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Post-Graduate (MPhil) Syllabus M.Phil Courses DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET) Chittagong-4349, BANGLADESH MPhil Courses: 1. Solid State Physics 2. Medical Physics 3. Environmental Physics 1. SOLID STATE PHYSICS: I) Phy-6101 Quantum Mechanics II) Phy-6102 Advanced Quantum Mechanics III) Phy-6103 Physics of Deformed Solids IV) Phy-6104 X-ray Crystallography V) Phy-6105 Low Temperature Physics and Vacuum Techniques VI) Phy-6106 Physics of Semiconductors and Superconductors VII) Phy-6107 Solid State Physics VIII) Phy-6108 Polymer Physics IX) Phy-6109 Optical Crystallography X) Phy-6110 Magnetism-I XI) Phy-6111 Magnetism-II XII) Phy-6112 Thermodynamics of Solids XIII) Phy-6113 Experimental Techniques in Solid State Physics Phy-6101 Quantum Mechanics Credits: 3 Schrodinger wave equation: One dimensional problem, particle in a box, tunnelling through a potential barrier, linear harmonic oscillator, K-P model; Particle in a central potendial: Hydrogen atom; WKB approximation method; Perturbation theory for degenerate & non- degenerate cases: First and second order perturbation, applications-Zeeman effect & Stark effect; Time dependent perturbation theory; Variation method: Application to He atom & van der Waals interaction between two hydrogen atoms; Pauli spin materices; Dirac equation: System of identical particles; many electron system-Hatree & Hatree-Fock approximation. Phy-6102 Advanced Quantum Mechanics Credits: 3 Radiation Theory: Quantization of Schrodinger field, scattering in Born approximation, quantization of classical radiation field, Emission probability of photon, angular distribution of radiation, intensities of Lyman lines, Compton effect and Bremstrahlung. Path Integral: Approach to quantum mechanics, the principle of least action, quantum mechanical amplitude, path integrals, the path integral as function, the Schrodinger equation for a particle ina field of potential V(x), the Schrodinger equation for the keruel. Prerequisites: Phy-6101 Phy-6103 Physics of Deformed Solids Credits: 3 Theory of matter transport by defect mechanism: Random walk theory and correlation effects in metals and alloys for impurity and self-diffusion: Theory of ionic transport process, impurity defect association, long range interactions, dielectric loss due to defect dipoles, Internal friction, Radiation damage in metals and semiconductors, colour centres: mechanism of production by various methods, Optical and magnetic properties and models of different colour centre; Theoretical calculation of atomic displacement and energies in defect lattices and amorphous solids, stress-strain and dislocations; Elasticity theory of strees field around edge and screw dislocations, Dislocation interactions and reactions effects on mechanical properties. Phy-6104 X-ray Crystallography Credits: 3 X-ray: production and properties of X-rays, continuous and discrete X-ray spectra, Reciprocal lattice, structure factor and its application, X-ray diffraction from a crystal, X-ray techniques: Weissangerg and precession methods, identification of crystal structure from powder photograph and diffraction traces, Laue photograph for single crystal, geometrical and physical factors affecting X-ray intensities, analysis of amorphous solids and fibre textured crystal. Phy-6105 Low Temperature Physics and Vacuum Techniques Credits: 3 Production of low temperature; Thermodynamics of liquefaction; Joule-Thompson liquefiers; Cryogenic system design: Cryostat design, heat transfer, temperature control, adiabatic demagnetization; Different types of pumps: rotary, diffusion and ion pumps, pumping speeds, conductance & molecular flow; Vacuum gauges: Mclead gauge, thermal conducitivity ionization gauges; Cryogenic thermometry: gas & vapour pressure thermometers, resistance, semiconductor and diode capacitance thermometers, thermocouples, magnetic thermometry. Phy-6106 Physics of Semiconductors and Superconductors Credits: 3 Intrinsic, extrinsic, and degnerate semiconductors; Density of states in a magnetic field; Transport properties of semiconductors; thermo-electric effect, thermomagnetic effect, Piezo-electric resistance, high frequency conductivity; contact phenomena in semiconductors: metal-semiconductor contacts, p-n junction, etc. Optical and photoelectrical phenomena in semiconductors: light absorption by free charge, charge carriers, lattices, and electrons in a localized states, photoresistive effect, Dember effect, photovoltaic effect, Faraday effect, etc. Phenomena of superconductivity: Pippard?s non-local electrodynamics, thermodynamics of superconducting phase transition; Ginzburg-Landau theory; Type-I and type-II superconductors, Cooper pairs; BCS theory; Hubbard model, RVB theory, Ceramic superconductors: synthesis, composition, structures; Thermal and transport properties: Normal state transport properties, specific heat; role of phonon, interplay between magnetism and superconductivity: Possible mechanism other than electron-phonon interaction for superconductivity. Phy-6107 Solid State Physics Credits: 3 Lattice dynamics of one, two & three dimensional lattices, specific heat, elastic constants, phonon dispersion relations, localized modes; Dielectric and optical properties of insulators: a.c. conductivity dielectric constant, dielectric losses; Transport theory: Free electron theory of solids: density of states, Fermi sphere, Electrons in a periodic potential; Band theory of solids: Nearly free electron theory, tight binding approximation, Brillouin zones, effective mass of electrons and holes. Phy-6108 Polymer Physics Credits: 3 Introduction to macromolecular physics: The chemical structure of polymers, Internal rotations, Configurations, and Conformations, Flexibility of macromolecules, Morphology of polymers; Modern Concept of polymer structure: Physical methods of investigatiing polymer structure such as XRD, UV-VIS, IR, SEM, DTA/TGA, DSC, etc., the structure of crystalline polymers; The physical states of polymers: The rubbery state, Elasticity, etc.; The glassy state, Glass transition temperature, etc., Viscosity of polymers; Advanced polymeric materials: Plasma polymerization, Properties and application of plasma-polymerized organic thin films; Polymer blends and composites: Compounding and mixing of polymer, Their properties of application; Electrical properties of polymers: Basic theory of the dielectric properties of polymers, Dielectric properties of structure of cyrstalline and amorphous polymers. Phy-6109 Optical Crystallography Credits: 3 The morphology of crystals, the optical properties of crystals, the polarizing microscopy, general concept of indicatrix, isotropic and uni-axial indicatrix, orthoscopic and conscopic observation of interference effects, orthoscopic and conscopic examination of crystals. Optical examination of uni-axial and bi-axial crystals, determination of retardation and birefringence, extinction angles, absorption and pleochroism, determination of optical crystallographic properties. Phy-6110 Magnetism-I Credits: 3 Classification of magnetic materials, Quantum theory of paramagnetism, Pauli paramagnetism, Properties of magnetically ordered solids; Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, interpretation of exchange interaction in solids, ferromagnetic domains; Technical magnetization, intrinsic magnetization of alloys; Theory of antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic ordering; Ferrimagnetic oxides and compounds. Phy-6111 Magnetism-II Credits: 3 Magnetic anisotropy: pair model and one ion model of magnetic anisotropy, Phenomenology of magnetostriction, volume amgnetostricition and form effect; Law of approach of saturation, Structure of domain Wall, Technological applications of magnetic materials. Phy-6112 Thermodynamics of Solids Credits: 3 Properties at O.K, Gruneisen relation, Heat capacities of crystals, specific heat arising from disorder. Rate of approach of equality, Variation of compressibility with temperature, relation between thermal expansion and change of compressibility with pressure. Thermodynamics of phase transformation and chemical reactions. Thermodynamic properties of alloy system: Factors determining the crystal structure; The Hume-Rothery rule, the size of ions; Equilibrium between phases of variable composition, Free energy of binary systems; Thermodynamics of surface and interfaces, Thermodynamics of defects in solids. Phy-6113 Experimental Techniques in Solid State Physics Credits: 3 Measurement of D.C. conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency, Magnetization measurement methods (Faraday, VSM and SQUID) magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction measurements, magnetic domain observation, optical spectroscopy (UV-VIS, IR, etc.), Electron microscopy; Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Deposition and Growth of thin films by vacuum evaporation Production of low temperature. Single crystal growth and orientation. Magnetic and non-magnetic annealing; Electron spin resonance (ESR), Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 2. Medical Physics: I) Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics II) Phy-6202 Nuclear Reaction III) Phy-6203 Neutron Scattering IV) Phy-6204 Nuclear Model V) Phy-6205 Biophysics VI) Phy-6206 Physics of Radiology VII) Phy-6207 Health Physics VIII) Phy-6208 Radiation Biophysics IX) Phy-6209 Physics of Radiotherapy X) Phy-6210 Medical Physics XI) Phy-6211 Reactor Physics XII) Phy-6212 Radiation Protection Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics Credits: 3 Atomic structure, The nucleus, semi-empirical mass formula and binding energy; Radioactive decay, Theories of alpha-decay, beta-decay and gamma emission, Nuclear reaction, Fission and Fusion, Artificial radioactivity, Accelerators, Radiation detectors Phy-6202 Nuclear Reaction Credits: 3 Compound nucleus, Statistical theory, Breit-Wigner dispersion formula, Level density, Angular distribution, Energy spectra, Resonance, Giant-resonance, Isobaric-spin, Isobaric analogue states, Analogue resonance, Direct reaction, Inelastic scattering, Stripping and pick-up reaction, Butler?s theory, DWBA theory, Assignment of J-values of nuclear levels. Phy-6203 Neutron Scattering Credits: 3 Neutron sources, continuous and pulsed sources, monochromatization, collimation and moderation of neutrons, neutron detectors, scattering of neutrons and its advantages, elastic scattering of neutrons, magnetic scattering and determination of magnetic structure, inelastic scattering, thermal vibration of crystal lattices, lattice dynamics and phonons. Neutron polarization, polarized neutron applications, scattering by liquids and molecules, Van-Hovev correlation formalism, some experimental results of scattering by liquids and molecules, small angle neutron scattering and its application in the study of biological molecules and defects. Experimental techniques of scattering measurements, Tim-of-Flight method, crystal diffraction techniques, neutron diffractometer and triple-axis spectrometer, constant ?Q? method. Phy-6204 Nuclear Model Credits: 3 Shell mode, Infinite square well potential, Harmonic oscillator potential, Spin orbit potential, Single particle model, Independent particle model, L-S and j-j coupling, Transformation between L-S and j-j coupling, collective model, Liquid drop model, Models of even-even nuclei, Optical model, Kapur-Peierls dipersion formula. Phy-6205 Biophysics Credits: 3 The cell: Overview of the general appearance and some organcells in the cells, Animal cell and plant cell. Cell structure and anatomy: Prokaryote eukaryote cells, cell wall of plant cells, the cell membrane, the cell nucleus, Chromosomes: mitosis and meiosis, Mitocondria, Chloroplasts, Endoplasmic reticulum and ribisomes, The Golgi apparatus, Bacteria and viruses. Some biological important molecules: Functional groups; carbohydrates ( saccharides ), Lipids (fats), proteins, porphyrins; chlorophylls and hemoglobin, Nucleic acids. Molecular forces: Electronic distribution, Nature of chemical interaction, Ione-ione, Ione-dipole, Dipole-dipole and Van der waals interactions, Covalent bonds, Linear combination of atomic orbitals, Hudrogen bonds, bonds between H, C, N, and O atoms and molecules. Diffusion: Transport process and diffusion. Fick's law, Random walk process, One and three dimension flow. Transport process and electrochemical potential: Electrochemical potential, Fluxes and electrochemical potential, Water flux in and out of cell, Osmotic pressure, Water transport outside the capillary. Electrochemical potential of charge particle: Reaction kinetics, Equillibrium of chemical reaction, Nernt;s potential, Diffusion potential, Active transport and passive transport, Resting potential of cell and Goldmann's equation. Voltage across nerve membranes: Nerve impulses and voltage across nerve membranes, the resting potential of nerve cells and cable theory, The action potential, The voltage clamp technique, Molecular model of membrane conductivity, Transport information in the nervous system. DNA and Protein: DNA and the gene, the genetic code, RNA and the synthesis of proteins, Transformation of genetic information, and regulation and control, Cloning structure and function of proteins, The enzymes, Enzymes kinetics. Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis pigments, Chlorophylls, Light reaction and dark reaction. Phy-6206 Physics of Radiology Credits: 3 The production and properties of X-ray, diagnostic and therapy x-ray tubes, X-ray circuit with rectification, Electron interaction, characteristic radiation, Bremsstrahlung, Angular distribution of x-rays, Quality of x-rays, Beam restricting devices, The grid, Radiographic film, Radiographic quality, Factors affecting the image, Image modification, Image intensification, contrast media, Modulation transfer function, Exposure in diagnostic radiology, Fluoroscopy, computed tomography, Ultrasound, Magnetic resonance imaging. Phy-6207 Health Physics Credits: 3 Atomic and nuclear structure, Isotopes, Binding energy and nuclear stability, Radio-activity, Specific activity, Alpha rays, Beta rays, Gamma rays, Interaction of different radiations with matter, Radiation dosimetry, Absorbed dose, Exposure, Exposure measurements, Bragg- Gray principle, Kerma, Stopping-power ratio, Energy fluence and exposure, Internally deposited radioisotopes, Effective half-life, Does commitment, MIRD method, Measurement of absorbed does, Film badges, Pocket dosimeter, Fricke dosimeter, Calorimeteric method, Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Phy-6208 Radiation Biophysics Credits: 3 The nucleus, Ionizing radiations, Radiation doses, Interaction of radiation with matter, Cell structure, Radiation effects on independent cell systems, Oxygen effect, Hyperthermia, LET and RBE, Lethal, potentially lethal and sub-lethal radiation damage, Dose-rate effect, Acute effects of radiation, Somatic effects, Late effects, Non-specific life shortening and carcinogenesis, Genetic changes, Nominal standard dose (NSD), Time dose fractionation (TDF), Standquist curve. Phy-6209 Physics of Radiotherapy Credits: 3 Introduction, superficial and deep x-ray machines, teletherapy, linear acceerator, radiation fields within a patient, single isodose curve, multiple-field isodose curve patterns, percentage depth dose (PDD), back-scattering factor(BSF), electron therapy, tissue air ratio (TAR), tissue maximum ratio (TMR), treatment planning. Phy-6210 Medical Physics Credits: 3 Introduction, forces on and in the body, energy, work and power of the body, pressure, physics of the lungs and the breathing, physics of the cardiovascular system, electricity within the body, application of electricity and magnetism in medicine, physics of the ear and hearing, physics of eyes and vision, light in medicine, sound in medicine. Phy-6211 Reactor Physics Credits: 3 Interactions of neutrons with matter, cross-sections for neutron reactions, thermal neutron cross-sections, nuclear fission, energy release in fission, neutron multiplication, nuclear chain reaction, steady state reactor theory, criticality condition, homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor systeem, neutron moderation, neutron diffusion, control of nuclear reactions, coolant, types of nuclear reactors: power reactor, research reactor, fast reactor, breeder reactor, etc. reactor shielding. Phy-6212 Radiation Protection Credits: 3 Radiation protection guides, ICRP, IAEA, ILO, ICRU, NCRP?s recommendations, philosophy and objectives of radiation protection, radiation hazards, external and internal radiation, exposure from man made sources and nuclear installations, medical exposure, low-level exposure, maximum permissible dose, basic radiation safety criteria, basic safety standards, safety regulations in nuclear installations, radiation safety and legal aspects in transport of radioactive materials, radio-active waste disposal, radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, therapy and nuclear medicine. 3. Environmental Physics: I) Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics II) Phy-6211 Reactor Physics III) Phy-6301 Principles of Radiation Detection IV) Phy-6207 Health Physics V) Phy-6212 Radiation Protection VI) Phy-6302 Environmental Management VII) Phy-6303 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) IIX) Phy-6304 Aquatic Chemistry for Environmental Physics Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics Credits: 3 Atomic structure, The nucleus, semi-empirical mass formula and binding energy; Radioactive decay, Theories of alpha-decay, beta-decay and gamma emission, Nuclear reaction, Fission and Fusion, Artificial radioactivity, Accelerators, Radiation detectors Phy-6211 Reactor Physics Credits: 3 Interactions of neutrons with matter, cross-sections for neutron reactions, thermal neutron cross-sections, nuclear fission, energy release in fission, neutron multiplication, nuclear chain reaction, steady state reactor theory, criticality condition, homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor systeem, neutron moderation, neutron diffusion, control of nuclear reactions, coolant, types of nuclear reactors: power reactor, research reactor, fast reactor, breeder reactor, etc. reactor shielding. Phy-6301 Principles of Radiation Detection Credits: 3 A model detector: charge production, charge collection, plateau. Pulse and mode current. Spectrometry and energy resolution. Efficiency of detection and dead time. Gas detectors: ion chambers, proportional counter and GM-counter. Scintillation detectors: Organic materials; liquid scintillation, plastic scintillators. Inorganic materials: NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), ZnS, BGO. Semi-conductor detectors: Band structure, n and p type material. Ge detectors for gamma and X-rays. Si detectors for alpha, heavy ions. New materials CdTe and CdZnTe. Phy-6207 Health Physics Credits: 3 Atomic and nuclear structure, Isotopes, Binding energy and nuclear stability, Radio-activity, Specific activity, Alpha rays, Beta rays, Gamma rays, Interaction of different radiations with matter, Radiation dosimetry, Absorbed dose, Exposure, Exposure measurements, Bragg- Gray principle, Kerma, Stopping-power ratio, Energy fluence and exposure, Internally deposited radioisotopes, Effective half-life, Does commitment, MIRD method, Measurement of absorbed does, Film badges, Pocket dosimeter, Fricke dosimeter, Calorimeteric method, Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Phy-6212 Radiation Protection Credits: 3 Radiation protection guides, ICRP, IAEA, ILO, ICRU, NCRP?s recommendations, philosophy and objectives of radiation protection, radiation hazards, external and internal radiation, exposure from man made sources and nuclear installations, medical exposure, low-level exposure, maximum permissible dose, basic radiation safety criteria, basic safety standards, safety regulations in nuclear installations, radiation safety and legal aspects in transport of radioactive materials, radio-active waste disposal, radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, therapy and nuclear medicine. Phy-6302 Environmental Management Credits: 3 Environment and sustainable development; Global and regional approach to Environmental management, Environmental implications of sectoral development: Infrastructure, water resources, industry, agriculture, transport and communication, energy, health and population, mineral resources, tourism, land use and urbinazation; Environmental management at project level; Environmental resource management and conservation strategies; Environmental policy and legislation: Environmental quality standards (EQS): Economics of Environmental management. Phy-6303 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Credits: 3 Historical development; Definition, aims and objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Environmental issues related to development projects; Project screening, Initial Environmental Examination (IEE): Impact identification, prediction analysis and evaluation; EIA methodologies: Adhoc, Checklists, Matrices, Network, Simulation, Modelling Workshops (SMW), Environmental Evaluation System (EES), Overlays, Geographical Information System Guidelines; Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); Impact Mitigation Plan; Environmental Monitoring and post development audits; Organization of EIA: Scope, Work plan, Resource requirements and costs of EIA, TOR for EIA; EIA in developing countries; Case studies. Phy-6304 Aquatic Chemistry for Environmental Physics Credits: 3 Review of some fundamentals of Chemistry: Approaches to equilibrium problem solving: numerical solution, graphical solution, the 'tableau method'; Natural weak acids and bases, alkalinity and pH in natural waters, buffer capacity; dissolved carbonate equilibria (close system), dissolution of CO2 (open system); Solubility of solids, coexistence of phases in equilibrium; Metal ions and ligands in natural waters, aqueous complexes, ion association among major aquatic constituents, inorganic and organic complexation of trace elements; redox equlibria and electron activity, pe-pH diagrams, redox conditions in natural waters; Aquatic particles and coordinative properties of surfaces, adsorption of metals and ligands on aquatic particles, surface complexation models; Fate of organic compounds in natural Environment; volatilization sorption/partitioning, transformation reactions, structure-activity and property-activity relationships.
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