  be  agreed  with  the  Ministry  of  Environment  and  Natural 
Resources of Georgia and its respective subordinated agencies. 
 
Water Utilisation Body is responsible for the following: 
    − Conduct primary water supply measurement in the pre‐defined log books; 
    − Submit accurate information to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 
       of Georgia on the volume of effluent waters and their composition. 
    − In paralel with mediation measures for addressing the excessive threshold norms on 
       permitted  discharge  in  effluent  waters,  the  company  coordinator  (responsible 
       official)  for  environmental  issues  should  immediately  notify  the  Ministry  of 
       Environment  and  Natural  Resources  of  Georgia.  The  communicated  information 
       should contain reasons for the breach and measures taken to address the situation, 
       along with the extreme levels of pollution identified in water facilities. 
 
                        OVER THE QUALITY OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR 



                                              167
Controle over the adherence to the norms set for permitted spread of pollutants in 
atmospheric air comprise the following: 
       1. Regular monitoring of air pollution sources; 
       2. Regular instrumental control over enterprise pollution. 
Tier I Measures comprise operation of harmful substance producing technological machine 
fleet in an ordinary regime and proper operation of ventilation and aspiration machines. 
Tier II Measures are include instrumental analysis and definition of air pollution volumes 
at pre‐defined control locations (e.g. sources of pollution, frontiers of enterprise premices, 
work stations, etc.), as well as their verification with permitted thresholds and maximum 
values in any reporting period. 
 
In cases when thresholds are violated in a given reporting period in view of actual 
concentration of harmful substances in any selected sampling location to be analysed with 
an instrumental method decision needs to be taken for implementing measures to reduce 
the concentration level of harmful substances to the threshold levels. 
 
Such control of threshold air pollution norms is done on a regular basis in line with the air 
protection legislation of the country. Major harmful substances regularly monitored by the 
company  are  the  dust  and  azot  dioxide.  According  to  the  current  legislation  air  pollution 
volumes with harmful substances is monitored by applying reporting methods. In case of 
instrumental method application the following approach is recommended: pollution source 
category for each source and each J pollutant needs to be defined with a principle “source‐
harmful  substance”.  For  the  definition  of  emission  category  the  calculation  entails  2 
parameters Фккj and кj, which characterise impact of                  J harmful substance upon air
pollution from the source for the area in the vicinity of the enterprise, by applying the
following formula:
       Фккj = (Mкj) / Hk x threshold category j x 100 / (100 – кj);
       Qкj = qкj x (100) / 100 – кj), whereby:
Mкj –(gr/sec) - J value of harmful substance emission at the source;
threshold category j -       (mg/m3) – maximum permitted single concentration in atmospheric
air;




                                                 168
qкj - (threshold category share) – maximum concentration calculated by taking into account
the unfavourable climate conditions (speed and direction of wind) for a given (J) harmful
substance from K source at the border of the nearest residential area.
Active Livelihood Ratio кj (%) – average operational active livelihood ratio for air and dust
collection equipment, which is installed at K source for neutrlising J harm substance.
Hk – (m) geometric height of source spread, for individual sources if Hk < 10 meter, we may
get Hk = 10 m.
Category definition “source-harmful substance” is possible with the following probability:
I category – unequallity is simultaneous:
Фккj > 0,001 and Qкj ≥ 0,5 (for organized source);
Фккj > 0,01 and Qкj ≥ 0,5 (for unorganized source);
II category – unequallity is simultaneous:
Фккj > 0,001 and Qкj < 0,5 (for organized source);
Фккj > 0,01 and Qкj < 0,5 (for unorganized source);
III category – unequallity is simultaneous:
Фккj < 0,001 and Qкj < 0,5 (for organized source);
Фккj < 0,01 and Qкj < 0,5 (for unorganized source);
Hence, it is recomended to schedule the following periodicity of monitoring:
I category – once a quarter;
II category – twice a year;
III category – once a year;
Note: while defining the source category (100/100-active livelihood ratioкj) multiplier is taken
into account the Фккj and Qкj criteria growth monitoring frequency, though it is needs
because aid and dust collection machinery is equipped with huge emmission makers and if
exploited it is possible to witness sharp growth in atmospheric air pollution.
By applying the above formulas we get the following results:
Mкj total = (0.224+1.65+0.843+0.298) = 3.015 g/sec;
Hk average = (15+18+36+34)/4 = 25.75 m;
Active livelihood ration кj average = 64,5%;
qкj = 0,24; we shall get:
Фккj = (Mкj) / Hk x permitted threshold j x 100 / (100 – active livelihood ratio кj)
= 3.015/25.75 x (100/100-64,5) = 0.33
Qкj = qкj x (100) / 100 – active livelihood ratio кj) = 0,24 x (100) / 100 – 64,5) = 0.67



                                               169
 Фккj = 0.33;
 кj = 0.67. i.e. sources belong to Category I.


                                     COMPANY LIQUIDATION
If the company is to be liquidated a special project needs to be developed for restoration of original
environmental and natural conditions.Management of JSC Madneuli bears responsibility on
development of the said project. Company liquidation project under the existing regulations shall be
agreed upon with the responsible authorities and information shall be distributed to all the interested
legal and physical entities.


The project shall comprise rules and sequence for suspension of the technological process,
dismantling of buildings, constructions and frames, rules and conditions for drainage, measures for
safety and environmental protection, neutralisation and disposition rules for harmful substances,
recultivation works and other.




                                                 170
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