SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM FOR THE DEGREE

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					   SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE




CURRICULUM FOR THE DEGREE PROGRAMME OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT




             November, 2004
                                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................ii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..........................................................................................................................iii
   Background Information .......................................................................................................................iii
   The Programme ...................................................................................................................................iii
   Financial Implications and General Requirements...............................................................................iii
1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 1
2.0 JUSTIFICATION .............................................................................................................................. 1
3.0 OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................. 2
   3.1     General Objective ................................................................................................................... 2
   3.2     Specific Objectives.................................................................................................................. 2
4.0 THE M.Sc. PROGRAMME .............................................................................................................. 2
   4.1      Name and Duration of the Degree Programme ..................................................................... 2
   4.3     Regulations for the M.Sc. (Wildlife Management and Conservation) degree programme...... 2
5.0 LIST OF COURSES ........................................................................................................................ 3
   5.1     First Year of Study .................................................................................................................. 3
   5.2     Second Year of Study ............................................................................................................. 4
6.0 COURSE CONTENTS..................................................................................................................... 4
   6.1     Core Courses.......................................................................................................................... 4
   6.2     Elective Courses ..................................................................................................................... 6
7.0 FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS.......................................................................................................... 10
   7.1     General Requirements.......................................................................................................... 10
   7.3     Fees ...................................................................................................................................... 10
8.0 COMMENCEMENT OF THE PROGRAM ..................................................................................... 10
9.0 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 11




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background Information
Tanzania is endowed with a diversity of wild animals that are found in diverse habitats throughout the
country. This wildlife resource has socio-economic and cultural importance not only at national level
but globally. Wildlife has a great potential for tourism, wildlife farming and ranching, and export of live
animals, and offers considerable employment opportunities in various wildlife-based businesses. The
wildlife sector has the potential to play a substantial role in the national economy and it is projected to
contribute up to 5% of the GDP by the year 2025. Thus, the sector can greatly contribute to poverty
reduction and improve the quality of life of the people of Tanzania. Currently about 28% of the total
land area in Tanzania has been set-aside as wildlife-protected areas including National Parks, Game
Reserves, Game Controlled Areas, and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In order to achieve good
conservation and sustainable utilization of the wildlife resources a pool of well-trained human resources
in the sector is required. However, the wildlife sector does not have enough human resources to carry
out conservation activities. This calls for increased training particularly at advanced levels.

The Programme
The degree programme of Master Science in Wildlife Management and Conservation aims to train
skilled human resource at an advanced level in wildlife management to alleviate the deficiency of high
cadre human resource in the wildlife sector, but also have requisite entrepreneurial knowledge and
skills to participate in the private sector. Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) started offering
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree programme in Wildlife Management in 1998. Most of the graduates
are potential candidates for this programme. In addition, the programme is designed to attract Bachelor
of Veterinary Medicine graduates and BSc graduates in allied biological sciences. The programme is
also likely to attract applicants from the rest of the East African countries and SADC regions. The
expected enrolment is 10-15 students per academic year. Full-time students will complete the degree
in two years, while part-time students will have up to three years. In the first year of study, students will
take a minimum of 16 credits of taught courses, comprising of 11.5 credits of core courses and at least
5 credits of elective courses. During the second year, subject to approval of research proposals,
students will conduct original research and write dissertations. This will allow specialization in different
disciplines of wildlife management and conservation.

Financial Implications and General Requirements
The Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation will offer the course in collaboration with the Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine. The core teaching staff will include academic members of these two faculties
but staff from other faculties will also be engaged in specialized courses depending on their expertise
and specializations. Part–time lecturers will be invited whenever certain expertise does not exist locally.
Existing facilities are sufficient to initiate the programme but more will be needed later. Seminar rooms
in both Faculties will be used for lectures and seminars. Training will also be conducted in the Zoology
Laboratory already approved for construction. Most of the field practical training will be conducted within
the nearby Mikumi National Park. At least 10 desktop computers and one Toyota Land Cruiser
(Hardtop) costing Tshs 60 million will be needed within the next two years to provide adequate training
for the 10 to 15 students per year. The fees for the MSc Wildlife Management and Conservation
programme will be as per existing SUA postgraduate regulations.




                                                     iii
1.0       INTRODUCTION
Tanzania is endowed with a diversity of wild animals that are found in diverse habitats throughout the
country. This wildlife resource has socio-economic and cultural importance not only at national level
but globally. Apart from being a unique national heritage, wildlife has a great potential for tourism,
wildlife farming and ranching, and export of live animals. Wildlife also offers considerable employment
opportunities to society through a variety of wildlife-based businesses and contributes to livelihood of
some communities. Realizing the importance and potential of wildlife, the Government of Tanzania has
set aside about 28% of the total land area as wildlife protected areas (MNRT, 1998). These include
National Parks, Game Reserves, Game Controlled Areas, and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area

The wildlife sector has the potential to play a substantial role in the national economy and it is projected
to contribute up to 5% of the GDP by the year 2025 (MNRT, 1998). Thus, the wildlife sector can greatly
contribute to poverty reduction and improve the quality of life of the people of Tanzania. This requires
good conservation and sustainable utilization of the wildlife resources that cannot be achieved without
trained human resource at various levels in the sector.

Although, Tanzania's wildlife sector has continued to grow since independence, it has continued to face
a number of problems, which can be attributed to diverse factors, some of which have political, social-
economic and cultural dimensions.. In addition, there has been rapid increase in human population in
the country resulting into rapid increase in demand for land-based resources and an increase in wildlife-
livestock and human interactions and emergence of diseases (Machange, 1988; Roelke-Parker, 1996;
Fyumagwa et al., 2002).

Furthermore, the wildlife sector human resource is less than 50% of the requirement and most of it is of
low cadre, mainly trained as wildlife ecologists and or biologists (Boshe 1996, MNRT 1998). This has
certainly resulted in part to the slow development of the wildlife sector in this country, as the current
trend to modern wildlife conservation strategy demand for a multidisciplinary approach and requires the
skills of other professionals. Training of professional cadre in wildlife related fields is carried out at the
University of Dar-es-Salaam (Zoology and Wildlife Ecology) and Sokoine University of Agriculture
(SUA) (Wildlife Management, Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science). These graduates are among
the potential candidates for the proposed programme.

For the wildlife sector to build more capacity to conserve the wildlife resources, advanced training in the
field of wildlife management and related fields is essential. In responding to this challenge, SUA
proposes to start a Master of Science in Wildlife Management to address the problem of the human
resource at a higher level in the wildlife sector. This programme is meant to be multi-disciplinary,
versatile, flexible and attractive to many graduates from SUA and elsewhere who did life sciences
degrees and are interested to work in the wildlife sector. The programme is also likely to attract
applicants from the rest of the East African countries and SADC region.

2.0     JUSTIFICATION
The establishment of the M.Sc. in Wildlife Management is pertinent due to the following reasons:
(i)     The wildlife resource requires competent human resource for effective conservation through
        good management and research.
(ii)    There is a large number of graduates in wildlife related fields who are eager to have advanced
        training in wildlife field. A survey conducted of some of the BSc. Wildlife Management
        graduates indicated that they supported the idea and would apply for the programme. Many of
        these candidates are currently forced to go abroad for MSc. degree in wildlife programmes.
                                                      1
(iii)   Wildlife institutions contacted indicated a need for the degree programme and a few were even
        ready to support the programme through part-time lecturing.
(iv)    The programme will build capacity for wildlife research by Tanzanians, which currently is mainly
        done by foreigners.
(v)     The programme will also attract applicants from the East African countries, SADC region and
        other African countries.


3.0     OBJECTIVES
3.1     General Objective
The main objective of the programme is to train human resource at an advanced level in wildlife
management and conservation capable of effective planning and managing wildlife resources within
and outside Tanzania.
3.2     Specific Objectives
(i)     To provide advanced training in various aspects of wildlife management, conservation and
        health.
(ii)    To equip graduates with entrepreneurial skills to work in various wildlife and allied sectors.

4.0     THE M.Sc. PROGRAMME
4.1     Name and Duration of the Degree Programme
The name of the degree shall be: Master of Science in Wildlife Management (M.Sc. WM). The
degree programme shall comprise of course work and dissertation. Full-time students shall complete
the degree for a period of two years, while part-time students may take three years.

4.2       Examination and Award of a Degree
In the first year of study, students shall take course work with a minimum of 16 credits from both core
and elective (optional) courses. Students shall be required to take all core courses and a minimum of five
credits from elective courses. Students shall be examined in each course through continuous assessment
and written examination. There shall be a practical examination for some courses. During the second year,
subject to approval of research proposals, students shall conduct independent research and write
dissertations. Assessment of research shall be by dissertation.

4.3     Regulations for the M.Sc. (Wildlife Management) degree programme
4.3.1 General Regulations
The general regulations and guidelines for the higher degrees of the Sokoine University of Agriculture
as published by the University Prospectus shall apply.

4.3.2 Admission Requirements
The following shall be eligible for admission:
    a)      Holders of Bachelor of Science in Wildlife Management of SUA with a minimum of lower
            second or from other institutions recognised by the SUA Senate.
    b)      Holders of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine degree of SUA or from other institutions
            recognised by the SUA Senate. In addition, the candidate shall have scored at least FIVE
            B grades or its equivalent in the undergraduate BVM Programme.
    c)      Holders of Bachelor of Science in Forestry, Animal Science, and Agriculture General, of
            SUA with a minimum of lower second or from other institutions recognised by the SUA
            Senate.

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    d)      Holders of Bachelor of Science in Zoology, Biology, Wildlife Ecology, Range Management
            with a minimum of lower second from other institutions recognised by the SUA Senate.
    e)      Candidates with Pass degree in the relevant field will be considered for admission if they
            have exhibited academic potential through extensive fieldwork, subsequent research
            experience and/or additional training.
    f)      Holders of Postgraduate Diploma in Wildlife Management from other institutions
            recognised by SUA Senate.

5.0    LIST OF COURSES
5.1    First Year of Study
5.1.1 Core Courses
The core courses for the first year are shown below:

Course         Course                                       Contact Hours        Credit
Ante           Name                                                              Hours
                                                            L       P     S
WM 600         Biostatistics                                30      60    -      2.0
WM 601         Research Methods, Planning and               20      -     20     1.0
               Management
WM 602         Wildlife Resource Assessment                 30      30    -      1.5
WM 603         Wildlife Protected Area Management           30      30    -      1.5
WM 604         Wildlife Economics and Entrepreneurship      20      -     20     1.0
WM 605         Capture, Care and Transportation of          15      30    30     1.5
               wildlife
WM 606         Wildlife Ecology and Conservation            20      -     20     1.0
WM 607         Wildlife Extension, Communication and        15      -     30     1.0
               Community Development
WM 617         Ecotourism Planning and Management           20      -     20     1.0
Total                                                                            11.5

5.1.2 Elective Courses
The following are suitable elective courses but students may in addition select any other relevant SUA
approved postgraduate courses

Course         Course                                       Contact Hours        Credit
Ante           Name                                                              Hours
                                                            L       P     S
WM 608         Wildlife Policies and Jurisprudence          20      -     20     1.0
WM 609         Animal Behaviour                             20      20    -      1.0
WM 610         Biodiversity Conservation                    30      30    -      1.5
WM 611         Sustainable Utilization of Wildlife in the   20      -     20     1.0
               Tropics
WM612          Wildlife Population and Ecosystem Health     20      20           1.0
WM 613         Plant Community Ecology                      20      20    -      1.0
WM 614         Animal Kingdom                               40      20    -      1.5
WM 615         Conservation Genetics                        30      20    10     1.5
WM 616         Wetlands Conservation                        25      10    -      1.0
                                                     3
WM 618         Social Ecology of Natural Resources            20      -      20      1.0
WM 619         Pest Management                                20      20     -       1.0
WM 620         Wildlife Diseases and Diagnostics              30      20     10      1.5
WM 621         Risk Assessment and Modelling                  20      10     10      1.0
WM 622         Wildlife Ranching and Farming                  20      -      20      1.0
WM 623         Special Study                                  5       -      20      0.5

5.2     Second Year of Study
Candidates will be required to pass all courses of the first year and an approved research proposal
before they are allowed to undertake research and write a dissertation in the second year.

6.0     COURSE CONTENTS
6.1     Core Courses
WM 600 Biostatistics (30L-60P; 2.0 credits)
Objective: To impart to students the basic statistical models and methods including data management
and analysis in wildlife management by using general statistical packages/computer software.
Course contents: Review of statistical concepts, introduction to statistical methods with emphasis on
application in life sciences. Types and description of data. Description of samples and population,
sampling techniques, probability and binomial distribution, estimation of population mean, comparison
of two independent mean. Statistical principles of experimental design, analysis variance and multiple
comparison of treatment means; covariance analysis. Relationship between two continuous variables,
simple and multiple linear regression analysis; non-linear regression, logistic regression, probit analysis.
Non-parametric techniques, contingency tables. Multivariate techniques. Software applications.

WM 601 Research Methods, Planning and Management (20L-20S; 1.0 credit)
Objective: To impart to the candidates the role and character of research, history of philosophy and
organization of scientific ideas.
Course contents: Introduction to nature of scientific enquiry, concepts of causation, literature review
and the research question; use of the library and the internet for literature search. Conceptualisation
and measurement; data collection instruments, validity, research study designs, threats to validity;
selection of study subjects and size. Planning for data collection, management and analysis. Research
ethics; research project management; the research proposal; characteristics of empirical research, the
analysis of data graphically and statistically. Interpretation of research results, report writing and
presentation. Evaluation of research performance.

WM 602 Wildlife Resource Assessment (30L- 30P; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To impart to the candidates practical skills and methods of assessing wildlife populations to
enhance the management and utilization of the resource.
Course contents: Ecological investigations, philosophy of ecological science. Animal census -
identifying and counting animals, processing and interpreting census data. Designing survey and
monitoring schemes – large and small mammals survey and monitoring, waterfowl and terrestrial bird
surveys, invertebrate surveys. Monitoring bird migrations. Catching and marking animals including
small mammals trapping. Evaluating population changes. Reproductive and indices of body condition.
Risk and risk assessment. Habitat evaluation, analysis and mapping. Home range estimation.
Telemetry; principles and equipment, standard radio telemetry, global positioning system (GPS),
satellite-based telemetry.
                                                    4
WM 603 Wildlife Protected Area Management (30L-30P; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To impart to students practical skills of managing wildlife protected areas to enhance the
management of the resource.
Course contents: Modern concepts of protected areas. Problems and challenges of establishing and
managing protected areas in tropical countries. Legal aspects of protected area management.
Integrating protected areas into regional land-use programmes. Local people and protected areas –
protected areas and indigenous people; protection of cultural and historical sites. Management of
natural resources in protected areas – maintenance of genetic diversity; managing rare and
endangered animals; management of over-abundant populations; introductions, reintroductions and
translocations of animals; management for maintenance of hydrological regimes. Directing research for
protected area management. Evaluating the effectiveness of management – evaluating progress in
terms of time schedules, assessing attainment of goals, evaluating cost-effectiveness, use of checklists
in evaluating management. Environmental impact assessment; principles, standard methods of
assessment and definition of the scale.

WM 604 Wildlife Economics and Entrepreneurship (20L-20S; 1.5 Credit)
Objective: To enable students understand economic impacts of wildlife management and impart skills
and attitudes on wildlife entrepreneurships.
Course contents: Principles of economics and their relevance to wildlife management. Wildlife use
value analysis. Advanced economic valuation of wildlife. Market failure as disincentives for wildlife
conservation. Economic instruments as incentives for wildlife management. International economic
policies and wildlife management. Significance of wildlife in local, national and regional economies.
Introduction to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship careers. General enterprising tendencies. Market
analysis and development processes. Wildlife enterprise for sustainable development. Enterprise
feasibility and project guidelines.

WM 605 Capture, Care and Transportation Wildlife (15L-30P-30S; 1.5 Credit)
Objective: To enable students to understand and apply principles of immobilization, care and
transportation of wild animals.
Course contents: Principles of physical and chemical immobilization. Basic pharmacology of
immobilising drugs. Types and safe usage of wildlife capture equipment. Principles of safe handling of
mammalian, avian and reptile species. Anesthesiology of wildlife species. Handling and care of wildlife
species under physical and chemical immobilization. Problems associated with animal capture, sample
taking and data collection. Mass capture techniques. Transportation. Management of released wild
animals. Occupational health, practical training in approaching dangerous animals.

WM 606 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (20L- 20S; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To enable students to understand and apply ecological and conservation concepts.
Course contents: Discussion on concepts of ecosystem, natural communities and population ecology.
Population dynamics, factors affecting population dynamics. Habitat selection and dispersal. Density-
dependence, -independence, cycles, eruptions, chaos, population regulation, and viability. Population
interaction such as predator-prey interactions. Concept of resource partitioning. Grazing and browsing
systems. Responses of wildlife to fire. Plant-animal interactions; wildlife-livestock and human
interactions. Restoration ecology.




                                                   5
WM 607 Wildlife Extension, Communication and Community Development (15L-30S; 1.0 credit)
Objective: To enable students to understand how social, cultural and gender issues affect Wildlife and
be able to apply principles of extension for wildlife conservation.
Course contents: Practice of planning from a community perspective. Techniques for community
visioning, goal setting and master planning. Using regulations to guide conservation. Advocacy roles of
“citizen,” “reformer,” and “organizer.” Designing curricula and memoranda of understanding (MoUs).
Conflict resolution. Designing an extension programme. Participatory rural appraisal exercises.
Principles and processes of communication; types of communication. Developing communication
strategies. Principles of community development, social, cultural and gender issues. Action planning
process, networking and linkage. Case studies.


WM 617 Ecotourism Planning and Management (20L- 20S; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to develop, market and
manage ecotourism activities.
Course Contents: Review of current tourist industry operations and practices, organization,
management and structure of the tourism industry. Introduction to ecotourism, niche for ecotourism
today. Ecotourism planning, marketing and management. Ecotourism and community development.
Ecotourism's implications for sustainable development and environmental conservation. Management
issues pertaining to the establishment and operations of a travel agency, travel agency licensing, IATA
accreditation and financial management issues.

6.2     Elective Courses

WM 608 Wildlife Policies and Jurisprudence (20L- 20P; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To enable students understand and apply policy and legislation knowledge in wildlife
conservation.
Course contents: Fundamentals of the policy process. Approaches in implementing policy objectives,
Role of government in effective management of wildlife and other natural resources. Analysis of wildlife
policies from different countries. Policy evaluation. Basic legal concepts; legislation. Legislation
governing wildlife and wildlife products, Analysis of wildlife legislation from different countries. Overview
of international agreements/Conventions/Protocols related to wildlife conservation. Enforcement of
legislation/conventions. Forensic science in trade and law enforcement, Ethics and welfare issues
related to wildlife conservation, production systems, research, capture, transportation, slaughter.

WM 609 Animal Behaviour (20L-20P; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To impart to the students knowledge on behaviour of wild animals and their importance to
wildlife conservation.
Course contents: Evolutionary approach to behaviour. Genetics and evolution. Analysis of animal
behaviour in natural and experimental settings. Control and organisation of animal behaviour; nervous
systems, hormones and biological clocks. Motivation, physiological mechanisms, adaptations and
evolutionary behaviour. Development of behaviour and learning and sociology. Evolution of feeding
behaviour and habitat selection. Social behaviour including agonistic, aggressive, defence and flocking
or grouping behaviour. Evolution of communication, reproductive behaviour, mating systems and
parental care, and their importance. Communication and migration, Predatory and anti-predator
behaviour. Social organization: advantages of grouping, dominance, territoriality and migration. Social
organization of selected African wildlife animals.
                                                     6
WM 610 Biodiversity Conservation (30L-30P; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To impart to the candidates the concept of biodiversity in wildlife protected area
management and links to sustainable development.
Course contents: Terrestrial, aquatic and managed ecosystems. Concepts of biological diversity,
properties and values of biological diversity, biological diversity and ecosystem integrity, managing
biodiversity. Assessing, conserving and monitoring of biological diversity. Agricultural land
management for biodiversity conservation, integrated biodiversity conservation for sustainable
development. Landscape approach to biodiversity conservation. Strategies in biological diversity
conservation: - institutional and policy issues in biodiversity conservation, gender and equity issues in
biodiversity conservation, biodiversity tenure and property rights, institutional strategies, existing
framework of biodiversity policies.

WM 611 Sustainable Utilization of Wildlife in the Tropics (20L-20S; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To enable the candidates understand and use concepts for sustainable utilization of wildlife,
biodiversity and habitats for sustainable management (in the tropics).
Course contents: Classification of wildlife production and management systems; single species
production (including captive breeding programmes). The concept of sustainable utilisation. Types of
wildlife utilization; photo-tourism, hunting, live animal trade, trophies and animal mounts (taxidermy).
Principles and methodology for wildlife and wildlife product inspection and regulation. Sustainability in
wildlife utilization. Wildlife products valuation, stock appraisal, capital theory, land expectation
investment criteria and its application in wildlife. Acquiring, processing, preservation, storage,
transportation, and uses of wildlife products. Concepts and methods of harvest management including
simple population models and maximum sustained yields; general harvest theory and harvesting
strategies. Population and ecosystem health analysis in wildlife utilization programmes.

WM 612 Wildlife Population and Ecosystem Health (20L- 20P; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To impart to the students basic concepts and methods for managing wildlife population and
ecosystem health.
Course Contents: Population and ecosystem health. Developing population and ecosystem health
goals. Identification, measuring and analysis of factors affecting population and ecosystem health.
Designing monitoring systems, Monitoring and evaluation indicators. Genetic aspects of wildlife
population and ecosystem health. Dynamics of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Important
differences between diseases in wild and domestic animals, Methods of disease and vector control;
monitoring and surveillance. Impact assessment concepts and methods. Incorporation of ecosystem
goals into community and regional goals. International conventions on disease surveillance, control and
trade.

WM 613 Plant Community Ecology (20L- 20P; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To impart to the candidates knowledge on different tropical plant communities and the
environmental factors influencing their development, and imparting vegetation measurement and
analysis skills.
Course Contents: Community concepts and the history of vegetation science. Characterization of a
plant community. Techniques of vegetation measurement and analysis. Theories of plant associations.
Vegetation gradients; zonation and succession. Classification and ordination of plant communities.
Environmental factors, their interrelationships and influence on plant growth and development. Role of
fire and animals on vegetation development. Description and classification of vegetation types of
tropical Africa; their ecology and interrelationships.
                                                   7
WM 614 Animal Kingdom (40L- 20P; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To enable students to classify members of the animal kingdom and understand their
evolutionary relationships and adaptability to their environments
Course Contents: Evolutionary relationships of animal phyla. Classification of animals. Invertebrates:
basic structure and biology of Protozoa, Nematoda, Mollusca and Anthropoda, including their
importance in causing or in transmitting diseases. Vertebrates: - The chordate plan, its establishment
and elaboration as exemplified by the lower chordates. The adaptability of the plan as seen in the lives
of modern amphibia, reptilia, aves and mammalia. Practical training will include observation and
identification of preserved specimens of representative invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds and
mammals.

WM 615 Conservation Genetics (30L- 20P-10S; 1.5 credits)
Objective: To provide students with genetic knowledge and skills necessary to protect the genetic
structure and diversity of wildlife populations
Course Contents: Genetic structure of population; genes, genotypes and phenotypes, genotypic and
allelic frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage
disequilibrium. Changes in genetic structure of populations; mutation, genetic drift and the founder
effect, coalescence, migration, natural selection, non-random mating. Population substructure;
hierarchical population structure, effects of population substructure, F-Statistics. The Wahlund principle,
effective population size, inbreeding and its effects. Molecular genetics; DNA structure, DNA replication
and transcription and translation. The genetic code and regulation of genetic message. Conservation
genetics; importance of genetic diversity, molecular genetic techniques for studying genetic diversity,
measurement of genetic diversity within and among populations, molecular phylogenetics. Methods in
conservation of genetic diversity.

WM 616 Wetlands Conservation (25L- 10P; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To provide knowledge on ecological and socio-economic importance of wetlands and
conservation measures at national and international level
Course Contents: Identification of different types of wetlands and their distribution; characterization
and classification of wetlands, wetland delineation. Identification of flora and fauna inhabiting different
types. Wetlands of Tanzania. Ecological and socio-economic values of wetlands. Wetland inventory
and assessment. Existing and potential threats to wetlands; mitigation measures to wetland
degradation. International conventions of relevance to the conservation of wetlands.


WM 618 Social Ecology of Natural Resources (20L- 20S; 1.0 credit)
Objective: To impart to the candidates the understanding of the relationship and importance of social
and ecological dimensions for sustainable natural resources conservation.
Course contents: The social theory and natural resources: usable knowledge and social ecology. A
biophysical perspective to natural resources issues. The cultural basis of natural resources. Resource
systems as social systems. The ecosystem as a core concept in social ecology. Wildlife and myth: the
symbolic content of human-animal interactions. Planned change and social order: resource
development in the world. Energy-society relations: hard vs soft energy paths. From social science to
social policy: assessing social impact. The sociology of public involvement. The role of science in
natural resource management.



                                                    8
WM 619 Pest Management (20L-20P; 1.0 credits)
Objective: To train students on various wildlife pests and their impacts, and to impart practical skills on
damage assessment and control techniques.
Course contents: Identification of major wildlife pests including mammals, birds and reptiles. General
biology, ecology and population studies of the pests. Impacts of pests to agriculture, forestry, livestock
and humans including transmission of diseases, crop and livestock losses, and loss human lives.
Socio-economic impacts to communities and to the nation. Damage situations and their assessment.
Control strategies and methods including those based on pest reproductive physiology and behaviour.
Community participation in pest control and extension methods. Pesticides, hazards and environmental
protection.

WM 620 Wildlife Diseases and Diagnostics (30L- 20P-10S; 1.5 Credit)
Objective: To impart to students knowledge on various wildlife diseases, diagnostics, impacts and their
control.
Course contents: Infectious and non-infectious diseases and infections under single-species and
multi-species production systems and interface areas, transboundary diseases and zoonoses. Autopsy
techniques, hygiene and recording of autopsy findings. Techniques in safe collection, preservation,
shipment and processing of biological materials from wild carcasses, cropped game and immobilized
animals for morphological, microbiological, parasitological, serological and biochemical investigations.
Descriptive techniques and interpretative skills of laboratory diagnosis results, forensic pathology.

WM 621 Risk Assessment and Modelling (20L-10P-10S; 1.0 Credit)
Objective: To impart to students knowledge on systems modelling, general principles of risk
assessment and analysis.
Course contents: Basic concepts of statistics, modelling techniques, Monte Carlo simulation.
Methodology of risk assessment. Risk analysis process. Collection of science-based evidence for risk
assessment. Qualitative and quantitative risk analysis. Pathway analysis and hazard analysis critical
control points (HACCP). Probabilistic scenario analysis and mathematical modelling.

WM 622 Wildlife Farming and Ranching (20L–20S; 1.0 Credit)
Objective: To impart to students principles and practices of wildlife management on farms and
ranches.
Contents: Background to wildlife farming and ranching, principles and guidelines; laws and regulations
governing wildlife farming and ranching in Tanzania and their enforcement;
types and purposes of farms; critical issues in wildlife farming; diseases and parasites on a farms;
species of interest for wildlife farming; management of a wildlife farm. Types of ranches; planning a
wildlife ranch: ecological capacity, designing a stocking program, expected harvest, infrastructure and
equipment; establishing wildlife populations; management of wildlife populations; habitat/vegetation
management; diseases and parasites on a ranch; options for wildlife utilization; economics of wildlife
ranching; wildlife vs livestock. Marketing of farm and ranch products; record keeping. . Contribution of
wildlife farms and ranches to conservation goals; contribution of wildlife farms and ranches to
community development.




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WM 623 Special Study (5L-20S; 0.5 credit)
Objective: This course aims at giving the programme flexibility in meeting candidates’ needs that are
outside the standard “blue print” courses.
Course contents: Identify, within the area of wildlife management and conservation, current topical
issues being discussed both in scientific journals and in the more popular media. Assigned reading,
discussions and/or field investigation on topical issues in Wildlife. The course will be tailored to the
special needs of a candidate. There will be: (a) a presentation of a poster or seminar, and (b) a short
written report.

7.0       FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS
7.1       General Requirements
Existing facilities are sufficient to initiate the programme but more will be needed later. Seminar rooms
within the Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine will be used
for lectures. In addition, the Zoology Laboratory already approved for construction in the Department of
Wildlife Management will also provide additional space for training. Most of the field practical training
will be conducted within the nearby Mikumi National Park. At least 10 desktop computers and one
Toyota Land Cruiser (Hardtop) costing Tshs 60 million will be needed within the next two years to
provide adequate training for the 10 to 15 students per year. The projected cost is shown below:

      Item                                Cost per item (TAS)                 Total Cost (TAS)
      1 Hard-Top Toyota Land                 40,0000,000                         40,000,000
      cruiser
      10 Desk-Top Computers                    20,000,000                         20,000,000
      Total                                                                       60,000,000

7.2       Human Resource

The Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation will offer the course in collaboration with the Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine. The core teaching and technical staff to initiate the programme is available in
the two faculties. Staff from other faculties will also be engaged in specialized courses depending on
their expertise and specializations. Furthermore, part–time lecturers will be invited whenever certain
expertise does not exist locally.

7.3       Fees
The fees for the MSc Wildlife Management programme will be as per existing SUA postgraduate
regulations (DRPGS, 2003).

8.0       COMMENCEMENT OF THE PROGRAM
The program is proposed to start in September 2005 with full time candidates only. Part-time
candidates will be admitted after the first batch of full-time candidates has graduated




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9.0     REFERENCES
Boshe, J. (1996). Models of Wildlife Management: Tanzania. In "African Wildlife Policy Consultation.
         Final Report" ODA, 18-19 April, 1996, Sunningdale Park, Berkshire, UK., Publ. Jay Parkers
         Ltd, pp. 75 - 94.
Fyumagwa, R.D.; Wiiik, H.; Kilewo, M. and East, M.L. (2002). Rabies problems in Moshi Rural District:
         An example of disease conflict in the interface. A paper presented at the 3rd TAWIRI Scientific
         Conference, Arusha, 3-5 December, 2002.
DRPGS. ( 2003). Postgraduate Studies: A Brief Guide. Directorate of Research and Postgraduate
         Studies, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.
Machange, J. (1988). Livestock/Wildlife interaction. Ngorongoro Conservation and development project.
         Technical Report No. 4. IUCN, Nairobi, Kenya.
Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism.(MNRT) (1998). Wildlife Policy of Tanzania. Ministry of
         Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar Es Salaam.
SUA.(2003). SUA Prospectus 2003/2004. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.
Roelke-Parker, M.E.; L.Muson, L.Parker, C.; Kock, R.; Cleaveland, S.; Carpenter, M. ; O’Brien, S.;
         Pospischil, A.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.; Mwamengele, G.L.M.; Mgasa, M.N.; Machage,
         G.A; Summers, B.A. and Appel, M.J.G. (1996). A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti
         lions (Panthera leo). Nature, 379:441-445.




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