Teks Genre by qingyunliuliu

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									Teks Narrative
April 9, 2009 · 1 Comment

Narrative Text adalah teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita atau dongeng (bisa berupa cerita
rakyat (folktale), cerita binatang (fable), Legenda (legend), cerita pendek, dll). Di dalamnya
terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian. Penyelesaian (ending) disini
bisa berupa happy ending (akhir yang bahagia) atau bisa pula sad ending (akhir yang sedih).
Fungsi utama teks ini adalah untuk menghibur pembaca.
Generic Structure:
Orientation – Complication – Evaluation (optional) – Resolution
Orientation:
berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan
dimana)
Complication:
Berisi puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita. Sebuah cerita boleh memiliki complication lebih
dari satu
Evaluation:
ini merupakan optional (boleh ada boleh tidak), biasanya dipakai untuk membuat jalan cerita
lebih menarik.
Resolution:
Pemecahan masalah. Bisa berakhir dengan kegembiraan (happy ending) bisa pula berakhir
dengan kesedihan (sad ending)
Contoh:
                                    The Boy who cried “Wolf”
      There was once a shepherd-boy who kept his flock at a little distance from the village.
Once he thought he would play a trick on the villagers and have some fun at their expense. So
he ran toward the village crying out, with all his might,
      “Wolf! Wolf! Come and help! The wolves are at my lambs!”
      The kind villagers left their work and ran to the field to help him. But when they got there
the boy laughed at them for their pains; there was no wolf there.
      Still another day the boy tried the same trick, and the villagers came running to help and
got laughed at again. Then one day a wolf did break into the fold and began killing the lambs.
In great fright, the boy ran for help. “Wolf! Wolf!” he screamed. “There is a wolf in the flock!
Help!”
      The villagers heard him, but they thought it was another mean trick; no one paid the least
attention, or went near him. And the shepherd-boy lost all his sheep.

                                           Snow Maiden

      Once upon a time there lived a couple in a village. They had got married for a long time,
but so far they did not have a baby yet. Every single minute they prayed to God, begged for a
baby, but it never came true.
      One day, they went to Snow Mountain. They made a girl from snow and they dressed her
beautifully. When it got dark, they decided to go home and left the snow girl alone. The
following morning, someone knocked the door. “Any body home?” she said. The old woman
inside opened the door and asked, “Who are you?” The girl said “I‟m Snow Maiden, your
daughter”. The old woman was surprised and happy. “Oh really? Thanks God! Come in, please!”
Since that meeting, they lived happily. Snow Maiden was beautiful, kind, diligent and helpful.
Her parents and all of her friends loved her very much. One day, Snow Maiden played with her
friends. They played fire. At first, Snow Maiden just looked at their play. Suddenly, her friends
      asked her to jump on the fire. Of course she refused it because one thing that made her afraid
      was the fire. It‟s because Snow Maiden was made of snow, so she should avoid the fire. But her
      friends kept on forcing her to jump on. Finally, she could not do anything then she did it. She
      jumped on the fire and she melted. Her friends were so sorry about this, they cried and cried
      hoping Snow Maiden could live again, but it was useless. Snow Maiden would not be back
      anymore her mother tried to entertain Snow Maiden‟s friends and asked them to make a new
      Snow Maiden. They went to a snow mountain and started making it. They expected to have the
      new Snow Maiden. Days passed but their dreams never came true.
            Poor them!
                                             The Two Goats

            Once there were two him thin goats. Both of them were hungry. They were tied together
      with a brown rope. They wanted to eat the green leaves from two separated bushes. One bush
      was on the left. The other bush was on the right.
            The goats thought they could do everything on their own. The first goat wanted to go to
      the bush on the left, but the second goat wanted to go to the bush on the right. However, the
      rope was short. They tried but they could not reach the bushes. They were sad.
            Then, the goats decided to work together. First, they are the leaves of the bush on the
      right. Then, ate the leaves on the left. The leaves were delicious. They were happy.

                                     The Dragon of Mount Kinabalu

             Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large
      and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
             The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping
      and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for
      Borneo in twelve sailing junks.
             When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their
      journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his
      cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
             Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon‟s
      cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned
      to it.
             Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon
      left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to
      the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother
      pulled his kite back to the ground.
             The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely
      home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons‟
      return.



ROWING COMPETITION ( Title from me, is it fit enough?)
           It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the
      rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast
      I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start.
           Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly
      moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it.
           We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder.
           The first boat was just in front I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What
      was it? I was sure it was the shape of a cigar. „Oh my God‟, I thought, „I must be seeing
      things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible!‟
     Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. „Oh no, why only half?‟ I thought. Then I knew.
I shouted to my team, „Shark! Shark!‟ and suddenly we forgot the race.
     We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!.

Paragraf 1–3 merupakan orientation, mengapa? Karena paragrap 1-3 mengenalkan kita
(pembaca) pada tokoh cerita, waktu dan tempat kejadian.




Paragraf 4-5 berisi peristiwa inti yang ingin diceritakan. Oleh karena itu kedua paragraf in ikita
sebut complication.


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Teks Recount
April 9, 2009 · No Comments

Recount adalah teks yang menyampaikan serentetan peristiwa/ kejadian /pengalaman yang
terjadi pada waktu lampau. Kadangkala recount juga bermaksud untuk menghibur pembaca.

Generic structure:

Orientation – event (s) – reorientation.

Maksud dari event (s) adalah bahwa even yang terjadi bisa lebih dari satu, sedangkan
Reorientation adalah optional (boleh ada boleh tidak)

Tenses yang digunakan selalu Past Tense. Kenapa? Tentu saja karena recount mencerikan
peristiwa yang terjadi di masa lampau. Sudah jelaskan?

Contoh:

                                           Class Picnic
    Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic.

    First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone
was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some
played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and
had our picnic. Finally, at two o‟clock we left for school.

    We had a great day.

                                                     Horrible Fly

    I am used to travelling by air and only on one occasion I have ever felt frightened. After
taking off, we flew low over the city. It slowly went high to the sky. But suddenly it turned
round and flew back to the airport.

    An airhostess told us to keep calm and to get off the plane quietly as soon as it touched
down. Everybody on board was worried and we were curious to find out what happened. Later
we learnt that there was a very important person on board. Earlier somebody told the police
that there was a bomb on the plane. After we landed, the police searched the plane carefully.
Fortunately, they did not find a bomb and five hours later we were able to take off again.

                                                My Bad Experience

    I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side. At first I
thought a type had gone but that then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. The
rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car. There was an earthquake.
When I got back to town, there wasn‟t much left.


Teks Procedure dan Report
March 28, 2008 ·

TEKS PROCEDURE
Tujuan komunikatif nya: memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.The
function of the text is to describe how somethings are accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.

Struktur Teks (Generic Structure): Goal/Aim – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods
Aim/Goal, : misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake.
Materials berisi : bahan-bahan dan atau alat-alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut.
Note:
Materials are not required for all Procedure text

Ciri Kebahasaan teks Procedure:

- pola kalimat present tense dalam bentuk imperative: misalnya, cut, pour, don’t mix, dsb.
- action verbs: misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.
- connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.
- adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, two centimetres from the
     top, dsb.

Example:

                      ————————————————————————————————————

Sesame Drop Biscuits

Materials:

a. 2 cups flour

b. 1 ½ teaspoons baking powder

c. ½ reaspoon each baking soda and salt

d. Butter or margarine

e. 2 tablespoons sesame seed

f. 1 cup buttermilk

Night Before:

g. In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.

h. With 2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .

i. Stir in sesame seed.

Next Morning:

j. Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.

k. Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.

l. Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.

m. Serve at once with butter.

                      ————————————————————————————————————

How to make Lemonade

Ingredients:

For each glass use:
- 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.

- 2 tablespoons of sugar.

- 1 glass of water.

Methods:

1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar.
5. Add water and stir well.
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right.
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade.

                      ————————————————————————————————————


TEKS REPORT
teks yang isinya menggambarkan sesuatu secara apa adanya sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Oleh
karena itu sebelum Anda menulis teks Report, Anda harus melakukan pengamatan sistematis. Yang Anda deskripsikan
bisa meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report
dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut
sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.

Tujuan Komunikatif Report: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis
atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala
sosial.

Generic Structure: General Classification – Description

Tenses yang digunakan adalah Present Tense.

Ciri Kebahasaan: general nouns, seperti ‗Reptiles in Comodo Insland‘. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya
reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards
cannot fly. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160
kg. istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun
sejumlah informasi.

Example of Report: ―Plants‖, ―Hospitals‖, ―Whales‖, dll

Contoh Teks Report:

                      ————————————————————————————————————

                                                          PENGUINS
Penguins are birds that cannot fly. There are eighteen different species. They are all splendid swimmers and can propel
themselves through the water at rate of 30 kilometers per hour. They live only in the southern seas of the world, on the
island of Australia, in New Zealand, South Africa and southern South America. Those that live in the snow and ice cannot
build nests.

The biggest are the Emperor penguins which stand about 1.2 meters and weigh about 75 kilograms. When a female lays
an egg, it is the male that keeps it off the ice by resting it on top of his feet. When the chick hatches, the male, which will
not have eaten for two months, then goes off to feed while the female stays with the chick to-feed and protect it.

Adelle penguins gather in huge colonies, sometimes as many as half a million in one group.

Rock hopper penguins are so called because of the way they hop from rock to rock. They have long crests on their
heads. Their chicks are covered with soft down when hathced. They are helpless at first and needed to be looked for
several weeks.

As far back as 1499 it was noted that the jackass penguin brayed like an ass. It is also known as the black-footed
penguin. Gentoo penguins live on many of the Antartic islands. They are very friendly and do not fear man. King penguins
also live in the Antartic. They toboggan on their stomachs at the great speed on the ice to escape their enemies.

                     ————————————————————————————————————

                                                            Plants

Plants are living beings. They need food, water and air for survival.

Plants derive their food from the earth and the air. If you look at their roots, you will find that ends of these roots are like
fine fibers. We call them root-hairs. They absorb water and minerals, then transport them upwards to the leaves through
the trunk and the branches. It is the leaves which prepare the food.

The green material, chlorophyll, prepares the food like a machine. It converts the carbon dioxide taken from the air and
water from the ground into sugar with the help of sunlight. This chemical reaction is called photosynthes. In fact, the
chlorophyll takes energy from the sunlight and uses it to synthesize the hydrogen from water and carbon from carbon
dioxide for making sugar. This reaction also gives out oxygen and water which are excreted by the leaves.

                     ————————————————————————————————————

                                                            RADIO

The radio is one of the most popular mass media in the world. Almost all people are familiar with it and most of them own
one.

The radio is effective for distance communication. People get information about the world as soon as possible just by
listening to the radio at home. They also find entertainment like drama, music, etc. on the radio. They can also use radio
to send their family messages. Radio is also good for saying hello to a friend orn sends other kinds of messages just as a
social interaction. The radio is very important to the police, too. During emergencies where telephones do not work and
transportation is impossible, using radio will be very useful.

The history of the radio begins with Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian expert at telegraph. In 1901 he succeeded in
transmitting the Morse code signal for the letter S from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland across the Atlantic.
                     ————————————————————————————————————

Contoh Report tentang hewan

                                                           GOANNAS

Goannas are large Australian lizards which belong to the reptile family.Goannas are yellowish-brown in colour and grow
to about a metre in length.They live in burrows and eat insects, lizards, mice, eggs, and flesh of dead animals. To breed,
the female goanna lays about six eggs in a termite mound.

                     ————————————————————————————————————

Contoh Report tentang tekhnologi

                                                          Fax Machine

Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents,
especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for
―make a copy at a distance‖, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries.
When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the
delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position
beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.

                     ————————————————————————————————————

Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large
indeed and blue whale, which can exceed 30 cm in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth Superficially, the
whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad,
flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is
smooth and shiny and beneath it lays a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat
and body fluids.


Selasa, 2009 Mei 05
                          Procedure text
                               13
  Teks procedure bertujuan untuk Menerangkan bagaimana
membuat/ melakukan sesuatu berdasarkan serangkaian langkah atau
kegiatan (steps).

   Stuktur teks Procedure terdiri dari:
1. Aim/Goal (tujuan) : dapat berupa judul
2. Materials : bahan dan alat yang di perlukan, namun tidak semua
teks procedure memerlukan
                tahap ini.
3. Steps : langkah-langkah untuk melakukan kegiatan ( teks
procedure).

   Karakteristik teks Procedure:
1. Menggunakan the simple present tense, biasanya terbentuk kalimat
imperatif.
2. Menggunakan kata hubung temporal , seperti first, Second , then,
next, Finally, dll.
3. Menggunakan action verbs, seperti turn on, stir, cook,dll.
   Example:
                    How To Operate a Digital camera
You Need:
1. A digital camera
2. An Object ( a friend/ classmate or something interesting you can
find around the classroom
   or school yard) .
Follow the Steps below to take pictures :
1. Hold up the camera and centre the object in the LCD.
2. Move closer or use the Zoom control for the result you want.
3. When you're ready to take the picture, hold the shutter halfway. It is
very important, so the
    camera sets the focus , shutter speed, and various others
collculations. This may take a few
    seconds.
4. A light should appear that lets you know the camera is set to go.
5. press shutter all the way down.
It May be necessary to turn off the LCD and use the view finder when
there is extreme sunlight or to conserve battery life. The glafe from the
LCD does not work well with bright light.
The Golden
Gate Bridge
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English Texts - Descriptive
Written by taufik
Monday, 04 May 2009 11:47


The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San
Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it
connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin
County.

The Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed
in 1937 and has become an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California. Since
its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second
longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in
New York City. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of America’s Favorite Architecture by the
American Institute of Architects.
                                The Ambarawa Train Museum
        The Ambarawa Train Museum houses 21 antique locomotives plus two more, which are
stored in the depot. These locomotives are no longer produced; even the factories that made
them no longer exist. The main building of this museum is the defunct Ambarawa railway
station which was built in 1873. the station covers 127,500 m2.
        The oldest in this museum is a locomotive made by Hartman Chemnitz. This locomotive,
with a length of 8.58 m and a width of 2.45 m, began its operation in 1891. Using wood as fuel,
the steam locomotive could run 50 km/h – its maximum speed.
        A special part of a visit to this museum is a trip by train from the Ambarawa Train
Museum to the defunct Bedono train station. This package tour is called Railway Mountain Tour.
Why is the trip so special? Because the participants will board an antique train and the train will
travel on a 4.9 kilometer-cog railway, which is the only one in the world.
                                   Museum Sejarah Jakarta
        Also known as Museum Fatahilah, this museum was named after the sultan who
defeated the portuguese in 1527. the Museum, located in Taman Fatahilah, used to be the
heart of Dutch colonial administration. Formerly it was the Stadhuis or the Town Hall of Batavia,
bult in 1627 and then renovated in 1705 – 1715.
        The Museum has a collection of 18 th century furnishing, chinaware, ancient map of
Jakarta, and potraits of former colonial governos. In the back of museum, there is a big old
Portuguese cannon called is Jagur, with writing in Latin: Ex Me Ipsa Renata Sum (I am Reborn
From Myself). It is said so to show that the cannon was remolded from several smaller
cannons. It is believed that Jagur possesses certain mystical powers. Many women who aren‟t
able to bear children visit it shopping to be blessed with children.
                                                „ISSIS‟ Cafe
        „ISSIS‟ is Javanese word meaning „cool‟. So, besides the food, ISSIS Café offers a
spacious, fully air-conditioned, cozy place.
        Located at Jl. Cilacap No. 8, Jakarta Pusat, ISSIS Café is famous for its European food,
especially steak, barbecue ribs, salad, and soup. You might find this kind of food anywhere else,
but there is no other place that offers great meals at better prices than ISSIS Café.
        You can enjoy a delicious imported sirloin steak for only Rp. 25,000 and ice cappuccino
for only Rp. 5,500. There is also a salad bar with eight different vegetables. You can make your
own salad which you can eat as much as you like, for only Rp. 12,000. The customers are
mostly college students, office workers, and families.
                                            My friend, Miranda.
        Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in
Makasar on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting
flowers very much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two
sisters. They are Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara. Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her
older sister is in the first year of SMA, and Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another.

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