Docstoc

Past_ Present _amp; Future Ghosts of CMB

Document Sample
Past_ Present _amp; Future Ghosts of CMB Powered By Docstoc
					   Ghosts of CMB




Past, Present & Future
       Wayne Hu
   Avignon, April 2008
               Milestones: Past & Present
•   Large-scale anisotropy             COBE DMR           '92
•   Degree-scale anisotropy            many               '93-'99
•   First acoustic peak                Toco, Boom, Maxima '99-'00
•   Secondary acoustic peak(s)         DASI, Boom         '01
•   Damping tail                       CBI                '02
•   Acoustic polarization              DASI               '02
•   Secondary anisotropy?              CBI                '02
•   Reionization                       WMAP               '03
•   ISW correlation                    WMAP+LSS           '03
•   Large scale anomalies?             WMAP (COBE)        '03
•   Tilt (or finite slow roll param)   WMAP(+ext, LSS) '06
•   Lensing correlation                WMAP+LSS           '07
•   Primordial non-Gaussianity?        WMAP               '07
•   Lensing smoothing                  ACBAR              '08
                    Milestones: Future
•   Sunyaev-Zel’dovich cluster & secondaries surveys
•   Polarization tests of large-scale temperature anomalies
•   Lensing B-modes
•   Lensing mass reconstruction
•   Reionization history & inhomogeneity
•   Gravitational wave B-modes
              Past:
Establishing the Standard Model
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
                                      Past
                       Power Spectrum Today

                                                 IAB            Tegmark Compilation
      100
                                                         Sask

                                         Viper
                                                   TOCO
          80                             BAM
                                                           BOOM
                                                           BOOM
                                                              VSA
                                                            RING
∆T (µK)




          60
                                        QMAP
                                                                 Maxima
                                                                CAT
                                                                      Maxima
                                                                    CBI
                                          SP       MAX
                                                   MSAM
                                  Ten
          40           FIRS                            DASI            OVROATCA
                                                IAC
                                               ARGO                     SuZIE
                                                 Arch BOOM
                                                        WD                 BIMA
                                        BOOM
                                                        VSA
                                                       ACBAR
          20                                      Pyth
                       COBE



               W. Hu 12/95
                     10/02
                     12/02
                     11/02
                     06/02
                     05/02
                     04/01
                     05/00
                     12/99
                     12/98   10                  100                1000
                                                   l
               Present:
Precision Tests of the Standard Model
Power Spectrum Present
                    Dunkley et al (2008)
Power Spectrum Present
       Standard Model: Vanilla ΛCDM
•   6 parameter ΛCDM model
•   Fits WMAP and most other cosmological data

Parameter       3 Year Mean           5 Year Mean        5 Year Max Like
 100Ωb h 2       2.229 ± 0.073          2.273 ± 0.062             2.27
   Ωc h 2       0.1054 ± 0.0078        0.1099 ± 0.0062           0.108
    ΩΛ           0.759 ± 0.034          0.742 ± 0.030            0.751
                                               + 0 .014
    ns           0.958 ± 0.016           0.963−0.015             0.961
     τ           0.089 ± 0.030          0.087 ± 0.017            0.089
   ∆2 R      (2.35 ± 0.13) × 10−9   (2.41 ± 0.11) × 10−9      2.41 ×10−9
    σ8           0.761 ± 0.049          0.796 ± 0.036            0.787
   Ωm            0.241 ± 0.034          0.258 ± 0.030            0.249
  Ωm h 2         0.128 ± 0.008         0.1326 ± 0.0063           0.131
                        + 3 .1
    H0              73.2−3.2               71.9+ 2 .6
                                               −2.7               72.4
  zreion           11.0 ± 2.6             11.0 ± 1.4              11.2
    t0            13.73 ± 0.16           13.69 ± 0.13             13.7
                                Power Spectrum Present

                                                          Bischoff et al (2008)

                                                          MAXIPOL
                      150                                 DASI
                                                          CBI
                                                          BOOMERanG
                                                          WMAP
                                                          QUaD
                      100                                 CAPMAP
l(l+1)Cl / 2π (μK2)




                       50


                        0


                      -50

                            0     500   1000       1500     2000            2500
                                               l
                         Power Spectrum Future
     100




         10
               reionization             ΘE
∆ (µK)




                                               EE
          1

                                                BB

         0.1
                                                gravitational
                                                   lensing
                               gravitational
                                  waves
     0.01
                          10          100            1000
                               l (multipole)
Inflation & Early Universe
                        Inflation Past
•   Superhorizon correlations
    (acoustic coherence, polarization corr.)
•   Spatially flat geometry
    (angular peak scale)
•   Adiabatic fluctuations
    (peak morphology)
•   Nearly scale invariant fluctuations
    (broadband power, small red tilt favored)
•   Gaussian fluctuations
    (but fnl>few would rule out single field slow roll)
                      Inflation Present
•   Tilt (or gravitational waves) indicates that one of the slow roll
    parameters finite (ignoring exotic high-z reionization)
•   Constraints in the r-ns plane test classes of models
•   Upper limit on gravity waves put an upper limit on V’/V
    and hence an upper limit on how far the inflaton rolls
•   Given functional form of V, constraints on the flatness of
    potential when the horizon left the horizon predict too many
    (or few) efolds of further inflation

•   Non-Gaussian fluctuations at fnl~50-100?
               Inflationary Constraints
•   Tilt mildly favored over tensors as explaining small scale suppression
•   Specific models of inflation relate r-ns through V’, V’’
•   Small tensors and ns~1 may make inflation continue for too many
    efolds
                                   Komatsu et al (2008)
        Primordial Non-Gaussianity fnl
•   Local second order non-Gaussianity: Φnl=Φ+fnl(Φ2-<Φ2>)
•   WMAP3 Kp0+: 27<fnl<147 (95% CL) (Yadav & Wandelt 2007)
•   WMAP5 KQ75: -5<fnl<111 (95% CL)     (Komatsu et al 2008)
                      Inflation Future
•   Planck can test Gaussianity down to fnl~few

•   Gravitational wave power proportional to energy scale to 4th power
•   B-modes potentially observable for V1/4>3 x 1015 GeV with
    removal of lensing B-modes and foregrounds

•   Measuring both the reionization bump and recombination peak
    tests slow roll consistency relation by constraining tensor tilt
•   Requires measurement and model-independent interpretation of
    reionization E-modes
                         Power Spectrum Future
     100




         10
               reionization             ΘE
∆ (µK)




                                               EE
          1

                                                BB

         0.1
                                                gravitational
                                                   lensing
                               gravitational
                                  waves
     0.01
                          10          100            1000
                               l (multipole)
                 Electric & Magnetic Polarization
                                     (a.k.a. gradient & curl)

  • Alignment of principal vs polarization axes
     (curvature matrix vs polarization direction)




                                             E


                                                                B


Kamionkowski, Kosowsky, Stebbins (1997)
Zaldarriaga & Seljak (1997)
                        De-Lensing the Polarization
•   Gravitational lensing contamination of B-modes from
    gravitational waves cleaned to Ei~0.3 x 1016 GeV
    Hu & Okamoto (2002); Knox & Song (2002); Cooray, Kedsen, Kamionkowski (2002)

•   Potentially further with maximum likelihood Hirata & Seljak (2004)
                   1
                                                   g-lensing

                                                                     3
                  0.1




                                                                         Ei (1016 GeV)
        ∆B (µK)




                                                                     1

             0.01



                                                                     0.3
                                                  g-waves
                            10          100            1000
                                              l
Reionization
           Instantaneous Reionization
•   WMAP data constrains optical depth for instantaneous models
    of τ=0.087±0.017
•   Upper limit on gravitational waves weaker than from temperature
                            Representation in Modes
   •   Reproduces the power spectrum and net optical depth
       (actual τ=0.1375 vs 0.1377); indicates whether multiple
       physical mechanisms suggested

                             0.8
                            x

                             0.4
                   10-13        0
                                    10          15           20   25
                                                     z
            l(l+1)ClEE/2π




                   10-14

                                    true
                                    sum modes
                                    fiducial
                                            10                         100
                                                         l
Hu & Holder (2003)
         Model-Independent Reionization
  •   All possible ionization histories at z<30
  •   Detections at 20<l<30 required to further constrain general ionization
      which widens the τ-ns degeneracy allowing ns=1
  •   Quadrupole & octopole predicted to better than cosmic variance
      test ΛCDM for anomalies

                                               cosmic v.
                                                           all ionization
                                        0.1
                   l(l+1)CEE/2π [µK2]
                          l




                                        0.01




Mortonson & Hu (2008)                            3         10         30
                                                            l
    Consistency Relation & Reionization
•   By assuming the wrong ionization history can falsely rule out
    consistency relation
•   Principal components eliminate possible biases


                                        Mortonson & Hu (2007)
B-mode Contamination from Reionization
   •   Inhomogeneous reionization modulates polarization into B-modes
       (Hu 2000)

   •   Large signals if ionization bubbles >100Mpc at z~20-30

                                   105                       lensing
                                              500Mpc

                                   104                   50Mpc
                        ∆2 [nK2]




                                   103
                         l




                                   102


                                   10
                                                   zi=30; τ=0.12
                                         10        100        1000
                                               multipole l
Mortonson & Hu (2006)
Cosmic Acceleration
                                                     Dark Energy
            •             Peaks measure distance to recombination
            •             ISW effect constrains dynamics of acceleration


                   100      Dark Energy Density               Equation of
                                                                 State
[ l(l+1)Cl/2π ]1/2 (µK)




                      80



                      60



                      40



                      20
                                  ΩDE                                 wDE

                             0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8                  -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

                                  10           100     1000            10             100   1000
                                                 l                                      l
                        Flat Universe Precision
   •   Planck acoustic peaks, 1% H0, SNAP SNe to z=1.7 in a flat universe


                                                        Planck
                                                                   SNAP




                                                                                   1


                             1
                  ΩDE
                                                                               0       wa
                             0.5
                                              1% H0
                                                                          -1
                                              Planck Ωmh2
                                 0
                                  -2
                                       -1.5
                                                   -1
                                              w0            -0.5
                                                                     0
Hu, Huterer & Smith (2006)
                       Dark Energy
•   Flat ΛCDM fully consistent with CMB and other distance measures
•   Constant w=p/ρ constrained as -0.097<1+w<0.142 (95% CL)


                                 Komatsu et al (2008)
                         ISW Effect
•   Gravitational blueshift on infall does not cancel redshift
    on climbing out
•   Contraction of spatial metric doubles the effect: ∆T/T=2∆Φ
•   Effect from potential hills and wells cancel on small scales
                         ISW Effect
•   Gravitational blueshift on infall does not cancel redshift
    on climbing out
•   Contraction of spatial metric doubles the effect: ∆T/T=2∆Φ
•   Effect from potential hills and wells cancel on small scales
                                         ISW Effect
    •   ISW effect hidden in the temperature power spectrum by primary
        anisotropy and cosmic variance
                        10-9




                                                    total
                        10-10
         l(l+1)Cl /2π
        ΘΘ




                        10-11
                                              ISW


                                w=-0.8
                        10-12
                                         10           100
                                               l
[plot: Hu & Scranton (2004)]
         Parameterized Post-Friedmann
•   Parameterizing the degrees of freedom associated with metric
    modification of gravity that explain cosmic acceleration
•   Simple models that add in only one extra scale to explain
    acceleration tend to predict substantial changes near horizon
    and hence ISW
                                                     Hu (2008)
                1


               0.8


               0.6


               0.4


               0.2



                 -1       -0.5       0         0.5
                            deviation from GR g0
                              DGP Example
   •   Difference in expansion history gives excess decay of grav. potential
       on subhorizon scales (Lue, Scoccimarro, Starkmann 2004; Koyama & Maartins 2005)
   •   Self-consistent iterative solution of master equation dynamics in the
       bulk enhances decay further on horizon scales and beyond


                 10-9
         ∆2
          l




                10-10
                            WMAP3yr
                                                         DGP (all scales)
                                                         DGP (subhoriz)
                                                         ΛCDM
                10-11
                                      10                         100
                                           multipole l
Song, Sawicki & Hu (2006)
              ISW-Galaxy Correlation
•   ~4σ joint detection of ISW correlation with large scale structure
    (galaxies)
•   ~2σ high compared with ΛCDM
                      Ho et al (2007) [Giannantonio et al 2008]




                                            ΛCDM
Gravitational Lensing
          Example of Weak Lensing
• Toy example of lensing of the CMB primary anisotropies
• Shearing of the image
                  Lensing Smoothing
•   Lensing smooths acoustic peaks and is favored by ACBAR
    data (~3σ)
                                               Reichardt et al (2008)
                         Polarization Lensing
 •   Since E and B denote the relationship between the polarization
     amplitude and direction, warping due to lensing creates B-modes




         Original                                Lensed E   Lensed B


Zaldarriaga & Seljak (1998) [figure: Hu & Okamoto (2001)]
                         Power Spectrum Future
     100




         10
               reionization             ΘE
∆ (µK)




                                               EE
          1

                                                BB

         0.1
                                                gravitational
                                                   lensing
                               gravitational
                                  waves
     0.01
                          10          100            1000
                               l (multipole)
       Lensed Power Spectrum Observables
   •   Principal components show two observables in lensed power spectra
   •   Temperature and E-polarization: deflection power at l~100
       B-polarization: deflection power at l~500
   •   Normalized so that observables error = fractional lens power error

                     0.006


                                Θ1: T,E
                     0.004




                     0.002
                                     Θ2: B


                                      500            1000   1500
                                            multipole l
Smith, Hu & Kaplinghat (2006)
                              Redshift Sensitivity
   •   Lensing observables probe distance and structure at high
       redshift



                        0.4


                        0.3
                                 Θ1: T,E

                        0.2


                        0.1                    Θ2: B


                                  2        4      6     8
                                           redshift z
Smith, Hu & Kaplinghat (2006)
               Dark Energy Equation of State
   •   Marginalizing curvature degrades 68% CL area by 4.8
   •   CMB lensing information from SPTpol (~3% B-mode power)
       fully restores constraints

                                1




                              0.5
                         wa




                                0




                             -0.5




                                       SNAP+Planck (flat)
                               -1
                                -1.2    -1.1          -1    -0.9   -0.8
Hu, Huterer & Smith (2006)                           w0
               Dark Energy Equation of State
   •   Marginalizing curvature degrades 68% CL area by 4.8
   •   CMB lensing information from SPTpol (~3% B-mode power)
       fully restores constraints

                                1




                              0.5
                         wa




                                0




                             -0.5
                                       SNAP+Planck


                                       SNAP+Planck (flat)
                               -1
                                -1.2    -1.1          -1    -0.9   -0.8
Hu, Huterer & Smith (2006)                           w0
               Dark Energy Equation of State
   •   Marginalizing curvature degrades 68% CL area by 4.8
   •   CMB lensing information from SPTpol (~3% B-mode power)
       fully restores constraints

                                1




                              0.5
                         wa




                                0




                             -0.5
                                       SNAP+Planck
                                       SNAP+Planck+SPTpol
                                       SNAP+Planck (flat)
                               -1
                                -1.2    -1.1          -1    -0.9   -0.8
Hu, Huterer & Smith (2006)                           w0
             High Signal-to-Noise B-modes
  •   Cosmic variance of CMB fields sets ultimate limit for T,E
  •   B-polarization allows mapping to finer scales and in principle
      is not limited by cosmic variance of E (Hirata & Seljak 2003)




            mass             temp. reconstruction   EB pol. reconstruction
                      100 sq. deg; 4' beam; 1µK-arcmin

Hu & Okamoto (2001)
           Lensing-Galaxy Correlation
•   ~3σ+ joint detection of WMAP lensing reconstruction with large
    scale structure (galaxies)
•   Consistent with ΛCDM

                       Smith et al (2007) [Hirata et al 2008]
                                 Matter Power Spectrum
    •   Measuring projected matter power spectrum to cosmic vari-
        ance limit across whole linear regime 0.002< k < 0.2 h/Mpc

                                                     Linear
                          10–7
            deflection power




                          10–8
                                        Reference

∆P        mtot
   ≈ −0.6
 P        eV
                                   10          100   1000
                                                L
  Hu & Okamoto (2001)
                                     Matter Power Spectrum
  •   Measuring projected matter power spectrum to cosmic vari-
      ance limit across whole linear regime 0.002< k < 0.2 h/Mpc

                                                         Linear
                              10–7
           deflection power




                              10–8
                                            Reference
                                            Planck


                                       10          100   1000
                                                    L
Hu & Okamoto (2001)
                        De-Lensing the Polarization
•   Gravitational lensing contamination of B-modes from
    gravitational waves cleaned to Ei~0.3 x 1016 GeV
    Hu & Okamoto (2002); Knox & Song (2002); Cooray, Kedsen, Kamionkowski (2002)

•   Potentially further with maximum likelihood Hirata & Seljak (2004)
                   1
                                                   g-lensing

                                                                     3
                  0.1




                                                                         Ei (1016 GeV)
        ∆B (µK)




                                                                     1

             0.01



                                                                     0.3
                                                  g-waves
                            10          100            1000
                                              l
Large Scale Anomalies
                                       Large Angle Anomalies
•    Low planar quadrupole aligned with planar octopole
•    More power in south ecliptic hemisphere
•    Non-Gaussian spot

                                              EQX                                                                                                   EQX
                                                    dipole                                                                                                dipole
             NEP                                                                                                   NEP



                              NSGP                                                                                                  NSGP



                                                                      SSGP                                                                                                SSGP



                                                         SEP                                                                                                   SEP
                   dipole                                                                                                dipole

                        EQX                                                                                                   EQX




    -0.019                           0.000                        0.019                                   -0.034                           0.000                        0.034
                                     T (mK)                                                                                                T (mK)




                                                                                                 EQX

                                                                                                       dipole
                                                                NEP




                                                                                 NSGP



                                                                                                                         SSGP




                                                                                                            SEP
                                                                      dipole

                                                                           EQX




                                                       -0.051                           0.000                        0.051
                                                                                                                                                                   Copi et al (2006)
                                                                                        T (mK)
                    Polarization Tests
•   Matching polarization anomalies if cosmological


                                   Dvorkin, Peiris, Hu (2007)
                 Questions for Future
•   Is the CBI excess SZ and if so is it consistent with σ8?
•   Is there any evidence for primordial non-Gaussianity?
•   How do we best test string-inspired ideas on inflation?
•   Are large-field models where gravitational waves are observable
    theoretically favored?
•   How much can secondary anisotropies tell us about acceleration?
    how far can CMB lensing constraints on dark energy, neutrinos
    curvature be pushed?
•   What does the CMB tell us about reionization models and how
    can it be used in conjunction with other data?
•   In practice, how much will delensing of CMB help gravitational
    waves? how much control on systematics and foregrounds does
    it require?
•   What is the cause of the large scale anomalies? how do we best
    test ideas and explanations?

				
DOCUMENT INFO