MPhil Syllabus

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```					Post-Graduate (MPhil) Syllabus
M.Phil Courses
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)

MPhil Courses:

1. Solid State Physics
2. Medical Physics
3. Environmental Physics

1. SOLID STATE PHYSICS:

I)       Phy-6101 Quantum Mechanics
II)      Phy-6102 Advanced Quantum Mechanics
III)     Phy-6103 Physics of Deformed Solids
IV)      Phy-6104 X-ray Crystallography
V)       Phy-6105 Low Temperature Physics and Vacuum Techniques
VI)      Phy-6106 Physics of Semiconductors and Superconductors
VII)     Phy-6107 Solid State Physics
VIII)    Phy-6108 Polymer Physics
IX)      Phy-6109 Optical Crystallography
X)       Phy-6110 Magnetism-I
XI)      Phy-6111 Magnetism-II
XII)     Phy-6112 Thermodynamics of Solids
XIII)    Phy-6113 Experimental Techniques in Solid State Physics

Phy-6101 Quantum Mechanics                              Credits: 3
Schrodinger wave equation: One dimensional problem, particle in a box, tunnelling through
a potential barrier, linear harmonic oscillator, K-P model; Particle in a central potendial:
Hydrogen atom; WKB approximation method; Perturbation theory for degenerate & non-
degenerate cases: First and second order perturbation, applications-Zeeman effect & Stark
effect; Time dependent perturbation theory; Variation method: Application to He atom & van
der Waals interaction between two hydrogen atoms; Pauli spin materices; Dirac equation:
System of identical particles; many electron system-Hatree & Hatree-Fock approximation.

Phy-6102 Advanced Quantum Mechanics                                             Credits: 3

Radiation Theory: Quantization of Schrodinger field, scattering in Born approximation, quantization
of classical radiation field, Emission probability of photon, angular distribution of radiation,
intensities of Lyman lines, Compton effect and Bremstrahlung.

Path Integral: Approach to quantum mechanics, the principle of least action, quantum mechanical
amplitude, path integrals, the path integral as function, the Schrodinger equation for a particle ina
field of potential V(x), the Schrodinger equation for the keruel.

Prerequisites: Phy-6101

Phy-6103 Physics of Deformed Solids                                             Credits: 3

Theory of matter transport by defect mechanism: Random walk theory and correlation
effects in metals and alloys for impurity and self-diffusion: Theory of ionic transport process,
impurity defect association, long range interactions, dielectric loss due to defect dipoles,
Internal friction, Radiation damage in metals and semiconductors, colour centres:
mechanism of production by various methods, Optical and magnetic properties and models
of different colour centre; Theoretical calculation of atomic displacement and energies in
defect lattices and amorphous solids, stress-strain and dislocations; Elasticity theory of
strees field around edge and screw dislocations, Dislocation interactions and reactions
effects on mechanical properties.

Phy-6104 X-ray Crystallography                                                  Credits: 3

X-ray: production and properties of X-rays, continuous and discrete X-ray spectra,
Reciprocal lattice, structure factor and its application, X-ray diffraction from a crystal, X-ray
techniques: Weissangerg and precession methods, identification of crystal structure from
powder photograph and diffraction traces, Laue photograph for single crystal, geometrical
and physical factors affecting X-ray intensities, analysis of amorphous solids and fibre
textured crystal.

Phy-6105 Low Temperature Physics and Vacuum Techniques                          Credits: 3
Production of low temperature; Thermodynamics of liquefaction; Joule-Thompson liquefiers;
Cryogenic system design: Cryostat design, heat transfer, temperature control, adiabatic
demagnetization; Different types of pumps: rotary, diffusion and ion pumps, pumping
speeds, conductance & molecular flow; Vacuum gauges: Mclead gauge, thermal
conducitivity ionization gauges; Cryogenic thermometry: gas & vapour pressure
thermometers, resistance, semiconductor and diode capacitance thermometers,
thermocouples, magnetic thermometry.

Phy-6106 Physics of Semiconductors and Superconductors                      Credits: 3

Intrinsic, extrinsic, and degnerate semiconductors; Density of states in a magnetic field;
Transport properties of semiconductors; thermo-electric effect, thermomagnetic effect,
Piezo-electric resistance, high frequency conductivity; contact phenomena in
semiconductors: metal-semiconductor contacts, p-n junction, etc. Optical and
photoelectrical phenomena in semiconductors: light absorption by free charge, charge
carriers, lattices, and electrons in a localized states, photoresistive effect, Dember effect,
photovoltaic effect, Faraday effect, etc.

Phenomena of superconductivity: Pippard?s non-local electrodynamics, thermodynamics of
superconducting phase transition; Ginzburg-Landau theory; Type-I and type-II
superconductors, Cooper pairs; BCS theory; Hubbard model, RVB theory, Ceramic
superconductors: synthesis, composition, structures; Thermal and transport properties:
Normal state transport properties, specific heat; role of phonon, interplay between
magnetism and superconductivity: Possible mechanism other than electron-phonon
interaction for superconductivity.

Phy-6107 Solid State Physics                                                Credits: 3

Lattice dynamics of one, two & three dimensional lattices, specific heat, elastic constants,
phonon dispersion relations, localized modes; Dielectric and optical properties of insulators:
a.c. conductivity dielectric constant, dielectric losses; Transport theory: Free electron theory
of solids: density of states, Fermi sphere, Electrons in a periodic potential; Band theory of
solids: Nearly free electron theory, tight binding approximation, Brillouin zones, effective
mass of electrons and holes.

Phy-6108 Polymer Physics                                                    Credits: 3

Introduction to macromolecular physics: The chemical structure of polymers, Internal
rotations, Configurations, and Conformations, Flexibility of macromolecules, Morphology of
polymers; Modern Concept of polymer structure: Physical methods of investigatiing polymer
structure such as XRD, UV-VIS, IR, SEM, DTA/TGA, DSC, etc., the structure of crystalline
polymers; The physical states of polymers: The rubbery state, Elasticity, etc.; The glassy
state, Glass transition temperature, etc., Viscosity of polymers; Advanced polymeric
materials: Plasma polymerization, Properties and application of plasma-polymerized organic
thin films; Polymer blends and composites: Compounding and mixing of polymer, Their
properties of application; Electrical properties of polymers: Basic theory of the dielectric
properties of polymers, Dielectric properties of structure of cyrstalline and amorphous
polymers.

Phy-6109 Optical Crystallography                                           Credits: 3

The morphology of crystals, the optical properties of crystals, the polarizing microscopy,
general concept of indicatrix, isotropic and uni-axial indicatrix, orthoscopic and conscopic
observation of interference effects, orthoscopic and conscopic examination of crystals.
Optical examination of uni-axial and bi-axial crystals, determination of retardation and
birefringence, extinction angles, absorption and pleochroism, determination of optical
crystallographic properties.

Phy-6110 Magnetism-I                                                       Credits: 3

Classification of magnetic materials, Quantum theory of paramagnetism, Pauli
paramagnetism, Properties of magnetically ordered solids; Weiss theory of ferromagnetism,
interpretation of exchange interaction in solids, ferromagnetic domains; Technical
magnetization, intrinsic magnetization of alloys; Theory of antiferromagnetic and
ferrimagnetic ordering; Ferrimagnetic oxides and compounds.

Phy-6111 Magnetism-II                                                      Credits: 3

Magnetic anisotropy: pair model and one ion model of magnetic anisotropy,
Phenomenology of magnetostriction, volume amgnetostricition and form effect; Law of
approach of saturation, Structure of domain Wall, Technological applications of magnetic
materials.

Phy-6112 Thermodynamics of Solids                                          Credits: 3

Properties at O.K, Gruneisen relation, Heat capacities of crystals, specific heat arising from
disorder. Rate of approach of equality, Variation of compressibility with temperature, relation
between thermal expansion and change of compressibility with pressure. Thermodynamics
of phase transformation and chemical reactions. Thermodynamic properties of alloy system:
Factors determining the crystal structure; The Hume-Rothery rule, the size of ions;
Equilibrium between phases of variable composition, Free energy of binary systems;
Thermodynamics of surface and interfaces, Thermodynamics of defects in solids.

Phy-6113 Experimental Techniques in Solid State Physics                         Credits: 3

Measurement of D.C. conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of
temperature and frequency, Magnetization measurement methods (Faraday, VSM and
SQUID) magnetic anisotropy and magnetostriction measurements, magnetic domain
observation, optical spectroscopy (UV-VIS, IR, etc.), Electron microscopy; Differential
thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Deposition and Growth of
thin films by vacuum evaporation Production of low temperature. Single crystal growth and
orientation. Magnetic and non-magnetic annealing; Electron spin resonance (ESR),
Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

2. Medical Physics:

I)      Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics
II)     Phy-6202 Nuclear Reaction
III)    Phy-6203 Neutron Scattering
IV)     Phy-6204 Nuclear Model
V)      Phy-6205 Biophysics
VI)     Phy-6206 Physics of Radiology
VII)    Phy-6207 Health Physics
VIII)   Phy-6208 Radiation Biophysics
IX)     Phy-6209 Physics of Radiotherapy
X)      Phy-6210 Medical Physics
XI)     Phy-6211 Reactor Physics
XII)    Phy-6212 Radiation Protection

Phy-6201 Nuclear Physics                                                Credits: 3

Atomic structure, The nucleus, semi-empirical mass formula and binding energy;
Radioactive decay, Theories of alpha-decay, beta-decay and gamma emission, Nuclear
reaction, Fission and Fusion, Artificial radioactivity, Accelerators, Radiation detectors

Phy-6202 Nuclear Reaction                                                Credits: 3

Compound nucleus, Statistical theory, Breit-Wigner dispersion formula, Level density,
Angular distribution, Energy spectra, Resonance, Giant-resonance, Isobaric-spin, Isobaric
analogue states, Analogue resonance, Direct reaction, Inelastic scattering, Stripping and
pick-up reaction, Butler?s theory, DWBA theory, Assignment of J-values of nuclear levels.

Phy-6203 Neutron Scattering                                               Credits: 3

Neutron sources, continuous and pulsed sources, monochromatization, collimation and
moderation of neutrons, neutron detectors, scattering of neutrons and its advantages,
elastic scattering of neutrons, magnetic scattering and determination of magnetic structure,
inelastic scattering, thermal vibration of crystal lattices, lattice dynamics and phonons.

Neutron polarization, polarized neutron applications, scattering by liquids and molecules,
Van-Hovev correlation formalism, some experimental results of scattering by liquids and
molecules, small angle neutron scattering and its application in the study of biological
molecules and defects.

Experimental techniques of scattering measurements, Tim-of-Flight method, crystal
diffraction techniques, neutron diffractometer and triple-axis spectrometer, constant ?Q?
method.

Phy-6204 Nuclear Model                                                            Credits: 3

Shell mode, Infinite square well potential, Harmonic oscillator potential, Spin orbit potential,
Single particle model, Independent particle model, L-S and j-j coupling, Transformation
between L-S and j-j coupling, collective model, Liquid drop model, Models of even-even
nuclei, Optical model, Kapur-Peierls dipersion formula.

Phy-6205 Biophysics                                                                Credits: 3

The cell: Overview of the general appearance and some organcells in the cells, Animal cell
and plant cell.

Cell structure and anatomy: Prokaryote eukaryote cells, cell wall of plant cells, the cell
membrane, the cell nucleus, Chromosomes: mitosis and meiosis, Mitocondria, Chloroplasts,
Endoplasmic reticulum and ribisomes, The Golgi apparatus, Bacteria and viruses.

Some biological important molecules: Functional groups; carbohydrates ( saccharides ), Lipids
(fats), proteins, porphyrins; chlorophylls and hemoglobin, Nucleic acids.

Molecular forces: Electronic distribution, Nature of chemical interaction, Ione-ione, Ione-dipole,
Dipole-dipole and Van der waals interactions, Covalent bonds, Linear combination of atomic
orbitals, Hudrogen bonds, bonds between H, C, N, and O atoms and molecules.

Diffusion: Transport process and diffusion. Fick's law, Random walk process, One and
three dimension flow.

Transport process and electrochemical potential: Electrochemical potential, Fluxes and
electrochemical potential, Water flux in and out of cell, Osmotic pressure, Water transport
outside the capillary.

Electrochemical potential of charge particle: Reaction kinetics, Equillibrium of chemical
reaction, Nernt;s potential, Diffusion potential, Active transport and passive transport,
Resting potential of cell and Goldmann's equation.

Voltage across nerve membranes: Nerve impulses and voltage across nerve membranes,
the resting potential of nerve cells and cable theory, The action potential, The voltage clamp
technique, Molecular model of membrane conductivity, Transport information in the nervous
system.
DNA and Protein: DNA and the gene, the genetic code, RNA and the synthesis of proteins,
Transformation of genetic information, and regulation and control, Cloning structure and
function of proteins, The enzymes, Enzymes kinetics.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis pigments, Chlorophylls, Light reaction and dark reaction.

Phy-6206 Physics of Radiology                                             Credits: 3

The production and properties of X-ray, diagnostic and therapy x-ray tubes, X-ray circuit
with rectification, Electron interaction, characteristic radiation, Bremsstrahlung, Angular
distribution of x-rays, Quality of x-rays, Beam restricting devices, The grid, Radiographic
film, Radiographic quality, Factors affecting the image, Image modification, Image
intensification, contrast media, Modulation transfer function, Exposure in diagnostic
radiology, Fluoroscopy, computed tomography, Ultrasound, Magnetic resonance imaging.

Phy-6207 Health Physics                                                     Credits: 3

Atomic and nuclear structure, Isotopes, Binding energy and nuclear stability, Radio-activity,
Specific activity, Alpha rays, Beta rays, Gamma rays, Interaction of different radiations with
matter, Radiation dosimetry, Absorbed dose, Exposure, Exposure measurements, Bragg-
Gray principle, Kerma, Stopping-power ratio, Energy fluence and exposure, Internally
deposited radioisotopes, Effective half-life, Does commitment, MIRD method, Measurement
of absorbed does, Film badges, Pocket dosimeter, Fricke dosimeter, Calorimeteric method,
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD).

Phy-6208 Radiation Biophysics                                               Credits: 3

The nucleus, Ionizing radiations, Radiation doses, Interaction of radiation with matter, Cell
structure, Radiation effects on independent cell systems, Oxygen effect, Hyperthermia, LET
and RBE, Lethal, potentially lethal and sub-lethal radiation damage, Dose-rate effect, Acute
effects of radiation, Somatic effects, Late effects, Non-specific life shortening and
carcinogenesis, Genetic changes, Nominal standard dose (NSD), Time dose fractionation
(TDF), Standquist curve.

Phy-6209 Physics of Radiotherapy                                           Credits: 3

Introduction, superficial and deep x-ray machines, teletherapy, linear acceerator, radiation
fields within a patient, single isodose curve, multiple-field isodose curve patterns,
percentage depth dose (PDD), back-scattering factor(BSF), electron therapy, tissue air ratio
(TAR), tissue maximum ratio (TMR), treatment planning.

Phy-6210 Medical Physics                                                   Credits: 3
Introduction, forces on and in the body, energy, work and power of the body, pressure,
physics of the lungs and the breathing, physics of the cardiovascular system, electricity
within the body, application of electricity and magnetism in medicine, physics of the ear and
hearing, physics of eyes and vision, light in medicine, sound in medicine.

Phy-6211 Reactor Physics                                                    Credits: 3

Interactions of neutrons with matter, cross-sections for neutron reactions, thermal neutron
cross-sections, nuclear fission, energy release in fission, neutron multiplication, nuclear
chain reaction, steady state reactor theory, criticality condition, homogeneous and
heterogeneous reactor systeem, neutron moderation, neutron diffusion, control of nuclear
reactions, coolant, types of nuclear reactors: power reactor, research reactor, fast reactor,
breeder reactor, etc. reactor shielding.

Phy-6212 Radiation Protection                                               Credits: 3

Radiation protection guides, ICRP, IAEA, ILO, ICRU, NCRP?s recommendations,
philosophy and objectives of radiation protection, radiation hazards, external and internal
radiation, exposure from man made sources and nuclear installations, medical exposure,
low-level exposure, maximum permissible dose, basic radiation safety criteria, basic safety
standards, safety regulations in nuclear installations, radiation safety and legal aspects in
transport of radioactive materials, radio-active waste disposal, radiation protection in
diagnostic radiology, therapy and nuclear medicine.

3.   Environmental Physics:

I)      Phy-6201       Nuclear Physics

II)     Phy-6211       Reactor Physics

III)    Phy-6301       Principles of Radiation Detection

IV)     Phy-6207       Health Physics

V)      Phy-6212       Radiation Protection

VI)     Phy-6302       Environmental Management

VII)    Phy-6303       Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

IIX)    Phy-6304       Aquatic Chemistry for Environmental Physics

Phy-6201      Nuclear Physics                                            Credits: 3
Atomic structure, The nucleus, semi-empirical mass formula and binding energy;
Radioactive decay, Theories of alpha-decay, beta-decay and gamma emission, Nuclear
reaction, Fission and Fusion, Artificial radioactivity, Accelerators, Radiation detectors

Phy-6211        Reactor Physics                                                Credits: 3

Interactions of neutrons with matter, cross-sections for neutron reactions, thermal neutron
cross-sections, nuclear fission, energy release in fission, neutron multiplication, nuclear
chain reaction, steady state reactor theory, criticality condition, homogeneous and
heterogeneous reactor systeem, neutron moderation, neutron diffusion, control of nuclear
reactions, coolant, types of nuclear reactors: power reactor, research reactor, fast reactor,
breeder reactor, etc. reactor shielding.

Phy-6301        Principles of Radiation Detection                             Credits: 3

A model detector: charge production, charge collection, plateau. Pulse and mode current.
Spectrometry and energy resolution. Efficiency of detection and dead time.
Gas detectors: ion chambers, proportional counter and GM-counter.
Scintillation detectors: Organic materials; liquid scintillation, plastic scintillators. Inorganic
materials: NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), ZnS, BGO.
Semi-conductor detectors: Band structure, n and p type material. Ge detectors for gamma and
X-rays. Si detectors for alpha, heavy ions. New materials CdTe and CdZnTe.

Phy-6207        Health Physics                                                Credits: 3

Atomic and nuclear structure, Isotopes, Binding energy and nuclear stability, Radio-activity,
Specific activity, Alpha rays, Beta rays, Gamma rays, Interaction of different radiations with
matter, Radiation dosimetry, Absorbed dose, Exposure, Exposure measurements, Bragg-
Gray principle, Kerma, Stopping-power ratio, Energy fluence and exposure, Internally
deposited radioisotopes, Effective half-life, Does commitment, MIRD method, Measurement
of absorbed does, Film badges, Pocket dosimeter, Fricke dosimeter, Calorimeteric method,
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD).

Phy-6212        Radiation Protection                                         Credits: 3

Radiation protection guides, ICRP, IAEA, ILO, ICRU, NCRP?s recommendations,
philosophy and objectives of radiation protection, radiation hazards, external and internal
radiation, exposure from man made sources and nuclear installations, medical exposure,
low-level exposure, maximum permissible dose, basic radiation safety criteria, basic safety
standards, safety regulations in nuclear installations, radiation safety and legal aspects in
transport of radioactive materials, radio-active waste disposal, radiation protection in
diagnostic radiology, therapy and nuclear medicine.
Phy-6302       Environmental Management                                  Credits: 3

Environment and sustainable development; Global and regional approach to Environmental
management, Environmental implications of sectoral development: Infrastructure, water
resources, industry, agriculture, transport and communication, energy, health and population,
mineral resources, tourism, land use and urbinazation; Environmental management at project
level; Environmental resource management and conservation strategies; Environmental
policy and legislation: Environmental quality standards (EQS): Economics of Environmental
management.

Phy-6303       Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)                         Credits: 3

Historical development; Definition, aims and objectives of Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA): Environmental issues related to development projects; Project screening,
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE): Impact identification, prediction analysis and
evaluation; EIA methodologies: Adhoc, Checklists, Matrices, Network, Simulation,
Modelling Workshops (SMW), Environmental Evaluation System (EES), Overlays,
Geographical Information System Guidelines; Environmental Impact Statement (EIS);
Impact Mitigation Plan; Environmental Monitoring and post development audits;
Organization of EIA: Scope, Work plan, Resource requirements and costs of EIA, TOR for
EIA; EIA in developing countries; Case studies.

Phy-6304       Aquatic Chemistry for Environmental Physics                   Credits: 3

Review of some fundamentals of Chemistry: Approaches to equilibrium problem solving:
numerical solution, graphical solution, the 'tableau method'; Natural weak acids and bases,
alkalinity and pH in natural waters, buffer capacity; dissolved carbonate equilibria (close
system), dissolution of CO2 (open system); Solubility of solids, coexistence of phases in
equilibrium; Metal ions and ligands in natural waters, aqueous complexes, ion association
among major aquatic constituents, inorganic and organic complexation of trace elements;
redox equlibria and electron activity, pe-pH diagrams, redox conditions in natural waters;
Aquatic particles and coordinative properties of surfaces, adsorption of metals and ligands on
aquatic particles, surface complexation models; Fate of organic compounds in natural
Environment; volatilization sorption/partitioning, transformation reactions, structure-activity
and property-activity relationships.

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