ER 200 Final Review - lectures

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					               Key Slides from the Back Half of ER 200
[16] The Grid (Transmission)
5     power system components
15     governmental transmission organizations
17     why transmit power?
20     transmission and profits
22     key features of transmission system
25     Ohm's Law
28     why does voltage matter?
31     transmission efficiency
39     load duration curve and cost of meeting peak
42     AB1890
51     distributed generation

[18] Nuclear Physics
5 - Binding Energy holds atom together. If we split or combine atoms, we can release
some of the binding energy.
13 - California Electricity Consumption 2004: 12.8% nuclear
15 - DOE electricity projections depend strongly on the assumed cost of nuclear power
18 - Nuclear has very low life-cycle CO2 emissions
26 - Generations of nuclear energy -- becoming more economical, safer, and less wasteful
over time
27 - Fission Reactors: Boiling Water Reactors (schematic similar to WK 11 Handout)
29 - Fission Reactors: Pressurized Water Reactors (schematic similar to WK 11 Handout)
47-50 - Yucca Mountain: Projected groundwater contaminant path compared to natural
and human chemical contamination; current legal capacity limit is 63,000 MT for spent
fuel (US will reach this limit in 2014), but technical capacity is higher; advanced fuel
cycles would increase capacity factor by 50X
57 - Summary: 19 US sites applying for combined nuclear construction and operating, 3
in queue with NRC certification

[19] Nuclear Waste (do you find it attractive to be radioactive?)
3 - Cumulative nuclear = 1420 GW*year (1957-2000)
4 - Issues with nuclear = economics, radioactive waste disposal (high- and low-level),
safety, and security (proliferation & terrorism)
6 - Fuel consumption and waste generation for crude oil, coal, LNG, and nuclear
7 - Characteristics of Uranium - U235 is fissionable with only slow neutrons and U238 is
fissionable with only fast neutrons. Naturally occurring, but okay in rocks because it's
locked and stable.
14 - Nuclear fuel cycle and waste generation (flow chart)
23-24 - Why Yucca Mountain? Other repositories half its size. Three Types of Waste
Packages, including defense material (very advanced)
27-28 - Dose rates with different scenarios -- nominal performance have more distant
effects than human intrusion. NOT a prediction. Evaluation based on several
assumptions. Depository should last tens of thousands of years.
30-34 and 38 - Issues with geologic disposal, primarily spent fuel accumulation (capacity
a limiting factor). Final closure requires being able to close it and walk away (so that it's
not a concern for future generations).

[20] Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
3:     Why the Hydrogen Promise/Hype: high energy density/storage capacity
7:     Electrolysis: join together H & O to generate electricity, 40% efficiency
9:     Components of fuel cell
13:    Fuel cell basics diagram
17:    Fuel Cell Operating Principle
18:    Basic Fuel Cell Operation
19:    Major types of fuel cells
26:    Fuel cell operating principle diagram 2
51:    Fuel Cell Vehicle Economics
52:    Fuel Cell Vehicles & DG
53:    Comparison of Emission Factors

[21] Renewable Energy
4:     Global Renewable Facts
23:    Turbine Efficiency
23:    Utility Scale vs. Small Wind
27:    US Wind Resources
31:    US Wind Power Capacity
35:    Wind Energy Market Barriers
36:    Wind Energy Market Advantages
41:    Positive Impacts of State RPS Policies
42:    Design requirements for an effective RPS
48:    Comparison of Policies
51:    Installed Solar PV Capacity
55:    How Solar Cell Works
57:    What do you get out of PV module?
60:    PV Device Types
77:    2005 Cost of Electricity Generation
79:    Learning Curve
82:    Factors driving cost reduction

[22] Modern Biomass
3 – Biomass is not a very efficient alternative energy source on a land-area basis
5 – Biomass has not been following the same learning curves as other energy sources
       (linear as opposed to exponential)
6 – Gasoline prices and ethanol production are correlated
7 – Biofuels forecast: a growth industry; Rough estimate: 20 gal ethanol/ton biomass
8/9 – Biofuels processing pathways
11 – Ethanol is marginally better/worse than gasoline on a GHG and energy-input basis
17/18 – Comparison of biofuel feedstocks
22 – How to satisfy biofuel needs with limited land area
28 – Low-carbon fuels
31 – Carbon footprint of fuels must consider indirect land-use changes, as well
38-45 – Trade-offs between food and fuel
46-50 – Modern agriculture is input-intensive

[23] Energy and Transportation
4 – Why transportation energy is important
6 – Vehicle innovation has not been direct towards raising fuel economy
8 – Hubbert’s Peak and “fuel wedges”
13 – Economically recoverable oil and everything after
18 – FT chemistry
22 – Driving is bad for the environment
32 – Gasoline use in a vehicle
44 – CAFÉ stagnation

[17/24] Energy & Environmental Justice
Definitions: Justice relates to the equitable distribution of benefits and adverse costs.
        Justice should not be based on race, beliefs, class, etc.
9       Theories of justice
            Utilitarian: a harm is equal to a negative benefit
                e.g. one person getting cancer = 5 people not getting nice cars
            Maximin: A harm is not equal to a negative benefit. Top priority of society
            should be minimizing human suffering; funding directed to most vulnerable
            Rawlsian: complicated. See slides 10-12
            Simple Equity
                e.g. per-capita carbon caps
17      Lorenz curve shows income distributions. A 45% line is complete equity, the
        farther the line droops, the less equitable the distribution.
26      Community monitoring: “Grab bag” and “Bucket brigade” (sample collections)
50      What Climate Change Actions different theories of justice lead to
53-56 EJ examination of oil in Nigeria
        Adverse consequences (pollution, political repression to enforce inequities)
        mostly stay in Nigeria
        Benefits (profits & product) are mostly exported
        Community-led initiatives to demand EJ

[25-28] Climate Change
6: basic climate model
7: more accurate climate model
8: relative effect of different GHGs
9: radiative forcing: positive and negative ones plus their level of understanding
12: CO2 emissions by countries (note developed vs. developing countries trends)
13: industry and land use change are the major GHG sources
**15: CO2 sources and sinks
16: know the relative size of carbon pools (ie, ocean swamps land & atmosphere carbon)
18: direct, indirect, and questionable (clouds) feedbacks
**20: evidence of anthropogenic causes of climate change via modeling climate change
with and without human effects
(22-40): these slides give many examples of climate change evidence, including temp
increases, increases in weather intensity (storms, downpours), melting land and sea ice,
(41-47): these slides make the point that human activity is directly contributing to climate
change: increased fossil fuel production, land use change, current levels compared to
vostock ice core record, etc.
49: b/c of 100 residence time of CO2, we have yet to realized the full effect of current
CO2 level.
(50-55): if antarctica ice sheets or greenland ice melts, the resulting sea level rise will
have some major effects on low-lying lands
**55: Carbon stock and flow diagram
(57-59): thermohaline potential disruption at various CO2 levels
**60: direct and indirect health impacts
63: evolution of energy intensity per country -- important in assigning responsibility and
committing to future policy (developed vs. undeveloped on the rise)
**65: CO2 emissions and GDP relationship
67: possible actions
**68: IPAT
69: stabilization pathways -- 550ppm (2X pre-industrial levels) is target
72: economic consequences of climate to 2000
**73: developed vs. developing, past and current emissions = the crux of climate policy
75: political mechanisms, international (Kyoto, IPCC) and domestic
85: towards equal per capital emissions
88: stabilization triangle
**90-92: the wedges
93: solution science
94: AB32: 1990 CO2 levels by 2020
95: CA's climate policy is implemented at the national scale
**96-97: Vattenfall curve
(98-100): the woes of energy R&D funding -- a steady decline after the 70s
blip, much less than other federal spending

The 2nd does not seem to have new important slides different from the first
huge pdf.

The 3rd climate change lecture pdf talks about Bali and gives some UN plans for climate
policy. Slide 2: international businesses signing the Prince of Wales letter and the pros
and cons of businesses agreeing that govt should take action vs taking action themselves