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METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION

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					     METHODS OF
    CONTRACEPTION

      GRADE 9
HEALTHY ACTIVE LIVING
     EDUCATION

HEALTHY SEXUALITY UNIT
    MAJOR CATEGORIES

 Delaying Sexual Involvement
 Barrier Methods
 Hormonal Methods
 Intrauterine Devices
 Surgical Sterilization
 Traditional Methods
 Fertility Awareness Methods
DELAYING SEXUAL
  INVOLVEMENT



       Abstinence
            ABSTINENCE

   Description
    – Choosing not to have vaginal or anal
      intercourse or oral sex
    – Works by not having sperm present to
      fertilize egg
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – No physical side effects
    – Challenges of peer pressure
            ABSTINENCE

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Only method 100% effective for
      protection from pregnancy and STD’s
   Availability/Cost
    – Free; available to anyone
    – Method recommended to ALL teens
BARRIER METHODS


      Male Condom
     Female Condom
        Diaphragm
      Cervical Cap
  Contraceptive Sponge
          MALE CONDOM

   Description
    – Latex sheath placed over erect penis
      BEFORE any sexual contact
    – Prevents sperm from entering vagina by
      blocking it; some also have spermicide to
      kill sperm if condom fails
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Some allergic to latex and use lambskin
      which DO NOT protect from STD’s
          MALE CONDOM

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Proper use yields 97% effectiveness
    – Actual effectiveness closer to 85%
    – Most effective method to reduce
      HIV/STD risk after abstinence
   Availability/Cost
    – Approximately $15 at pharmacy for box
      of 12
    – Free at clinics
        FEMALE CONDOM

   Description
    – Lubricated sheath, similar to male
      condom; closed end inserted into vagina
      and open end remains outside the body
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – No noted side effects
    – Good for those allergic to latex (made of
      polyurethane)
    – Must be comfortable with body to insert
        FEMALE CONDOM

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Up to 95% effectiveness against
      pregnancy if used correctly
    – Actual effectiveness closer to 85%
   Availability/Cost
    – Approximately $15 at pharmacy for box
      of 6
    – Should not be used with male condom
      because they can break or slip
             DIAPRHAGM

   Description
    – Dome-shaped rubber disk
    – Covers cervix to prevent sperm from
      entering AND spermicide kills sperm
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Leave in place 6 hours after intercourse
      but not more than 24 hours (Toxic Shock
      Syndrome risk)
    – Some sensitive to spermicide and may
      get a rash
             DIAPRHAGM

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – If used correctly WITH spermicides 97-
      98% effective
    – Improper use lowers effectiveness to
      75-80%
    – NO STD protection unless used with
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – Prescription only from doctor because it
      must be fitted
           CERVICAL CAP

   Description
    – Similar to diaphragm but smaller
    – Fits over cervix; blocks sperm from
      entering and spermicide kills sperm
    – Insert prior to intercourse
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Wearing longer than 48 hours increases
      TSS risk
    – Those sensitive to spermicide may rash
           CERVICAL CAP

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Up to 97-98% effectiveness against
      pregnancy if used correctly
    – Improper use lowers effectiveness to
      75-80%
    – DOES NOT protect against STD’s unless
      used with a condom
   Availability/Cost
    – Prescription only; must be fitted
CONTRACEPTIVE SPONGE

   Description
    – Disk-shaped polyurethane device soaked
      with spermicide
    – Inserted into vagina to cover cervix
    – Moisten with water to activate
      spermicide
    – Lasts up to 24 hours; leave in at least 6
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Low risk of TSS if left in >30 hours
CONTRACEPTIVE SPONGE

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Rate of pregnancy protection 75-95%
    – NO STD protection unless used with a
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – Approximately $12 at pharmacy for box
      of 3
    – When used with condom a responsible
      and effective choice for pregnancy and
      STD protection
    VAGINAL SPERMICIDES
          ALONE
   Description
    – Foam, cream, jelly, film, suppository or
      tablet forms; contain chemical to kill
      sperm
    – Follow package directions; one dose
      usually effective for 1 hr; remain in
      place 6-8 hrs to kill ALL sperm
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Some are sensitive to substance
    – Can be messy
    VAGINAL SPERMICIDES
          ALONE
   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Spermicide alone about 74% effective
    – NO STD protection
   Availability/Cost
    – Approximately $15 at pharmacy for can
      of foam; $10 for 6 spermicide films
    – Due to low effectiveness rate, SHOULD
      NOT be used on their own
    – Use of condom with spermicide will
      increase effectiveness
  HORMONAL METHODS


     Birth Control Pill (BCP, Oral
             Contraceptives)
             Depo-Provera
 Norplant (Implantable Contraceptive)
  Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP)
     BIRTH CONTROL PILL

   Description
    – Popular birth control method
    – Prevents ovulation (release of egg from
      ovaries) by using hormones
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Safe for most unless a smoker, or
      history of blood clots or some cancers
    – Nausea, headache, breast tenderness,
      weight gain, irregular bleeding,
      depression – these generally go away
     BIRTH CONTROL PILL

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 97-99% effective against pregnancy
      when taken according to instructions
      (every day, approximately same time)
    – Effectiveness reduced with antibiotics
    – NO STD protection unless used with
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – $5-35 per month; prescription only
    – Can be expensive for teens
          DEPO-PROVERA

   Description
    – Synthetic hormone injected into
      buttocks or arm muscle every 3 months
    – Inhibits ovulation, thickens cervical
      mucous, changes uterine lining to prevent
      implantation
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Irregular or missed periods, weight gain,
      nervousness, headaches, nausea, breast
      tenderness
          DEPO-PROVERA

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 99% effective against pregnancy
    – NO STD protection unless used with a
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – Only available from doctor
    – Rarely prescribed for teens as injection
      is irreversible and side effects must be
      endured for duration of 3 months
              NORPLANT

   Description
    – Hormone made of matchstick-sized rods
      surgically implanted under skin of upper
      arm where contraceptive released
    – 6 rods effective for 5 years or until
      removed; 2 rods good for up to 3 years
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Inflammation or infection at site, cycle
      changes, weight gain, breast tenderness
              NORPLANT

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Failure rates are rare but increase with
      increased body weight
    – 97-99% effective against pregnancy
    – NO STD protection unless used with
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – From doctor only
    – Unusual for teens to use as surgery
      difficult to reverse; long term method
        EMERGENCY
     CONTRACEPTIVE PILL
   Description
    – “Morning-After” pill works to delay or
      prevent ovulation or by preventing egg
      from implanting in uterine wall
    – Not effective if egg already implanted
    – Used if unprotected intercourse or
      victim of sexual assault
    – MUST be taken within 24-48 hrs of
      intercourse to be effective
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Nausea, vomiting
        EMERGENCY
     CONTRACEPTIVE PILL
   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 75% effective (generally 8 out of 100
      get pregnant after unprotected
      intercourse; with ECP this drops to 2)
    – NO protection, prevention or treatment
      of possible STD infections
   Availability/Cost
    – Emergency only – not meant as “usual”
      method; counselling mandatory
    – From doctor, clinic or emergency room
INTRAUTERINE DEVICES




     Intrauterine Device (IUD)
    INTRAUTERINE DEVICE
   Description
    – Device inserted into uterus by doctor
      and left in for 1-10 years
    – Not really clear how they work – seem to
      prevent fertilization and/or implantation
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – Pelvic inflammatory disease, etopic
      pregnancy, perforation of uterus,
      heavier periods, cramps (complications
      occurs most often during and
      immediately after insertion)
    INTRAUTERINE DEVICE

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 95-98% effective against pregnancy
    – NO STD protection unless used with a
      condom
   Availability/Cost
    – Only available from doctor
    – Must be low risk for infections
    – Rare for teens to use due to side-
      effects and lack of STD protection
  SURGICAL
STERILIZATION


   Vasectomy (males)
 Tubal Ligation (females)
             VASECTOMY
   Description
    – Intended for those who do not want
      children (more or in the future)
    – Permanent as reversal is often
      unsuccessful
    – Sealing, tying or cutting vas deferens
      (carry sperm from testicle to penis)
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – 30 minute procedure; may bleed or have
      infection, minor swelling and pain
    – If unsuccessful must repeat operation
             VASECTOMY

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 99.9% effective against pregnancy (if
      male has repeat visit with doctor)
    – NO STD protection unless condom used
   Availability/Cost
    – Surgical procedure
    – Usually covered by health plans
    – Not usual option for teens due to
      permanency of procedure
        TUBAL LIGATION
   Description
    – Intended for those who do not want
      children (more or in the future)
    – Permanent as reversal is often
      unsuccessful
    – Sealing, tying or cutting fallopian tubes
      (carry egg from ovary to uterus)
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – General anesthesia complications,
      infection, etopic pregnancy, hemorrhage
    – If unsuccessful must repeat operation
        TUBAL LIGATION

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – 99.9% effective against pregnancy
    – NO STD protection unless condom used
   Availability/Cost
    – Surgical procedure
    – Usually covered by health plans
    – Not usual option for teens due to
      permanency of procedure
TRADITIONAL METHODS




        Douching
       Withdrawal
TRADITIONAL METHODS

   These methods were originally used in
    the absence of other types of birth
    control and methods

      THESE METHODS ARE NOT
    EFFECTIVE PRACTICES AGAINST
    PREGNANCY OR STD’S AND ARE
           NOT RECOMMENDED
              DOUCHING
   Description
    – Rinsing out the vagina with solution
      (water and/or spermicide) immediately
      after intercourse to rid vaginal area of
      semen
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – May alter bacterial balance of vagina and
      cause irritation
    – May push sperm further into uterus
      which INCREASES pregnancy potential
    – STD’s can also be pushed further into
      body and increase change of infection
              DOUCHING

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – <60% rate of success
    – Minimal effectiveness
    – NO STD protection
   Availability/Cost
    – Approximately $4 at pharmacy for 2
    – Cannot use with diaphragm or cap
    – NOT recommended as effective method
      of birth control or STD protection
           WITHDRAWAL
   Description
    – Also called coitus interruptus
    – Man withdraws penis from vagina before
      ejaculation to prevent sperm from
      entering vagina to prevent fertilization
   Side Effects/Negative Implications
    – VERY HIGH RISK of unwanted
      pregnancy or STD transmission
           WITHDRAWAL

   Pregnancy/STD Protection
    – Effectiveness depends on male’s ability
      to withdraw prior to ejaculation
    – Pre-ejaculatory fluid has some sperm
      present
    – <60% rate of success
    – NO STD protection
   Availability/Cost
    – NOT RECOMMENDED as a method of
      birth control or STD protection
FERTILITY AWARENESS




      Calendar Method
   Basal Body Temperature
    FERTILITY AWARENESS
 These methods let a woman know when she
  has MOST LIKELY ovulated, indicating to
  her the most and least likely times she can
  become pregnant
 NOT HIGHLY EFFECTIVE BIRTH
  CONTROL METHODS
 Often used by women who for cultural or
  religious beliefs do not use other forms of
  contraception
 Predictions dependent on regular menstrual
  cycles
      CALENDAR METHOD
   Description
    – Predicts ovulation based on assumption
      that ovulation occurs around 14th day of
      28-day cycle
    – After a few months, fertile and less
      fertile cycle times can be predicted
    – Sperm can live up to 3 days (or longer)
    – Egg lives approximately 1 day (or longer)
    – Cycles must be regular for this
      PREDICTIVE method to work
  CALENDAR METHOD

– Teens have irregular cycles for many
  years during puberty (and often into
  adulthood) as they bodies react to
  hormones released during this time
– NOT RECOMMENDED as a method of
  birth control
– NO STD protection
        BASAL BODY
    TEMPERATURE METHOD
   Description
    – Predicts ovulation based on the increase
      in body temperature during ovulation
    – Similar to, and often used along with,
      the Calendar Method
    – Body temperature rises slightly during
      ovulation
    – Most fertile days are just prior and up
      to 3 days after elevated temperature
      detected
    – Special thermometer used
    BASAL BODY
TEMPERATURE METHOD
– NOT RECOMMENDED as a method of
  birth control
– NO STD protection

				
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