Italian Language Manual

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					 Italian
Language
 Manual
General Facts
  on Italy
Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into
the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Border countries: Austria, France, Holy See (Vatican
City), San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland
Capitol: Rome
Official language: Italian
Natural Resources: coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble,
barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite
(sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable
land
Population: 58,133,509
Ethnic Groups: Italian (includes small clusters of
German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and
Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Ethnic Composition: Caucasian (97%), North African (1.3%), Black African, East Asian
Religions: Roman Catholic 90% (approximately; about one-third practicing), other 10%
(includes mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant
community)
Government type: Republic
Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until
1870)
National Holiday: Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Cultural Aspects
Holidays:
Date                            Holiday                    Meaning
January 6                       Epiphany                   Is a Christian feast day that
                                                           celebrates the revelation of
                                                           God in human form in the
                                                           person of Jesus Christ.
April 25                        Liberation Day             Commemorates the liberation
                                                           of Italy by allied troop in
                                                           WWII; also remembers those
                                                           who served in the war.
May 1                           May Day                    Labor Day
June 2                          Festival of the Republic   Italy voted in referendum to
                                                           abolish the monarchy and
                                                           become a republic government
August 15                       Ferragosto                 Celebrates the rise of Mary up
                                                           to heaven to join her son
                                                           Jesus.
November 2                      All Saints Day             Celebrates all Catholic saints
December 8                      Immaculate Conception      Commemorate when Mary
                                                           was graced by God to lead a
                                                           life completely free on sin.
December 26                     Feast of St. Stephen       Marks the day of St. Stephen ,
                                                           the first marty for the new
                                                           born king

http://www.lifeinitaly.com/potpourri/holidays.asp
Italian Cuisine:
The kitchen is undoubtedly a very important part of Italian culture. Known throughout the world,
loved and copied continuously been able to bestow joy and pleasure of living at any latitude. We
know what is the reaction of everyone when, in any chaotic industrial city in the world, tired and
depressed, sees a sign of Italian cooking: my heart warmed.
It is a cuisine rich, nutritious and healthy handed down for centuries through family life,
especially rural impression and, as such, close to our land, its products throughout the seasons:
thus entrusted to genuine and natural ingredients. It 'is filled with wonderful unique dishes of
pasta with vegetables, edible vegetables: ingredients at the root of our traditions, but also of
countless varieties of meat, just fish in the seas are full of our peninsula, an aromatic cheese and
great desserts. But, of course, on our table the element of force is the "first course" in its many
variations, from pasta or soup, soups, various types of soups and stews, risottos, casseroles too.
Do not forget, however, that most traditional dishes from the kitchen most common result of
poor peasants and lower classes, which have resulted, however, over time, real "specialty": think
of soups stale bread and vegetables, such as ribollita or acquacotta Tuscany, and many recipes
based on ingredients but not exalted lineage have become classics of Italian cuisine absolute.
demonstrates that the goodness of a dish depends largely on the magical combination ( always
"unique") resulting dall'irripetibile fusion flavors and aromas, cooking times and balancing of the
individual components, personal capacity "creative" and demonstrated accuracy in the
preparation. Sometimes in the kitchen just a detail, a nuance, for exceeding the limits of test as
"normal" and make every dish a triumph of taste. The passion, then, is a prerequisite in Italian
cuisine without which, as indeed in every aspect of life does not go very far. Despite regional
variation, this kitchen keeps his dishes "strong" throughout the territory and is capable of
inventing the most important meals when prepared with greater wealth of ingredients for chefs
and fine scholars.
Italy is also famous for their wine including Barolo, Barbaresco, Brunello Di Montalcino,
Barbera, Dolcetto, Corvina, Nero d'Avola, Pinot Grigio and Moscato, to name a few. In
addition, Italy is famous their desserts and types of coffee. Some of the deserts Italy is famous
for include Tiramisu, cannoli, the cassata Siciliana, marzipan-shaped fruits, the panna cotta,
gelato (Italian ice cream abroad), and Sicilian granitas (similar to a snow cone).
The following pictures are examples of Italian Cuisine:




Gelato Tiramisu Lasagna Pasta Fagioli
From: http://www.italianculture.net/cucina.html
Italian Family Values:
         The family is the centre of the social structure and provides a stabilizing influence for its
        members.
         In the north, generally only the nuclear family lives together; while in the south, the
        extended family often resides together in one house.
         The family provides both emotional and financial support to its members.

Italian Style:
         Appearances matter in Italy.
         The way you dress can indicate your social status, your family's background, and your
        education level.
         First impressions are lasting impressions in Italy.
         The concept of 'bella figura' or good image is important to Italians.
         They unconsciously assess another person's age and social standing in the first few
        seconds of meeting them, often before any words are exchanged.
         Clothes are important to Italians.
         They are extremely fashion conscious and judge people on their appearance.
         You will be judged on your clothes, shoes, accessories and the way you carry yourself.
         Bella figura is more than dressing well. It extends to the aura your project too - i.e.
        confidence, style, demeanour, etc.

Etiquette & Customs in Italy:
Meeting Etiquette
         Greetings are enthusiastic yet rather formal.
         The usual handshake with direct eye contact and a smile suffices between strangers.
         Once a relationship develops, air-kissing on both cheeks, starting with the left is often
        added as well as a pat on the back between men.
         Wait until invited to move to a first name basis.
         Italians are guided by first impressions, so it is important that you demonstrate propriety
        and respect when greeting people, especially when meeting them for the first time.
        Many Italians use calling cards in social situations. These are slightly larger than
      traditional business cards and include the person's name, address, title or academic
      honors, and their telephone number.
        If you are staying in Italy for an extended period of time, it is a good idea to have
      calling cards made. Never give your business card in lieu of a calling card in a social
      situation.

Gift Giving Etiquette
        Do not give chrysanthemums as they are used at funerals.
        Do not give red flowers as they indicate secrecy.
        Do not give yellow flowers as they indicate jealousy
       If you bring wine, make sure it is a good vintage. Quality, rather than quantity, is
      important.
        Do not wrap gifts in black, as is traditionally a mourning colour.
        Do not wrap gifts in purple, as it is a symbol of bad luck.
        Gifts are usually opened when received.

Dining Etiquette
        If invited to an Italian house:
        If an invitation says the dress is informal, wear stylish clothes that are still rather formal,
      i.e., jacket and tie for men and an elegant dress for women.
       Punctuality is not mandatory. You may arrive between 15 minutes late if invited to
      dinner and up to 30 minutes late if invited to a party.
        If you are invited to a meal, bring gift-wrapped such as wine or chocolates.
        If you are invited for dinner and want to send flowers, have them delivered that day.

Table manners
        Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat.
        Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the
      right while eating.
        Follow the lead of the hostess - she sits at the table first, starts eating first, and is the
      first to get up at the end of the meal.
        The host gives the first toast.
        An honored guest should return the toast later in the meal.
        Women may offer a toast.
        Always take a small amount at first so you can be cajoled into accepting a second
       helping.
        Do not keep your hands in your lap during the meal; however, do not rest your elbows
       on the table either.
        It is acceptable to leave a small amount of food on your plate.
        Pick up cheese with your knife rather than your fingers.
        If you do not want more wine, leave your wineglass nearly full.

Relationships & Communication
         Italians prefer to do business with people they know and trust.
        A third party introduction will go a long way in providing an initial platform from
       which to work.
        Italians much prefer face-to-face contact, so it is important to spend time in Italy
       developing the relationship.
        Your business colleagues will be eager to know something about you as a person before
       conducting business with you.
        Demeanor is important as Italians judge people on appearances and the first impression
       you make will be a lasting one.
         Italians are intuitive. Therefore, make an effort to ensure that your Italians colleagues
       like and trust you.
        Networking can be an almost full-time occupation in Italy. Personal contacts allow
       people to get ahead.
         Take the time to ask questions about your business colleagues family and personal
       interests, as this helps build the relationship
        Italians are extremely expressive communicators. They tend to be wordy, eloquent,
       emotional, and demonstrative, often using facial and hand gestures to prove their point.
From: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/italy-country-profile.html
Music:
Music has traditionally been one of the great cultural markers of what it means to be ―Italian‖
and holds an important position in society, in general, and even in politics. Italy is also widely
regarded as the birthplace of sheet music, after Guido d'Arezzo was responsible for arranging
musical notes on sheets of paper. The music of Italy range across a broad spectrum, from her
renowned opera to modern experimental classical music; and from the traditional music of the
many ethnically diverse region to a vast body of popular music drawn from both native and
imported source. Historically, musical developments in Italy in the Middle Ages and
Renaissance helped create much music that spread throughout Europe. Innovation in the use of
musical scales, harmony, notation, as well as experiments in musical theater led directly not just
to opera in the late 16th century, but to classical music forms such as the symphony and
concerto, and to later developments in popular music. Today, the entire infrastructure that
supports music as a profession is extensive in Italy, including conservatories, opera houses, radio
and television stations, recording studios, music festivals, and important centers of musicological
research. Musical life in Italy remains extremely active, but very Italian-centered and hardly
international. The only main international Italian pop-singers include 1970s pop-diva Mina, who
sold 76 million records worldwide in her lifetime, and singer Laura Pausini, who has sold 45
million albums and has been dubbed the 'Queen of Italian Pop'.
Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. Italian opera was believed to have been
founded in the early 1600s, in Italian cities such as Mantua and Venice. Later, works and pieces
composed by native Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Rossini,
Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini, are amongst the most famous operas ever written and today
are performed in opera houses across the world. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned
as one of the best in the world. Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico Caruso, Luciano
Pavarotti and Andrea Bocelli, to name a few.
Geographical
Distribution
 Linguistic
Community
Italian is the official language of Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Slovenia, Vatican City, and
is one of the 23 working languages in the European Union. Other European countries that speak
Italian consist of: Belgium, Germany, UK, and France.
Outside of Europe, Italian speaking communities can be found in the United States, Canada,
Venezuela, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Africa, and Australia.

In the United States, Italian speakers are most commonly found in five cities: Boston (90,000),
Chicago (60,000), Miami (75,000), New York City (120,000), and Philadelphia (50,000). In
Canada there are large Italian-speaking communities in Montreal (100,000) and Toronto
(70,000).

The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the world: large Italian-speaking
communities are shown in green; light blue indicates areas where it was understood and spoken
during the Italian colonial period, in the first half of the 20th century.


The map below is an example of Dialect of Italy (or Languages of Italy)
Demography
Italy Population has surpassed 60 million as per the 2009 estimates. It is the fourth largest
populated country of Europe and ranks twenty third in the world chart. And in terms of
population density, the country stands fifth all over Europe. There are 200 persons approx
residing in every square kilometer of land area.
Italy, including the islands of Sardinia and Sicily covers an area of 301,338 square km. It is made
up 20 administrative regions including Abruzzi, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Remagna, Liguria,
Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige,
Umbria, Giulia, Lazio,Valle d'Aosta, Veneto, Sicilia, Friuli-Venezia and Basilicata.
Italian Population has been mainly affected by the high birth rate of 9.78 births per 1,000 people
and relatively high life expectancy and low death rate of 9.82 deaths/1,000 people.
Some of the largest populated cities of Italy are Rome, Milan, Naples, Turin, Palermo and
Genoa. Among other major Italian cities the most populated having more than 250,000
inhabitants are Bologna, Florence, Bari, Catania, Venice and Verona.
According to latest reports as per the Italian Statistics Office, the literacy rate among Italy
Population is 98% with schooling been made mandatory for children aged between 6 and 18.
The demographic details of Italy are listed as follows:
   ·   Population: 58,133,509 approximately
   ·   Age structure can be defined as:
           o    0-14 years: 14.03%
           o    15-64 years: 65.93%
           o    65 years and over: 20.04%
   ·   Growth Rate of Population: 0.68%
   ·   Net Migration Rate: 7.5%
   ·   Population divided into different genders / Sex Ratio in the following Age Groups at
       birth:
           o    1.07 males per a female
           o    Under 15 years: 1.06 males per a female
           o    15-64 years: 1.02 males per a female
           o    65 years and over: 0.72 male per a female
   ·   Ethnic groups: Italian. But exists some clusters of German, French, and Slovene. There
       are also few Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south
   ·   Religions
           o    90% belong to Roman
           o    10% are Protestant or Jewish
           o    There are also very few Muslim immigrant
   ·   Languages Spoken: Officially Italian (official); others include: German, French, Slovene
From: http://www.mapsofworld.com/italy/italy-population.html

History




                          Chronology of Italy's History
                                        A.D. 476 Through 1996

Since earliest times the history of Italy has been influenced by cultural and political divisions
resulting from the peninsula's disparate geography and by circumstances that made Italy the
scene of many of the most important struggles for power in Europe.


                                  Calendar of Important Events
   YEAR            EVENT
   476             The Germanic leader Odoacer sacked Rome, ending the Western Roman Empire.

   572             The Lombards invaded Italy, ending the last period of Byzantine rule in Italy

   800             Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III

   962             Otto the Great was crowned emperor, marking the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire.

   1300s           The thriving Italian city-states such as Florence and Venice contributed to the beginning of
                   the Renaissance in Italy. Venice controlled European trade with Asia and the Middle East
   1494            The French army defeated the armies of several of the divided city-states. France and the
                   Holy Roman Empire subsequently vied for control of Italy
   1559            Most of Italy had come under the influence of the Spanish Habsburgs. Control passed to
                   the Austrian branch of the family by the early 1700s
   1796            Napoleon Bonaparte conquered much of northern Italy and established Italian republics.
                   Northern Italy was unified as the Kingdom of Italy under French rule in 1804
   1814            Following Napoleon's defeat, Italy was divided into the Papal States, Austrian duchies, the
                   Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
   1859            Sardinia and France expelled the Austrians from all of northern Italy except Venice
1861    The Kingdom of Italy was formed, encompassing the entire peninsula except for Rome,
        Venice, and San Marino. King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia became king of Italy
1866    Venice became part of Italy

1870    Italian forces occupied Rome, which became the capital of Italy the following year

1912    Italy acquired Libya after a war with the Ottoman Empire

1915    Although it was allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy entered World War I on
        the side of the Allies
1922    Benito Mussolini became prime minister of Italy and rapidly assumed dictatorial powers

1929    The Lateran Treaty normalized relations between Italy and the Vatican

1940    Italy entered World War II having previously formed an alliance with Germany

1943    Italy surrendered to invading Allied forces, but Germany took control of the country and
        fought the Allies until the end of the war
1946    Italians voted to abolish the monarchy, and Italy became a republic

1952    Italy became a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community, which
        would eventually become the European Union
1984    Reflecting the diminished influence of the church in Italian life, Roman Catholicism was
        de-institutionalized as Italy's state religion
1986    Italy took its most visible steps toward fighting organized crime, convicting 338 Mafia
        members of criminal activities
1990s   A far-reaching scandal of political corruption and influence-peddling led to the fall of the
        Christian Democratic party, which had been the most influential political party in Italy
        since 1948
1994    A rightist coalition, led by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi and which included neo-
        Fascist elements, was overwhelmingly elected to power. However, the coalition collapsed
        late in the year, and Berlusconi was forced to resign as prime minister
1996    The Olive Tree coalition was voted into power, marking the first time since World War II
        that a leftist government controlled Italy. Romano Prodi, an economics professor, headed
        the coalition as prime minister
Population in
  the USA
All of the following was obtained from http://www.niaf.org/research/2000_census_3.asp
(The National Italian American Foundation)



Italian American Population in All 50 States
* * All figures based on the United States Census 2000. See www.census.gov. Compiled by the
Research Department of the National Italian American Foundation. * *

STATE                                  AMOUNT                PERCENTAGE
Alabama                                56,220                1.3
Alaska                                 17,944                2.9
Arizona                                224,795               4.4
Arkansas                               34,674                1.3
California                             1,450,884             4.3
Colorado                               201,787               4.7
Connecticut                            634,364               18.6
Delaware                               72,677                9.3
District of Columbia                   12,587                2.2
Florida                                1,003,977             6.3
Georgia                                163,218               2.0
Hawaii                                 22,094                1.8
Idaho                                  34,553                2.7
Illinois                               744,274               6.0
Indiana                                141,486               2.3
Iowa                                   49,449                1.7
Kansas                                 50,729                1.9
Kentucky                               62,383                1.5
Louisiana                              195,561               4.4
Maine                                  58,866                4.6
Maryland                               267,573               5.1
Massachusetts                          860,079               13.5
Michigan                               450,952               4.5
Minnesota                              111,270               2.3
Mississippi                            40,401                1.4
Missouri                               176,209               3.1
Montana                                28,031                3.1
Nebraska                               42,979                2.5
Nevada                                 132,515               6.6
New Hampshire                          105,610               8.5
New Jersey                             1,503,637             17.9
New Mexico                             43,218                2.4
New York                              2,737,146            14.4
North Carolina                        181,982              2.3
North Dakota                          5,328                0.8
Ohio                                  675,749              6.0
Oklahoma                              49,970               1.4
Oregon                                111,462              3.3
Pennsylvania                          1,418,465            11.6
Rhode Island                          199,077              19.0
South Carolina                        81,377               2.0
South Dakota                          7,541                1.0
Tennessee                             94,402               1.7
Texas                                 363,354              1.7
Utah                                  57,512               2.6
Vermont                               38,835               6.4
Virginia                              257,129              3.6
Washington                            191,442              3.2
West Virginia                         69,935               3.9
Wisconsin                             172,567              3.2
Wyoming                               15,286               3.1


States with the Highest Populations of Italian
Americans
* * All figures based on the United States Census 2000. See www.census.gov. Compiled by the
Research Department of the National Italian American Foundation. * *


                                   More than 1 Million

STATE                             AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
New York                          2,737,146              14.4
New Jersey                        1,503,637              17.9
California                        1,450,884              4.3
Pennsylvania                      1,418,465              11.6
Florida                           1,003,977              6.3

                                    More than 500,000

STATE                             AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
Massachusetts                     860,079                13.5
Illinois                          744,274                6.0
Ohio                              675,749                6.0
Connecticut                        634,364                18.6

                                     More than 250,000

STATE                              AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
Michigan                           450,952                4.5
Texas                              363,354                1.7
Maryland                           267,573                5.1
Virginia                           257,129                3.6

                                     More than 100,000

STATE                              AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
Arizona                            224,795                4.4
Colorado                           201,787                4.7
Rhode Island                       199,077                19.0
Louisiana                          195,561                4.4
North Carolina                     181,982                2.3
Missouri                           176,209                3.1
Wisconsin                          172,567                3.2
Georgia                            163,218                2.0
Indiana                            141,486                2.3
Nevada                             132,515                6.6
Oregon                             111,462                3.3
Minnesota                          111,270                2.3
New Hampshire                      105,610                8.5


States with the Highest Percentage of Italian Americans
* * All figures based on the United States Census 2000. See www.census.gov. Compiled by the
Research Department of the National Italian American Foundation. * *


                                   More than 10 Percent

STATE                             AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
Rhode Island                      199,077                19.0
Connecticut                       634,364                18.6
New Jersey                        1,503,637              17.9
New York                          2,737,146              14.4
Massachusetts                     860,079                13.5
Pennsylvania                      1,418,465              11.6
                         More than 5 Percent

STATE                   AMOUNT                 PERCENTAGE
Delaware                72,677                 9.3
New Hampshire           105,610                8.5
Nevada                  132,515                6.6
Florida                 1,003,977              6.3
Vermont                 38,835                 6.4
Ohio                    675,749                6.0
Illinois                744,274                6.0
Maryland                267,573                5.1



Italian American Populations in Select U.S. Counties
                               Arizona

COUNTY                         AMOUNT             PERCENTAGE
Maricopa County                154,344            5.0

                              California

COUNTY                         AMOUNT             PERCENTAGE
Los Angeles County             270,375            2.8
Marin County                   22,044             8.9
Orange County                  134,871            4.7
Riverside County               61,990             4.0
Sacramento County              59,983             4.9
San Bernardino County          62,432             3.7
San Diego County               133,304            4.7
San Francisco County           39,144             5.0
San Mateo County               56,625             8.0
Sonoma County                  43,955             9.6
Ventura County                 38,485             5.1

                              Colorado

COUNTY                         AMOUNT             PERCENTAGE
Denver County                  38,485             3.5

                             Connecticut
COUNTY                     AMOUNT     PERCENTAGE
Hartford County            134,654    15.7
New Haven County           201,069    24.4
Fairfield County           159,785    18.1
Litchfield County          39,477     21.7
Middlesex County           32,858     21.2
New London County          35,489     13.7
Tolland County             21,022     15.4
Windham County             10,010     9.2

                          Delaware

COUNTY                     AMOUNT     PERCENTAGE
New Castle County          58,037     11.6

                           Florida

COUNTY                     AMOUNT     PERCENTAGE
Broward County             153,574    9.5
Hillsborough County        63,021     6.3
Miami-Dade County          52,545     2.3
Martin County              13,291     10.5
Palm Beach County          106,774    9.4
Pinellas County            81,833     8.9
Sarasota County            25,082     7.7

                           Illinois

COUNTY                     AMOUNT     PERCENTAGE
Cook County                327,011    6.1
DuPage County              108,862    12.0
Lake County                45,060     7.0
Will County                53,894     10.7

                          Louisiana

COUNTY                     AMOUNT     PERCENTAGE
East Baton Rouge Parish    18,694     4.5
Jefferson Parish           52,020     11.4
Orleans Parish             15,695     3.2
St. Bernard Parish         13,444     20.0
St. Tammany Parish         19,879     10.4
                      Maryland

COUNTY                  AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Montgomery County       42,128       4.8

                     Massachusetts

COUNTY                  AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Barnstable County       23,898       10.8
Berkshire County        22,710       16.8
Bristol County          42,385       7.9
Essex County            113,480      15.7
Hampden County          51,174       11.2
Middlesex County        245,371      16.7
Norfolk County          97,253       15.0
Plymouth County         69,183       14.6
Suffolk County          75,279       10.9
Worcester County        100,554      13.4

                       Michigan

COUNTY                  AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Macomb County           108,752      13.8
Oakland County          71,155       6.0
Wayne County            85,037       4.1

                      Minnesota

COUNTY                  AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Anoka County            7,583        2.5
Dakota County           10,945       3.1
Hennepin County         26,827       2.4

                       Missouri

COUNTY                  AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
St. Louis city          12,579       3.6
St. Louis County        54,109       5.3
St. Charles County      17,011       6.0

                        Nevada
COUNTY                   AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Clark County             93,251       6.8

                      New Hampshire

COUNTY                   AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Hillsborough County      31,824       8.4
Merrimack County         9,211        6.8

                       New Jersey

COUNTY                   AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Atlantic County          46,323       18.3
Bergen County            194,614      22.0
Burlington County        69,170       16.3
Camden County            92,761       18.2
Cape May County          17,507       17.1
Cumberland County        22,881       15.6
Essex County             92,389       11.6
Gloucester County        62,095       24.4
Hudson County            60,746       10.0
Hunterdon County         25,086       20.6
Mercer County            54,092       15.4
Middlesex County         120,402      16.1
Monmouth County          142,727      23.2
Morris County            107,123      22.8
Ocean County             129,044      25.3
Passaic County           81,205       16.6
Somerset County          55,612       18.7
Sussex County            31,962       22.2
Union County             70,914       13.6
Warren County            19,129       18.7

                        New York

COUNTY                   AMOUNT       PERCENTAGE
Albany County            47,760       16.2
Bronx County             69,289       5.2
Broome County            25,868       12.9
Chautauqua County        20,041       14.3
Dutchess County          60,645       21.6
Erie County              149,343      15.7
Fulton County           8,476       15.4
Genesee County          9,316       15.4
Greene County           8,139       16.9
Herkimer County         12,191      18.9
Kings County            183,868     7.5
Monroe County           136,111     18.5
Montgomery County       9,245       18.6
Nassau County           319,602     23.9
New York County         84,956      5.5
Niagara County          40,695      18.5
Oneida County           46,824      19.9
Onondaga County         80,310      17.5
Orange County           64,450      18.9
Putnam County           30,441      31.8
Queens County           187,540     8.4
Rensselaer County       22,486      14.7
Richmond County         167,086     37.7
Rockland County         48,802      17.0
Saratoga County         33,185      16.5
Schenectady County      32,270      22.0
Suffolk County          408,572     28.8
Ulster County           33,629      18.9
Westchester County      192,226     20.8

                        Ohio

COUNTY                  AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Ashtabula County        11,107      10.8
Cuyahoga County         125,570     9.0
Franklin County         56,407      5.3
Geauga County           9,778       10.8
Hamilton County         35,535      4.2
Lake County             34,096      15.0
Lorain County           20,603      7.2
Medina County           14,010      9.3
Summit County           48,567      8.9
Trumbull County         32,342      14.4

                     Pennsylvania

COUNTY                  AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Allegheny County        194,227     15.2
Bucks County             89,647      15.0
Butler County            18,216      10.5
Chester County           60,288      13.9
Delaware County          101,910     18.5
Monroe County            24,294      17.5
Montgomery County        112,072     14.9
Philadelphia County      140,139     9.2
Pike County              9,138       19.7
Washington County        33,736      16.6
Westmoreland County      64,900      17.5

                      Rhode Island

COUNTY                   AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Bristol County           10,008      19.8
Kent County              36,444      21.8
Newport County           9,062       10.6
Providence County        119,006     19.1
Washington County        24,557      19.9

                         Texas

COUNTY                   AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Bexar County             27,770      2.0
Dallas County            34,275      1.5
Harris County            71,374      2.1

                       Vermont

COUNTY                   AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Chittenden County        10,365      7.1

                      Washington

COUNTY                   AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
King                     63,452      3.7

                       Wisconsin

COUNTY                   AMOUNT      PERCENTAGE
Dane County              14,224      3.3
Milwaukee County         37,175      4.0
Waukesha County                            21,027              5.8


U.S. Counties with High Percentage of Italian
Americans
* * All figures based on the United States Census 2000. See www.census.gov. Compiled by the
Research Department of the National Italian American Foundation. * *

                                   More than 20 Percent

COUNTY                                       AMOUNT             PERCENTAGE
Richmond County, NY                          167,086            37.7
Putnam County, NY                            30,441             31.8
Suffolk County, NY                           408,572            28.8
Ocean County, NJ                             129,044            25.3
Gloucester County, NJ                        62,095             24.4
New Haven County, CT                         201,069            24.4
Nassau County, NY                            319,602            23.9
Monmouth County, NJ                          142,727            23.2
Morris County, NJ                            107,123            22.8
Sussex County, NJ                            31,962             22.2
Bergen County, NJ                            194,614            22.0
Schenectady County, NY                       32,270             22.0
Kent County, RI                              36,444             21.8
Litchfield County, CT                        39,477             21.7
Dutchess County, NY                          60,645             21.6
Middlesex County, CT                         32,858             21.2
Westchester County, NY                       192,226            20.8
Hunterdon County, NJ                         25,086             20.6
St. Bernard Parish, LA                       13,444             20.0

                                   More than 15 Percent

COUNTY                                       AMOUNT             PERCENTAGE
Oneida County, NY                            46,824             19.9
Washington County, RI                        24,557             19.9
Bristol County, RI                           10,008             19.8
Pike County, PA                              9,138              19.7
Providence County, RI                        119,006            19.1
Orange County, NY                            64,450             18.9
Ulster County, NY                            33,629             18.9
Herkimer County, NY               12,191         18.9
Montgomery County, NY             9,245          18.6
Monroe County, NY                 136,111        18.5
Delaware County, PA               101,910        18.5
Niagara County, NY                40,695         18.5
Atlantic County, NJ               46,323         18.3
Camden County, NJ                 92,761         18.2
Fairfield County, CT              159,785        18.1
Onondaga County, NY               80,310         17.5
Westmoreland County, PA           64,900         17.5
Monroe County, PA                 24,294         17.5
Cape May County, NJ               17,507         17.1
Rockland County, NY               48,802         17.0
Greene County, NY                 8,139          16.9
Berkshire County, MA              22,710         16.8
Middlesex County, MA              245,371        16.7
Washington County, PA             33,736         16.6
Saratoga County, NY               33,185         16.5
Burlington County, NJ             69,170         16.3
Albany County, NY                 47,760         16.2
Middlesex County, NJ              120,402        16.1
Erie County, NY                   149,343        15.7
Hartford County, CT               134,654        15.7
Essex County, MA                  113,480        15.7
Cumberland County, NJ             22,881         15.6
Mercer County, NJ                 54,092         15.4
Tolland County, CT                21,022         15.4
Fulton County, NY                 8,476          15.4
Genesee County, NY                9,316          15.4
Allegheny County, PA              194,227        15.2
Norfolk County, MA                97,253         15.0
Bucks County, PA                  89,647         18.3
Lake County, OH                   34,096         15.0

                          More than 10 Percent
COUNTY                            AMOUNT         PERCENTAGE
Montgomery County, PA             112,072        14.9
Rensselaer County, NY             22,486         14.7
Plymouth County, MA               69,183         14.6
Trumbull County, OH               32,342         14.4
Chautauqua County, NY             20,041         14.3
Chester County, PA                               60,288               13.9
Macomb County, MI                                108,752              13.8
New London County, CT                            35,489               13.7
Worcester County, MA                             120,402              16.1
Broome County, NY                                25,868               12.9
DuPage County, IL                                108,862              12.0
Essex County, NJ                                 92,389               11.6
New Castle County, DE                            58,037               11.6
Jefferson Parish, LA                             52,020               11.4
Hampden County, MA                               51,174               11.2
Suffolk County, MA                               75,279               10.9
Barnstable County, MA                            23,898               10.8
Ashtabula County, OH                             11,107               10.8
Geauga County, OH                                9,778                10.8
Will County, IL                                  53,894               10.7
Newport County, RI                               9,062                10.6
Butler County, PA                                18,216               10.5
Martin County, FL                                13,291               10.5
St. Tammany Parish, LA                           19,879               10.4
Hudson County, NJ                                60,746               10.0



C o u n t i e s w i t h H i g h e s t A mo u n t o f I t a l i a n A me r i c a n s
                                        More than 200,000

COUNTY                                         AMOUNT                PERCENTAGE
Suffolk County, NY                             408,572               28.8
Cook County, IL                                327,011               6.1
Nassau County, NY                              319,602               23.9
Los Angeles County, CA                         270,375               2.8
Middlesex County, MA                           245,371               16.7
New Haven County, CT                           201,069               24.4


                                        More than 100,000

COUNTY                                         AMOUNT                PERCENTAGE
Bergen County, NJ                              194,614               22.0
Allegheny County, PA                           194,227               15.2
Westchester County, NY                         192,226               20.8
Queens County, NY                              187,540               8.4
Kings County, NY                               183,868               7.5
Richmond County, NY       167,086   37.7
Fairfield County, CT      108,752   13.8
New London County, CT     159,785   18.1
Worcester County, MA      120,402   16.1
Maricopa County, AZ       154,344   5.0
Broward County, FL        153,574   9.5
Erie County, NY           149,343   15.7
Monmouth County, NJ       142,727   23.2
Philadelphia County, PA   140,139   9.2
Monroe County, NY         136,111   18.5
Orange County, CA         134,871   4.7
Hartford County, CT       134,654   15.7
San Diego County, CA      133,304   4.7
Ocean County, NJ          129,044   25.3
Cuyahoga County, OH       125,570   9.0
Middlesex County, NJ      120,402   16.1
Providence County, RI     119,006   19.1
Essex County, MA          113,480   15.7
Montgomery County, PA     112,072   14.9
DuPage County, IL         108,862   12.0
Macomb County, MI         108,752   13.8
Morris County, NJ         107,123   22.8
Palm Beach County, FL     106,774   9.4
Delaware County, PA       101,910   18.5
Worcester County, MA      100,554   13.4
Linguistic
Features
  Phonology
  Morphology
    Syntax
  Semantics
  Pragmatics
Resources: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7T84-4M3C3K0-
1YF&_rdoc=145&_hierId=1129000132&_refWorkId=326&_explode=1129000132&_fmt=high
&_orig=na&_docanchor=&_idxType=SC&view=c&_ct=347&_acct=C000059537&_version=1
&_urlVersion=0&_userid=158229&md5=a96a7baf5b470a236aa0a29be57d46d8#s0030
http://italian.about.com/od/linguistics/a/aa090507a.htm



                                          Phonology
The opposition of long and short vowels in Latin was replaced by a distinction determined by
stress and syllable structure: long vowels are obligatory in free stressed nonfinal syllables, short
vowels in other conditions (i.e., in checked stressed, free stressed final, and all unstressed
syllables). In stressed syllables the five Latin vowel qualities became seven, with long Ē and Ō
giving midhigh [e] and [o], short Ě and giving midlow [ ] and [ ] (these broke into [j ] and
[w ] in free syllables). In unstressed syllables only five vowels are used: [i], [e], [a], [o], [u].
The consonant system undergoes the following main changes: assimilation (e.g., [kt] > [tt], as in
factum > fatto); palatalization and assibilation before front vowels (as in cenam [ke nam] > cena
[t ena]); hodie > oggi, medium > mezzo); sonorization, which applies unsystematically, as in
stratam > strada, but amatam > amata. Initial h and final consonants (apart from nasals and
liquids in proclitics: un, per, il, etc.) are dropped.
The rhythm of Italian is syllable timed. There are seven vowels, very similar to the cardinal ones:
/i/, /e/, / /, /a/, / /, /o/, /u/. In unstressed syllables the opposition of midhigh and midlow vowels
is neutralized, the quality of the other vowels remains distinct. There are two semiconsonants: /j/
and /w/, and 21 consonants: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /ts/, /dz/, /t /, /d /, /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, / /, /m/,
/n/, / /, /l/, / /, /r/. Typologically uncommon is the systematic opposition of long to short
consonants, which applies to all the items listed apart from six: /z/ is always short, and /ts/, /dz/, /
   /, / /, and / / are always long intervocalically.

Illustration
 Here follows a sentence (1) quoted for illustration:
 (1) A Venezia è più facile che si senta parlare il dialetto che l'italiano.
     ‗In Venice it is easier to hear people speaking dialect than Italian.‘
 View Within Article

Phonemic transcription: /a vve n ttsja ppju f fat ile ke ssi s nta par lare il dja l tto ke ll ita
 ljano/. Note that this sentence is pronounced in Venice without ‗syntactic doubling‘ (i.e., the
lengthening of initial consonants in specified conditions) and with some of the variations
mentioned above in the section, ‗Writing System‘: /a ve n tsja pju fat ile ke si senta par
lare il dja letto ke l ita ljano/. In the local dialect this would be: /a ve n sja ze pju fasie ke se
seŋta par lar el dja eto ke l ita ljaŋ/.
Note the gender and number agreement between articles and nouns; the use of the subjunctive
governed by facile che; the interesting construction with si, which can be interpreted as an
impersonal (with si acting as the indefinite subject of senta: ‗one hears‘), or as a passive, with the
infinitive clause (parlare) acting as sentential subject (‗speaking is heard‘). Also, the subject of
the infinitive need not be specified: ‗si sente parlare‘ ‗one hears [someone] speak.‘ There is no
dummy subject for è (‗it is‘), and the sentential subject clause introduced by che comes after the
verb. The first che acts as a complementizer, and the second che as a conjunction within the
comparative structure (più … che).


What is phonology? According to Marina Nespor, Italian linguist and author of the book
"Fonologia," it is "that branch of grammar that is occupied with the sounds that are
systematically used in natural languages for communicating meanings." Put more simply,
phonology studies the meanings of the sounds we make when we speak.

One important fact to begin with, is the difference between phonology (fonologia) and
phonetics (fonetica). Phonetics analyzes all sounds arising from human speech, regardless of the
language or meaning. Phonology studies the sounds in context, searching for patterns by
determining which sounds contain meaning, then explaining how these sounds are understood by
a native speaker. So while phonetics studies how the letter "f" is produced (what parts of the
mouth are used and how, in order to say an "f") and how it is perceived, phonology analyzes how
the words fa and va have different meanings, despite only differing by one sound. Phonology is
the musical side of linguistics.

If you listen closely to Italian—whether you understand what you are hearing or not—you may
notice that the rhythm differs greatly from English. Several linguists have conducted
phonological investigations into the various rhythmic patterns of languages. Using computer
programs, the linguists replaced all consonants with the letter "s" and all vowels with the letter
"a". The final product, read aloud by the computer program and sounding like a stuttering snake,
demonstrates distinct variations in the frequency and stress of consonants and vowels. As a result
of this simplification each language differs only by its own musicality.

The road to sounding like a native speaker is filled with obvious barriers such as accent and
vocabulary, however sometimes even having a flawless mastery over both is not enough.
Knowing where to put the correct stress, how to have proper inflection and intonation—that is,
the more musical aspects of languages—are more subtle obstacles. Phonology is the study that
helps identify these elusive keys to fluency and is a foundation upon which other branches of
linguistics such as morphology begin their studies.

At one of the intersections between phonology and morphology lies an interesting mystery: that
of words. Surprisingly, linguists find it enormously difficult to define the exact properties of a
word, though at first it may not be apparent why. For those learning Italian, pay close attention to
how what you hear changes from nonsense sounds to words packed with meaning as you
progress and learn new vocabulary. You may be inclined to use phonological cues (such as tone,
stress, and pauses for breath) to classify a word, however, as we will see in the next article on
morphology, this definition may not always be accurate.

Certainly, phonology is a very broad subject covering other inquiries with complicated names
such as assimilation, epenthesis (adding sounds to words), and phonotactics (which sound
combinations are permissible within a given language). However there are more recognizable
inquiries as well, for instance the mysterious properties of the letter "s" in Italian, "erre moscia,"
and the role of doubled consonants. These three topics will be covered in later individual articles.
Each is intriguing because of the misconceptions surrounding them, however it is through
mastery of puzzles such as these that you can come closer to understanding Italian, regardless of
whether or not you are a native speaker.

About the Author: Britten Milliman is a native of Rockland County, New York, whose interest
in foreign languages began at age three, when her cousin introduced her to Spanish. Her interest
in linguistics and languages from around the globe runs deep but Italian and the people who
speak it hold a special place in her heart.
                                     Morphology
The case system of the Latin declension disappears and prepositions are used instead: di uomo
replaces Latin hominis. The neuter gender disappears. The Latin verb pattern is basically
preserved, with the introduction of ‗analytical‘ or compound forms for the passive (è amato for
amatur), the future (amare ho, whence the new synthetic amerò, for amabo), the perfect (ho
amato for amavi, although this survives as amai), and so on.
While phonology concentrates on the musical building blocks of language, morphology
(morfologia) is the study of the rules that govern how these blocks are put together. Sergio
Scalise, in his book Morphologia, gives three practically identical definitions which basically
state that morphology is the study of rules that govern the internal structure of words in their
formation and alteration.

Let us refer back to the conjugations for the verb parlare in our introduction to Italian linguistics,
which were used as an example of how words alter linguistically. In this instance, morphological
rules changed the verb for each person (the subject of the verb, such as I of "I talk" or io of "io
parlo"): parlo, parli, parla, parliamo, parlate, parlano. Though verb conjugations are more
overtly apparent in Italian, they are not as clear in English because English is a very
morphologically poor language. Take the same verb in English: I talk, you talk, he/she talks, we
talk, they talk. Only one verb form is different. The uniformity of English verbs is even more
pronounced in the past tense where all forms look the same: talked. As a result, English relies
heavily upon the rules governing word order in a sentence. Such rules are studied by syntax.

During our discussion of Italian phonology, I mentioned that the topic of defining a word has
become a puzzling enigma. Printed words are easily distinguished because of the spaces between
them. However, trying to use phonological cues—for instance which parts of a sentence are
stressed or where the speaker pauses for breath—would fall short of a complete definition. If a
native were to say to you "in bocca al lupo" (an Italian proverb meaning good luck), it would
probably come out sounding like "nboccalupo" with no way of determining where a word ends
and another begins. In addition, the meaning of the word "lupo" (wolf) has nothing to do with
"good luck," so it is impossible to divide the phrase into meaningful parts in order to identify
each word.

Morphology complicates the matter. The example of "in bocca al lupo" raises two problems with
classifying words: how to classify completely unrelated meanings of one word and how to
classify many words with the same meaning, such as each of the numerous conjugations of
verbs. Should each variation—such as parlo, parlerò, parlerebbe—be counted as a separate
word or as variations of one word? Would conjugations such as ho parlato or avrò parlato count
as two words or as one? These questions are morphological because they deal directly with the
formation and alteration of words. So how do we resolve these issues? The simple answer is that
there is no simple answer. Instead, linguists have recognized a specialized filing system called a
lexicon.

The lexicon is the dictionary of the mind. However, this dictionary is more complex than
Merriam-Webster, Oxford, and Cambridge combined. Think of it like a large collection of spider
webs that are all interconnected. At the center of each lies a word or a morpheme (part of a word
which carries meaning, such as –tion in English or –zione in Italian). So, for example, the lexicon
of an Italian would contain the word "lupo" and would have recorded in the surrounding spider
web information such as the primary meaning (predatory wild canine beast), its meaning within
the idiom "in bocca al lupo," as well as its grammatical status (that it is a noun). Also in the
lexicon would be the ending –zione and between these two entries, the lexicon would have the
bit of information that understands that combining the two to form lupozione is not possible in
Italian.

As you progress in Italian, you are constructing and morphologically training an Italian lexicon
to recognize words and what they mean, as well as which constructions are possible and which
are not. By understanding the properties of a word, you can take shortcuts such as just
remembering parl- and its various mutations, instead of trying to remember each conjugation as
a separate word. It saves storage space in your mind.

About the Author: Britten Milliman is a native of Rockland County, New York, whose interest
in foreign languages began at age three, when her cousin introduced her to Spanish. Her interest
in linguistics and languages from around the globe runs deep but Italian and the people who
speak it hold a special place in her heart.
                                          Syntax
The freedom of Latin word order is reduced, as syntactic function is signaled by linear position
rather than case endings: for ‗Paul saw Peter‘ the only normal and unequivocal structure in
Italian is ‗Paolo vide Pietro,‘ whereas in Latin Petrum Paulus vidit would be equally clear in any
of the six theoretically possible combinations of these three words.
From the study of the musicality of languages (phonology) to the rules which govern the internal
structure of words (morphology) we move to that branch of linguistics which focuses on the
rules that govern words in larger structures (phrases and sentences, for example). This study is
known as syntax. According to the definition provided by Giorgio Graffi in his book Sintassi,
syntax is the study of combinations of words and why some combinations are permissible in a
particular language, while others are not.

When speaking about morphology, I demonstrated that English is a morphologically poor
language. The phrase "talk" is incomplete; there is no way of knowing who is talking because the
subject has been omitted. On the other hand, the Italian "parlo" is a complete thought because the
subject is embedded within the verb itself. Due to the fact that English verbs do not contain as
much information about who is completing the action, English must rely heavily on word order
in order for its meaning to remain clear.

Here is an example taken from the introduction to Italian linguistics: "Dog bites man." No native
of English would blink twice at a sentence such as this one. Although the word "bites" does not
itself contain information about who is biting whom, the word order takes care of this
clarification. In such a small sentence, word order is strict and inflexible. Note what happens
when we make any changes: "Man bites dog" has a completely different meaning while another
arrangement—"Bites dog man"—has no meaning at all and is not grammatically acceptable.

However, in Latin, these three sentences would not have differed greatly despite their word
order. The reason for this is that Latin used case endings (morphemes which indicate the role of a
word within a sentence). As long as the correct ending was used, placement in the sentence
would not have been as important. While the grammatical rules of Italian are not quite as flexible
as they were in Latin, there is still more room to maneuver than in English. Such a simple
sentence of three words—"dog," "bites," and "man"—does not leave enough room to maneuver,
so to demonstrate word order flexibility in Italian, we will look at a slightly longer one.

Let us examine the sentence, "The man, who the dogs bit, is tall." The part of this sentence on
which we will be concentrating, is the phrase "who the dogs bit." In Italian the sentence would
read "L'uomo, il cui i cani hanno morso, è alto." However, in Italian it is also grammatically
correct to say, "L'uomo, il cui hanno morso i cani, è alto." On the other hand, to change the word
order in English would result in "The man, who bit the dogs, is tall" and would change the
meaning completely.

While Italian allows some flexibility within word order, other formations—such as noun-
adjective phrases—are stricter. For example, the phrase "the old suit" is always translated as
"l'abito vecchio" and never as "il vecchio abito." This is not an absolute rule, however in cases
where the noun and adjective may change position, the meaning changes, even if only subtly.
Changing the phrase "la pizza grande" to "la grande pizza" alters the meaning from "the large
pizza" to "the grand pizza." It is for this reason that translation is so incredibly difficult and is
very rarely an exact science. Those who try to translate phrases such as "keep it real" or "just do
it" into Italian for a tattoo will acknowledge frustration at the loss or change of meaning.

The beauty of languages lies not in their similarities, but in their differences. Growing
accustomed to the new structures of foreign languages will broaden your means of expressing
yourself, not only in Italian, but in English as well. Furthermore, while most phrases lose some
meaning in their translation, the further you take your studies, the more unique phrases you will
discover in Italian that defy translation to English.

About the Author: Britten Milliman is a native of Rockland County, New York, whose interest
in foreign languages began at age three, when her cousin introduced her to Spanish. Her interest
in linguistics and languages from around the globe runs deep but Italian and the people who
speak it hold a special place in her heart.
                                      Semantics
Within the prism of languages, we've seen the facets of sounds (phonology), transformations
(morphology) and rules (syntax). However, the most important function of language is to convey
meaning, a task which is studied by semantics. Gennaro Chierchia, author of the book
"Semantica," has this to say of semantics: "Expressions in our language 'mean' something and
this allows us to communicate. The object of [semantics] is to understand how this happens."

The first, and possibly most important, distinction within the field of semantics is between
connotative and denotative meaning. There are three ways of defining and distinguishing the
two. First, denotation is the direct or explicit meaning of a word while connotation is ideas
associated with it or suggested by it. For example, dog has a denotative meaning of "domestic
canine" and connotative meanings of "ugly" or "aggressive."

The second definition of denotation is what a word normally elicits for most speakers of a
particular language, whereas connotation describes what a term calls to mind for an individual
because of personal experience. The word house, for instance, conjures a picture of the structure
itself (denotative meaning) in the mind of any native speaker. However, one person may think of
warmth and comfort (connotative meanings) when he or she hears the word house because of
positive memories the word draws out. While different associations enrich a language, they can
also lead to difficulties. Because many words (especially adjectives) elicit different sensations
for different speakers, there is an added layer of difficulty in translating these words. Take, for
example, the many different degrees of the word sad—down, blue, gloomy, miserable,
depressed, distressed, to name a few. Trying to carry into another language the various
associations people have with them may cause distorted or even lost meaning.

The final distinguishing characteristic between denotative and connotative meaning is history.
Denotative definitions refer to the historical meaning of a word. For example, in Latin the word
vulgar meant "commonplace"; this is its denotative meaning. Over time, the negative
associations (connotative meanings) of the term prospered and replaced the original meaning.
Today almost no one uses vulgar in any context other than "gross" or "inappropriate." We are
able to track the history of vulgar due to the work of a popular branch of linguistics called
etymology, which traces the history of linguistic forms (the bits such as prefixes, suffixes and
words).

When discussing Italian morphology, I explained the lexicon and its storage functions.
Morphemes were described as the smallest linguistic units that carry semantic meaning. In some
instances the morpheme is a free morpheme (one that can stand on its own, such as the word
problema) or root word. From this base, morphological rules work to create other forms such as
the plural problemi. However, roots are not always immediately obvious. For example, the root
of vado is and- (from andare). In this case, the morpheme is a bound morpheme (one that
cannot stand on its own). While at first glance it may seem that developing an entirely new
lexicon for a foreign language will overload your brain (even with the morphological shortcuts I
suggested), there are others you can use to help minimize the amount of information you store in
your new lexicon. These shortcuts appear in the form of cognates.
Cognates (or parole simili) are words that have a common origin and therefore similar meanings
such as the English problem and Italian problema. Through etymology we see that many
languages are related and are therefore likely to share meanings. For example, Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, French and Romanian are all sister languages in the Romance family as descendants
of Latin. Latin, in turn, is a descendant of Indo-European, an ancient language family whose
daughter groups also include English. By recognizing foreign words which look similar to ones
in your native language, you can learn to anticipate their definitions without having to memorize
their meanings separately. Always relying on similar words having identical definitions, though,
has its pitfalls. There are some tricksters known as "false cognates" or "false friends." These are
words which look as though they should have identical definitions but do not. For example, the
Italian word parenti means "relatives," not "parents," the anticipated definition.

Certainly the best incentive to learning a foreign language is to be able to express thoughts with
others. It expands the human experience to be able to communicate with someone in his own
language. What joy to be able to order something as simple as a panino in Italian from your
favorite café in Italy!

About the Author: Britten Milliman is a native of Rockland County, New York, whose interest
in foreign languages began at age three, when her cousin introduced her to Spanish. Her interest
in linguistics and languages from around the globe runs deep but Italian and the people who
speak it hold a special place in her heart.
                                      Pragmatics
Sociolinguistic Points
(As mentioned above,) In Italy there are many linguistic enclaves in which ‗foreign‘ languages
are spoken, and in some cases their use is ‗protected‘ by special legislation. For the majority of
Italians the traditional situation was one of diglossia (with the local dialect used in speech, and
literary Italian in writing. After political unification, and particularly as a consequence of far-
reaching social changes, such as internal migration (mostly from the south to northern industrial
conurbations) and the influence of the mass media, Italian has been widely adopted in speech as
well. Regional differentiation is clearly marked in phonology, identifiable in lexis, and less
clearly noticeable in grammar. A colloquial variety of the language has developed that has been
called ‗popular Italian‘; this appears to be gaining acceptability, and some of its features are
penetrating into the standard written language (e.g., gli is now frequently found in writing for ‗to
them,‘ and sometimes even for ‗to her,‘ as well as for the traditional ‗to him‘). The dialects have
been diagnosed often as terminally ill and on the point of demise. In fact, they have proved
remarkably resilient in ordinary usage, and sometimes they appear to be taken up by people
(including the young) as a way of reasserting their own group identity and reacting against an
alienating process of national equalization. There has also been a striking vitality in dialect
poetry, often using very local, individual forms of the dialect, rather than a generalized, regional
variety.
                                 Speaking Italian With Your Hands

It's All in the Hands

Walk down the street of any Italian town today and you might think
you've wandered onto the set of a Fellini movie. People everywhere seem to be mumbling to
themselves while gesticulating wildly. If you get closer to them, though, you'll notice that they're
punctuating a conversation on their telefonini with hand gestures. Mobile telephones are
ubiquitous in Italy today, and all those animated discussions are proof positive that Italians
express themselves with their hands even while speaking on the phone.

Listening With Your Eyes
Hand signals are a language onto themselves; for instance, commodities brokers on the floor of
the stock exchange have a highly codified set of hand signals to communicate. In sports, referees,
players, and managers all have their own non-verbal way of talking to each other, whether it's
signaling a penalty in soccer, motioning to a teammate, or repositioning a player. There are even
organizations such as the Center For Nonverbal Studies that apply scientific study to nonverbal
communication, which includes body movements, gestures, and facial expressions.

Italians use body language and hand gestures to punctuate an expression and give it a shading
that the word or phrase itself lacks. Non-native speakers of Italian often find talking on the
telephone to be the most challenging linguistic task. One reason is that you cannot read lips,
which many people do subconsciously (and makes dubbed movies such as La Vita È Bella
difficult to watch). But the absence of body language and hand gestures confounds the
communication gap. We watch people motion with their hands, and we parse out what they
mean.

Signal Your Intentions
The About.com Italian Language guide to Italian hand gestures has some of the more common
gestures that are recognized in the country. Be aware that, like dialects, certain hand signals can
mean different things within different regions—and can have completely different interpretations
in other cultures. Practice these gestures on your Italian friends first to be sure you've got the
right movement, otherwise a potentially embarrassing situation could develop.
Possible Error
 and reasons,
  linguistic
   transfer
Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-native_pronunciations_of_English#Italian

http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/italian.htm

http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/l1italian.html

A study on Italian children's pronunciation of English revealed the following characteristics:[15]

      Tendency to replace the English high lax vowels /ɪ/ /ʊ/ with [i] [u] (ex: "fill" and "feel",
       "put" "poot" are homophones), since Italian doesn't have these vowels.
      Tendency to replace /ŋ/ with [ŋɡ] ("singer" rhymes with "finger") or as [n] (combined
       with the above tendency makes the words "king" and "keen" homophones) because
       Italian [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before velar stops.
      Tendency to replace word-initial /sm/ with [zm], e.g. small [zmɔl]. This voicing also
       applies to /sl/ and /sn/.
      Tendency to replace /ʌ/ with [a] so that mother is pronounced [ˈmadər] or [ˈmaðər].
      Italian does not have dental fricatives:
            o Voiceless /θ/ may be replaced with a dental [t] or with [f].
            o Voiced /ð/ may become a dental [d].
      Since /t/ and /d/ are typically pronounced as dental stops anyway, words like there and
       dare can become homophones.
      /æ/ is replaced with [ɛ], so that bag sounds like beg [bɛɡ].
      Tendency to pronounce /p t k/ as unaspirated stops.
      Schwa [ə] does not exist in Italian; speakers tend to give the written vowel its full
       pronunciation, e.g. lemon [ˈlɛmɒn], television [tɛleˈviʒɒn], parrot [ˈpærot], intelligent
       [inˈtɛlidʒɛnt], water [ˈwɔtɛr], sugar [ˈʃuɡar].
      Italian speakers may pronounce consonant-final English words with a strong vocalic
       offset, especially in isolated words, e.g. dog [dɒɡᵊ]. This has led to the stereotype of
       Italians adding [ə] to the ends of English words.
      Tendency to pronounce /r/ as a trill [r] rather than the English approximant /ɹ/, e.g. parrot
       [ˈpærot].

In addition, Italians learning English have a tendency to pronounce words as they are spelled, so
that walk is [wɒlk], guide is [ɡwid], and boiled is [ˈbɔɪlɛd]. This is also true for loanwords
borrowed from English as water, which is pronounced [vatɛr] instead of [ˈwɔːtə]. Related to this
is the fact that many Italians produce /r/ wherever it is spelled (e.g. star [star]), resulting in a
rhotic accent, even when the dialect of English they are learning is nonrhotic. Consonants written
double may be pronounced as geminates, e.g. Italians pronounce apple with a longer [p] sound
than English speakers do.
The differences between English and Italian
 Introduction: Italian belongs to the Romance family, which in turn is part of the large Indo-
European language family. It therefore shares many features with other Romance languages such
as French or Spanish. Native-Italian learners of English, a stress-timed language, face similar
kinds of problems to those faced by native speakers of the other Romance languages, which are
syllable-timed.

Alphabet: Italian words are made up of the same 26 letters as employed by English, although the
letters j, k, w, x and y are considered foreign and are only used in import words. Italian learners
may misspell dictated words containing the English letters r and e, which sound like Italian
letters a and i. Some words that are capitalized in English (days, months, languages, etc) are not
capitalized in Italian.

Phonology: Italian learners typically have problems with the vowel differences in minimal pairs
such as sheep / sheet bet / mat cot / coat, The tendency to 'swallow' weak vowels in English
causes difficulties both in listening comprehension and in the production of natural-sounding
speech.

The pronunciation of consonants include the predictable difficulties with words containing the
letters th: (thin, this, other, lengths, etc). Also problematic is the failure to aspirate the h in
words such as house, hill, hotel (or to hyper-correct by adding an aspirated h to all words
beginning with a vowel.) Most Italian words end with a vowel, which often leads Italian learners
to affix a short vowel sound to in English ending with a consonant. This, together with
temptation to give full value or emphasis to all syllables, results in the stereotypical Italian
production of sentences that sound like: I atə soupə for lunchə.

There is another factor leading to the often heavily-accented production of English by Italian
learners. Namely, that in Italian the element which the speaker wishes to give most emphasis to
is usually moved to the end of the clause. This contrasts with English, in which the salient
element is identified by intonation changes rather than word order changes. Italians often find it
difficult also to produce the right intonation patterns when asking questions or making requests.

Grammar - Verb/Tense: Italian has 5 inflected tense forms: for the present, simple past,
imperfect, future and conditional. The other tenses are formed with auxiliaries. The auxiliary do,
however, has no equivalent in Italian, which leads to mistakes such as: What you do? or I no like
German food.

Italian does not use the perfect tenses to make a connection to the present in the same way that
English does. This results in problems such as I have done my homework on the bus. A similar
lack of correspondence in the use of tenses in the two languages leads to interference errors such
as: What will you do when you will leave school? or I live in Germany since 1999.
Shades of meaning, which are shown in English by varying the modal verb (must/should/ought
to/might want to, etc.) are typically conveyed in Italian by an inflected form of the verb dovere
(must). This often results in an overuse of must when Italians speak English.

Grammar - Other: In English the meaning of a clause is largely dependent on the order of words
in it (typically Subject Verb Object). Italian, being a more inflected language, allows greater
variations in word order. Furthermore, adjectives in Italian usually follow the noun, not precede
it as in English. These differences can result in non-standard syntax of Italian learners of English.

Italian learners frequently have problems with the correct use of articles in English. Although
both the definite and the indefinite article exist in both languages, their use often does not
coincide. As a result it is common to hear sentences such as: Is he teacher? or The health is the
most important in the life.

The subject pronoun is not required in colloquial Italian, so learners may say sentences such as:
Is impossible.

Vocabulary: Italian and English share many words that are derived from Latin. This facilitates
the acquisition of vocabulary, but comes with the associated problem of false friends. Here are
some common examples. The Italian false friend comes first: bravo (good/clever) / brave;
editore (publisher) / editor; fame (hunger) / fame; libreria (book shop) / library.

Miscellaneous: Italian is a phonetic language. For this reason Italian learners suffer the usual
problems that native speakers of such languages have with English. Namely, that they cannot
predict with confidence a. the spelling of any new word that they hear, and b. the pronunciation
of any new word that they read.



Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                       COMMON                    PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                               -
                       SOUND                         ERROR                     MATERIALS
Tongue low front to /aɪə/=/aɪ/+/ə/ "fire"                                      "English Pronunc.
high front to centre.                                                          Illustrated" pp. 45
                                                                               "How Now Brown
                                                                               Cow" Unit 50
Keep tongue front &     /æ/              "ran"       /ʌ/            "run"      "English Pronunc.
low and jaws apart.                                                            Illustrated" pp. 21
                                                                               "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                               Unit 5
                                                                               "Pronunciation
                                                                               Tasks" Unit 4
                                                                               "Headway
                                                                               Pronunciation EL"
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                COMMON            PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                  -
                       SOUND                  ERROR             MATERIALS
                                                                Unit 9
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                INT" Unit 11
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit
Tongue low, back &      /ɔ:/       "bought"   /əʊ/     "boat"   "Ship or Sheep"
fixed. Jaws together.                                           Unit 20
                                                                "Pronunciation
                                                                Tasks" Unit 2
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation EL"
                                                                Unit 12
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                INT" Unit 15
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit 11
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation UPP-
                                                                INT" Unit 6
Back of tongue high.    /ʊ/        "full"     /u:/     "fool"   "English Pronunc.
Lips rounded but                                                Illustrated" pp. 29
relaxed. Short.                                                 "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                Unit 10
                                                                "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                Unit 11
                                                                "Pronunciation
                                                                Tasks" Unit 3
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                INT" Unit 8
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit 13
Tongue low central.     /ʌ/        "cup"                        "English Pronunc.
Lips relaxed.                                                   Illustrated" pp. 25
                                                                "English Pronunc.
                                                                Illustrated" pp. 26
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH               COMMON            PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                 -
                       SOUND                 ERROR             MATERIALS
                                                               "Ship or Sheep"
                                                               Unit 5
                                                               "Ship or Sheep"
                                                               Unit 6
                                                               "Pronunciation
                                                               Tasks" Unit 3
                                                               "Pronunciation
                                                               Tasks" Unit 4
Mouth not so large.     /ʌ/        "cut"     /ɑ:/     "cart"   "Headway
Lips relaxed.                                                  Pronunciation PRE-
                                                               INT" Unit 11
Fix tongue in central   /ɜ:/       "bird"                      "English Pronunc.
position. Long.                                                Illustrated" pp. 31
                                                               "Ship or Sheep"
                                                               Unit 12
                                                               "Pronunciation
                                                               Tasks" Unit 5
                                                               "Headway
                                                               Pronunciation INT"
                                                               Unit 8
                                                               "How Now Brown
                                                               Cow" Unit 45
                                                               "Listening Comp:
                                                               Pronunciation" Unit
                                                               4
Weak endings: e.g.      /ə/        "the"                       "English Pronunc.
"London" "England"                 (schwa)                     Illustrated" pp. 32-
                                                               33
                                                               "Ship or Sheep"
                                                               Unit 13
                                                               "Pronunciation
                                                               Tasks" Unit 31
                                                               "Headway
                                                               Pronunciation INT"
                                                               Unit 1
                                                               "How Now Brown
                                                               Cow" Unit 12
Tongue moves from       /eɪ/       "late"    /e/      "let"    "English Pronunc.
front centre to front                                          Illustrated" pp. 34
high.                                                          "English Pronunc.
                                                               Illustrated" pp. 38
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH              COMMON           PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                -
                       SOUND                ERROR            MATERIALS
                                                             "Ship or Sheep"
                                                             Unit 15
                                                             "Pronunciation
                                                             Tasks" Unit 8
                                                             "Pronunciation
                                                             Tasks" Unit 9
                                                             "Headway
                                                             Pronunciation EL"
                                                             Unit 1
                                                             "English Pronunc.
                                                             Illustrated" pp. 35
                                                             "Ship or Sheep"
                                                             Unit 16
                                                             "Pronunciation
                                                             Tasks" Unit 8
                                                             "Headway
Start with tongue low
                      /aɪ/         "buy"                     Pronunciation EL"
front.
                                                             Unit 11
                                                             "Headway
                                                             Pronunciation PRE-
                                                             INT" Unit 10
                                                             "Headway
                                                             Pronunciation UPP-
                                                             INT" Unit 1
                                                             "English Pronunc.
                                                             Illustrated" pp. 36
                                                             "English Pronunc.
                                                             Illustrated" pp. 39
                                                             "Ship or Sheep"
                                                             Unit 17
Start with tongue low                                        "Headway
                      /ɔɪ/         "boy"
& back.                                                      Pronunciation EL"
                                                             Unit 11
                                                             "Headway
                                                             Pronunciation PRE-
                                                             INT" Unit 10
                                                             "How Now Brown
                                                             Cow" Unit 49
Tongue central. Then /əʊ/          "note"   /ɒ/      "not"   "English Pronunc.
tightly round lips.                                          Illustrated" pp. 40
                                                             "Headway
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH              COMMON            PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                -
                       SOUND                ERROR             MATERIALS
                                                              Pronunciation EL"
                                                              Unit 11
                                                              "Headway
                                                              Pronunciation INT"
                                                              Unit 14
                                                              "Headway
                                                              Pronunciation UPP-
                                                              INT" Unit 6
                                                              "How Now Brown
                                                              Cow" Unit 47
                                                              "Listening Comp:
                                                              Pronunciation" Unit
                                                              5
                                                              "English Pronunc.
                                                              Illustrated" pp. 46
                                                              "Ship or Sheep"
                                                              Unit 22
                                                              "Ship or Sheep"
                                                              Unit 23
Tongue high and                                               "Headway
                       /ɪə/        "beer"   /eə/     "bear"
front. Move to centre.                                        Pronunciation EL"
                                                              Unit 11
                                                              "Headway
                                                              Pronunciation PRE-
                                                              INT" Unit 10
                                                              "How Now Brown
                                                              Cow" Unit 5
Relax the mouth and    /ɪ/         "sit"    /i:/     "seat"   "English Pronunc.
keep sound short.                                             Illustrated" pp. 15-
                                                              16
                                                              "Ship or Sheep"
                                                              Unit 2
                                                              Minimal Pairs /ɪ/ or
                                                              / i: / practice
                                                              "Headway
                                                              Pronunciation EL"
                                                              Unit 7
                                                              "Headway
                                                              Pronunciation PRE-
                                                              INT" Unit 9
                                                              "Headway
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                   COMMON             PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                     -
                       SOUND                     ERROR              MATERIALS
                                                                    Pronunciation INT"
                                                                    Unit 6
Start with lips tightly /ʊə/           "tour"                       "English Pronunc.
rounded. Unround.                                                   Illustrated" pp. 48
                                                                    "Headway
                                                                    Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                    INT" Unit 10
                                                                    "Listening Comp:
                                                                    Pronunciation" Unit
                                                                    5
Quickly push air from /h/              "hot"              "ch" in   "English Pronunc.
throat out of mouth.                                      "loch"    Illustrated" pp. 78
                                                                    "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                    Unit 40
                                                                    "Headway
                                                                    Pronunciation EL"
                                                                    Unit 10
                                                                    "Headway
                                                                    Pronunciation UPP-
                                                                    INT" Unit 1
                                                                    "How Now Brown
                                                                    Cow" Unit 23
                                                                    "Listening Comp:
                                                                    Pronunciation"
Tongue low front.       /aʊə/=/aʊ/+/ə/ "flour"                      "English Pronunc.
Then round &                                                        Illustrated" pp. 45
unround lips.                                                       "How Now Brown
                                                                    Cow" Unit 50
Voiceless. Friction.  /θ/              "thin"                       "English Pronunc.
Tongue between teeth.                                               Illustrated" pp. 61
                                                                    "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                    Unit 41
                                                                    "Pronunciation
                                                                    Tasks" Unit 13
                                                                    "Headway
                                                                    Pronunciation EL"
                                                                    Unit 5
                                                                    "Headway
                                                                    Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                    INT" Unit 7
                                                                    "Headway
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                COMMON             PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                  -
                       SOUND                  ERROR              MATERIALS
                                                                 Pronunciation INT"
                                                                 Unit 3
Voiced. Friction.     /ð/          "clothe"   /θ/      "cloth"   "English Pronunc.
Tongue between teeth.                                            Illustrated" pp. 63
                                                                 "English Pronunc.
                                                                 Illustrated" pp. 66
                                                                 "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                 Unit 42
                                                                 "Pronunciation
                                                                 Tasks" Unit 13
                                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation EL"
                                                                 Unit 5
                                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                 INT" Unit 7
Voiceless: tip of     /s/          "rice"     /z/      "rise"    "Pronunciation
tongue behind top                                                Tasks" Unit 12;
teeth. Friction.                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation EL"
                                                                 Unit 3;
                                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                 INT" Unit 2;
                                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation INT"
                                                                 Unit 1;
                                                                 "How Now Brown
                                                                 Cow" Unit 14;
Voiced: tip of tongue /z/          "rise"     /s/      "rice"    "English Pronunc.
behind top teeth.                                                Illustrated" pp. 65
Friction.                                                        "English Pronunc.
                                                                 Illustrated" pp. 66
                                                                 "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                 Unit 31
                                                                 "Pronunciation
                                                                 Tasks" Unit 12
                                                                 "Headway
                                                                 Pronunciation EL"
                                                                 Unit 3
                                                                 "How Now Brown
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                COMMON               PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                     -
                       SOUND                  ERROR                MATERIALS
                                                                   Cow" Unit 15
Voiceless. Friction.   /ʃ/         "sherry"   /ʧ/         "cherry" "Headway
Front of tongue to                                                 Pronunciation EL"
palate.                                                            Unit 13
                                                                   "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                   Unit 34
                                                                   "Pronunciation
                                                                   Tasks" Unit 14
                                                                   "Headway
                                                                   Pronunciation INT"
                                                                   Unit 9
Voiced: Tip to         /ʤ/         "wage"                          "English Pronunc.
alveolar. Front to                                                 Illustrated" pp. 57
palate.                                                            "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                   Unit 35
                                                                   "Headway
                                                                   Pronunciation EL"
                                                                   Unit 8
                                                                   "How Now Brown
                                                                   Cow" Unit 19
Unvoiced: Tip to       /ʧ/         "cherry"   /ʃ/         "sherry" "English Pronunc.
alveolar. Front to                                                 Illustrated" pp. 56
palate.                                                            "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                   Unit 34
                                                                   "Pronunciation
                                                                   Tasks" Unit 14
                                                                   "Headway
                                                                   Pronunciation EL"
                                                                   Unit 13
                                                                   "Headway
                                                                   Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                   INT" Unit 8
                                                                   "Headway
                                                                   Pronunciation INT"
                                                                   Unit 9
Back of tongue to      /ŋ/ + /k/   "think"    /ŋ/ + /g/   "thin" + "English Pronunc.
back roof. Nasal.                                         k or g   Illustrated" pp. 72
                                                                   "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                   Unit 45
                                                                   "Pronunciation
                                                                   Tasks" Unit 18
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH                COMMON            PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                  -
                       SOUND                  ERROR             MATERIALS
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation EL"
                                                                Unit 11
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation PRE-
                                                                INT" Unit 6
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit 12
British "r" is weaker silent       "survivor" /r/      "Sir     "Ship or Sheep"
& usually silent unless                                Ivor"    Unit 49
followed by a vowel.                                            "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation UPP-
                                                                INT" Unit 3
                                                                "How Now Brown
                                                                Cow" Unit 27
Glide /j/(i:) the tongue /j/       "yam"      /ʤ/      "jam"    "English Pronunc.
quickly to next sound                                           Illustrated" pp. 79
                                                                "Ship or Sheep"
                                                                Unit 39
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation EL"
                                                                Unit 14
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit 14
                                                                "Listening Comp:
                                                                Pronunciation" Unit
                                                                10
                                                                "Pronunciation
                                                                Tasks" Unit 1
Start with lips tightly /w/        "west"     /v/      "vest"   "Ship or Sheep"
rounded. Unround &                                              Unit 38
glide.                                                          "Pronunciation
                                                                Tasks" Unit 17
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation INT"
                                                                Unit 2
                                                                "Headway
                                                                Pronunciation UPP-
                                                                INT" Unit 4
Italian language backgrounds
29 common English pronunciation problems
                       ENGLISH              COMMON       PRACTICE
FIX PROBLEM                         -                -
                       SOUND                ERROR        MATERIALS
                                                         "How Now Brown
                                                         Cow" Unit 11
Tongue from centre    /eə/         "bear"                "English Pronunc.
front. Draw back to                                      Illustrated" pp. 47
centre.                                                  "Headway
                                                         Pronunciation EL"
                                                         Unit 11
                                                         "Headway
                                                         Pronunciation PRE-
                                                         INT" Unit 10
                                                         "How Now Brown
                                                         Cow" Unit 50
                                                         "Listening Comp:
                                                         Pronunciation" Unit
                                                         5
Miscellaneous
Resources
http://italian.about.com/od/linguistics/a/aa090507a.htm

http://italian.about.com/od/pronunciation/a/italian-alphabet.htm

Italian Dialects

Regional Italian Languages
By Michael San Filippo, About.com Guide

See More About:

       italian dialects
       italian minority languages

An Italian dialect would seem to be easy to define—some would claim it's a variant of Standard
Italian spoken in small towns and villages throughout Italy. The reality is a lot more complex. In
fact, what's often referred to as an Italian dialect can be a distinct local language (dialect of Italy)
or a regional variety (dialect of Italian).
1. Emiliano-Romagnolo
Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is considered a minority Italian
language and is structurally separate from Standard Italian. Although commonly referred to as an
Italian dialect, it does not descend from the Italian language.

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2. Napoletano
Neapolitan (also known as Napoletano and Nnapulitano) is the language spoken in the city of
Naples and the surrounding areas of the Campania region. In 2008, the regional government of
Campania officially declared Neapolitan a language. The initiative was meant to protect
"Nnapulitano," promote the education of the language, and preserve local culture and traditions.
3. Piemontese
Piemontese (also known as Piedmontese or Piemontèis), spoken in the Piedmont region of
northwest Italy, is distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate Romance
language. Given the geographic location of the Piemonte region, there is considerable French
influence.
4. Sardo
Sardo (also known as Sardu, Saldu, or Sa Limba) is is the main language spoken on the island of
Sardinia, Italy.
5. Veneto
Veneto (also known as Vèneto, Vènet), spoken mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, is
considered a minority Italian language and is distinct from Standard Italian.




Italian Hand Gestures
C'è da fare o no?...




English translation: Yes or no?
Mi dà un passaggio?




English translation: Can you give me a ride?
Scongiuro.




English translation: Gesturer wants to ward off bad luck.
Un momento!
English translation: One moment please! or May I speak?

Mah!




English translation: Perplexed. Gesturer is undecided.
Ho fame.




English translation: I'm hungry.
Ehi tu, vieni qui! (Ascolta!)




English translation: Hey! Come here, you! (Listen!)
Come?




English translation: What?
Vieni fra le mie braccia!




English translation: Come to me!

Silenzio.




English translation: Silence (keep quiet).
Che barba...




English translation: How annoying...
Che peso! (Mi sta qua!)




English translation: I cannot stand this situation/person/thing any longer.

Ora ricordo!
English translation: Now I remember!
Che sbadato!




English translation: How could I have forgotten?!
Idea!




English translation: I've got an idea!
Perfetto.




English translation: Perfect.



Me lo sono lavorato di sopra e di sotto.
English translation: Indicates manipulation, cunning.
Intesa.




English translation: (Remember our agreement.)
Mettersi il paraocchi.




English translation: To put on blinders. (just to see things one way)
È un po' toccato.




English translation: He's a little crazy.



Giuro.
English translation: I swear it.
Fumare.




English translation: Got a smoke?
Me ne frego.




English translation: I don't give a damn.
Scusi, devo andare al bagno.




English translation: I have to go to the bathroom.



OK!
English translation: OK!
Che curve!




English translation: What a body!
[Mangia, mangia!] No grazie!




English translation: No thank you, I'm full/not hungry/sick.
Rubare.




English translation: He's a robber.




Se l'intendono.
English translation: They're in this together; they understand each other.




Letters / Names of the letters
a a
b bi
c ci
d di
e e
f effe
g gi
h acca
i i
l elle
m emme
n enne
o o
p pi
q cu
r erre
s esse
t ti
u u
v vu
z zeta



Italian Cardinal Numbers: 1 - 100
 1        uno       11          undici         21         ventuno            31   trentuno
 2        due       12          dodici         22         ventidue           32   trentadue
 3        tre       13          tredici        23         ventitré           33   trentatré
 4      quattro     14       quattordici       24       ventiquattro         40   quaranta
5    cinque   15    quindici     25   venticinque   50    cinquanta
6     sei     16     sedici      26    ventisei     60    sessanta
7    sette    17   diciassette   27   ventisette    70    settanta
8     otto    18    diciotto     28    ventotto     80     ottanta
9    nove     19   diciannove    29   ventinove     90    novanta
10   dieci    20     venti       30     trenta      100    cento
 Media
Resources
    Video Clips
 Audio Recordings
Video clips/audio recordings
http://www.italica.rai.it/eng/
An impressive website run by RAI International, which aims to be a "Virtual Campus of Italian
language and culture" on the Internet. Italica makes use of the vast documentary heritage, both
audio and video, in the RAI archives.

http://www.garzantilinguistica.it/
Garzanti Linguistica. An online Italian-language dictionary. Type in a term to get a full
dictionary definition, including use of the term in idioms and expressions, and hyperlinks to
related terms. There's also an Italian-English dictionary on the site, which includes audio files in
MP3 format.

http://www.ilnarratore.com/
Il Narratore. A cultural non-profit organization which aims to provide spoken narrations of
literary works from all over the world. Currently the site has written works of many Italian
authors, past and present, with audio samples (MP3) online.

http://www.gazzetta.it/
Gassetta dello Sport Online. The Italian daily for the sport-obsessed online, including RealAudio
clips. There are also some very useful vocabularies for individual sports - choose a sport, then
click on "vocabulario".

http://www.m2o.it/
ItaliaRadio. One of the radio stations of the Espresso group online, with live broadcasts in MP3,
news, and program schedules.

http://www.radioradio.it/
Radio Radio FM. The Italian talk radio online, in RealAudio.

http://radiopadova.com/
Radio Padova Online. Live RealAudio broadcasts from the FM station covering northern Italy.

http://www.RadioRadicale.it
Radio Radicale. News and comment on Italian politics and political parties, including in-depth
commentaries.

http://www.sherwood.it/
Radio Sherwood. A radical Left Italian radio station online with live RealAudio broadcast.

http://www.rainews24.rai.it/
RAI News 24. Up to the minute news stories, with video clips.

http://www.teche.rai.it/
Teche RAI. Archive audio and video clips illustrating the past half-century.
Standardized
  Speech &
  Language
Assessments
Bilingual Vocabulary Assessment (Mattes, 1995)- Measures everyday nouns as the student
names pictures. Labels for the nouns tested are listed in the manual in English, Spanish,
French, and Italian. A separate record form may be ordered for English and Vietnamese. The
child names pictures of articles of clothing, tools, motor vehicles, and other objects
commonly encountered in school, the supermarket, and at home




Bilingual Verbal Ability Test (BVAT) The BVAT is a test of verbal cognitive ability. The
subtests are administered in English first and then selected items are re-administered in the other
language, such as Italian.

Bilingual Aphasia test (Paradis)


Aachen Aphasia Test (Orgass & Poeck, 1969)
   Website
  Resources
Culture & General Information
    Politics & Government
          Dictionaries
     Language & Dialect
      Therapy Materials
Resources
                                              Websites

Cultural and General Information

http://www.italica.rai.it/eng/
An impressive website run by RAI International, which aims to be a "Virtual Campus of Italian
language and culture" on the Internet. Italica makes use of the vast documentary heritage, both
audio and video, in the RAI archives.

http://www.uibk.ac.at/tuttitalia/
"Il sito dedicato all'italianistica." A collection of annotated links to Italian resources, including
Language, Mass Media, and Society.

http://www.italicon.it/
 Italian Culture on the Net. The Icon Consortium is composed of 24 Italian universities, in
collaboration with the ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Education, with the purpose of
providing online courses and materials for foreigners and Italians resident abroad who are
interested in Italian language, culture and history. The site is a 'portal' to a wide range of
resources and services, and offers the opportunity to take a 3-year certificated degree course in
Italian Language and Culture for Foreigners.

Politics & Government

http://guide.supereva.it/news_e_media
Information on the main Italian political parties and their programs.

http://www.governo.it/
Governo italiano. The official website of the Italian government. Useful information about
ministeries and personnel, including biographies of ministers.

http://www.esteri.it/mae/it
Ministero degli Affari Esteri in Italia. The official site of the Italian Foreign Ministry, with
current and past official documents ( press releases, policy statements) online, and information
on the Ministry and its activities.


Dictionaries

http://www.garzantilinguistica.it/
Garzanti Linguistica. An online Italian-language dictionary. Type in a term to get a full
dictionary definition, including use of the term in idioms and expressions, and hyperlinks to
related terms. There's also an Italian-English dictionary on the site, which includes audio files in
MP3 format.
http://www.traduzioni-inglese.it/dictionary-glossary.html
Italian-English Dictionaries. Links to online dictionaries of use to Italian-English translation -
monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual. Includes some very useful and hard-to-find
dictionaries.

http://italian.engagedthinking.com/
Online Italian-English dictionary. The site also has resources for learners, plus links to a blog
and word of the day.

http://www2.units.it/nirital/texel/coni/conihome.htm
A useful Italian verb conjugator hosted at the University of Trieste. Enter any verb for
conjugation in any tense in active, passive, or reflexive forms.

Language and Dialects
http://www.gropfurlan.org/
Al Grop Furlan. Information and links on the Friulian language/dialect, including an online
forum.

http://www.locuta.com/classroom.html
The Italian Electronic Classroom. A basic, but very useful, tutorials and exercises on "difficult"
aspects of Italian language, such as idiomatic expressions, pronunciation, prepositions, and
pronouns.

Therapy materials

http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/
La Biblioteca Telematica. A large collection of texts, including non-Italian literature translated
into Italian, sorted alphabetically by author. Can be used with clients to read Italian literature.

http://www.ilnarratore.com/
Il Narratore. A cultural non-profit organization which aims to provide spoken narrations of
literary works from all over the world. Currently the site has written works of many Italian
authors, past and present, with audio samples (MP3) online. Could be used for auditory
comprehension. Site is in both Italian and English.

http://www.corriere.it/
Corriere della Sera. The online version of the Italian newspaper, including all the sections and
supplements in the printed editions. Could be used with clients to read Italian news.

http://www.gazzetta.it/
Gassetta dello Sport Online. The Italian daily for the sport-obsessed online, including RealAudio
clips. There are also some very useful vocabularies for individual sports - choose a sport, then
click on "vocabulario".

http://www.repubblica.it/
La Repubblica. The Italian daily newspaper online, which seems to feature all the stories that
appear in the paper version, and has complete back issues to the beginning of the month and a
search engine.

http://www.quia.com/shared/italian/
Includes different online quizzes and lists covering themed Italian vocabulary ranging from
weather to sports.

http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster2/sptherapy.html
Massive thematic litss of websites which provide comprehensive therapy materials. Includes
over 30 websites targeting English as a Second Language learners.

www.master-comm.con
Master Communications: World Language Catalog. Children and Adult books in more than 50
languages including Italian. Also includes: DVD‘s, CD‘s, flashcards and posters.
Research
 articles
        Language
         Aphasia
Articulation & Phonology
  Hearing Impairment
 Traumatic Brain Injury
Collection of the Department of Linguistics (Franco Angeli, Milan):

Language Materials

1. Maria-Elisabeth Conte, Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat (eds.), Dimensions of
linguistics. 1990.

2. Giuliano Bernini, Anna Giacalone Ramat (Eds.), temporality The acquisition of second
languages. 1990.

3. Alessio Petralli, The Italian in a corner. The words of Italian regional perspective in
sociolinguistics Ticino. 1990.

4. Emanuele Banfi, linguistic history of Southeast Europe. Romania's Balkan crisis between high
and late Middle Ages. 1991.

5. Federica Venier, The modalization assertive. Modal verbs, adverbs and parenthetical. 1991.

6. Mark Mazzoleni - Maria Pavesi (ed.), Italian second language. Models and strategies for
teaching. 1991.

7. Carlo Serra Bornet (ed.), Texts and machines. A search on the manuals instructions. 1992.

8. Joan Alfonzetti, bilingual speech. Italian and dialect in Catania. 1992.

9. Stephen Vassar, Formal Syntax and dialectology. Clitics pronouns in Lugano. 1993.

10. Maria Pavesi, word formation. The conversion to English L2. 1994.

11. Fici Francesca Giusti, The passive in Slavic languages. Types and semantics. 1994.

12. Stephan Schmid, The Italian in Spanish. Interlingue of German immigrants in
Switzerland. 1994.

13. Giuliano Bernini - Maria Pavesi (ed.), Foreign Languages and universities. Expectations and
educational organization. 1994.

14. Marina Chini, style and grammar acquisition. Aspects of nominal morphology in L2
Italian. 1995.

15. Gabriele Bersani Berselli, nominal reference and interpretation. Referrals text between
semantics and pragmatics. 1995.

16. Pierluigi Cuzzolin (ed.), Studies in the Greek. 1995.
17. Silvia Luraghi, case studies and prepositions in ancient greek. 1996.

18. Stefania Giannini, metalinguistic routes. Julian of Toledo and the theory of grammar. 1996.

19. Barbara Turchetta, Language and diversity. Multilingualism and target languages in West
Africa. 1996.

20. Frederick Vicar, analytical verbs in Friulian. 1997.

21. Emanuele Banfi (ed.), Studies in the Greek. II. 1997.

22. Rita Franceschini, reflect interaction. An introduction to meta-communication and
conversational analysis.1997.

23. Marina Crespi Günther, complex sentences in German L2. Paths of learning the syntax of
subordination. 1998.

24. Giuliana Fiorentino, relatively weak. Syntax, usage, story in Italian. 1999.

25. Vedovelli Massimo (ed.), sociolinguistic surveys in schools and in Italian society
evolving. 1999.

26. Anderson, Anna Ciliberti (Eds.), The forms of scholarly communication. 1999.

27. Elisa Rome, from where it is and where it goes morphology. Synthetic forms and analytical
forms of the verb in Irish History. 1999.

28. Sonia Cristofaro, Ignatius Putzu (ed.), Languages in the Mediterranean area. The project
Medtyp: linguistic study of the Mediterranean. 2000.

29. Cecilia Andorno, specialisms include connection and focus. The view of the varieties of
learning. 2000.

30. Stefania Scaglione Attrition - Changes in sociolinguistic Lucchese of San Francisco. 2000.

31. Maximum Vedovelli Stefania Massara and Anna Giacalone Ramat (eds.), Languages and
Cultures in contact - Italian as L2 for Arabic speakers. 2001.

32. Michele Prandi, Paolo Ramat (eds.), Semiotics and linguistics. To commemorate Maria
Elisabeth Conte. 2001.

33. Nicola Grandi morphologies in touch. The development evaluation in Mediterranean
languages. 2002.

34. Sandro Caruana, media and language input. The acquisition of Italian L2 in Malta. 2003.
35. Lidia Costamagna, Stefania Giannini (eds.), The interlanguage phonology. Principles and
methods of analysis.2003.

36. Livio Gaeta When verbs appear as names. An essay of Natural Morphology. 2002.

37. Emanuele Banfi (ed.), Italiano/L2 Chinese. Acquisitional paths. 2003.

38. Luisa Amenta, aspectual periphrasis in greek and Latin. Origins and
grammaticalization. 2003.

39. Eva-Maria Thuene, Simona Leonardi (eds.), Call in several languages. Sequencing, routines
and rituals in telephone service, emergency and hardship. 2003.

40. Andrea Sans, Degrees of event elaboration. Passive Constructions in English and
Spanish. 2003.

41. Anna Giacalone Ramat, Eddo Rigotti, Andrea Rocci (eds.), Linguistics and new
professions. 2003.

42. Emilia Calaresu, exact words. 2004.

43. Carla Bagna, competence quasi-bilingue/quasi-nativa. Prepositions in Italian L2. 2004.

44. Chiara Celata, acquisition and change of phonological categories. The affricates in
Italian. 2004.

45. Marina Chini (ed.), Multilingualism and immigration in Italy. Sociolinguistic survey in Pavia
and Turin. 2004.

46. Andrea Trovesi, The genesis of definite articles. Mode of expression of definiteness in Czech,
Serbian and Slovenian-Lausitz. 2004.

47. Francesca Santulli, words of power, the power of words. Rhetoric and political
discourse. 2004.

48. Nicola Grandi (eds.), Morphology and its neighborhoods. Studies of linguistic typology and
acquisitional. 2005.

49. Alessandro Vietti, as immigrants change the itai. The Peruvian varieties of Italian
ethnicity. 2005.

50. Annalisa Baicchi, Christian Broccias Andrea Sansa (edited by), Modelling thought and
Constructing Meaning.Cognitive models in interaction. 2005.

51. Federica Da Milano, The spatial deixis in the languages of Europe. 2005.
52. Alessandro Mengozzi (ed.), Afro-Asian Studies. Eleventh meeting of the Italian language
camitosemitica. 2005.

53. Romagno Sunday, The Homeric perfect. Diathesis ATIONALITY and thematic roles. 2005.

54. Maria Napoli, Aspect and actionality in Homeric Greek. A contrastive analysis. 2006.

55. Pierluigi Cuzzolin, Maria Napoli (eds.), Phonology and lexical type in the history of the
Greek language. 2006.

56. Anna Ciliberti (Eds.), The interactional construction of identities. 2007.

57. Carlotta Viti Strategies of subordination in Vedic. 2007.

58. Cristina Mariotti Interaction Strategies in English-medium instruction. 2007.

59. Andrea Sansa (Ed.), Language Resources and linguistic theory. 2007.

60th. Anna Ciliberti (Eds.), The interactional construction of identity. Linguistic repertoires and
discursive practices of Italians in Australia. 2007.

61. Mary Rose Capozzi, the advertising. 2008.

62. Lidia Costamagna, Stefania Scaglione (ed.), Italian. Acquisition and loss. 2008.

63. Arcodia Francis George, the lexical derivation in Mandarin. 2008.

64. Fabio Montermini, The left side of the morphology. 2009.

65. Fabiana Rosi Learning Aspect in Italian L2. 2009.

66. Marina Chini (ed.), Topic, information structure and language acquisition. 2010.

67. Ignatius Putzu Giulio Paulis, Gian Franco Nieddu Cuzzolin Pierluigi (ed.), The morphology
of the greek between typology and diachrony. 2010.

35. Giacalone Ramat, Anna - Kemeny, Tomaso (ed.), Languages and literary critics
metalanguages (Proceedings of seminar studies). Florence, New Italy, 1984.

44. Molinelli, Piera, phenomena of denial from Latin to Italian. Florence, New Italy, 1988.

46. Conte, Maria-Elisabeth, Terms of consistency. Searches for text linguistics. Florence, New
Italy, 1988.

59. Mazzoleni, Marco Constructs granted and adversative constructions in some languages of
Europe. Florence, New Italy, 1990.
70. Rich, David, deictic verbs of motion in Europe: a research interlingual. Florence, New Italy,
1993.

72. Cuzzolin, Pierluigi, the origin of the construction dicere quod: syntactic and semantic
aspects. Florence, New Italy, 1994.

81. Cristofaro, Sonia, syntactic and semantic aspects of complement clauses in ancient
greek. Florence, New Italy, 1996.

95. Putzu, Ignatius, Quantification total / universal determinacy in Mediterranean languages,
Pisa, Edizioni ETS, 2001.

104. Jezek, Elizabeth, classes of verbs between semantics and syntax, Pisa, Edizioni ETS, 2003.

109. Puddu, Nicoletta, Reflexive and intensifiers: greek, Latin and other Indo-European
languages, Pisa, Edizioni ETS, 2005.




Aphasia
Integration of lexical and sublexical processing in the spelling of regular words: a multiple
single-case study in Italian dysgraphic patients.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract)
By Laiacona M, Capitani E, Zonca G, Scola I, Saletta P, Luzzatti C, Cortex; A Journal Devoted
To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior [Cortex], ISSN: 0010-9452, 2009 Jul-Aug;
Vol. 45 (7), pp. 804-15; PMID: 19103445

Parallel recovery in a bilingual aphasic: a neurolinguistic and fMRI study.Full Text
Available(eng; includes abstract) By Marangolo P, Rizzi C, Peran P, Piras F, Sabatini U,
Neuropsychology [Neuropsychology], ISSN: 0894-4105, 2009 May; Vol. 23 (3), pp. 405-9;
PMID: 1941345

[A comparison study between two pain assessment scales for hospitalized and cognitively
impaired patients with advanced dementia]Citation Only AvailableConfronto fra due scale di
valutazione del dolore in pazienti ospedalizzati affetti da grave demenza e non verbalizzanti. (ita;
includes abstract) By Storti M, Dal Santo P, Zanolin ME, Professioni Infermieristiche [Prof
Inferm], ISSN: 0033-0205, 2008 Oct-Dec; Vol. 61 (4), pp. 210-5; PMID: 19250617

The many places of frequency: evidence for a novel locus of the lexical frequency effect in word
production.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Knobel M, Finkbeiner M, Caramazza
A, Cognitive Neuropsychology [Cogn Neuropsychol], ISSN: 1464-0627, 2008 Mar; Vol. 25 (2),
pp. 256-86; PMID: 18568814

A dedicated neural mechanism for vowel selection: a case of relative vowel deficit sparing the
number lexicon.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Semenza C, Bencini GM,
Bertella L, Mori I, Pignatti R, Ceriani F, Cherrick D, Caldognetto EM, Neuropsychologia
[Neuropsychologia], ISSN: 0028-3932, 2007 Jan 28; Vol. 45 (2), pp. 425-30; PMID: 16997332

Antonio Berti and the early history of aphasia in Italy.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract)
By Zago S, Randazzo C, Neurological Sciences: Official Journal Of The Italian Neurological
Society And Of TheItalian Society Of Clinical Neurophysiology [Neurol Sci], ISSN: 1590-
1874, 2006 Dec; Vol. 27 (6), pp. 449-52; PMID: 17205235

Articulation & Phonology

Holm, A. and Dodd, B. (1999) Differential diagnosis of phonological disorder in two bilingual
children acquiring Italian and English. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 13:2 113-129

Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.Full
Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Palladino P, Ferrari M, Memory (Hove, England)
[Memory], ISSN: 1464-0686, 2008; Vol. 16 (6), pp. 604-25; PMID: 18569688

Non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment: a deficit in phonological
working memory or in long-term verbal knowledge?Citation Only Available(eng; includes
abstract) By Casalini C, Brizzolara D, Chilosi A, Cipriani P, Marcolini S, Pecini C, Roncoli S,
Burani C, Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
[Cortex], ISSN: 0010-9452, 2007 Aug; Vol. 43 (6), pp. 769-76; PMID: 17710828

Naming speed and visual search deficits in readers with disabilities: evidence from an
orthographically regular language (Italian).Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Di
Filippo G, Brizzolara D, Chilosi A, De Luca M, Judica A, Pecini C, Spinelli D, Zoccolotti P,
Developmental Neuropsychology [Dev Neuropsychol], ISSN: 8756-5641, 2006; Vol. 30 (3), pp.
885-904; PMID: 17083298

On vowel height and consonantal voicing effects: data from Italian.Citation Only Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Esposito A, Phonetica [Phonetica], ISSN: 0031-8388, 2002 Oct-Dec; Vol.
59 (4), pp. 197-231; PMID: 12486313

Temporal and spatial aspects of lingual coarticulation in /kl/ sequences: a cross-linguistic
investigation.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Gibbon F, Hardcastle W, Nicolaidis
K, Language And Speech [Lang Speech], ISSN: 0023-8309, 1993 Apr-Sep; Vol. 36 ( Pt 2-3), pp.
261-77; PMID: 759875

Children
Clinical markers for specific language impairment in Italian: The contribution of clitics and non-
word repetition.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bortolini U, Arfé B, Caselli CM,
Degasperi L, Deevy P, Leonard LB, International Journal Of Language & Communication
Disorders / Royal College Of Speech & Language Therapists [Int J Lang Commun Disord],
ISSN: 1368-2822, 2006 Nov-Dec; Vol. 41 (6), pp. 695-712; PMID: 17079223
Temperamental profiles and linguistic development: differences in the quality of linguistic
production in relation to temperament in children of 28 months.Citation Only Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Usai MC, Garello V, Viterbori P, Infant Behavior & Development [Infant
Behav Dev], ISSN: 1934-8800, 2009 Jun; Vol. 32 (3), pp. 322-30; PMID: 19450881

Language and cognition in a bilingual child after traumatic brain injury in infancy: long-term
plasticity and vulnerability.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Tavano A, Galbiati S,
Recla M, Formica F, Giordano F, Genitori L, Strazzer S, Brain Injury: [BI] [Brain Inj], ISSN:
1362-301X, 2009 Feb; Vol. 23 (2), pp. 167-71; PMID: 19191096

Neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.Full
Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Aragón AS, Coriale G, Fiorentino D, Kalberg WO,
Buckley D, Gossage JP, Ceccanti M, Mitchell ER, May PA, Alcoholism, Clinical And
Experimental Research [Alcohol Clin Exp Res], ISSN: 1530-0277, 2008 Nov; Vol. 32 (11), pp.
1909-19; PMID: 18715277

Assessment of linguistic abilities in Italian children with specific language impairment.Citation
Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Marini A, Tavano A, Fabbro F, Neuropsychologia
[Neuropsychologia], ISSN: 0028-3932, 2008 Sep; Vol. 46 (11), pp. 2816-23; PMID: 18579167

Babbling and first words in children with slow expressive development.Full Text Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Fasolo M, Majorano M, D'Odorico L, Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
[Clin Linguist Phon], ISSN: 0269-9206, 2008 Feb; Vol. 22 (2), pp. 83-94; PMID: 17896213

Language in Italian children with Down syndrome and with specific language impairment.Full
Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Caselli MC, Monaco L, Trasciani M, Vicari S,
Neuropsychology [Neuropsychology], ISSN: 0894-4105, 2008 Jan; Vol. 22 (1), pp. 27-35;
PMID: 18211153

Assertive and responsive conversational skills of Italian-speaking late talkers.Full Text
Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bonifacio S, Girolametto L, Bulligan M, Callegari M,
Vignola S, Zocconi E, International Journal Of Language & Communication Disorders / Royal
College Of Speech & Language Therapists [Int J Lang Commun Disord], ISSN: 1368-2822,
2007 Sep-Oct; Vol. 42 (5), pp. 607-23; PMID: 17729148
Non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment: a deficit in phonological
working memory or in long-term verbal knowledge?Citation Only Available(eng; includes
abstract) By Casalini C, Brizzolara D, Chilosi A, Cipriani P, Marcolini S, Pecini C, Roncoli S,
Burani C, Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
[Cortex], ISSN: 0010-9452, 2007 Aug; Vol. 43 (6), pp. 769-76; PMID:

Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning
difficulties?Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Ferrari M, Palladino P, Journal Of
Learning Disabilities [J Learn Disabil], ISSN: 0022-2194, 2007 May-Jun; Vol. 40 (3), pp. 256-
69; PMID: 17518217
Sentence repetition as a measure of early grammatical development in Italian.Full Text
Available(eng; includes abstract) By Devescovi A, Caselli MC, International Journal
Of Language & Communication Disorders / Royal College Of Speech & Language Therapists
[Int J Lang Commun Disord], ISSN: 1368-2822, 2007 Mar-Apr; Vol. 42 (2), pp. 187-208;
PMID: 17365093
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Clinical markers for specific language impairment in Italian: The contribution of clitics and non-
word repetition.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bortolini U, Arfé B, Caselli CM,
Degasperi L, Deevy P, Leonard LB, International Journal Of Language &
Communication Disorders / Royal College Of Speech & Language Therapists [Int J Lang
Commun Disord], ISSN: 1368-2822, 2006 Nov-Dec; Vol. 41 (6), pp. 695-712; PMID: 17079223

Hearing Impairment
Early hearing detection and intervention in children with prelingual deafness, effects on language
development.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bubbico L, Di Castelbianco FB,
Tangucci M, Salvinelli F, Minerva Pediatrica [Minerva Pediatr], ISSN: 0026-4946, 2007 Aug;
Vol. 59 (4), pp. 307-13; PMID: 17947837

Cost analysis of an Italian neonatal hearing screening programme.Citation Only Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Mezzano P, Serra G, Calevo MG, STERN Group, The Journal Of
Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal Of The European Association Of
Perinatal Medicine, The Federation Of Asia And Oceania Perinatal Societies, The International
Society Of Perinatal Obstetricians [J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med], ISSN: 1476-4954, 2009 Sep;
Vol. 22 (9), pp. 806-11; PMID: 19526434
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Age-related hearing loss in four Italian genetic isolates: an epidemiological study.Citation Only
Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bedin E, Franzè A, Zadro C, Persico MG, Ciullo M,
Hladnik U, Dolcetta D, Grasso DL, Riccardi P, Nutile T, Andrighetto G, D'Adamo P, Gasparini
P, Marciano E, International Journal Of Audiology [Int J Audiol], ISSN: 1708-8186, 2009; Vol.
48 (7), pp. 465-72; PMID: 19925333
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Ligurian experience on neonatal hearing screening: clinical and epidemiological aspects.Full
Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Calevo MG, Mezzano P, Zullino E, Padovani P, Serra
G, STERN Group, Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992) [Acta Paediatr], ISSN: 0803-5253,
2007 Nov; Vol. 96 (11), pp. 1592-9; PMID: 17937684
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Early hearing detection and intervention in children with prelingual deafness, effects on language
development.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Bubbico L, Di Castelbianco FB,
Tangucci M, Salvinelli F, Minerva Pediatrica [Minerva Pediatr], ISSN: 0026-4946, 2007 Aug;
Vol. 59 (4), pp. 307-13; PMID: 17947837
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text
Measuring the psychosocial consequences of hearing loss in a working adult population: focus
on validity and reliability of the Italian translation of the hearing handicap inventory.Citation
Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Monzani D, Genovese E, Palma S, Rovatti V,
Borgonzoni M, Martini A, Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica: Organo Ufficiale Della Società
Italiana Di Otorinolaringologia E Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale [Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital], ISSN:
0392-100X, 2007 Aug; Vol. 27 (4), pp. 186-91; PMID: 17957849
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

[Extended high frequency audiometry in the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss]Citation
Only AvailableUso delle alte frequenze nella prevenzione precoce della ipoacusia da
rumore. (ita; includes abstract) By Somma G, Coppeta L, Magrini A, Parrella M, Cappelletti
MC, Gardi S, Messina M, Bergamaschi A, Italcementi Group Bergamo, Giornale Italiano Di
Medicina Del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia [G Ital Med Lav Ergon], ISSN: 1592-7830, 2007 Jul-Sep;
Vol. 29 (3 Suppl), pp. 258-60; PMID: 18409674
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Neonatal hearing screening model: an Italian regional experience.Full Text Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Calevo MG, Mezzano P, Zullino E, Padovani P, Scopesi F, Serra G, Stern
Group, The Journal Of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal Of The
European Association Of Perinatal Medicine, The Federation Of Asia And Oceania Perinatal
Societies, The International Society Of Perinatal Obstetricians [J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med],
ISSN: 1476-7058, 2007 Jun; Vol. 20 (6), pp. 441-8; PMID: 17674253
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

[Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness]Citation Only AvailableCosti sociali della sordità pre-
linguale. (ita; includes abstract) By Bubbico L, Bartolucci MA, Broglio D, Boner A, Annali Di
Igiene: Medicina Preventiva E Di Comunità [Ann Ig], ISSN: 1120-9135, 2007 Mar-Apr; Vol. 19
(2), pp. 143-52; PMID: 17547219
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text

Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By
Bubbico L, Rosano A, Spagnolo A, Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica: Organo Ufficiale Della
Società Italiana Di Otorinolaringologia E Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale [Acta Otorhinolaryngol
Ital], ISSN: 0392-100X, 2007 Feb; Vol. 27 (1), pp. 17-21; PMID: 17601206
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text


Traumatic Brain Injury
Developing ICF core set for subjects with traumatic brain injury: an Italian clinical
perspective.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Aiachini B, Pisoni C, Cieza A,
Cazzulani B, Giustini A, Pistarini C, European Journal Of Physical And Rehabilitation Medicine
[Eur J Phys Rehabil Med], ISSN: 1973-9095, 2010 Mar; Vol. 46 (1), pp. 27-36; PMID:
20332723
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text
Language and cognition in a bilingual child after traumatic brain injury in infancy: long-term
plasticity and vulnerability.Full Text Available(eng; includes abstract) By Tavano A, Galbiati S,
Recla M, Formica F, Giordano F, Genitori L, Strazzer S, Brain Injury: [BI] [Brain Inj], ISSN:
1362-301X, 2009 Feb; Vol. 23 (2), pp. 167-71; PMID: 19191096

Assessment of traumatic brain injury and anterior pituitary dysfunction in adolescents.Citation
Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By De Sanctis V, Sprocati M, Govoni M R, Raiola G,
Georgian Medical News [Georgian Med News], ISSN: 1512-0112, 2008 Mar; (156), pp. 18-23;
PMID: 18403805

Early rehabilitative treatment in patients with traumatic brain injuries: outcome at one-year
follow-up.Citation Only Available(eng; includes abstract) By Mammi P, Zaccaria B,
Franceschini M, Europa Medicophysica [Eura Medicophys], ISSN: 0014-2573, 2006 Mar; Vol.
42 (1), pp. 17-22; PMID: 16565681

Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.Citation Only Available(eng;
includes abstract) By Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus
J, Injury Prevention: Journal Of The International Society For Child And
Adolescent Injury Prevention [Inj Prev], ISSN: 1353-8047, 2003 Sep; Vol. 9 (3), pp. 257-60;
PMID: 12966016

[Neuro-link, an Italian traumatic coma data bank: what did we learn from the first 1000 patients
and how can we do better? ]Citation Only AvailableNeuro-Link, una traumatic coma data bank
italiana: cosa ci hanno insegnato i primi 1000 pazienti e come possiamo migliorare? (ita;
includes abstract) By Beretta I, Grandi E, Citerio G, Cormio M, Stocchetti N, Minerva
Anestesiologica [Minerva Anestesiol], ISSN: 0375-9393, 2003 Apr; Vol. 69 (4), pp. 223-6;
PMID: 12766711
Database: MEDLINE with Full Text
SLP’s with
  Italian
 Background in
    the U.S.



If the state of residency is not listed below, please go to ASHA‘s website which
includes an online directory. You may search by state for the most updated list of
audiologists and speech-language pathologists in the area who are competent in
Italian. You may specify a certain age group as well.
http://www.asha.org/proserv/
                                      TEXAS
Johnson, Love Fort Worth, TX
817-825-4001
Facility Type: Residential Health
Payment Type: Free,Reduced
Francese, Michael Weslaco, TX
956-373-5633
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office


                                        CALIFORNIA

Gennai-Rizzi, Janet Corte Maderara, CA
4159249295
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Paskay, Licia Culver City, CA
310-216-9496
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Reduced

DiPadova-Mosley, Nicolette Live Oak, CA
818-631-6454
Facility Type: School
Payment Type: Reduced

Drosdick, Danielle Playa Vista, CA
310-889-4360
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home

University of California, San Diego San Diego , CA
Stephen Goldman,619 543-6530
Facility Type: Hospitals
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card,Reduced

Gennai-Rizzi, Janet San Francisco, CA
(415) 751-5960
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Center for Learning & Achievement San Jose, CA
Paul Fujita, MD,(408) 793-4257
Facility Type: Health Agency
Payment Type: Medicaid,Health Insurance,Reduced

                                       ILLINOIS
Terrero, Irene Gurnee, IL
847-867-3988
Facility Type: Speech/language clinic
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Free,Reduced
                                         MICHIGAN
Total Speech & Language Svcs Grosse Point, MI
313-343-9930
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Total Speech and Language Services, L.L.C. Grosse Pointe Woods, MI
Rosa Rubino-Frye,313-529-1823
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Total Speech & Language Services St. Clair Shores, MI
Rosa Rubino-Frye & Dana Deimel,586-774-2727
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic
Payment Type: Medicaid,Health Insurance,Reduced


                                        NEBRASKA
Children's Hospital Omaha, NE
Rhonda Ervin,(402) 955-3980
Facility Type: Outpatient Rehab Cntr
Payment Type: Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card

                                    NORTH CAROLINA
Monte, Karen Waynesville, NC
828-734-2448
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home
                                      NEW JERSEY
Hackensack University Medical Hackensack, NJ
Darlyne Kelleher,(201) 996-3830
Facility Type: Outpatient Rehab Cntr
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card

Lobaina, Elizabeth Kendall Park, NJ
732 821-1266
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Reduced

Rodrigues, Angela Cultrara Livingston, NJ
9738201578
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Reduced

Speech Connections, Inc Morris Plains, NJ
Lauren Jacobson,973-452-1569
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Credit Card

The Regional Craniofacial Center Paterson, NJ
Dr. William Roche,973-754-2924
Facility Type: Hospitals
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card,Reduced

Wall Child Diagnostic Center Wall, NJ
732-280-6661
Facility Type: Private Physician's Office

Milestones in Speech & Language West Caldwell, NJ
Ms.Lenzo, MA, MS, CCC-SLP,973-808-1813
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office

Farro, Anna West Long Branch, NJ
732-822-5140
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic
Payment Type: Health Insurance


                                            NEW YORK
Ryan, Joan Bronx, NY
1-718-671-2955
Facility Type: Rehab Agency
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance
Marie Lautato MS CCC-SLP, PC Brooklyn, NY
917-559-7005
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Credit Card

KIDZ THERAPY SERVICES, LLC Garden City, NY
Gayle Kligman,516-747-9030
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic

Sullivan, Carol Garden City, NY
(516) 294-0253
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office

Bilinguals, Inc. Child and Parent Services Hartsdale, NY
Kelly Harned,914-328-2868
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home

Diversified Services, LLC Kenmore, NY
Dr. Salvatore Gruttadauria, Au.D.,(716) 871-9883
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card

Krajacic, Rosalia Lancaster, NY
(716) 553-3649
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card

Como, Cara Lindenhurst, NY
631-226-2144
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home

Lautato, Marie Long Beach, NY
917-559-7005
Facility Type: Speech/Hearing Cntr or clinic
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Credit Card

North Shore Kids Talk Manhasset, NY
tina ciaccio,5168502133
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office

North Shore Speech- Language Associates Manhasset Hills, NY
Paula Modugno Okin, MA, CCC-SLP,(516) 627-6391
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office

Multilingual Developmental Agency, Inc Merrick, NY
Lilya Popovetsky,516-730-5001
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home

Bertaccini, Ruona New York, NY
212-678-6395
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Graham, Michelle New York, NY
212-414-0553
Facility Type: Hospitals

New York Speech Improvement Serv New York, NY
Sam Chwat, M.s., Ccc-slp,(212) 242-8435
Facility Type: SLP or AUD Office
Payment Type: Health Insurance,Credit Card

Weinig, Mary Jo New York, NY
212 223-0231
Facility Type: Local Sp-Lang-Hrng Org
Payment Type: Medicare,Free

The Feeding and Swallowing Center Paterson, NY
973-754-4311
Facility Type: Outpatient Rehab Cntr
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card,Free,Reduced

Healey, Nicole Rego Park, NY
718 - 896 - 5055
Facility Type: Outpatient Rehab Cntr
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance

Cohen, Dianne Suffern, NY
845-362-7228
Facility Type: No primary employment facility
Payment Type: Health Insurance

Seton Health Speech Pathology Troy, NY
Frank Isele,518 268-6195
Facility Type: General Medical Hospital
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card

Manchisi-Talluto, Angela Westbury, NY
(516)385-8324
Facility Type: Home Health Agency/Client's Home

                                           UTAH

Utah Valley Regional Medical Center Provo, UT
W. Kelly Dick, Ph.D.,(801) 357-7448
Facility Type: General Medical Hospital
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Credit Card,Free,Reduced

L.D.S. Hospital Speech-Language Pathology Salt Lake City, UT
Joyce Goates-maughan, Ph.d.,(801) 408-5408
Facility Type: General Medical Hospital
Payment Type: Medicare,Medicaid,Health Insurance,Reduced
   Speech
  Language
Pathologists in
    Italy
http://www.stutter.it/
CILD CENTRO ITALIANO LOGOTERAPIA DINAMICA s.n.c.
DYNAMIC LOGOTHERAPY ITALIAN CENTER
Secretariat and study: via Marcantonio Colonna, 41 - 20129 MILAN (Italy)
Center: via G. Modena 2/A - 20146 MILAN (Italy)

Societa Italiana di Foniatria e Logopedia (SIFEL)
c/o Prof. F. Piragina
Clinica ORL
Universita di Pisa
I-Pisa, Italy

Federazione Logopedisti Italiani
Via S. Trentin, 112 – 30171 Mestre Venezia
Phone / Fax: 39/ 049 8647936
E-mail: logofli@tin.it

Italian Federation Speech Therapists
Via S. Trentin 112
Mestre, Italy, 30171
049 8647936
http://www.fli.it/

http://www.slpjob.com/lougne/forum/lofiversion/index.php/t220.html

http://lettere.unipv.it/diplinguistica/collane.php

				
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