Defining Animal Reproduction
Animal reproduction: Process by which offspring are produced by
male and female parents.
Involves heterosexual mating, conception, pregnancy, parturition
Conception results from fusion of male and female gametes (i.e.
spermatozoon and ovum), known as fertilization.
Animals must first attain reproductive age (puberty) before being
capable of producing gametes.
Reproduction involves close coordination of various physiological
events to be successful. This is usually achieved through the action
of reproductive hormones.
Interdisciplinary nature of
Proper understanding of animal reproduction requires knowledge in
diverse fields such as:
Reproductive physiology, endocrinology,
environmental physiology, cell biology,
immunology, genetics, biochemistry, sociology,
reproductive diseases, psychology, embryology,
obstetrics and so on.
Animal reproduction and
economic livestock production
Livestock products such as milk and eggs are directly
from reproductive processes.
Meat production depends on production of young
animals (reproduction) for growing and fattening.
Profitability of livestock enterprise largely depends on
Role of reproduction in genetic
DGy = SD *
GI SD = selection differential
h2 = heritability estimate, and
GI = generation interval in years.