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Madison County Historical Society Hop Fest Committee Corey Alter Barb Chamberlain Madison County Harold Chamberlain Kate Fisher Hop Heritage Michael Flanagan Sydney Loftus Trail Guide Florence Meakin Jack Meakin Tom O’Shea Patrick Traynor Cindy Whipple Fred Whipple Dot Willsey HOP HERITAGE SOURCES Barbara Giambastiani Bartlett Al Bullard Ron Neff Michael A. Tomlan, Ph.D Property Owners HOP HERITAGE TRAIL Sydney L. Loftus Dot Willsey Nell Ziegler Madison County Bicentennial Hop Heritage Trail Inaugural Tour: Sunday, September 17, 2006 The Hop Heritage Trail is one of four Madison County Bicentennial Heritage Trails funded by a Central New York Community Foundation grant, fundraisers by the Architecture and Preservation Team and the Madison County Historical Society, and private donations for the county’s 200th birthday in 2006. In 1983, under the direction of the Executive Director Barbara Giambastiani Bartlett, the Madison County Historical Society sponsored a study with the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and His- toric Preservation to identify and evaluate hop houses in Central New York. Dr. Michael A. Tomlan, Historic Preservation Planning at Cornell University, completed the study that led to his comprehensive text, Tinged with Gold: Hop Culture in the United States in 1992. We recom- mend his book to those who seek more information. Tomlan was named King of the 3rd Madison County Hop Fest in 1998, and Bartlett will be recognized as the Queen of the 11th Hop Fest in 2006. For 40 years, Al Bullard of Otsego County has been collecting hop artifacts, locating hop structures, and presenting information on hop heritage. Bullard was named King of the 7th Hop Fest in 2002. Ronald E. Neff, past president of the Town of Madison Historical Society, keeps close tabs on the history of his hometown and has shared information for this trail. Since 1996, owners of structures that are vestiges of the hop in- dustry have contributed to preserving this agricultural history by shar- ing information, time, support, and documents, and allowing visitation to their properties. To these people, we owe a great debt of gratitude for stewardship of this heritage so important to our county. The text herein comes primarily from works by Bartlett, Bullard, Neff, Tomlan, and the owners of hop structures. To these sources, we credit the information on the Hop Heritage of Madison County. Please respect the property of the private owners. Do not tres- pass. During self-guided tours. Appreciate the site from your auto or from the roadside. - Nell Ziegler and Dot Willsey “Those were the days when “the hop was king,” and the Madison County Hop Fest whole countryside was one great hop yard, and beauti- ful. It was the hop that built many of the big farmhouses, City of Oneida 21 now abandoned. Many a farmer made the value of his Madison County Historical Society 435 Main Street farm out of a single good year’s crop.” Oneida, NY 13421 • 315-363-4136 • www.mchs1900.org James Fenimore Cooper in The Madison County Historical Society created the Madison County Reminiscences of Mid-Victorian Cooperstown Hop Fest in 1996 to raise awareness of hop culture in the county and to raise funds. Each year, the Fest includes presentations, demonstra- I n the 1880s, New York State produced 80 percent of the nation’s hops, and most of those hops came from Madison, Oneida, and Otsego counties. Madison led hop production in the 1820s, but within two tions, and exhibits on the history of hops. In addition, there is a show- ing of the video When Hop Was King, representation by local historical and preservation organizations, musical entertainment, a guided coach decades, the production center tour of hop related sites, a Hop Shop, and a sampling of microbrews for moved to Otsego County. visitors to indulge their palate. “Bouckville Olde,” rhizomes are also Hops were the first cash available in the Hop Shop for those interested in growing their own crop of the region. Madison Madison County Hops. County was “one great hop yard” Those who share the spirit of John Alden Haight, who was honored for a century. Downy mildew, as the first Hop Fest King for his passion for sharing his knowledge of aphids, richer soil in the North- hops, are bestowed the prestigious title of Hop Royalty. west, Prohibition, decreases in The Northeast Hop Alliance (NeHA), a broad based coalition estab- hop prices, and the less specu- lished to explore the feasibility of reestablishing commercial, specialty lative dairy farming industry hop production in New York State and the Northeast, provides demon- contributed to the decline of strations and information on growing and harvesting hops during the hop farming in the county. Hop Fest. NeHA grew from activities at the Annual Hop Fest through Madison County’s last crop of coordinated efforts of Morrisville State College and Cornell University. hops was dried in Lenox Furnace in 1953. The Annual Madison County Hop Fest is held the Saturday follow- ing the Madison County Historical Society’s Annual Craft Days in Sep- The stem of the hop plant is tember, which is held the weekend after Labor Day. a bine (as in woodbine). A bine twines itself, whereas a vine has tendrils that attach the stem to a pole as it grows. The hop bine follows the sun around a pole. The bine can grow as much as 12 Hop Plants drawn by Belle Hodgson, c. 1890 inches a day in June, and will (From Tinged with Gold: Hop Culture in the grow between 20 and 30 feet in United States by Michael A. Tomlan, Ph.D.) one season after it is established. Picking hops from the stems is labor-intensive. Hop growers hired local pickers and transported pickers from the cities during late August and early September. The provisions needed to house and feed these pickers were a boost to the local economy, and recreation by pickers after long days in the fields established social customs. Artwork Created by Sennah Loftus, Masters Graduate of Syracuse University’s School of Architecture and Project Architect for Voith and MacTavish Architects in Philadelphia. Ball Common Hop House HOP HOUSES Town of Lincoln 19 The New England hop farmers first looked to England for models of 6681 Tuttle Road • Canastota, NY 13032 kilns to dry hops. Farmers kept up with developments abroad by reading agricultural literature. Although there was information on constructing Darrin Ball the sophisticated oast house, the early North American kilns were simple. The hop house is behind the house and across the small stream. This common hop house has a fieldstone and cut stone foundation. The fram- The first hops to be dried in a charcoal-fired kiln were cured in ing is hand-hewn, and Massachusetts in 1791. The next year, many more hop growers had the exterior is finished in built kilns. Remnants of New England kilns do not exist. The kilns of board and batten. The Central New York State architecturally represent the 19th and early furnace room has a 20th C. hop industry in the Northeast. wood floor, lath-and- Early drying arrangements used open fires. Earlier kilns with fur- plaster walls, and a naces stood alone, but by the 1850s, fires were enclosed in stoves and brick chimney with a progressive farmers had adopted a frame structure to cover the major stovepipe hole. The areas of processing hops—the hop house. A hop house has four sections: drying room has a slat- 1. Stove room: The heat ted floor that has been for drying the hops covered over. The stor- came from a room age room floor is two with a high ceiling feet below the floor of and a stove below. A the drying room. No chute presently exists between the store room system of stove and the press room. pipes heated the Stewart Common Hop House slatted floor above. City of Oneida 20 Vent windows at ground level and Fair Hill, Inc. • 1390 Fairview Avenue • Oneida, NY 13421 cowls in the roof assisted in providing Bill Stewart’s proper drafts. great grandfather, 2. Drying room: Lath John, grew hops and plaster often and strawberries covered the drying Diagram of a hop house. on this site. Bill’s room walls. The hops (From Tinged with Gold: Hop Culture in the United grandfather, were placed 12 to 24 States by Michael A. Tomlan, Ph.D.) George, had a dairy inches deep on a fabric—usually burlap, muslin, or cotton—that operation and also covered the slatted floor of the drying room, which was located grew hops. above the stove room. The hops were turned and moved to ensure they dried evenly over several hours without scorching or burn- Evidence of the ing. four processing 3. Storeroom: Workers shoveled the dried hops into the storeroom rooms remains in to cool, and then pushed the cooled hops through a hole in the the structure. floor into the baling room below. 4. Press room: A hop press usually stood in the baling room below the hole in the store room floor. The hops came through the shoot hole directly into the fabric-lined press where they were bundled into bales, then shipped worldwide. Bittersweet: The Story of Eisaman Common Hop House Hop Culture in Central New York 1 Town of Lincoln 18 Madison County Historical Society Hop Exhibit 6925 South Court Street • Canastota, NY 13032 435 Main Street • Oneida, NY 13421 • 315-363-4136 John Eisaman www.mchs1900.org This common hop house shows clearly the four processing rooms, as 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday - Friday well as remnants of the last crop of hops dried in the kiln in 1953. At that time, the and by appointment price was so The hop exhibit in the carriage barn at Cottage Lawn, headquarters low that Keith of the Madison County Historical Society, is an excellent introduction Eisaman’s fa- for the Hop Heritage Trail. Bittersweet: The Story of Hop Culture in ther did not Central New York was developed in 1997 by former MCHS director sell the hops he Tom Kernan with funds from New York State Assemblyman Bill Magee. had dried. The 2-room The field exhibit intro- across the duces the hop in- road was the dustry, explains last commer- tools and pro- cial hop yard cesses, displays in Madison equipment and County. includes When Hop Was King, a Keith Eisaman was crowned King of the Second Annual Madison video developed County Hop Fest in 1997. He participated in the Hop Fest every year as by Kernan with a speaker and a host. His accounts of the last days of hop farming were funds from the featured in the video When Hop Was King. Keith reminisced about how NYS Council “Mother and Dad” and their two sons would drive around the area on on Humani- summer Sundays, checking out the status of other hop yards. He also ties, the CNY remarks in the video that it was amazing that hop farmers did not kill Community themselves with all the sprays and dustings used to try to thwart the Arts Council, Downey Mildew in the dying days of hop farming. and the Keith loved Hop Fest, and the Hop Fest loved Keith. Very sadly, C h a p m a n Keith died two days before the Tenth Annual Hop Fest in 2005. Charitable Cor- poration. The film has been shown on the History Chan- nel. The Madison County Historical Society, the Northeast Hop Alli- ance, the New York State Barn Coalition and private donors and volun- teers worked with the New York State Agricultural Society’s Daniel Parrish Witter Agricultural Museum in 2003 to develop and host a hop exhibit at the New York State Fair. Cody Hop House Marshall Oast House Town of Fenner 16 Town of Stockbridge • 5667 Valley Mills Road 2 Fenner Road • Cazenovia NY 13035 • Ken Cody Munnsville NY 13409 • Ron and Holly Marshall Kendall Cody built this large hop house in 1884, and most of the interior remains the same. Cody’s grandson, Ken, operates a dairy This conical- farm on the property now. roofed draft hop kiln The kiln is in the with a circular lime- rear, away from the road stone oast and a high and the small embank- English cowl has ment. The kiln is 20 feet been lovingly cared wide and 60 feet long. for by the Marshall The foundation is field- Family. stone and cut stone, with George Potter two vents. The framing purchased this farm has sawn heavy timbers in 1860 and had the and stud construction. hop kiln built in The furnace room chim- 1867 at a cost of ney is brick with one $840.20. When Fred stovepipe hole. Marshall purchased The drying floor has been unmodified. The slats (1/2” x 2” wide) on the farm in 1893, hops were the only income for the farm. Pickers came the floor are one inch apart and are covered with burlap. Evidence of a from Cleveland, NY, and earned 25 cents per box—along with room ventilator cowl remains. and board. The pole pullers earned $1.25 per day. Fanning Common Hop House Town of Smithfield 17 The last crop of hops grown on the farm was in 1911. It sold for 11 cents per pound, which was below the cost of growing the crop. George 5000 Peterboro Road • Morrisville NY 13408 Potter’s accounting book shows that in 1864, one bushel of hop roots Leland Fanning sold for 75 cents. (History provided by the Marshall Family) This building has many easily visible evidences of its use as a com- mon hop house. The stone foundation has evidence of vents. The furnace room still has lath and plaster, and the storage room has a chute hole that leads to the press room. Foothill Hops Stearns / Forward Hop House Town of Stockbridge 3 Town of Nelson 15 5024 NYS 46 • Munnsville NY 13049 3568 Stearns Road • Erieville, NY 13061 315-495-6217 Carl D. Stearns www.foothillhops.com Larry and Kate Fisher This hop house was originally located on the south side of Scenic Route 20, just east of the village of Madison. The hop house belonged to Foothill Hops is a family-owned business established in 2001 to G.T. Forward, one of the principal hop growers in the Madison- preserve and promote the hop growing agricultural heritage of Madi- Bouckville son County. Foothill Hops consists of approximately ten acres of land. area. (The For- The Fishers planted a ward name is small field of hops in stenciled on a 2001 and expanded post.) Owner their hop fields in and preserva- subsequent years to tion architect the present size of Carl Stearns nearly two acres with carefully relo- over a dozen varieties cated the struc- of hops. ture in the mid- 1990s. The Foothill Hops cobblestones welcomes visitors were numbered throughout the year – and relocated to walk or work the accordingly. This hop house features a cobblestone kiln and a timber- fields. In April grub- frame processing space. bing hop rhizomes Larry Fisher sprays hops growing on a trellis at Foothill and planting new hills Hops in Munnsville. Carl Stearns presents “The Evolution of a Hop House” each year at begins. In May the the Annual Madison County Hop Fest. Stearns was crowned the fifth trellis is strung and the foot high hop plants are trained to the trellis King of the Annual Hop Fest in 2000 for his hop preservation efforts. strings. Rapid growth in June, July, and August requires watering, weed- He was further honored by the New York State Barn Coalition for his ing, thinning, and maintenance as the hops reach heights of 20 feet or rural preservation efforts. more. Harvest time comes in late August and early September. The hop bines are cut from the trellis and the blossoms are hand-picked and dried using methods similar to those of the 19th century. The leaf hops are then pressed, vacuum-sealed and frozen for freshness. Foothill Hops have been sold to herbalists and home brewers and have inspired a line of hop products available only from Foothill Hops. Products include hop soaps, beer, hop shampoo and conditioner, hop nuts, hop tea, hop lemonade, beer-can chicken rub, Italian seasoning, beer and hop mustard, and hop pillows. There is hop-inspired art, in- cluding stained glass, pottery, textiles, and Christmas ornaments. In late 2006, Foothill Hops will open a gift shop at the hop yard. Parfitt / Dodge Common Hop House Shwartz/ Borden/Haight Town of Hamilton • 2927 Smith Road 13 Double Pyramidal Kiln 4 Hamilton, NY 13346 • Chris & Meg Parfitt Town of Hamilton • Borden Road This common kiln has been altered through the years, but the tell-tale foundation vents and tall configuration add it to the architec- Earlville NY 13332 • Eve Ann Shwartz tural vestiges of the once-prosper- This is the former family farm of John Alden Haight. The Madison ous hop industry County Hop Fest King and Queen chosen each year are those people who along Smith most closely emulate Road. The barn John Alden Haight’s dates to 1869. passion for honoring The map from the heritage of hops D. G. Beers’ 1875 in Madison County. “Atlas of Madison Haight was honored County,New York” as the first Hop King shows a structure of the first Hop Fest in at the location 1996. He taught hor- (H.H. Crittendem) ticulture at Morris- (Steven J. Tuttle ville State College for August 29, 05) 24 years. The college has created a scholarship in his name. Grey / Gulch Pyramidal Kiln 14 Town of Eaton • Gulch Road • Morrisville NY 13408 Kevin Luther Lipsey/Drover Hill Double Pyramidal Kiln Town of Hamilton • 1014 Earlville Road 5 This single pyramidal-roofed kiln with an attached barn, is the si- lent remains of a prosperous hop and dairy farm operated by the grand- Earlville NY 13332 parents of the William Lipsey owner. The property is now part of Drover Hill Farms, owned by Bill Lipsey. Descen- Volunteers from the Madison County Historical Society and students dants of the from Historic Preservation at Cornell made emergency repairs to the roof farming fam- in November 1999. ily have do- In 2000, the nated the owner received a New kiln, which is York State Barn Re- being moved habilitation and Pres- to the Heri- ervation Grant. Also tage Park now that year, the Lipsey under devel- double kiln became opment. The the first “poster barn” park will high- to be used on the annual Hop Fest posters. Bill Lipsey has planted hops light hop cul- in front of the structure and in 2003 took one pole of hops to the New ture and will commemorate the ancestors who used the hop house. York State Fair for exhibit at the Daniel Parrish Witter Agricultural Museum. 1840 Cobblestone House, Barn & Hop Rugg -Tuttle Pyramidal Hop House House Town of Eaton Town of Madison • 3822 Canal Road 6 2697 Smith Road • Hamilton, NY 13346 11 Linda Rugg & Steve Tuttle Bouckville, NY 13310 • Jerry Schmidt This hop house dates to James and Silas Howard built Cobblestone House between 1840 and 1869. The map from D. G. 1842. The stones were laid in horizontal rows with straight horizontal Beers 1875 “Atlas of Madi- mortar joints. The huge stones, one large one on the front porch and son County, New York” shows a structure at the lo- cation. (H.H. Crittenden) (Steven J. Tuttle August 29, 05) Early inspiration for the pyramidal hop kiln probably came from the sophisticated design of English malt kilns. (Tomlan) It is not know when growers in this area adopted the pyramidal roof form to assist the draft. Tomlan found one source that indicates the pyramidal roof was adopted near Waterville about 1850. Merkt Hop House 12 Town of Eaton • 2881 Smith Road • Hamilton, NY 13346 three on the side porch, were brought by flat boats on the canal from the quarry at Oriskany Falls. James had a canal boat named the “Madison” Keith Merkt and probably brought the large corner stones and the one above the front Early kilns were usually banked for easy access to load the hops to door for the house on that boat. the drying floor. This framed large common kiln used the bank access to the drying room. The Stairs lead upstairs to a large room where hop pickers slept during drying room has a slat- hop picking season in late August. The hop house still stands to the north ted floor with 1½- of the Cobblestone House. inch spaces between the slats to allow the heat to dry the hops, which workers laid on a fabric that covered the slats. The foundation is made of fieldstone and cut stone, and has the typical four vents. The framing is stud construction and a clapboard exterior. The gable roof shows evidence of an earlier ventilator. The furnace room has a wood floor and a brick chimney. The storage room floor is three feet below the floor of the drying room floor, with three chutes to pass dried hops to the press room. Ye Olde Landmark Tavern Coolidge Gravesite 6722 Scenic NYS Rt 20 • Bouckville, NY 13310 10 Town of Madison 7 www.yeoldelandmark.com 315-893-1810 Town of Madison Cemetery • Indian Opening Road Steve Hengst Bouckville, NY 13310 The Landmark Tavern was built by the Coolidge family between 1849 James Coolidge came from Stow, Middlesex County, Massachusetts and 1851. to Bouckville, New York, in 1806. Coolidge became determined to buy Lewis T. Coe and H. D. Brockett bought the building in 1896. After a good farm, and did so in Coe died Brockett sold it to Charles M. Coe, the son of Lewis. In 1940, 1808. He bought the Niles Robert H. Palmiter bought the Landmark for his antique business and farm, which once took the Madison County Agricultural Society’s premium of a silver cup (Neff). That same year, Coolidge planted the first recorded com- mercial hop yard in New York State with root stock from Middlesex. In the fall of 1816, Coolidge took the first New York hops to the New York City Market. In 1817-18, hops sold for $1,000 a ton. The first white settlement in the area was at Indian Open- ing in 1792. The first church building was erected in 1801 near the cemetery. It is in that historic cemetery visitors can find the gravestone of James D. Coolidge. home. After his death in 1968, the Hengst family bought the special The modest gravesite gives little indication of the impact Coolidge had structure and opened the Landmark Tavern. on the history of our state before his death in 1844 at the age of 83 years and 6 months. In 2000, Ye Olde Landmark Tavern was placed on the State and National Register of Historic Places. The New York State Preservation- ist (Spring 2001) described the Coolidge Stores Building “as an outstanding example of cobblestone construction and as associated with the development of Bouckville as an important center of hop culture in Madison County. Distinguished by its unconventional wrap-around façade and hexagonal cupola, the building’s design reflects elements of the Octagon style and is detailed with elements derived from both the Greek and Gothic Revival styles. Built during the initial boom in Central New York’s hop culture by the family credited with introducing the crop to the area, the Coolidge Stores Building expresses Bouckville’s mid-19th century prosperity as a focal point for the export of hops by turnpike and canal.” Coolidge Hop Farm Chenango Canal Cottage Museum Town of Madison • Deerhill Farms 8 Chenango Canal Association 9 3631 NYS 12B • Bouckville, NY 13310 • Steve Dow Scenic Rt 20 & Canal Road • Bouckville, NY 13310 The farm James D. Coolidge bought in 1808 is a half mile southeast of the hamlet of Bouckville. The hop yard where Coolidge planted New York’s first commercial hops lies where the main field of the Madison-Bouckville An- tique Show takes place each year. The cobblestone oast house with a later frame kiln was built on the farm after Coolidge’s death. The kiln was razed in the late 1970s. Photo courtesy of Diane Van Slyke, President of the Chenango Canal Coolidge’s agricultural and business talents put Bouckville in the Association center of the county’s activities. Solomon Root and Ezra Leland were soon raising more hops than Coolidge. The Woodhull, Forward, The Chenango Canal Association developed and maintains the Cot- Edgartons, Philips Brockett and Livermore families were Bouckville fami- tage Museum, with displays and information on the Chenango Canal lies that had hop yards. and the history of Bouckville. The Chenango Canal Association hosts The Cherry Valley Turnpike was chartered in 1803. When the turnpike activities throughout the year. was completed in 1811, the Hamlet of Madison came into existence. Hops was a cash crop that provided profit for everyone from the The church and John Lucas’ store at Indian Opening were moved to growers and harvesters to the shippers, ‘canalers’, wholesalers, and Madison to be on the turnpike. retailers. The Chenango Canal served as a transportation route for hops shipments during the “heyday” of hops. The following hand-written note was kept by a local resident in Bouckville: Mr. White, Sir, a part of your hops were shipped last evening; the balance of them will be put on board of a boat which will be at Solsville about 9 o’clock this morning. If you have any in bales at home, by taking them down immediately, you can get them on board this morning. Respectfully yours, A.B. Coe Madison, Monday morning, Sept. 28, 1866
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