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WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

CPCB in collaboration with concerned SPCBs/PCCs established a nationwide network for water quality
monitoring comprising 1013 stations in 26 States and 6 Union Territories. The monitoring is done on monthly
or quarterly basis in surface waters and on half yearly basis in case of ground water. The monitoring
network covers 200 Rivers, 57 Lakes, 5 Tanks, 3 Ponds, 3 Creeks, 12 Canals, 15 Drains and 320 Wells.
Among the 1013 stations, 589 are on rivers, 61 on lakes, 15 on drains, 12 on canals, 6 on tanks, 3 on
creeks, 7 on ponds and 320 are groundwater stations.

Presently the inland water quality monitoring network is operated under a three-tier programme i.e. Global
Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources System
(MINARS) and Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). Water samples are being analysed for 28 parameters consisting
of 8 core parameters, other physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters apart from the field
observations. Besides this, 9 trace metals and 22 pesticides are also analysed in selected samples.
Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations. In view of limited resources, limited numbers of
organic pollution related parameters are monitored i.e. micro pollutants (Toxic Metals & POPs) are analysed
once in a year. The water quality data is reported in Water Quality Status Year Book.




National Water Quality at a Glance

The water quality data on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater locations being monitored under the
network is evaluated against the water quality criteria and the monitoring locations in exceedence with
respect to one or more parameters are identified as polluted indicating need for action to restore water
quality. Brief details of locations on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater not meeting the criteria are
given below.
•   During 2004, Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD), one of the most important indicators of pollution,
    was observed highest in Amlakhadi river at Ankleshwar (947 mg/L) followed by Markanda river d/s
    Kala Aam, HP (855 mg/L), Khari river at Lali village, Ahmedabad (580 mg/L), River Sabarmati at
    Ahmedabad (380 mg/L), River Kalinadi at Gulauti, UP (165 mg/L), River Hindon at Binauli and
    Saharanpur (90-100 mg/L), River Satluj d/s Ludhiana (64 mg/L), River Khan at Kabitkhedi, Indore,
    MP (60 mg/L), River Musi at Hyderabad (42 mg/L), River Bhima at Pune (42 mg/L), River
    Damanganga d/s Daman (42 mg/L), River Bharalu at Guwahati, Assam (38 mg/L), River Yamuna
    between Delhi and Etawah (10-35 mg/L), River Kalana at Chandel, Goa (37 mg/L), River Tapi at
    Ajanad, Maharashtra (36 mg/L), River Dhadar at Kothala (30 mg/L). Because of high BOD,
    dissolved oxygen in these stretches was observed either nil or very low most of the time in these
    stretches.

•   Total percentages of observations having BOD less than 3 mg/l, 3 to 6 mg/l and above 6 mg/l were
    66%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The total percentage of observations having Total Coliform
    number less than 500 MPN/100 ml was 44%, between 500-5000 MPN/100 ml was 34% and
    exceeding 5000 MPN/100 ml was 22% MPN/100 ml. Similarly the percentage of observations
    having Faecal Coliform bacterial count less than 500 MPN/100 ml was 59%, between 500-5000
    MPN/100 ml was 27% and 14% observations were exceeding 5000 MPN/100 ml.

•   Fecal coliform, another important indicator of pollution, was found to be the highest in Yamuna River
    in Delhi (MPN 3.9 x10 7 ) followed by River Hindon after confluence with River Krishni (2.1x10 6 ),
    River Ganga at Dakshineshwar (7x10 5 ), Rabindrasarovar, Kolkata (8.5x10 5 ), River Damodar at
    Haldia (4x10 5 ), River Khari at Lali Village, Ahmedabad (2.8x10 5 ), River Sabarmati at Ahmedabad
    (2.4x10 5 ), River Bharalu, Assam (2.4x10 5 ), River Ganga at Varanasi ((1.1x10 5 ), River Satluj at
    Ludhiana (0.9x10 5 ), River Tapi at Bhusaval (9x10 4 ), River Kalinadi at Muzaffarnagar (9x10 4 ),
    River Ghaggar (9x10 4 ), River Sabarmati at Ahmedabad (7.5x10 4 ), River Gomti at Lucknow (7x10
    4 ), River Godavari at Nasik (5x10 4 ) and River Musi at Hyderabad (4x10 4 ).

•   Lakes and Tanks that have high concentration of organic matter and do not comply to the standard
    limits for BOD are Hussain Sagar lake, Dharamsagar tank, Bibinagar lake, Kistarareddypet tank,
    Saroornagar lake, Pulicate lake, Gandhigudem tank, Heballa Valley lake, Kayamkula lake,
    Kodungalloor lake, Osteri lake, Bahour lake, Udhagamandalam lake, Kodaikanal lake, Periyar lake,
    Vembanad lake, Ashthamudi lake and Paravur lake. Lakes and Tanks having very low DO and high
    BOD that does not meet the water quality criteria limits are Kankoria Lake, Chandola lake, Pichola
    Lake, Udaisagar lake, Fatehsagar lake, Kayalna lake, Nakki lake, Pushkar lake, Lower lake Bhopal,
    Renuka lake, Harike lake, Naini lake, Ramgarh lake, Rabindra Sarobar lake, Elangabeel System,
    Goy Sagar Tank, Loktak lake at Sendra, Umiam lake at Barapani, Ward Lake at Shillong,
    Thadlaskena lake and Laxminarayan Bari Place Lake.

•   The groundwater monitoring locations, where high conductivity exceeding water quality criteria for
    irrigation were observed at Ramagundam, Bollaram Panchayat Office, Pashamaylam,
    Vishakhapatnam (near Rama Temple) and Kakinada (near Pratap Nagar Bridge) in Andhra
    Pradesh; Nerol in Gujarat; Alwaye in Kerala; Circuit house, old police Barracks, Ottavathilpalli, near
    Helipad, MPSAF Quarters and Government Press in Lakshadweep; along Chunamber river in
    Pondicherry; and Pali, Jodhpur and Vidhani Village (Jaipur) in Rajasthan. Groundwater locations
    with BOD levels higher than the criteria are at Vijayawada, NTPC ash pond- kundanpally, Bibi nagar
    Primary school, Rudravally, near Tungabhadra river in Kurnool and Nandyal in Andhra Pradesh;
    Karbianglong and Bongaigaon in Assam; Kala Amb, Barotiwala and Paonta Sahib in Himachal
    Pradesh; JB School, Kadatpalli, near SB School, Ottavathilpalli and Chakikilum in Lakshadweep;
    Collector Well in Thirupuvanam and along Chunamber river in Pondicherry; near Kansua Nallah in
    Kota, Pali town, Jodhpur in Rajasthan; IOC Refinery Haldia, Barasat municipality in north 24
    Parganas in West Bengal. Total coliforms are exceeding the criteria limits in groundwater locations
    in Silcher, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Sibsagar, Guwahati in Assam, Chekkillam, Government press and
    old Police Barrack in Lakshadweep. pH is observed in acidic range at Kundra in Kollam,
    Punkunnam in Trissur, Kalamassery in Ernakulam, Punalur and Kannur in Kerala; and Capital
        hospital in Bhubaneshwar Orissa.

Water Quality Status of River Yamuna

Central Pollution Control Board is regularly monitoring entire 1376 km stretch of River Yamuna under
National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD/MoEF) sponsored project and under National Water Quality
Monitoring Programme (NWQMP). There are19 sampling locations from the origin of Yamuna River at
Yamunotri to its confluence with Ganga River at Allahabad. The entire stretch of Yamuna River can be
segregated into five distinguished segments/ stretches based on water quality, ecological and hydro-geo-
morphological characteristics. These stretches are Himalayan stretch, Upper Stretch, Delhi Stretch, Mixed
stretch & Diluted Stretch. The water quality characteristics in these stretches of River Yamuna are depicted
in Table below.
Water Quality Characteristics of Various Stretches of River Yamuna (Year 2005)

                                                   Dissolved Biochemical Total           Faecal
                                                   Oxygen    Oxygen      Coliform        Coliform
                Stretch                                      Demand
S. River                                      pH
                details
No. Stretch                Trophic status          mg/l                  Nos./100 ml     Nos./100
                                                             mg/l                        ml
1.   Himalayan 172 km      Oligotrophic Min 6.90 7.2          1.0          80            18
     Stretch   from origin
                                        Max 9.00 11.0         4.0          43,00,000     69,000
               to
               Hathnikund               Av -     9.1          1.4          3,46,577      5,243
               barrage
2.   Upper      224 km     Mesotrophic Min 7.04 5.7           1            2,700         290
     stretch    from
                                       Max 8.73 12.0          7            81,00,000     1,10,000
                Hathnikund
                barrage to             Av -     8.0           2.2          52,583        10,040
                Wazirabad
                barrage
3.   Delhi      22 km from Septic        Min 7.00 0.0         5            17,00,000     2,100
     stretch    Wazirabad
                                         Max 8.21 3.0         35           19,00,00,000 60,00,000
                barrage to
                Okhla                    Av   -    0.7        18.6         2,41,86,364   18,77,136
                barrage
4.   Mixed      930 km     Mesotrophic/ Min 6.77 0.0          3            17,000        900
     stretch    Okhla      Eutrophic/
                                        Max 9.10 17.3         39           26,20,00,000 52,00,000
                barrage to Septic
                river                   Av -     7.1          11.5         1,17,19,422   4,45,090
                Chambal
                confluence
5.   Diluted    628 km     Mesotrophic/ Min 7.46 5.7          1            9,000         1,070
     stretch    River      Eutrophic
                                        Max 8.68 15.4         10           32,70,000     88,000
                Chambal
                confluence              Av -     8.0          4.6          4,32,625      14,742
                to river
                Ganga
                confluence
Water Quality Status of River Yamuna in Delhi Stretch

Central Pollution Control Board is regularly monitoring water quality for entire stretch of River Yamuna at 19
locations. The 22 km long Delhi stretch of river Yamuna is being monitored at three locations i.e. Palla,
Nizamuddin Bridge and Agra Canal in which almost entire river water is diverted from Okhla barrage. The
water quality characteristics during the year 2005 has indicated slight improvement in water quality over
previous year i.e. year 2004, except in terms of Total coliform at Agra canal in spite of the fact that during
the year 2005, the pollution (BOD) load received by the River Yamuna was higher than the previous year.
Improvement in the water quality in Delhi stretch of River Yamuna might be due to availability of higher flow
that diluted the pollutants concentration. As depicted in the Table below, the water quality at the head end of
River Yamuna at Delhi i.e. at Palla (upstream of Wazirabad barrage) is relatively good and meets the
prescribed river water quality standards except in terms of Total coliform, which is generally violating the
standards in the entire river stretch.

After Wazirabad barrage the river water quality at Nizamuddin Bridge was generally observed highly
polluted in the entire Yamuna stretch. It was observed that the water quality of Yamuna river improves to
some extent during monsoon season (July to September) at Nizamuddin Bridge and Agra canal because of
dilution from rainwater, however at Palla where the water quality was comparatively good reflects minor
deterioration during monsoon period mainly because of flushing of pollutants from the catchment areas.

Water Quality of River Yamuna in Delhi Stretch (January – December 2005)


                             Water Quality                Monitored Location
S.
       Parameters            Standard for `C'                        Nizamuddin        Agra Canal (Okhla
No.                                                       Palla
                             class                                   Bridge            Barrage u/s)
                                                 Min      7.09       7.00              7.00
1.     pH                    6.50-8.50
                                                 Max      8.61       7.86              8.21
                                                 Min      6.1        0.0               1.0
       Dissolved Oxygen,
2.                           4.0                 Max      11.2       3.0               3.0
       mg/l
                                                 Av       8.3        0.7               0.8

       Bio-chemical                              Min      1          7                 5.0
3.     Oxygen Demand,        3.0                 Max      4          35                34
       mg/l
                                                 Av       1.9        22.6              14.8

       Total Coliforms                           Min      8000       6200000           170000
4.                           5000                Max      130000     190000000         58000000
       Nos./100 ml
                                                 Av       40842      37010000          13500000

       Faecal Coliforms                          Min      300        210000            210000
5.                           -                   Max      12100      6000000           2000000
       Nos./100 ml
                                                 Av       2930       2952100           981333

Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; Av = Average

The reasons for excessive pollution in Delhi stretch of the River Yamuna is the discharges of wastewater
from domestic and industrial sources through 14 major drains from urban areas of Delhi. Another reason of
pollution in the river is over- exploitation of fresh water from the river, which is essentially required to
maintain self-purification capacity of the river. The water quality of River Yamuna at Delhi stretch is being
restored by strengthening wastewater collection and treatment system. The utilization of treated water for
irrigation purpose and regular release of fresh water in the river will provide improvement in river water
quality at Delhi stretch.

Monitoring of River Water Quality on Interstate Boundaries

East Zone:

The first phase of monitoring of water quality along the interstate/international river boundaries was initiated
during September 2005 at eight selected stations in four rivers. The rivers are Damodar (Jharkhand - West
Bengal), Subarnarekha (Jharkhand - West Bengal - Orissa), Indravati (Orissa - Chattisgarh), Mahanadi
(Chattisgarh - Orissa), Churni (Bangladesh - West Bengal). The water quality of some rivers at interstate
boundaries in East Zone is as below.

West Zone:

There are total 14 River Water Quality Monitoring locations at Interstate boundaries in the Western Zone
(Maharashtra and Gujarat) out of which the following 08 locations were monitored by CPCB Zonal Office
Vadodara.

Water Quality of Some Rivers at Interstate Boundaries (September 2005)

                                                 DO        BOD       Total Coliform Faecal Coliform
       Stations /Parameter               pH
                                                 (mg/l)    (mg/l)    (CFU/100 ml)      (CFU/100 ml)
       Damodar at Sindhri                7.0     6.9       3.0       20800             1200
       Damodar at Dishergarh             6.8     6.5       3.0       30600             4000
       Subarnarekha at Beharagora        7.0     6.8       1.0       12000             4000
       Subarnarekha at Gopiballavpur 7.0         6.4       BDL       132000            3200
       Subarnarekha at Lakkhannath       7.0     6.8       2         47700             3500
       Indravati at Nowrangpur           7.2     6.8       BDL       11200             200
       Mahanadi at Hirakud               7.0     7.2       BDL       5600              100
       Churni at Bijoypur                7.0     3.2       2.9       4100              1500

BDL: Below Detection Limit

Sampling locations on some Rivers at Interstate Boundaries (West Zone)

                S.No        River              Sampling Location
                1           Mahi               Rajasthan - Gujarat Border, Kadana dam
                2           Narmada            Navagam
                3           Sabarmati          Rajasthan – Gujarat Border, Kheroj bridge
                4           Tapi               Madhya Pradesh – Maharashtra Border, Ajnad
                5           Tapi               Maharashtra – Gujarat Border, Prakasha
               6          Tapi                Nizhar
               7          Bhima               Maharashtra – Karnataka border, Takli
               8          Krishna             Maharashtra – Karnataka border, Kurundwad




Bio-Monitoring of Suface Waters Used for Hydroelectric Power Generation

Bio monitoring of various rivers was undertaken in the state of Uttaranchal for water quality assessment
using Biological Water Quality Criteria (BWQC). Out of 63 river stretches studied in Uttaranchal State, 47
river stretches were found clean, 4 river stretches were slightly polluted, 4 stretches were having moderate
pollution and one stretch was heavily polluted. Besides, 7 numbers of river stretches were severely polluted
as indicated by total absence of benthic macro-invertebrates because of the activities of Hydro-electric
power generation project on River Bhagirathi, River Dhauliganga and River Ramganga.

Groundwater Quality Assesment in Metropolitan Cites

CPCB has initiated groundwater quality surveys in large urban centers (Metro-cities) in collaboration with
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, and Pollution Control Research Institute, BHEL, Haridwar. The
study includes collection of information of land use, waste generation & disposal & collection of water
samples from different locations in the city from structures (Hand pump, Tube well, or Dug well) and analysis
of relevant water quality parameters. So far study of 24 metropolitan cities have been completed and reports
on 8 metropolitan cities have been finalised.

The maximum range of chloride concentration (above 1000 mg/L) in groundwater is observed in Chennai
Metropolitan city followed by Vijaiwada, Madurai, Coimbatore, and Agra. Total dissolved solids are observed
in very high range in Chennai followed by Vijaiwada, Coimbatore, Madurai and Agra. The Nitrate
concentration in the three metropolitan cities -Agra, Coimbatore and Meerut – is observed above the
permissible limit whereas in the remaining cities - Lucknow, Ludhiana, Vijaivada, Chennai, and Madurai – it
is observed within the permissible limit. The concentration of Fluoride at Agra, Vijaiwada, Chennai, Madurai
and Coimbatore metropolitan cities are observed above the permissible limit of drinking water whereas
remaining three cities, it was found within the permissible limit. Bacterial quality of groundwater, which is
indicated by the Coliform bacteria, was found adequate in all cities except for Lucknow and Meerut
Metropolitan cities.

Groundwater Quality Problems in Metropolitan cities

S.
        Metro city      Major Anthropogenic Activities                Groundwater Quality Problems
No.
1.      Agra, U.P.      Domestic sewage (about 200 mld)               High concentration of nitrate, fluoride,
                        discharged on open land or through            total hardness, chloride, TDS,
                        drains. The municipal solid waste             calcium, Sulphate, potassium,
                        generation is about 654 T/D. The industrial   magnesium, conductivity and Coliform
                        activity includes Textiles, Hosiery items,    organisms.
                        Wollen, Jute, Footwear, Leather, Metal
                        processing, Machinery parts, Marble, Food     Toxic (heavy) metals Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd
                        processing, Foundries and Handicrafts etc.    and Ni were exceeding the
                                                                      permissible limit for drinking water
                                                                      during pre and post-monsoon
                                                                      seasons.
                                                                    Pesticides such as a -BHC,
                                                                    Endosulphan and Methoxychlor were
                                                                    detected in some samples.
2.   Chennai, T.N.   Domestic sewage (about 268 mld)                High concentration of chloride, TDS,
                     discharged on open land or through             conductivity, Bicarbonate alkalinity,
                     drains. The municipal solid waste              Sulphate, fluoride, calcium (pre-
                     generation is more than 3873 T/D. The          monsoon), total hardness and sodium.
                     industrial activity includes Hides & Skin
                     processing, Tobacco, food grains, Iron and     Toxic (heavy) metals Fe, Pb, Mn, Cd
                     steels, Fertilizers, Paper, Chemicals,         and Ni were exceeding the
                     Sugar, Bone metals and Granites etc.           permissible limit during both the
                                                                    seasons.

                                                                    Pesticides such as Aldrin, a -BHC, d -
                                                                    BHC and Endosulphan were also
                                                                    detected in some samples.
3.   Coimbatore,     Domestic sewage (about 140 mld)                High concentration of TDS, chloride,
     T.N.            dischrged on open land or through drains.      Sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, calcium and
                     The municipal solid waste generation is        total hardness.
                     about 800 T/D. The industrial activity
                     includes Textile, Foundries, Motor Pumps,      Toxic (heavy) metals Fe, Pb, Cr, Ni
                     Water tanks, Steel furniture's, Electric and   are exceeding permissible limit for
                     Electrical appliances, Automobile              drinking purposes.
                     components, Washing machines, Wet
                     grinders, General Engineering industries,
                                                                    Pesticide- a -BHC only was detected
                     Food processing units and Printing             in some samples.
                     machineries etc.
4    Madurai, T.N.   Domestic sewage (about 80 mld)                 High electrical conductivity, TDS,
                     discharged on open land or through             chloride, Bicarbonate alkalinity,
                     drains. The municipal solid waste              Sulphate and fluoride.
                     generation is more than 459 T/D. The
                     industrial activity includes Textile, mills,   Toxic (heavy) metals Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni
                     Dyeing units, Power looms, Handlooms,          and Fe at few locations were
                     Engineering and Mechanical Industries,         exceeding the permissible limit during
                     Steel Rolling mills, Small Scale industries    both the seasons.
                     like Food products, Readymade
                     Garments, Wooden industries, Printing,
                                                                    Pesticides such as Aldrin, a -BHC, b -
                     Molding industries etc.                        BHC, g -BHC and d -BHC were
                                                                    detected in some of the samples.
5.   Meerut, U.P.    Domestic sewage (about 35 mld)                 High concentration of TDS, nitrate,
                     discharged on open land or through             fluoride and alkalinity.
                     drains. The municipal solid waste
                     generation is about 490 T/D. The industrial    Toxic (heavy) metals Fe, Pb, Mn and
                     activity includes Distillery, SSI units such   Ni are exceeding permissible limit for
                     as sports goods, chemicals, food               drinking purposes.
                     processing, surgical goods, engineering
                     works, petrochemicals, rubber, plastic,
                                                                    Pesticide- a -BHC only was detected
                     leather goods, flour mills and readymade       in some samples.
                     garments.
6.   Lucknow, U.P. Domestic sewage discharged on open          High TDS, conductivity, Potassium,
                   land or through drains. The municipal solid Magnesium, Alkalinity, Total Hardness
                   waste generation is more than 475 T/D.      and Total Coliform.
                        The industrial activity includes Chemical,
                        Petroleum storage, Pesticides, Electronic
                        Manufacturing Units, and Breweries etc.
7.      Ludhiana,       Domestic sewage discharged on open          High electrical conductivity and high
        Panjab          land or through drains to receiving system. concentration of Potassium,
                        Municipal solid waste generation is more    Magnesium.
                        than 734 T/D. The industrial activity
                        includes Woolen, Dye, Electroplating,
                        Bicycle, and Textile etc.
8.      Vijaiwada,      Domestic sewage (about 160 mld)               High electrical conductivity, TDS,
        A.P.            discharged on open land or through            Chloride, Bicarbonate alkalinity, Total
                        drains. The municipal solid waste             Hardness, Potassium, Calcium,
                        generation is about 550 T/D. The industrial   Magnesium and fluoride.
                        activity includes Rice mills, Edible Oils,
                        Beverages, Tobacco, Cotton, Paper, Food       Toxic (heavy) metals Fe, Mn, Pb and
                        Processing, Utensils, Drugs, and              Cd were exceeding the permissible
                        Pharmaceuticals, Oil refineries, Motor        limit during both the seasons.
                        Vehicle Parts, Wood and wood products,
                        Ayurvedic medicines, Leather products,
                                                                      Pesticides such as Aldrin, DDE, DDD,
                        Rubber Products, Thermal Power plants         a -BHC, b -BHC, g -BHC,
                        and Milk and Milk Product processing etc.     Methoxychlor and Endosulphan were
                                                                      detected in some samples.

Groundwater quality with respect to compliance status with respect to drinking water standards (IS-10500,
1991) of the critical chemical parameters such as Chloride, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Nitrate-N, Fluoride
are presented in Figure below .
Groundwater Quality Monitoring in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

Groundwater quality has been monitored at 15 major cities in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh
states selecting five cities in each state. Samples were collected from tubewells, handpumps and open
wells, two locations in each category covering residential areas, industrial areas and municipal waste
dumpsites in each city.

Ground Water Quality in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

                                 Parameters
                          Area                        TDS    Alkalinity
City                                   Conductivity                       FC (No
                          Use    pH                                               TC No /100ml)
                                       (m S /cm)                          /100ml)
                                                      (mg/l) (mg/l)
CHATTISGARGH
                          7.05 811 –                  368 –
Bilaspur    Residential              588 – 1090             Nil           12 – 28
                          –7.12 1173                  418
                         6.96
                                 859 –              372 –
           Industrial    –             640 – 1280         Nil       20 – 37
                                 1365               428
                         7.21
                    6.69
           Near MSW              328 –              138 –
                    –                  378 – 590          2         37 – 48
           dumpsite              885                332
                    7.01
                       7.02
                                 541 –              196 –
           Residential –               388 – 410          5         56 – 78
                                 711                242
                       7.30
                         7.12
Raipur                           560 –              204 –
           Industrial    –             402 – 526          Nil – 3   25 – 42
                                 623                328
                         7.15
                    6.92
           Near MSW              705 –              274 –
                    –                  426 – 640          1 – 12    38 – 96
           dumpsite              919                298
                    7.13
                       6.91
                                 870 –              224 –
           Residential –               552 – 1210         Nil       15 – 28
                                 1290               312
                       7.03
Durg -                   7.08
Bhilai                           772 –              178 –
           Industrial    –             510 – 754          Nil – 1   9 – 18
                                 786                238
                         7.12
           Near MSW 7.0 –        752 –              242 –
                                       496 – 506          2–3       31 - 42
           dumpsite 7.01         865                278
                         7.67-   998-               196-
           Residential                  642-706            Nil-     8-13
                         8.05    1142               272

Raigarh                  8.11-   640-               134-
           Industrial                   318-334            Nil-3    11-22
                         8.21    710                188
           Near MSW 7.96-        452-               174-
                                        238-298            Nil-03   12-20
           dumpsite 8.03         469                206
                         7.31-   390-               94-
           Residential                  312-346            Nil      15-29
                         8.01    630                138

Jagdalpur Industrial     7.87-   360-               116-
                                        238-264            Nil-7    11-56
                         8.21    407                154
           Near MSW 7.31-        194-               106-
                                        164-178            02-03    23-37
           dumpsite 7.67         277                144
MADHYA PRADESH
           Residential 7.10      1593   832         296    Nil      7

Jabalpur   Industrial    7.02    1090   1074        162    Nil      21
           Near MSW
                    6.99         646    346         124    2        30
           dumpsite
           Residential 7.22      1621   1040        304    Nil      20

Indore     Industrial    7.42    2019   1408        424    Nil      22
           Near MSW
                    7.44         979    598         204    2        44
           dumpsite
                         7.43– 957-                340-
           Residential                  618-741           Nil-3     19-22
                         7.46 1105                 354

Gwalior                  7.38-   1063-             438-
           Industrial                  704-839            Nil-4     14-25
                         7.72    1278              472
           Near MSW 7.35-        638-              256-
                                        413-632           7-11      55-37
           dumpsite 7.43         991               298
                       7.19
                                 759-              282-
           Residential –                529-1299          Nil – 3   23-28
                                 1869              354
                       7.39

Pune                     7.25
                                 518-              190-
           Industrial    –              329-1009          Nil – 7   10-41
                                 1557              216
                         7.40
           Near MSW
                    7.30         920    694        292    11        46
           dumpsite
                         6.59-   321-              128-
           Residential                  196-614           Nil-600   05-2200
                         7.21    942               380
Bhopal     Industrial    7.05    2000   1552       468    09        28
           Near MSW
                    7.03         1337   990        380    300       1900
           dumpsite
RAJASTHAN
                       7.09
                                 754 --            178 –
           Residential –                422-1080         Nil – 02   08 – 32
                                 1854              200
                       7.34
                         7.40
Jaipur                           477 –             172 –
           Industrial    –             264-276           Nil        12 – 20
                                 482               224
                         7.51
                    7.31         1629
           Near MSW                                294 –
                    –            –      830-2172         04 -- 08   36 – 64
           dumpsite                                336
                    7.67         3450
                       7.48      1062
                                                   348 –
           Residential –         –      608-724          Nil – 04   16 – 24
                                                   368
                       7.54      1224
                         6.96
Udaipur                          1095-             364 –
           Industrial    –             606-7244          Nil        12 – 32
                                 9040              384
                         7.59
                    7.52
           Near MSW              1157-             452 –
                    –                  644-2106          Nil        20 – 240
           dumpsite              2650              512
                    7.58
                       7.52      1059
                                                   272 –
           Residential –         –      612-1786         Nil        08 – 96
                                                   404
                       7.79      2060

Bhilwara                 7.45    1593
                                                   368 –
           Industrial    –       –      884-3846         Nil – 04   20 – 44
                                                   668
                         7.78    4770
           Near MSW 7.28         762 –             204 –
                                       480-1429          Nil        24 – 160
           dumpsite –            2700              384
                           7.73
                         7.65
                                   413 –                  156 –
             Residential –               218-1066               Nil – 04      16 – 24
                                   1699                   628
                         7.97

Kota                       7.42
                                   594 –                  180 –
             Industrial    –             338-600                06 – 08       32 – 36
                                   1054                   228
                           7.43
             Near MSW
                      7.39         573    318             184     02          08
             dumpsite
                           7.20-   1070-                  252-
             Residential                 840-1904                 6-9         18-40
                           7.35    2090                   460
Bhiwadi
                           7.37-   911-                   340-
             Industrial                   532-1322                Nil-03      16-27
                           7.54    2000                   680
All values are in mg/l, except pH; FC = Faecal Coliform; TC = Total Coli

Water Quality Assessment Authority (WQAA)

Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India, has issued a notification (Notification No.
S.O.583 (E)) in exercise of powers conferred by sub-section (1) and (3) of Section 3 of the Environment
(Protection) Act,1986 in the Gazette of India dated 22 June 2001, constituting the Water Quality Assessment
Authority (WQAA) with effect from 29 th May 2001, The WQAA is responsible for standardization of methods
for water quality monitoring and to ensure quality of data generation.

During the year 2005, 4 th Meeting of Water Quality Assessment Authority was held under the
Chairmanship of Secretary, MoEF and 6 th and 7 th meeting of Water Quality Monitoring Committee
(WQMC) was held under the chairmanship of Additional Secretary, MoEF. As per the decision taken by
WQAA and WQMC, CPCB extended the support and provided documents on the accreditation of
laboratories of CWC and CGWB for evaluation & assessment of environmental laboratories for recognition
for water analysis under The Envoironment (Protection) Act 1986 and for development of Referral
Laboratory at Central Ground Water Board and Central Water Commission. Two training programmes were
organized to train 30 scientists of Central Water Commission to develop the skill for bacteriological analysis
of water samples. CPCB appraised the WQMC about the status of operation and maintenance CETPs and
STPs in the country and prepared an Approach Paper on management of water quality in the country.

Notification on Uniform Protocol on Water Quality Monitoring

The MoEF notified Uniform Protocol on water quality monitoring under Water Quality Assessment Authority
on 17 th June 2005 to maintain uniformity in the procedure for water quality monitoring mechanism by all
monitoring agencies, departments, Pollution Control Boards and such other agencies so that water related
action plans may be drawn up on the basis of reliable data. The notified protocol was discussed in the
Stretegy Workshop for State Water Quality Review Committees held on 20-21 July 2005. As a follow up of
the workshop, the copies of the notified protocol were circulated to State Pollution Control Boards.
AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT
National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)

Central Pollution Control Board is executing a nationwide NAMP network comprising 326 monitoring
stations covering 116 cities/towns in 28 States and 4 Union Territories of the country. The objectives of
the NAMP are to determine status and trends of ambient air quality; to ascertain whether the
prescribed ambient air quality standards are violated; to assess health hazard and damage to
materials; to continue ongoing process of producing periodic evaluation of air pollution situation in
urban and industrial areas of the country; to obtain the knowledge and understanding necessary for
developing preventive and corrective measures; and to understand the natural cleansing process
undergoing in the environment through pollution dilution, dispersion, wind based movement, dry
deposition, precipitation and chemical transformation of pollutants generated.

Under the NAMP, four air-pollutants viz ., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ),
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM or PM 10 ),
have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations. The monitoring of meteorological
parameters such as wind speed and direction, relative humidity and temperature was also integrated
with the monitoring of air quality. The monitoring of pollutants is carried out for 24 hours (4-hourly
sampling for gaseous pollutants and 8-hourly sampling for particulate matter) with a frequency of twice
a week, to have 104 observations in a year. The monitoring is being carried out with the help of Zonal
offices of Central Pollution Control Board, State Pollution Control Boards/Committees, National
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) and other research institutions/universities.
CPCB coordinates with these agencies to ensure the uniformity, consistency of air quality data and
provides technical and financial support to them for operating the monitoring station. The survillance of
NAMP stations is also undertaken through CPCB Zonal Offices in their respective Zones.

Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 )

    •   Annual average concentrations of SO2were within the prescribed National Ambient Air Quality
        Standards (NAAQS) at almost all the locations.

    •   Decreasing trend has been observed in SO2levels in residential areas of cities like Delhi,
        Mumbai, Lucknow, Bhopal, Faridabad etc. during last few years. The decreasing trend in
        sulphur dioxide levels may be due to various pollution control measures undertaken such as
        reduction of sulphur in diesel etc. and use of LPG instead of coal as domestic fuel. Also,
        conversion of diesel vehicles to CNG may have contributed to reduction in ambient SO2levels.

Ten locations having highest concentration of SO2during 2004 (Residential Areas)

        S. No Residential Areas
              Location                             State           Annual Average conc.
                                                                   (µg/m3)
         1      Nashik Municipal Council Building Maharashtra       35
         2.     RTO Colony Tank                     Maharashtra     32
         3.     Nalstop                             Maharashtra     31
         4.     Swargate                            Maharashtra     30
         5.     Vapi Nagar Palika                   Gujarat         25
         6      Near Air India Office               Gujarat         24
         7.     Vishwakarma Chowk                   Punjab          24
         8.     Durga Traders                       Gujarat         23
         9.     Chamber of Commerce                 Pondicherry     22
         10.    Vishak Hostel                       Chhattisgarh    21

Note: Annual average concentration of SO2were
within the NAAQS of 60 µg/m3at all locations

Ten locations having highest concentration of SO2during 2004 (Industrial Areas)

    S. No      Industrial Areas
               Location                                 State                Annual Average
                                                                             conc. (µg/m3)
    1          Bistupur Vehicle Testing Center          Jharkhand            44
    2.         Golmuri Vehicle Testing Center           Jharkhand            40
    3.         Chemical Division Labour Club            Madhya Pradesh       37
    4.         Raunaq Auto Limited                      Uttar Pradesh        36
    5.         Eloor                                    Kerala               32
    6          VIP Industrial Area                      Maharashtra          32
    7.         Ballarpur Industries                     Haryana              29
    8.         Bhosari                                  Maharashtra          28
    9.         GEB GIDC                                 Gujarat              27
    10.        Udhna                                    Gujarat              25

Note: Annual average concentration of SO2were
within the NAAQS of 80 µg/m3at all locations

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 )

   •      Annual average concentrations of NO2 were within the prescribed National Ambient Air Quality
          Standards (NAAQS) at most of the locations.

   •      A decreasing trend has also been observed in NO2 levels in residential areas of Madurai ,
          Bhopal , Faridabad , Chennai etc. during last few years. Vehicles are one of the major sources
          of NO2 in the country. The decreasing trend in nitrogen dioxide levels may be due to various
          measures undertaken for vehicular pollution control such as stricter vehicular emission norms
       etc. Trend in ambient NO2 is fluctuating in many cities despite steep increase in number of
       vehicles.

Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide during 2004.

       S.No Residential Areas
              Location                          State           Annual Average conc.
                                                                (µg/m3)
       1.     Bator, Howrah                     West Bengal 83*
       2.     Lal Bazaar, Kolkata               West Bengal 63*
       3.     Ananda Rao Circle , Bangalore     Karnataka       61*
       4.     Vishwakarma Chowk, Ludhiana       Punjab          61*
       5.     Town hall, Delhi                  Delhi           60
       6.     Regional Office, Dhanbad          Jharkhand       58
       7.     Nalstop, Pune                     Maharashtra     55
       8.     Sarojini Nagar, Delhi             Delhi           53
       9.     Swargate, Pune                    Maharashtra     51
       10     Town Hall, Udaipur                Rajasthan       48

* Locations where annual mean conc .of NO2 exceeded
the NAAQS of 60 µg/m3for Residential areas.


Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide during 2004.

S.    Industrial Areas
No
      Location                                                       State           Annual
                                                                                     Average conc.
                                                                                     (µg/m3)
1.    Bandhaghat, Howrah                                             West Bengal     97*
2.    Howrah Municipal Corporation, Howrah                           West Bengal     95*
3.    Cossipore, Kolkata                                             West Bengal     73
4.    MADA, Jharia                                                   Jharkhand       67
5.    Regional Office, Udaipur                                       Rajasthan       64
6.    Mayapuri Industrial Area                                       Delhi           56
7.    Bistupur Vehicle Testing Center, Jamshedpur                    Jharkhand       56
8.    M/s GEE PEE Electroplating and Engineering Works,              Uttar Pradesh   55
      Noida
9.    Graphite India Limited, Bangalore                              Karnataka       54
10    Amco Batteries, Bangalore                                      Karnataka       52

* Locations where annual mean conc. of NO2 exceeded the NAAQS of 80 µg/m3for Industrial areas
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM)

      •   Annual average concentrations of RSPM exceeded the NAAQS in many cities.

      •   One of the major sources of high RSPM levels are vehicles. The vehicle are increasing
          exponentially in many cities. This is the single major factor for high RSPM levels.

      •   A decreasing trend has also been observed in RSPM levels in cities like Solapur, Lucknow ,
          Bhopal , Hyderabad etc during last few years. Decreasing trend in RSPM levels may be due to
          various pollution control measures undertaken such as reduction of sulphur in diesel, stringent
          standard of particulate matter in diesel vehicles etc. Trend in ambient RSPM has been found
          fluctuating in many cities.

      •   Lower levels of RSPM were observed during monsoon months because of prevalent wet
          deposition. Higher levels of RSPM were observed during winter months because of prevaleat
          lower mixing heights and more calm conditions.

Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of RSPM during 2004 (Residential Areas)

S. No Residential Areas
          Location                                            State           Annual Average conc.
                                                                              (µg/m3)
1.        Vishwakarma Chowk, Ludhiana                         Punjab          321*
2.        New HIG – 9, Hirapur, Raipur                       Chattisgarh      275*
3.        M/s Modi Oil & General Mills, madi Gobindgarh       Punjab          254*
4.        MC Tubewell, Jalandhar                              Punjab          228*
5.        Deputy ka Padao, Kanpur                             Uttar Pradesh   189*
6.        Cadilla Bridge, Narol, Ahmedabad                   Gujarat          187*
7.        Dabauli, Kanpur                                     Uttar Pradesh   183*
8.        Kunnathur Chatram, Madurai                          Tamil Nadu      180*
9.        Regional Office, Alwar                              Rajasthan       178*
10        Kidwai Nagar, Kanpur                                Uttar Pradesh   178*

* Locations where annual mean conc.of RSPM exceeded
the NAAQS of 60 µg/m3for Residential areas.


Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of RSPM during 2004 (Industrial Areas)

 S.        Industrial Areas
 No
           Location                                       State            Annual Average conc.
                                                                           (µg/m3)
 1.        M/s Wool Worth (I) Ltd, Raipur                 Chattisgarh      292*
 2.        M/s Raj Steel Rolling Mills, Mandi             Punjab           258*
           Gobindgarh
 3.         Rita Sewing Machine, Ludhiana                 Punjab           254*
 4.         Focal Point, Jalandhar                        Punjab           232*
 5.         Sardhara Industrial Corporation, Rajkot       Gujarat          220*
 6.         Mayapuri Industrial Area, Delhi               Delhi            213*
 7.         Sub-divisional Office, Satna                  Madhya           209*
                                                          Pradesh
 8.         MADA, Jharia                                  Jharkhand        202*
 9.         Fazalganj, Kanpur                             Uttar Pradesh    196*
 10         Talkatora, Lucknow                            Uttar Pradesh    185*

* Locations where annual mean conc.of RSPM exceeded
the NAAQS of 120 µg/m3for Industrial areas.

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

      •     Annual average concentrations of SPM exceeded the NAAQS in many cities.

      •     The sources of SPM include vehicles, natural dust, industries such as thermal power plants,
            sugar, cement etc., resuspension of dust, refuse burning etc. Trend in annual average
            concentration of SPM is fluctuating in many cities. Decreasing trend has been observed in
            cities like Ahmedabad. Decreasing trend in SPM levels may be due to various measures taken
            for vehicular and industrial pollution control. Vehicular pollution control measures include
            stringent vehicular emission norms, reduction of sulphur in diesel, stringent standard of
            particulate matter in diesel vehicles etc. Trend in ambient SPM has been found fluctuating in
            many cities.

Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of SPM during 2004 (Residential Areas)

      S.No      Residential Areas
                Location                              State               Annual Average conc.
                                                                          (µg/m3)
      1.        Town hall, Delhi                      Delhi               508*
      2.        Deputy ka Padao, Kanpur               Uttar Pradesh       428*
      3.        Kidwai Nagar, Kanpur                  Uttar Pradesh       413*
      4.        New HIG – 9, Hirapur, Raipur          Chattisgarh         402*
      5.        Dabauli, Kanpur                       Uttar Pradesh       398*
      6.        Kunnathur Chatram, Madurai            Tamil Nadu          397*
      7.        Regional Office, Varanasi             Uttar Pradesh       379*
      8.        Tripolia Bazaar, Jaipur               Rajasthan           375*
      9.        Chitale Clinic, Solapur               Maharashtra         364*
      10.       Sarojini Nagar,                       Delhi               356*

* Locations where ann.mean conc.of SPM exceeded
the NAAQS of 140 µg/m3for Residential areas
Ten Locations Having Highest Concentration of SPM during 2004 (Industrial Areas)

S. No Industrial Areas
       Location                                      State              Annual Average
                                                                        conc. (µg/m3)
1.     MADA, Jharia                                  Jharkhand          508*
2.     Mayapuri Industrial Area, Delhi               Delhi              484*
3.     Fazalganj, Kanpur                             Uttar Pradesh      438*
4.     Golmuri Vehicle Testing Center, Jamshedpur    Jharkhand          434*
5.     M/s Wool Worth (I) Ltd, Raipur                Chattisgarh        416*
6.     Talkatora, Lucknow                            Uttar Pradesh      408*
7.     Bistupur Vehicle Testing Center, Jamshedpur   Jharkhand          405*
8.     Shivalic Global Industries, Faridabad         Haryana            400*
9      Industrial Area, Gondpur                      Himachal Pradesh   386*
10     Shahibabad Industrial Area                    Uttar Pradesh      385*

* Locations where ann. mean conc.of SPM exceeded
the NAAQS of 360 µg/m3for Industrial areas.
Networking of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

The present National Air quality Monitoring Network is limited in its scope of application and hence,
there is need to modernize the existing system to International standard. Internationally, use of
Continuous Automatic Ambient Air Quality Monitoring is widely accepted. It is proposed to develop
Automatic Air Quality Monitoring Network and a three level / data management & transfer system,
initially involving 10 identified metro cities & cities where Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
Station (CAAQMS) are already in operation. The proposed project was discussed in 51 st Conference
of Chairman & Member Secretaries of Pollution Control Boards / Committees

Agencies having continuous ambient air quality monitoring facilties in the identified cites

   Name of the city      Existing users of CAAQMS stations / analyzers
   Mumbai                HPCL(3), RCF(4), BMC(IMV), BARC, BPCL(3), MPCB(1+1MV+ 1 proposed)

                         IIT-Mumbai, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation(1)
   Kolkata               WBPCB (2 + 1 proposed)
   Chennai               CPCL(6), TNPCB(3 + 1 proposed)
   Delhi                 CPCB(3), IIT-Delhi, JNU
   Hydarabad             APPCB (1 + 1 proposed, JNT University
   Banglore              KSPCB(1MV + 1 proposed), ITC Ltd.
   Ahmedabad             GPPCB(1+ 1 proposed), Physical Research Lab
   Vadodara              IOCL(5), GSPCB (1)
   Visakhapatnam         HPCL(3), Vizag Steel Plant (1MV+ 3 Proposed)
   Kochi                 KSEB(3), FACT(3), Kochi Refinery(3)

Progress made on this project is given below:

              o   Detailed Project Proposal was made for its submission and required approval on
                21/04/2005.
            o   Draft advertisement was prepared seeking Expression of Interest from qualified and
                experienced consulting firms who wish to be considered to undertake the above
                project assignment and its submission for required approval on 22/06/2005.
            o   Detailed Terms of Reference were prepared for Consultant Assistance for conducting
                the said project assignment & proposed activity - wise work schedule and its
                submission for required approval on 11/ 07/2005.
            o   A Technical Steering committee was constituted for execution of consultancy project
                assignment for networking CAAQMS in identified 10 cities.
            o   After detailed evaluation of the submission received from different firms the Committee
                recommended short - listing of five firms / organizations for inviting their detailed offer.
            o   Detailed RFP document (QCBS) was prepared for inviting proposals from short-listed
                firms and its submission for required approval.
            o   Letters of invitation were sent to short-listed 5 consultants requesting for submission of
                technical & financial proposal for Consultancy Assignment for Networking.

Implementation of Male's Declaration

Air Pollution is an emerging environmental issue in Asia as it is in other parts of the world. To cope up
with the issue of transboundary air pollution in South Asia, the "Male's Declaration on Control and
Prevention of Air Pollution and its likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia" was adopted by the
Ministry of the Environment & Forests at the seventh meeting of the Governing Council of South Asia
Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP), held on August 22, 1998 in Male, Republic of
Maldives. The Male's Declaration stated the need for the countries to carry forward or initiate studies
and programme on air pollution in each country of South Asia . The Phase-I of the Male Declaration
started in 1999 saw the establishment of the network of organizations to implement the Declaration and
compilation of baseline information on air quality monitoring and management in the participating
countries. Consequently a capacity building programme was initiated in Phase-II of the Implementation
Programme 2001-2004, which included strengthening the monitoring network and training. Phase-III
continuation of capacity building activities, impact assessment and information policy making is
scheduled to be implemented during 2005-2008.

As part of the implementation of Male' Declaration, the first monitoring station in India to study the
transboundary effect of air pollutants has been established at Port Canning, Sunderbans. Monitoring
for wet and dry deposition is being conducted at the station for the last one year. The annual Network
Meeting of "Male' Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and its likely Tranboundary
Effects for South Asia" was held in Delhi from October 11-13, 2005. The Network Meeting was
inaugurated by the Hon'ble Minister of State for Environment & Forests, Shri Namo Narain Meena. The
Network Meeting was followed by Regional Stakeholders' Meeting on October 14 and Regional
Coordination Meeting on October 15, 2005. Delegates from Nepal , Bangladesh , Sri Lanka , Iran
Bhutan, Maldives , Pakistan and India participated in the mjeetings.

Air Quality Monitoring at Port Canning, West Bengal Bordering Bangladesh (Male's Declaration)

Central Pollution Control Board selected an ambient air quality monitoring station at Port Canning,
West Bengal bordering Bangladesh for the study of transboundary movement of pollutants. CPCB
Zonal Office Kolkata started monitoring at this station since September 15, 2004 for the air quality
parameters like RSPM, NO2 and SO2and monitoring of the adjacent water bodies like ponds and rivers,
as well as sediment and soil. It was observed that from March 2005 till Sept 2005 concentration of
RSPM in shift 1 (2PM-10PM) and shift 3 (6AM-2PM) were comparatively higher with respect to shift 2
(10PM- 6AM). Whereas concentration of RSPM in Shift 1 and 2 were comparatively higher than the
Shift 3 between October 2004 -February 2005. Frequency of RSPM exceeding the permissible limit
was almost nil during March to October and 42% to 92.8% during November to January with highest
frequency in December. Concentration of SO2and NO2 level were always far below the permissible
limit. Concentrations of available nitrogen, phosphorous, organic carbon and exchangeable calcium
and magnesium in the soil indicate that the soils are fairly fertile. The above parameters were also
measured for sediment. The quality of sediment was found quite suitable for a balanced ecosystem.
The quality of surface run-off pond water was found suitable for aquatic organisms including fish except
marginal increase of chloride, sodium and sulphate indicating influence of seawater. The river water
was found saline as reflected from the concentration of sodium, chloride, sulphate etc. clearly
indicating the tidal influence.

Ambient Air Quality in Delhi

The Central Pollution Control Board has been monitoring ambient air quality at seven locations in Delhi
for the past many years. The locations have been categorized based on land use, i.e., residential,
industrial and traffic intersection. The comparison of ambient air quality data during 2005 with previous
years is shown below.

Ambient air quality in Delhi during 2004 and 2005 (all values in µg/m3)

                   Residential Area           Industrial Area            Traffic intersection
     Parameter
                   2004          2005         2004          2005         2004          2005
     SO2           10            9            10            9            8             9
     NO2           40            44           42            41           89            83
     SPM           330           310          339           304          500           512
     RSPM          131           115          135           131          228           259
     CO                                                                  2581          2541

Ambient air quality in Delhi during 2004 and 2005 (all values in µg/m3)
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Conducted by Mobile Van in Delhi

The air pollution in urban areas arise from a multitude of sources including natural as well as
anthropogenic sources viz. industrial processes, automobiles, transport vehicles and domestic sources.
The concentration of air pollution can vary considerably from one location to another as they depend
not only on the quantities that are emitted but also on the ability of atmosphere to disperse the
pollutants and on various physical and chemical dissipation processes liable to remove pollutants from
the atmosphere. Because of this, the air pollution concentrations vary temporally, causing the air
pollution pattern to change with different locations and time of the day, week or year. A study was
carried out to study the pollution levels at different location in Delhi in addition to already operating
fixed monitoring stations.

Levels of pollutants in ambient air at various locations in Delhi
Levels of pollutants in ambient air at various locations in Delhi

              Air Pollutants
 LOCATION NO          NO2       NO x   SO2      O3       PM 10      Carbon Monoxide

              (µg/m3) (µg/m3) (ppb     (µg/m3) (µg/m3) µg/m3)       (µg/m3)
                                                                    (08.00-   (16.00-   (00.00-
 Red Fort (12 & 13.9.2005)
                                                                    16.00)    24.00)    08.00)
              12      77        50     04       11       53         953       1038      698
                                                                    (09.00-   (17.00-   (01.00-
 Chattarsal Stadium (14 & 15.9.2005)
                                                                    17.00)    01.00)    09.00)
              33      134       99     05       08       85         1400      1790      842
                                                                    (08.00-   (16.00-   (00.00-
 R. K. Puram (21 & 22.9.2005)
                                                                    16.00)    24.00)    08.00)
               19      109     74      04       42       70         1290         1590       640
                                                                    (08.00-      (16.00-    (00.00-
 S.P. Marg (26 & 27.9.2005)
                                                                    16.00)       24.00)     08.00)
               87      333     248     10       33       89         1330         5345       840
                                                                    (08.00-      (16.00-    (00.00-
 Windsor Place (28 & 29.9.2005)
                                                                    16.00)       24.00)     08.00)
               47      200     145     07       14       111        1305         3125       1100
                                                                    (08.00-      (16.00-    (00.00-
 Patparganj (3 & 4.10.2005)
                                                                    16.00)       24.00)     08.00)
               63      221     168     11       45       307        855          3215       2590
                                                                    (08.00-      (16.00-    (00.00-
 NPL Campus (5 & 6.10.2005)
                                                                    16.00)       24.00)     08.00)
               18      65      49      06       27       150        605          1880       1037
                               80
 Air Quality                   µg/m3,
                                      80                 100        2000
 Standards                     as
                               NO2

Noise levels,dB (A) in ambient air at varios locations in Delhi

                                                Day time noise levels         Night time noise levels
 Locations            Zone           Date
                                                Observed       Standards Observed          Standards
 Redfort              Commercial 13/09/05       62.2           65             58.7         55
 Chattarsal Stadium   Commercial 15/09/05       73.9           65             71.9         55
 R.K.Puram             Residential   21/09/05   73.4           55             69.3         45
 S. P. Marg           Commercial 26/09/05       72.8           65             73.5         55
 Windsor Place        Commercial 28/09/05       71.7           65             66.1         55
 Patpar Ganj          Residential    03/10/05   68.8           55             78.8         45
 NPL Campus           Residential    05/10/05   53.7           55             54.4         45

Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) in PM 10 at B.S.Z Marg, Delhi

BSOF is being sporadically measured in RSPM at BSZ Marg Traffic Intersection Delhi since 2001.
Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) mainly comprises of hundreds of particulate bound organic
compounds present in ambient air. Some of the important BSOF compounds include Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Dioxins and Furans, Oxidized Hydrocarbons (aldehydes, ketones,
oxyacids etc.). Measurement of BSOF gives an idea about the anthropogenic emissions originating
from the combustion of fossil fuels. The BSOF levels in RSPM at BSZ Marg in Delhi are presented
below. The concentration of BSOF in PM 10 ranged between 16 – 70 µg/m3. Results indicate that
BSOF during the winter months were higher ranging from 33 – 70 µg/m3, while the lowest values (16
µg/m3) were observed in monsoon period. The percent BSOF in PM 10 ranges between 4 and 25. The
highest percentage was observed in July 2003 when average RSPM was found to be only 67
µg/m3(perhaps due to wash out factor) but the BSOF even at such low levels of RSPM was found to be
highest (25%) in comparison to other months.
BSOF Levels in RSPM at B.S.Z Marg, Delhi

        Period              BSOF, µg/m3 RSPM, µg/m3   Percent BSOF in RSPM
        December-2001       34             327        11%
        January-2002        70             387        20%
        December-2002       67             361        17%
        January-2003        44             285        12%
        May-2003            34             834        4%
        June-2003           30             944        3%
        July-2003           16             67         25%
        November-2004       52             266        20%
        December-2004       33             353        9%
        November-2005       34             258        13%
        December-2005       42             283        15%
On-Line BTEX Monitoring in Ambient Air of Delhi

Central Pollution Control Board is regularly monitoring BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and
Xylene) in the ambient air at Sirifort using continuous BTEX – Analyzer (FID). Sirifort monitoring station
is located in the premises of electricity sub station. The surrounding area is flat plateau with dense
residential localities, commercial establishments and a famous sports complex. There is no major
immediate source of air pollution in the vicinity of Sirifort monitoring station. However there may be
some impact of vehicles plying on a busy road at a distance of approximate 100 meters from the
station. The annual minimum, maximum and mean concentration of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-
Benzene, and Xylene) in ambient air at Sirifort in Delhi during 2005 is presented below.
The annual concentration was observed in the range of 3.0 µg/m3to 17.9 µg/m3, 8.9 µg/m3to 30.1
µg/m3, 1.8 µg/m3to 13.5µg/m3and 1.0 µg/m3to 7.0 µg/m3of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and
Xylene (M&P-Xylene and O–Xylene), respectively. The annual mean concentration of Benzene,
Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene and Xylene (M&P-Xylene and O–Xylene) were observed 9.1 µg/m3, 18.3
µg/m3, 5.6 µg/m 3, and 3.0 µg/m3respectively.

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Kanpur

Regular monitoring of SO2, NO2 and RSPM is being conducted round the clock on all working days in
Kanpur at Vikas Nagar, which is considered as Residential area. The monitoring and analysis is done
through IIT, Kanpur. Monthly average of RSPM and NO2 for year April-December 2005 are shown in
Figures below.
    •   Values of RSPM range from 71 µg/m3to 394 µg/m3on monthly basis. Lowest value was
        observed in july and highest value was observed in December. During monsoon comparatively
        lower values were observed.
    •   RSPM concentration was observed very high as compared to prescribed standards ie.100
        µg/m3(24 hr average) throughout the year except during monsoon months, necessitating action
        on priority for its effective mitigation.
    •   NO2 concentration ranges from 18µg/m3to 28 µg/m3which is much lower than standards i.e. 80
        µg/m3(24 hr basis)
    •   There is not much variation in the NO2 concentration throughout the year
    •   SO2was observed very low throughout the year and is of no concern.


Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at Vadodara

Central Pollution Control Board is operating Ambient Air quality monitoring station at West Zone office
building at vadodara and monitoring parameters such as RSPM, SO2, Nox. The particulate matter in
ambient air in Baroda is high due to heavy vehicular movement and the background dust. The RSPM
mostly exceeded the prescribed limit. The NOx was also found more than the air quality standard limit
on few occasions.

Ambient Air Quality at Vadodara (Year 2005), all values in µg/m3

  Parameter     Jan    Feb    Mar     April May      June July      Aug    Sep    Oct    Nov    Dec
      Min --         --             297    190    129    114    64     103    120    92     93
 TSPM Max -          -              729    1384   473    294    316    513    397    498    408
        Avg -        -              425    342    227    164    149    191    237    244    172
      Min 35         18     41      81     25     19     20     20     2      52     64     61
 RSPM Max 141        176    341     157    111    56     66     110    118    154    200    260
        Avg 88       88     114     118    53     31     31     38     47     78     94     122
        Min   0.0    0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00
 SO2    Max 18.93 19.33 18.80       12.13 102.40 4.77    0.00   0.00   0.00   0.37   0.00   22.43
        Avg 2.91     1.92   5.42    3.14   7.18   0.43   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.02   0.00   2.77
        Min   5.63   9.55   16.25   8.56   0.00   2.93   3.90   4.60   3.69   2.00   3.53   6.62
 NO x   Max 46.98 74.84 107.89 27.10 17.92        12.72 18.71 12.20 25.85 22.20 36.16 44.34
        Avg 27.74 35.34 41.55       15.22 6.28    6.91   10.29 9.03    12.11 13.24 14.31 28.33

TSPM & RSPM Trend at Subhanpura, Vadodara




SO2& NOx Trend at Subhanpura, Vadodara
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at Tajmahal

In compliance to the direction of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, CPCB has established monitoring
stations to monitor SPM, RSPM, SO2and NO2 at four selected locations at Agra viz. Tajmahal (a
sensitive zone and one of the Seven Wonders of the World), Itmad-ud-daulah (historical monument
surrounded by industrial and commercial area) and Rambagh, Nunhai (both are industrial zones
located north to Tajmahal. The monitoring data indicated that SO2has been found maximum at Itmad-
ud-daulah (19 µg/m3) during the month of July. The NO2 and RSPM values were found maximum at
Nunhai i.e. 48 µg/m3and 460 µg/m3, respectively during the month of December whereas minimum at
Tajmahal i.e.14 µg/m3and 35 µg/m3, respectively during the month of August. The maximum SPM
concentration (878 µg/m3) has been traced at Nunhai during the month of December and the minimum
concentration (115 µg/m3) at Tajmahal during the month of September. All the parameters except
SO2have depicted similar trend as observed during 2004 i.e. they attained their peak values in winter,
which is attributed to less dispersion / lower mixing height in winter months.

Monitoring of PM 2.5 at Tajmahal : Under Canada India Environmental Institutional Strengthening
Project, a Beta Attenuation Monitoring (BAM) System has been installed at Tajmahal in January 2005.
The system has inbuilt support capability for the display of real time values of temperature, wind speed,
wind direction and hourly values of PM 2.5 . The concentration of PM 2.5 observed till July at Tajmahal
indicated decrease in the percentage concentration of PM 2.5 in the RSPM. The percentage values
calculated for the month of March, April, May, June and July are 53%, 44%, 44%, 29% and 27%
respectively. The percentage composition of PM 2.5 in RSPM decreases with reduction of prevailing
humidity profile in the ambient air. The least composition of PM 2.5 in RSPM was recorded in the
month of July.
DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
Review of Ambient Air Quality Criteria/Standards

The Central Pollution Control Board has notified ambient air quality standards (AAQS) for various
pollutants. The first set of AAQS was adopted in 1982. Subsequently, the revised standards were
notified in the year 1994 and the standards for Ammonia were included in the year 1998. These
standards needed review, particularly with regard to the criteria for setting the standards e.g. existing
land use based standards, inclusion of new parameters (e.g. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs),
Benzene Soluble Fractions (BSF) for particulates, Formaldehyde, Benzene, Poly-aromatic
Hydrocarbons (PAH), Arsenic, Nickel, Mercury and Vanadium), prescribing short and long-term limiting
values considering health impacts, monitoring protocol, etc. Accordingly, CPCB initiated a project on
‘Review of ambient air quality criteria/standards', which is in progress.

Development of Microbiological Quality Standards for the Disposal of Sewage

Coliform continues to be a major water quality issue in India. Inspite of large amount of efforts
expenditures on River Action Plan water quality with respect to coliform standards could not be
achieved. Realising the environmental importance of coliform in water, CPCB initiated a study on
coliform reduction in the conventional wastewater treatment plants in India. The main objectives of the
study were as follows:

    1. To ascertain the status and evolve strategies to improve the micropbiological quality status of
       water resources of India.
    2. To assess the performance of existing sewage treatment plants (STPs) with respect to
       microbiological quality parameters.
    3. To evolve microbiological quality standards for disposal of treated wastewater for various
       modes of disposal/recycle and reuse

The study was carried out with the help of IIT, Roorkee & Anna University. For evalulation of
performance of STPs several treatment plants were selected comprising of various technologies being
adopted in India. It was ensured that the selected STPs are working to their capacity and performance.
Both the organizations have submitted their reports at the end of the project. A presentation was made
before experts to review the progress. During presentation it was felt important to carry out certain
additional experiments by IIT, Roorkee which will help taking decision on setting standards. The project
is extended for a period of one year for IIT, Roorkee.

Development / review of effluent & emission standards for oil refineries

The effluent and emission standards for oil refineries were notified under Environment (Protection) Act
in the years 1986 and 1990, respectively. These standards were same for old & new refineries and
considered only few parameters. There was need to include additional parameters viz. Oxides of
Nitrogen (NOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), etc. Besides, many developments have taken
place in the technologies for oil refining process and pollution control in this sector during last one
decade. New process units are being added to meet the improved fuel quality standards.

In view of the above, the existing standards were reviewed. The revised emission standards include
additional parameters viz. NOx, Ni+V, PM, etc. and efficiency for Sulphur Recovery Unit. In addition, a
Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) programme and specific requirements for minimizing vapour losses
from storage tanks & product loading/unloading facilities are also included. In the revised effluent
standards, additional parameters have been added and limiting values for existing parameters revised.

Revised standards were discussed in the 18 th Peer & Core Committee and approved by the Board in
its 132 nd meeting held on January 04, 2005 and forwarded to MoEF for notification under E (P) Act,
1986.

Review of Effluent Standards and Development of Emission Standards for Basic Organic
Chemicals Manufacturing Industry

A project was undertaken by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to develop emission standards
and to review effluent standards for basic organic chemicals manufacturing industries by engaging the
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad. About 160 chemicals falls under the basic
organic chemicals group, which are produced by about 190 industrial units in the country. So far in-
depth studies have been conducted in 13 industries and about 56 chemical products have been
covered. Further in-depth studies are under progress. The data and information collected are being
processed for drawing inferences in order to arrive at suitable standards for this industry sector.

Guidelines and Standards for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerators

The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1989 were notified to effectively manage the
hazardous waste in the country. About 4.4% of hazardous waste generated in the country has
inceneration potential. Besides segregated organic residues, highly concentrated effluents such as
mother liquors and toxic effluents not feasible for physico-chemical or biological treatment also require
proper disposal through incineration. Incineration of hazardous waste from many industries is a task
that requires comprehensive knowledge & skill in respect of chemistry, thermal engineering and
environmental engineering.

The Central Pollution Control Board attempted to study the common incineration facilities, which are in
operation in the country as follow up of recommendations of the Expert Committee. CPCB interacted
with the European operators of the incineration facilities/regulators/implementing officers for
formulation of guidelines and standards for common hazardous waste incinerators in the country. Prof.
Thomas Kolb of Thermal Waste Treatment Division, Karlsruhe University, Germany, an expert
engaged under the GTZ-ASEM programme, helped in formulation of these standards. CPCB published
"Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste Incineration". The Central Board in its 133rd meeting
approved the standards for common incineration facilities and subsequently forwarded to the Ministry
of Environment & Forests, Government of India, for issuance of the Notification under the Hazardous
Waste (Management & Handling) Rules.

A. Flue Gas Emission Standards

Treated flue gas emissions discharge through stack to atmosphere shall always be less than or equal
to the following parameter-specific emission standards:

     Parameter                    Emission standard
     Particulates                 50 mg/Nm3       Standard refers to half hourly average value
                                             3
     HCl                          50 mg/Nm        Standard refers to half hourly average value
     SO2                         200 mg/Nm3            Standard refers to half hourly average value
                                                   3
     CO                          100 mg/Nm             Standard refers to half hourly average value
                                               3
                                 50 mg/Nm              Standard refers to daily average value
                                               3
     Total Organic Carbon        20 mg/Nm              Standard refers to half hourly average value
                                           3
     HF                          4 mg/Nm               Standard refers to half hourly average value
                                                   3
     NO x (NO and NO2            400 mg/Nm             Standard refers to half hourly average value
     expressed as NO2)
     Total Dioxin and Furan      0.1 ng                Standard refers to 6-8 hours sampling. Please
                                 TEQ/Nm3               refer guidelines for 17 concerned congeners for
                                                       toxic equivalence values to arrive at total toxic
                                                       equivalence.
     Cd + Th + their             0.05 mg/Nm3           Standard refers to sampling time anywhere
     compounds                                         between 30 minutes and 8 hours.
     Hg and its compounds        0.05 mg/Nm3           Standard refers to sampling time anywhere
                                                       between 30 minutes and 8 hours.
     Sb + As + Pb + Cr + Co +    0.5 mg/Nm3            Standard refers to sampling time anywhere
     Cu + Mn + Ni + V + their                          between 30 minutes and 8 hours.
     compounds

Note: All values corrected to 11% oxygen on a dry basis.

B. Operating Standards:

    1. All the facilities shall be designed to achieve a minimum temperature of 1100°C in secondary
       combustion chamber and with a gas residence time in secondary combustion chamber not less
       than 2 (two) seconds.
    2. The incineration facilities after initial operation of minimum one year, as per the guidelines and
       standards, can submit a proposal for relaxation in temperature and retention time requirement
       if it can be demonstrated that the flue gas standards and operation standards can be complied
       with at lower temperatures and residence times. The State Pollution Control Board / Pollution
       Control Committees, upon successful demonstration of compliance with flue gas standards by
       the facility, can recommend the proposal made by the incineration facility for relaxation in
       temperature and residence time, but in any case not less than 950 °C and 1.5 seconds, for the
       consideration and approval of the Central Board.
    3. Incineration plants shall be operated (combustion chambers) with such temperature, retention
       time and turbulence, so as to achieve Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the slag and
       bottom ashes less than 3%, or their loss on ignition is less than 5% of the dry weight of the
       material.
    4. Guidelines published by the Central Board from time to time for common incineration facilities
       shall be referred for implementation.
    5. All the project proposals submitted for establishment of the common incineration facilities shall
       be examined and cleared by the Task Force constituted by the Central Board.
    6. Notification of compliance: The operator of the incinerator shall undertake comprehensive
       performance test. Within 90 days of completion of comprehensive performance test, the
       operator shall issue a notification of compliance documenting compliance or non-compliance,
       as the case may be, for public information / notice.

Development of Guidelines for Design, Operation, Tail Gas Treatment and Emission Standards
for Chemical Waste Incinerators
CPCB has initiated a project for the development of standards for individual industry specific chemical
waste Incinerators. A two-day workshop on chemical waste incineration was organized in collaboration
with German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) under ASEM programme at Delhi during April 28-29, 2005
to discuss various issues to be addressed and to interact with nodal officers of SPCBs in
accomplishing indepth studies. So far indepth studies have been conducted for six incinerators (three
individual industry incinerators and three common hazardous waste incinerators). The study is under
progress.

As CPCB has already recommended standards for common hazardous waste incinerators and
published a document on "Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste Incineration", the performance
evaluation of common hazardous waste incinerators has been taken up. The samples collected are
being analyzed.

Prof. Thomas Kolb, GTZ expert from Germany visited India during April, 2005 for providing input to the
project. A two-day interactive meet has been conducted in collaboration with GTZ-ASEM for scientists
of CPCB, SPCBs and other reputed laboratories to recommend sampling and analysis methods for
monitoring of flue gas emissions from chemical waste incinerators.

Emission Standard for Bulk Drug Industry

One of the industry for which the emission standards are yet to be developed is bulk drug industry. The
bulk drug industries mostly adopt batch process to manufacture pharmaceutical products. Due to
diversity in manufacturing processes, the environmental problems associated are complex. To identify
the emission sources and to develop air emission standards for bulk drug industry, a study has been
initiated by the Central Board with the help of an expert.

Environmental Standards for Bullion Industry

CPCB has prepared a Comprehensive Industry Document on Bullion Industry providing information on
production, the processes employed, raw material used, pollution generated, pollution control practices
and proposed National Standards for the industry, keeping in view the Best Practicable Technology
(BPT) and affordability under the prevailing conditions. While formulating the National Standards, due
considerations were given to the facts that (a) refining is in the corporate sector involving large-scale
industrial operation and (b) numerous tiny individual units in unrecognized sector, are engaged in scrap
gold refining. Only the former sector has the means and the capability of implementing adequate
standards. In case of large-scale units, the emission of heavy metals, cyanide and fluorides etc. as
pollutants are proposed to be controlled in a progressive manner thus the proposed higher standards
are to be achieved over a specified period of time. Parameters and frequency of monitoring are also
suggested. The proposed effluent and emission standards are under finalisation.

Review of Emission Standards for Sulphuric Acid Plants

Sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) plants emit oxides of sulphur and acid mist in the atmosphere. Presently,
emission limits are prescribed as 4.0 kg/tonne of concentrated (100%) acid produced for SO x and 50
mg/nm 3 for acid mist. In recent years, some large sulphuric acid plants have been established, which
require further reduction in emissions of these pollutants. In addition, improved process & pollution
control technologies are also available.

In view of the above, existing standards for sulphuric acid plants were reviewed. Revised standards
linked to production capacities, were finalized in the 18 th Peer & Core Committee and approved by the
Board in its 132 nd meeting held on January 04, 2005 and forwarded to MoEF for notification under E
(P) Act, 1986.

Preparation of COINDS for Iron Ore Mining
CPCB has taken up a project for description of Clean Technology for iron ore mining and development
of Environmental Standard and preparation of comprehensive document.

Final report of the project has been prepared. Presentation on the findings of the report and meeting to
discuss the various environmental issues highlighted in the report has been called. It has also been
planned to carry out field monitoring of a few more Iron Ore Mines to have realistic database.

Development of Environmental Standards for Sponge Iron Plants

The project "Description of Clean Technology for Sponge Iron Plants and Development of
Environmental Standards" has been initiated in collaboration with MECON Limited. The proposed
standards and code of practice for pollution prevention has been placed before the Board and is to be
placed in the Chairman and Member Secretary Conference held at Mumbai on January 5, 2006. As
decided in the meeting, the standards and code of practice for pollution prevention for sponge iron
plants has been discussed with the State Pollution Control Boards, where majority of the sponge iron
plants are located.

Review of Effluent Standards for Soda Ash Industry

CPCB in collaboration with National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa conducted studies on
marine water quality around the Soda Ash industry located in Saurashtra region to asses the impact
due to discharge of waste water on marine ecosystem. The draft report based on the revealed
chemical and biological characteristics of marine water quality submitted by NIO, Goa has suggested
that the conditions are unfavourable upto 500 m. To mitigate the adverse impact, the effluent should be
disposed off through diffuser system at the depth of 5 m below low tide levels at effluent velocity of > 3
m/sec and with suitable concentration of suspended solids level to avoid clogging in diffuser and
pipeline.

Performance Evaluation of Turbo Mist Evaporator Technology

The technology being adopted distillery industries to provide solution to achieve zero discharge is
based on enhanced natural evaporation of the distillery effluent. The evaporator throws the effluent into
the atmosphere in the form of mist, a part of which gets evaporated before it reaches to the ground.
This unit is used to lift the waste aloft and allow evaporation to occur. The technology has been
adopted by M/s Vindyachal Distilleries, Philukhedi and the performance studies of turbo-mist
evaporators are being undertaken.

Review of protocol under CREP for achieving zero discharge in distilleries

The CPCB engaged Prof. R. H. Siddiqi as a consultant under the GTZ project to review the irrigation
and composting protocols prescribed by the Board visa-vis the current practices followed by distilleries
in the country and to evaluate the performance of new technologies for concentration of spent wash.
Prof. R. H. Siddiqi has submitted a draft document in October 2005.

The report suggests that TDS and chlorides value will control the dilution rate of spent wash for its use
in irrigation. Based on practical values of TDS, sodium, chlorides and BOD it has been suggested that
a 12-15-fold dilution may be required in case of ferti-irrigation . It has been observed that discharge of
effluents having the prescribed quality may result in concentration of salts in the soil. Further, the report
emphasizes consideration of salt balance and annual salt leaching rates in various types of soils and
climatic zones while reviewing the protocol so that problem of salinity and alkalinity do not develop with
continuous use of spent wash for irrigation. The final report is under preparation.

Risk Assessment in Oil Refineries & Petrochemical Complex
Petrochemical industry in India is well established and has recorded a steady growth in the Indian
industrial scenario. Petroleum refining is now the largest manufacturing industry in India where
petroleum products account for 10% of GNP. The petrochemical industry has shown the fastest growth
rate the world over. Petroleum refinery and petrochemical complexes necessarily involve processing
and handling of large quantities of hazardous material. The risk may be reduced by good design, but
they cannot be totally eliminated and therefore some evaluation of the risk has to be made in order to
determine its acceptability in a given location. The most significant hazards are often associated with
the fire and explosion potential of flammable materials, or the toxicity of some materials, which are
used in a large quantity. The long-term effects on human beings and the environment due to accidental
and operational exposure to toxic intermediates or potential by-products have added a new dimension
to the risk assessment during the last decade.

The study recommended guidelines for preparation of risk assessment reports for petroleum refineries
and petrochemical installations where flammable chemicals are handled in large quantities.

Review of Environmental Statements

In order to assess Environmental Statements submitted by industries in comliance with provisions of
Rules under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, the project "Review of Environmental Statements
Submitted by the Industries" has been taken-up by MoEF and implemented by Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB).

Review of Environmental Statements ES for sugar, thermal power, petrochemical, oil refinery, textile,
cement, Iron & Steel, pesticide industry, Pulp & Paper and Tannery have been completed and others
are in the process of finalisation. The outcome of the exercise has been utilised for setting
environmental benchmarks for attainment by all the industries. A similar exercise is being undertaken
for other sectors to promote systematic improvement in association with GTZ.

Awareness Programme on Environmental Statements

Awareness programmes on "Environmental Statements including Waste Minimisation, Environmental
Auditing & Management System" for the industrialists and regulatory officials have been organised for
sugar, thermal power, petrochemical, oil refinery, textile, cement, pesticide and iron & steel industries
to make them aware of the requirement of providing appropriate data/information in the environmental
statements and to make the Environment Statements a pro-active tool i) for self-examination of the
industry, ii) to reduce/minimise pollution by adopting process modifications, recycling and reuse of the
resources and iii) to provide awareness about modified environmental statements, its requirements and
the processing of the information provided in the environmental statements submitted by the industries.

Preparation of National Chemical Management Profile (NCMP)

The chemicals need to be managed properly in order to achieve a sustainable economic development
and to attain a high level of environmental and human health protection. An important initial step in
strengthening systems in countries for risk reduction and management of chemicals is the preparation
of a comprehensive assessment of the national infrastructure relating to the legal, institutional,
administrative and technical aspects of chemicals management, along with an understanding of the
nature and extent of chemicals availability and use throughout their life cycle in the country.

National Chemicals Management Profile is being prepared through stakeholder consultation process
under the Canada-India Environmental Institutional Strengthening Project. It will help assess the
national infrastructure for the management of chemicals in the country and to identify the gaps for
capacity building and priority areas of concern to improve chemicals management. The key principle of
preparing the Profile is the involvement of all concerned stakeholders in the country. To ensure a broad
stakeholder involvement, a National Coordinating Committee (NCC) has been constituted to oversee
the preparation of the Profile and guarantee the full participation and contribution of interested parties.
Three Working Groups (Legal, Technical and Infrastructure) have been established to guide the
preparation of the data inputs and make the initial assessment and analysis of the available
information. Technical Assistance from UNITAR through two Indian consultants was made available,
for preparation of Chemical Profile, under the guidance of the three Working Groups.

To obtain the views of stakeholders such as SPCBs, Chief Inspectors of Factories, Industrial
Associations and NGOs concerned with the subject on the draft document prepared, two regional
workshops at Delhi and at Mumbai were organised. The draft document which is to be considered for
finalisation and publication as a first version of the National Profile is available on website
www.ncmpindia.com .
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
Air Pollution Source Apportionment Studies

Air quality data generated over the years under the National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) reveal
that particulate matter concentrations are exceeding the standard permissible limits at many places,
particularly in urban areas. Based on these data, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) identified
more than 50 non-attainment cities and towns including 16 major cities, which recorded significantly
higher levels of SPM & RSPM (PM 10 ). These cities have problem due to multiplicity and complexity of
air polluting sources (e.g. industries, automobiles, generator sets, fuel burning, construction activities,
etc) and even the background contribution of natural dust (crustal origin) cannot be ruled out
particularly in the cities developed on alluvial plains having loose top soil. The recent "Auto Fuel Policy"
document submitted to Govt. of India by Dr. Mashelkar Committee has identified the "knowledge gap"
in the area of air pollution source apportionment.

With this background, air pollution source apportionment studies have been initiated in six major cities
with participation of oil companies, leading research institutes, Central & State Pollution Control Boards
and Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India. The study objectives are:

    •   To profile baseline Ground Level Concentration (GLC) of air pollutants in different parts
        including source specific "hot spots" viz. Kerbsides, industrial zones, etc.
    •   To develop "Emission Factors" (EF) for different categories of pertinent sources with due
        consideration to local variance in fuel quality, technology, size and vintage of sources, control
        systems, etc. The factor shall cover both fugitive as well as tail pipe emissions.
    •   To inventorise the pollution loads from various sources for their spatial and temporal
        distribution in the cities covered under this project.
    •   To profile the source emission characteristics of different possible sources.
    •   To conduct source apportionment studies and prioritize the source categories for evolving
        mitigation strategies.
    •   To assess the impact of sources on ambient air quality under different management/
        interventions/control options and draw a roadmap of short term and long term measures as
        considered appropriate and cost effective to ensure "Cleaner air in urban areas".

Focus on PM 10

Among all the criteria air pollutants, particulate matters (SPM and RSPM) have emerged as the most
serious threat in almost all urban areas of India. High SPM concentrations are primarily irritants but do
not have much relevance for direct health consequences if compared with its respirable fractions (PM
10 and PM 2.5 ). Due to this reason, the worldwide focus of monitoring is now increasingly being
shifted to measurement of finer particles (PM 2.5 and even PM 1 ), which can penetrate the human
respiratory systems. Therefore, since 2000 the focus on suspended particulate monitoring has shifted
to PM 10 in India as well.

As we have some experience in PM 10 monitoring and our existing national standards for PM 10 , the
main focus of this study is on characterisation and apportionment of PM 10 with limited exercises on
PM 2.5 to have a better understanding and correlation between these two fractions at source and
receptor.

There are a large number of urban man-made / background sources of such a high particulate pollution
including large, medium and small-scale industries, household fuel use for cooking and heating, refuse
burning, vehicular emissions, re-suspended road dust, construction activities, agricultural activity,
naturally occurring dust and trans-boundary migration from other regions, etc. The configuration of
possible contributing sources in different cities does vary widely as different responsible sources emit
particles of varying composition and sizes. However, small particles (10 microns and fine) affect public
health much more than large particles.

A typical particle size - mass fraction diagram for particulate matter in urban air




On having completed the intended data collection, validation, interpretation of assimilated information,
a detailed road map will be drawn considering all possible measures for air quality improvement. These
measures will be classified into short and long term with due priority to low cost measures that gives
maximum benefits.

    •   The cost- benefit analysis based on health impact would be beyond the scope of the present
        study. Therefore, it was agreed to consider ambient air quality standards (which are health
        based) as the upper thresholds.

    •   For comprehensive Health Impact Assessment and Benefits, a separate study if required can
        be initiated.

    •   For ranking of the various mitigation/intervention options on the different sources namely
        industrial, vehicular, fugitive, etc. the cost effective analysis shall be adequate.

Standardization of BTX Method (IS-5182 Part-11) and PAH Method (IS-5182 Part-12) for BIS
Publication as National Methods

Active and passive methods for BTX monitoring and analysis using conventional carbon-disulphide
desorption and automated thermal desorption techniques followed by capillary Gas Chromatography –
Flame Ionization Detector have been standardize, documented and sent to BIS for wide circulation
among concerned institution and finalized by CHD-32 Committee for final printing. The sampling and
analysis method for Particulate PAH using glass fiber filter and high volume samplers followed by
capillary Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector have been standardize, documented and
finally printed by BIS after wide circulation among concerned institution and approval by CHD-32
Committee.

Ground Water Remediation in Kanpur

CPCB Lucknow has taken up a challenging 3-year project on Groundwater remediation in Noraiakheda
area of Kanpur in collaboration with ITRC Lucknow, NGRI, Hyderabad and IIT Kanpur.The 1 st year
activities were completed with execution of all the identified works. Salient status of some of the
specific activities is as following:

a. Geo-physical Investigation

The entire study area was investigated for revealing subsurface hydro-geological characteristics. The
study was carried-out using ground-resitivity meter based on schlumbergur arrangement of current and
potential electrodes. The Resistivity variation as emerged-out of the study area and subsurface
stratification are as below:
Spatial view of T-Cr plume 30 years 1975-2005
The findings of project during 1 st year are to be utilized in evaluation of various options for remediation
of hexavalent chromium. The Pilot Study based on "Bio-Remediation" had already begun under
technical support from GZA-USA expertise. During the pilot study the Electron Donor Compound
(EDC) was injected into the polluted strata for chemical transformation of hexavalent chromium. The
study shall continue till June 2006. Other major activities completed in the 1 st year include:

    •   Evaluation of a range of site-specific aquifer characteristics
    •   Inventory of Groundwater balance
    •   Monitoring for surface contours with reference to the MSL
    •   Monitoring of Fresh water canal,
    •   Identification of watershed boundaries

The project activities have received appreciation of Asian Development Bank–Philippines and The
Blacksmith Institute New York USA.

Co-incineration of High Calorific Value Hazardous Waste in Cement Kiln

The Environmental Policy for co-incineration of high calorific value hazardous waste in cement kilns
was prepared by CPCB and discussed in Chairmen and Member Secretaries conference held on Feb
14-15, 2005. So far this has been a thrust area in India, while internationally high calorific value
hazardous waste is being co-incinerated in Cement Kiln. At a high temperature of 1400°C the organic
compounds are likely to be destroyed and non-combustible part of the residue is incorporated into the
clinker in a practically irreversible manner. It also helps in energy saving.

Cement industries have expressed their interest in the matter and have come forward for co-
incineration of high calorific value hazardous waste in cement kiln. Various proposals for co-
incineration were considered which include used tyres, refinery sludge, paint sludge, ETP sludge
generated from BASF India Ltd and monitoring protocol was developed. The first trial for co-
incineration of ETP sludge of BASF India Ltd. was conducted at a cement plant at Gulbarga,
Karnataka. Monitoring was conducted before trial run and after trial run to generate the background /
reference data. The VOC, hydrocarbon, TOC, PAH, heavy metals were monitored besides the routine
parameter i.e. particulate matter, SO 2 , NOx, HCl, HF, CO. The dioxins and furans that are considered
most important and critical parameters were also monitored. Most of the critical parameters were well
within the prescribed standards for hazardous waste incinerator. The product i.e. clinker was also
tested for leachability and heavy metals content as per BIS norms.

The second trial was undertaken at another cement plant at Kodinar, Gujarat for co-incineration of TDI
tar waste which is the hazardous waste generated from Petrochemicals unit. The trial runs are being
conducted under close supervision of a team comprising officials from CPCB, SPCB, GTZ, and NCB.
The co-incineration of high calorific value hazardous waste could emerge as a cost-effective and
environmentally compatible option.

Detoxification of Paper Mill Effluent by Using Coagulant and Chemical Oxidants

The toxicity of the paper and pulp mill effluent is due to the presence of tannins, resins, synthetic dyes
and lignin and its derivatives. White-rot fungi generally used to decolorise the pulp mill effluent require
high glucose concentration to survive which is economically not feasible. An alternate to biological
treatment with fungi is the electro-chemical methods where iron electrodes are used to separate the
ligno-sulphonate waste. The effectiveness of this technique depends on the type of electrodes,
construction of electro-coagulators and operating conditions. Thus, there is a need for alternative low –
cost technology.

The present study is aimed at the removal of toxic & coloring substances present in paper mill effluent
before going to biological treatment using selective chemical coagulants/oxidants. Experimental work
completed is as below

    1. Samples prepared from synthetic lignin and tannins were analysed and characterized.
    2. Coagulants like alum, FeCl 3 , PAC, alongwith combinations like Alum + Lime, Alum + Lime +
       PAC, FeCl 3 + PAC tested for optimum doses and observed 20-25 % removal of color and 18-
       23 % COD reduction.
    3. 90-93 % color removal has been achieved when optimum dose of Na-Hyphochlorite is given to
       the synthetic sample and 35-40 % reduction in COD is also observed after the treatment.
    4. Effect of pH on Na-Hyphochlorite tested and observed best reduction in color at pH 7.0-8.2.
    5. Dose optimisation of Na-metabisulphite for the removal of residual chlorine followed by batch
       activated sludge process is under progress.
Characterisation of Emission and Dust from Different Sources

Re-suspension of dust in industrial area and fugitive and stack emission are mainly responsible for high
level of contaminants in the ambient air of the local environment. This dust may contain toxic chemical
substances. A study is being carried out to characterize the emission from source and dust forms
different sources (road dust, soil, mining waste etc.). The average metal concentrations of dust/ ash
from different sources are shown below.

Average concentration (mg/Kg) of metals in dust/ash collected from different sources

    Metals        Sources of Dust /Ash
                  ESP        Road     Thermal Coke       Brick      Rice Mill Township Agri.
                             Side     Power   Oven       Kiln                          Field
    Chromium      33         17       9         1.7      19         6         24           20
    Iron          113456     8698     9366      9402     9000       11292     13388        15149
    Lead          86         10       2.1       BDL      8.5        BDL       13           9.0
    Nickel        16         19       8.0       2.9      10.0       5.5       10           15
    Copper        29         7        9.8       7.8      20.3       9.3       6            24.9
    Barium        1035       185      359       89       794        440       45           -
    Vanadium      82         2.4      10.5      2.4      43         10.0      32           -
    Aluminum      19957      5124     3487      BDL      14419      5123      6233         -
    Beryllium     1.4        BDL      BDL       BDL      1.0        BDL       BDL          -
    Cobalt        16         6        2.5       1.4      4.0        2.0       2.0          12.0
    Magnesium     2014       540      488       384      418        3502      289          -
    Calcium       11902      441      2242      1573     5141       7631      1742         -
    Manganese     922          294     110       384     139           905           376    478
    Potassium     1738         596     568       672     1114          8447          130    -
    Zinc          105          21      72        43      9             178           30     63

BDL = Below Detection Limit

Results revealed that level of Zinc, Magnesium and Potassium (178, 3502 and 8447 mg/kg
respectively) was significantly higher in ash collected from rice mill. Nickel was found to be higher in
roadside dust of Ranigunj (Durgapur), but the rest of the metals were higher in dust of ESP in
comparison with agricultural soils of a remote Dhubulia Village (Durgapur). Metallic concentrations
were also found on the higher side in ambient air with respect to rural areas (Canning). Analysis of
PAH, PCBs, texture etc. are in progress. Further characterization of inorganic and organic composition
would be carried to correlate these values with the values of source emission. The raw data indicates
that the some of the metals are extremely variable. Further analysis of more parameters would reveal
the distribution pattern of different contaminants of the dust and in other sources pollutants and their
impact on ambient air quality.

Aerosols Characterisation for PAHs and Metals in Kolkata during Dipawali

The study of aerosol composition with respect to metals, ions and PAHs during Diwali covering city,
urban and rural areas would be very useful to assess the impact of the above activities on environment
with reference to specific pollutants. Considering the above facts, Zonal Office Kolkata has conducted
a study to quantify the concentration of RSPM, SO 2 , NO 2 , metals and PAH in ambient air in Kolkata
(metro city), Asansol (urban) and Moutorh (village) in West Bengal and to assess the impact of bursting
crackers on the environment.

The analytical results shown in Table below revealed that the prevailing concentration of different PAH
compounds at different stations in Kolkata, Canning and Moutorh during Diwali . The maximum
concentration was observed at Moutorh, followed by Kolkata and then Canning
(Moutorh>Kolkata>Canning) except in case of low molecular weight PAH compounds, viz. Napthalene,
Phenanthrene and Anthracene. The changes of the above trend of these compounds may be due to
loss during sampling and transportation of sample filter papers from monitoring sites to laboratory as
these are highly volatile. At Moutorh though considered as rural area, PAH concentration was
significantly higher than that of other areas because monitoring station was located in the midpoint of
Diwali mela where different activities such as mass gathering, coal burning, vehicle movement etc.
were going on. Mainly coal burning caused the enhancement of PAH concentration.

Average concentration of PAH compounds (ng/ m3) at different locations

PAH Compounds           CANNING KOLKATA         MOUTORH BEHALA KUMIR PUKUR                  J D PARK
Napthalene              3.53         1.86       0.91           3.11           1.71          0.76
Phenanthrene            0.28         0.45       BDL            0.55           0.36          0.43
Fluorene                0.93         1.05       2.83           1.30           0.77          1.09
Pyrene                  1.65         2.84       5.19           3.85           2.04          2.62
Benz(a)Anthracene 5.88               13.29      20.81          25.87          --            8.36
Chrycene                1.08         4.43       27.57          7.07           --            3.11
Benz (e) Pyrene         2.10         4.39       37.25          6.52           2.02          4.65
Benz (a) Pyrene         8.31         10.84      19.31          16.74          5.40          10.39
Di Benz Anthracene 0.76                 1.61          1.73      3.61         0.13              1.10
Benz (ghi) Perylene 2.73                4.23          19.54     6.07         2.03              4.60

At different stations within Kolkata, maximum concentration was found at Behala followed by JD Park,
then Kumir Pukur. Only in the case of Napthalene the trend becomes as Behala>Kumir Pukur >JD
Park. The reason may be that in Behala the station is located at the busiest traffic intersection
compared to the other stations.

The data were processed to estimate the correlation coefficients among the eleven identified and
quantified PAH compounds and RSPM at sampling locations. However, several significant
correlationships in the group of individual PAH compounds were observed attributing linear
proportionality between them such as significant positive correlationship among fluoranthene, pyrene
and chrysene particularly in organised fairs also at few other stations. As reported by different authors,
domestic and residential heating specially coal burning is a major source of these three compounds
and simultaneously significant correlation ships among them support this view. It is also reported by
some authors that these three compounds are also emitted during incineration and industrial oil
burning. Literature study shows that fluoranthene and pyrene along with benzo(a)pyrene are together
emitted from traffic motor vehicles i.e. from diesel and petrol burning. Positive correlationship among
them satisfies the views of referred document. Significant correlationship between fluoranthene and
benzo(a)pyrene as well as benzo(e)pyrene support the view that the major contributor of these three
PAH compounds is burning of wood. There are also some significant correlation found between
fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene, pyrene &benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene &benzo(e)pyrene, di
benzo(ah)anthracene and pyrene & benzo (ghi) perylene. Significant correlation among several PAH
compounds indicates that they release from sources together. In Kolkata fluoranthene is significantly
correlated with phenanthrene, pyrene, B[e]P, B[a]P while pyrene is correlated with Benz Anth, B[e]P,
B[a]P, DBA, B[ghi]Pe. A strong correlation ship was found among B[e]P, B[a]P, DBA and B[ghi]Pe also.
This positive correlation ship indicates that they are emitted from same source. Literature survey
reveals that all these correlated compounds are emitted together from diesel burning, petrol burning,
incineration and coal burning. The above findings may support that major portion of PAHs
concentration in ambient air of Kolkata is contributed by diesel & petrol burning (vehicle emission) and
incineration etc.

The analytical results of metallic concentration of RSPM at different areas revealed that concentration
of metals in general, was found lowest at Canning and in the order of Canning < Asansol <Moutorh
<Kolkata. Canning is far away from any industrial towns and also traffic volume nearby the sampling
points was significantly low. Almost same concentrations of metals prevailed both at Asansol and
Moutorh though Asansol is a subdivisional town and Moutorh is a rural area. Presence of iron and
aluminium at both places indicate the impact of sponge iron and steel plants (TISCO close to sampling
station in Asansol). Sponge irons and thermal power plants are located about 15 km away from
Moutorh. On normalisation of metal concentrations with RSPM, almost same trend prevails. The
concentrations of metals observed at different stations within Kolkata were more or less uniform all
over the city. Eventhough concentration of the 12 selected metals were relatively on the lower side, no
appreciable impact of the activities going on during Diwali was observed except slight increment of
aluminium compared to the values obtained during winter.

Average Concentration of metals (µg/m3) in RSPM at different locations

            Name of          Sampling Locations
                             CANNING                KOLKATA     ASANSOL             MOUTORH
            Parameters
            RSPM, µg/m3      86                     278         156                 202
                                    3                     3            3
                             µg/m              ng/µg µg/m ng/µg µg/m       ng/µg µg/m3 ng/µg
            Nickel             0.01         0.012 0.12        0.043 0.13     0.083    0.01     0.005
            Manganese          0.01         0.012 0.11        0.040 0.11     0.071    0.39     0.193
            Lead               0.04         0.047 0.66        0.237 0.07     0.045    0.10     0.050
            Zinc               0.15         0.174 1.35        0.486 0.25     0.160    0.21     0.104
            Cadmium            BDL          !      0.02       0.007 BDL               BDL
            Copper             0.02         0.023 0.23        0.083 0.09     0.058    0.08     0.040
            Chromium           BDL                 0.01       0.004 BDL               BDL
            Aluminum           1.19         1.384 14.76 5.309 2.06           1.321    3.08     1.525
            Iron               0.11         0.128 2.27        0.817 2.38     1.526    5.16     2.554
            Barium             1.60         1.860 13.43 4.831 2.33           1.494    0.48     0.238
            Mercury            0.02         0.023 0.04        0.014 BDL      0.006    BDL      0.010
            Arsenic            BDL                 0.03       0.011 BDL      0.006    BDL      0.010

Ionic concentrations of RSPM at four different areas shown in Table below revealed the distribution
pattern of ions (m g/m3) among the four areas.

Average ionic concentration (µg/ m3) in (PM 10 ) at different locations in Kolkata

     Name of           Sampling Locations
                       CANNING                  KOLKATA             ASANSOL             MOUTORH
     Parameters
     RSPM              116                      376                 139                 252
                       µg/m3          ng/µg     µg/m3     ng/µg     µg/m3     ng/µg     µg/m3     ng/µg
     Fluoride          0.37           3         0.44      1         0.10      1         0.75      3
     Chloride          3.08           27        6.90      18        2.54      18        3.66      15
     Nitrate           5.01           43        7.87      21        4.70      34        7.45      30
     Sulphate          13.58          117       64.07     170       19.67     142       40.49     161
     Sodium            9.73           84        9.39      25        12.09     87        14.92     59
     Potassium         4.17           36        36.35     97        2.96      21        2.68      11
     Calcium           1.08           9         1.69      4         3.79      27        2.76      11
     Magnesium         0.07           1         1.61      4         0.65      5         0.58      2
     Total Ion         37.1                     128.3               46.5                73.3
     % Ion in          32.0                     34.1                33.5                29.1
     RSPM

Table (contd.): Average ionic concentration (µg/ m3) in (PM 10 ) at different stations in Kolkata

                Name of        Sampling Stations
                               BEHLA                   KUMIR PUKUR          J D PARK
                Parameters
               RSPM          398                   285                    452
                                    3                     3
                             µg/m         ng/µg µg/m          ng/µg       (µg/m3       ng/µg
               Fluoride      0.52         1.3      0.41       1.4         0.42         0.9
               Chloride      7.79         19.6     5.44       19.1        8.00         17.7
               Nitrate       8.43         21.2     6.68       23.4        8.64         19.1
               Sulphate      67.19        168.8    59.23      207.8       67.00        148.2
               Sodium        8.18         20.6     10.83      38.0        8.18         18.1
               Potassium     36.75        92.3     36.37      127.6       34.80        77.0
               Calcium       2.12         5.3      1.86       6.5         1.50         3.3
               Magnesium 1.60             4.0      1.54       5.4         1.68         3.7
               Total Ion     132.6                 122.4                  130.2
               % Ion in      33.3                  42.9                   28.8
               RSPM

Close association of chloride and sodium with RSPM was observed on normalisation revealed the
influence of sea on chloride and sodium concentration at Canning. Similarly, higher values of nitrate at
Canning due to intensive agricultural activities. The concentration of sodium and chloride were also
higher at Asansol. Significantly higher values of sulphate and potassium in aerosol of Kolkata clearly
indicated the rampent use of fire crackers were as higher values of only sulphate at Moutorh and
Asansol are mainly due to rampent use of coal for cooking the food in fair (mela). In Kolkata, highest
concentration of sulphate and potassium were found during 6 PM to 6 AM on Diwali, which again
confirm the impact of firecrackers on ambient air quality. Percentage of ions with respect to RSPM was
varying from 29.1 to 34.1. The ionic concentration of RSPM at different stations during Diwali revealed
the distribution pattern at different stations expressed in m g/m3. On normalisation with respect to
RSPM, almost uniform distribution of ion prevailed except sulphate and potassium. This variation is
mainly due to firecrackers mainly. The concentration coefficient estimated between the ions and RSPM
revealed close association of ions with RSPM. Percentage of ions was almost same in two station
compared to other areas, where at one station it is on the higher side.

From the above discussion it may be inferred that activities particularly during Diwali influence the
concentration of PAH and ions on ambient air quality.

PAH Analysis in Fugitive Emissions at Hindalco, Renukoot

PAH Monitoring has been done at HINDALCO, Renukoot at six locations i.e. Center Passage Pot Line-
IX, Center Passage Pot Line-II, Roof Top Pot Line-III, Roof Top D.S.S. Pot Line- VII, Anode Baking F/C
# 5, Anode Baking F/C # 3. Total PAH ranged between 21.19 to 552.04 ng/m3. Benzo[e]pyrene and
Benzo[a]pyrene, Benzo[ghi]perylene are found with a high concentration followed by Chrysene and
Benzo[b]fluoranthene. Naphthalene to Pyrene have lower concentration at Center Passage and Roof
Top while at Anode Baking it is higher (12.01-29.97 ng/m3). The average concentration range at
different unit is given below.

PAHs analysis in fugitive emission at Hindalco, Renukoot (Sep20-21, 2005)

                                        Center Passage,       Roof Top,
           Sampling Location                                                      Anode Baking
                                        Pot Room              Pot Room
           PAH Analytes/Conc       Range (ng/m3)      Range (ng/m3) Range (ng/m3)
           Naphthalene             0.02-0.05          0.02-0.03        0.04-0.05
           Acenaphthylene          0.04-0.06          0.05-0.05        0.07-0.11
           Acenaphthene            0.03-0.05          0.04             0.05-0.12
           Fluorene                0.03-0.07          0.02-0.04        0.06-0.31
           Phenanthrene            0.37-1.22          0.40-0.98        3.55-12.92
           Anthracene              0.29-0.54          0.29-0.44        0.86-2.59
           Fluoranthene            1.63-3.81          1.58-5.00        14.58-34.87
           Pyrene                  1.41-2.94          1.24-3.38        12.01-29.97
           Benz[a]anthracene       1.72-14.27         1.91-2.61        22.71-29.62
           Chrysene                2.58-18.99         2.23-5.01        37.64-36.38
           Benzo[b]fluoranthene    4.26-109.56        2.56-3.72        44.30-72.32
           Benzo[k]fluoranthene    1.47-35.83         0.88-1.36        12.78-28.23
           Benzo[e]pyrene          3.69-138.10        1.82-3.00        40.34-76.76
           Benzo[a]pyrene          1.24-57.01         0.76-1.30        14.83-49.78
           Perylene                0.45-22.47         0.24-0.48        4.85-18.42
           Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene 1.33-52.14          0.77-1.54        12.84-50.01
           Dibenz[a,h]anthracene   0.46-25.07         0.22-0.34        4.01-12.59
           Benzo[ghi]perylene      1.94-69.86         0.90-1.67        12.40-46.24
           Total PAHs              22.96-552.04       21.19-25.74      237.94-501.29

Testing and Validation of BOD Biosensor

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the most important and commonly used parameter in water and
wastewater quality monitoring and designing of effluent treatment plant. The test take considerable
time, say 3 days at 27°C or 5 days at 20°C as well as consumes lot of energy. To overcome these
constraints, attempts were made to carry out the test in short time through the technique using
Biosensor probes. This technique involves selection of suitable microbial composition for using
Biosensor so as to degrade the wide range of wastes. In this endeavor, CPCB in collaboration with
Institute of Genomics & Integrative Biology (IGIB), CSIR, Delhi has developed a Biosensor for rapid
BOD test. Samples from brewery and dairy (untreated and treated) were tested extensively and the
results obtained using BOD Biosensor are similar to conventional BOD test (BOD 5 at 20°C). The data
are statistically tested and good correlation was found between these two results.




Range, Mean and ratio of BOD Biosensor and BOD 5 for different effluents

Effluent                           BOD Biosensor       BOD 5        Ratio (Biosensor/BOD 5 )
                         Min       626                 665          0.8
Dairy – Untreated
effluent                 Max       3605                3670         1.3
                         Mean      1414                1406         0.99
                        Min         9                    8              1.1
Dairy – Treated
effluent                Max         49                   53             1.3
                        Mean        33.1                 30.3           1.1
                        Min         316                  300            0.9
Brewery– Untreated
effluent                Max         1880                 1820           1.2
                        Mean        781.3                760.4          1.0

Correlation & Regression equation between the data of BOD 5 & BOD Biosensor




Further, it was analyzed by Students `t' test and found that there is no significant difference between
two data sets of dairy and breweries samples. The work is in progress for extensive testing using large
variety of wastewater samples.

Statistical correlation regression (BOD Biosensor vs. BOD 5 ) and "Student's t" test
significance of three wastewater samples.

Effluent              Correlation   Correlation       Regression              `t' test   "t" test
                      coefficient   Determination     equation                           inference
                                    (R 2 )                                    p value
                      (r)
Dairy untreated                                                                          No significant
                      0.975         0.950             y = 1.0015x -10.343     p = 0.97
effluent                                                                                 difference
Dairy treated                                                                            No significant
                      0.955         0.912             y= 0.9988x – 2.7134 p = 0.54
effluent                                                                                 difference
Brewery untreated                                                                        No significant
                  0.995             0.856             y = 0.981x -6.053       P = 0.89
effluent                                                                                 difference

Metal Solubility in Municipal Solid Waste Amended Soils

The mobility of inorganic and organic pollutants in soil is strongly influenced by organic matter, such as
humic acid, fulvic acid etc. Fulvic acid readily complexes with metals including minerals making them
available to plant roots and easily absorbable through cell wall. In east Kolkata wetlands different types
of pollutants particularly metals may be accumulated in soil through dumping of solid waste since long.
The fulvic acid in the presence of metals may form metal chelate, which in turn increase the metal ions
in solution in far excess of their expected dissolution ability in normal waters. Considering the above
fact study was undertaken to assess the bio available fraction of metals in soil. Preliminary results
indicated wide variation of metal concentrations at different locations as well as among the soil horizon.
Cation exchange capacity of the soil was found far in excess of natural soil. Based on the available
data it may be established that fulvic acid enhances the availability of metals and make them more
readily available for absorption by plants and chemical reactions.
                              HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

Characterisation of PM10 and PM2.5 at Traffic Intersection in Kolkata and Assessment of their
Impact on Human Health

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene,
benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(cd)pyrene are potent carcinogens.
Human exposure to ambient PAH generally occurs in combination with other carcinogenic substances
such as nickel, chromium, silica, soot, asbestos and benzene causing micronuclear structural alterations
that occur due to the toxic effects include chromosomal aberrations giving rise to broken pieces of
chromosomes that lie close to the nucleus. After absorption, the PAH distributed to tissues are
biotransformed by Phase-I metabolic enzymes to chemically reactive intermediates binding covalently to
DNA (DNA adducts) leading to tumor initiation. PAH metabolites are mostly conjugated and excreted as
hydroxylated metabolites or in a small portion as sulfate. Unconjugated PAH are excreted through the
feaces and the urine. Therefore, metabolites of PAH particularly 1-hydroxypyrene is the most important
biomarker representing 90 percent of its metabolites. Measurement of this metabolite is thought to
reflect exposure to PAH during the first few days.

CPCB Zonal Laboratory, Kolkata in collaboration with West Bengal Pollution Control Board, IICB
Kolkata and SSKM Kolkata conducted a study to assess the ambient air quality in terms of particulate
concentration of different sizes (2.5 and 10 m ), PAH, organic carbon, metals, various ions etc. and their
adverse impact on human health in terms of metabolites in urine, chromosomal aberration, micronuclei
etc. in the people who are exposed to traffic air pollution. The six major traffic intersections in Kolkata
were covered and traffic police prone to get exposed and few patients admitted in SSKM hospital
already suffering from respiratory problems were subject in this study. The samples were analysed for
measurement of ions by Ion Chromatograph, metal by AAS, PAH by GC and HPLC, metabolites in urine
by HPLC.

                                                                                         3
The analytical results indicate that PM2.5 and PM10 were varying from 164 to 370 m g/m and 256 to 553
       3
m g/m respectively. The ratio of PM2.5 and PM10 was varying from 0.62 to 0.76. The average ratio of
PM2.5 and PM10 is 0.69 with coefficient of variation of 6.7 percent. The percentage of respiratory
particles (i.e.<2.5 m ) is significantly high particularly during winter. Also it is established that fine
particles are more prone to get enriched with toxic and carcinogenic substances than the coarse
particles. Concentration of ions indicates the elemental imposition of particles. Study conducted earlier
by WBPCB reported the average ratio of PM2.5 and PM10 as 0.73 with standard deviation of 0.035.

                 Average Concentration and ratio of PM2.5 with PM10 (12 hrs. value)


                                                                   PM10 m
                                                PM2.5 m g/m3            3
                                                                    g/m
                                 Average            225.9           335.7
                                    SD               74.3            112
                                    CV               32.9           33.4


The problems further aggravates, if such particles are associated with toxic and carcinogenic
compounds. Therefore, distribution of 16 PAH compounds namely Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene,
Acenapthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene,
Chrysene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(ah)anthracene,
Benzo(ghi)perylene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene were quantified in PM2.5 and PM10 Particulate Matter.
Concentration of total PAH (sum of 16 compounds) varied from 8.9 to 16.37 ng/m3 in 10 m particulate
                                 3                                                              3
size with average of 10.73 ng /m and CV of 27.02 percent and varied from 9.44 to 17.53ng /m in 2.5 m
                                             3
particulate size with average of 11.6 ng /m and CV of 26.26 percent. The results revealed that PAH
compounds in finer particles i.e respirable particles are 27 percent more than that of coarse particles
after normalisation considering negligible variation among the values of different stations. The average
                       3
concentration ( m g/m ) compiling the data of all stations revealed the prevalence of different inorganic
ions in PM of studied area. Poor correlation ship among the ions except few (NH 3 -SO 4 -Na, NO3 -NO2,
F-NO2 -SO4 ,Na-NO2 ) also indicate independent behavior of the ions present in Particulate Matter which
indicate that people exposed to vehicular polluted ambient air are prone to get effected with toxic and
carcinogenic chemicals.

                     Distribution of total PAHs compounds in PM10 and in PM2.5
                    m g/m3 of                                                    ng/m g of
   Location                          m g/m3 of PM10      ng/m g of PM2.5                            Difference (%)
                      PM2.5                                                        PM10
Hazra                     8.90              9.44              0.0497                0.0369              25.85
Park Circus              16.37           17.53                0.0442                0.0317              28.32
Science City             10.56           11.79                0.0477                0.0344              27.77
Shyam Bazar               9.78              9.84              0.0485                0.0363              25.13
Cossipur                 10.46           11.25                0.0478                0.0349              26.99
Rabindra
                          8.31              9.78              0.0507                0.0364              28.17
Sadan
   Average               10.73           11.60                 0.05                  0.04               27.04
        SD                2.90              3.05              0.009                 0.007               1.31
        CV               27.02           26.26                 4.66                  5.50               4.83


Concentration of ions ( m g/m3 ) in PM2.5 and PM10 (Average of 6 studied locations)


    Size       Station       RSPM      Na          K   Ca      Mg      NH4    F-      Cl      NO2    NO3     SO4
   10 m        Average      329.46   11.46    2.34     6.70   0.62     6.30 0.90 4.06 0.04 16.28 32.20
   2.5 m       Average      240.54   11.79    2.59     5.62   0.59     6.47 1.02 4.25 0.04 12.19 31.56


Considering the above aspect, chromosomal abberation, micronuclei formation and prevalence of PAH
metabolites were studied initially with 30 exposed individuals. Ten subjects from East Midnapur were
also recruited for this study to serve as control. The results indicated significant increase in both MN in
three cell types and CA in lymphocytes of exposed population, when compared with the control. The
presence of 1-HP in urine and significant increase of micronuclear and CA indicates the influence of
PAH on human health. Hence the sample size was quite small to comprehensively assess level of
exposure and its actual impact on human health.

                            Quantification of 1-Hydroxypyrene from the urine


                                        1-hydroxypyrene             Creatinine          1- hydroxypyrene
                                                                                      nmole/gm of creatinine
           Subject location
                                               nmole/l                 gm/l
                                         Max           Min      Max          Min           Max             Min
Traffic police (Rabindra sadan)          0.71          0.26     1.24         0.15           3.9            0.26
Traffic police (Hazara)                  0.48          0.25     1.24         0.20          1.25            0.14
COPD (patient SSKM hospital)             0.58          0.27     0.78         0.39          0.85            0.63
Bethune School                           0.25          0.23     0.82         0.09           3.3            0.3


Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in West Bengal and Remedial Measures

In West Bengal a rural population of 160.97 lakh people i.e. 27.90% of the state rural population of
577.35 lakhs (2001 census) is under arsenic threat and 75 blocks out of 341 blocks in the State are
affected with arsenic related diseases while in urban Areas 120 lakh people out of 224.86 lakh including
parts of Kolkata is under threat (PHED 2004). The regular survey revealed an increase of arsenic
affected areas, both in West Bengal and Bihar. Problems are further aggravated due to over-extraction
of groundwater from sub-surface and deep aquifers as people are mainly dependent on groundwater for
domestic and irrigation purposes leading to increase of background level concentration in the soil,
vegetation, surface water etc. To tackle the arsenic problem in West Bengal, emphasis was given either
on treating the groundwater by adopting different technologies or abstracting river water for potable
water supply after proper treatment. Due thought has not been given to the other potential water
resources such as pond water, dugwell water, rainwater-harvesting etc., which if utilized, could meet up
major portion of water requirements. Extensive use of groundwater has indicated other problems with
fluoride, humic acid, nitrate etc. are encountered in different parts of country. Keeping this in view, the
water from about 132 dugwells and few ponds were analysed. Analytical results revealed that almost all
dugwell waters were more or less safe. Monitoring carried out by SOES, Jadavpur University, West
Bengal covering more than 1000 dug wells and ponds showed same trend even in dugwells surrounded
by highly contaminated areas. The Central Pollution Control Board, Zonal Laboratory, Kolkata is
regularly monitoring tubewell waters, pond waters, dugwell waters, sediments and soils to assess the
level of arsenic contamination and prevailing status of water quality in terms of pH, conductivity, calcium,
magnesium, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, fluoride, sulfide, sulfate, iron, manganese,
zinc etc in the affected areas and also performance of Arsenic Removal Units (ARU) installed in different
locations. The household arsenic treatment method may be regarded as an alternative for the
transitional period, till a permanent solution is found. The details of ARU already developed by different
organisation were studied.




                         Typical Arsenic Removal units used in West Bengal

Presently most of ARUs are not in use, since piped water supply is made available. Few ARUs in certain
districts were found non-functional, due to either lack of proper maintenance or undesirable water
quality. In few cases, treated water was inferior to raw water mainly due to lack of backwashing in time,
but in few cases even after backwashing ARU failed to produce safe drinking water. Based on water
quality of arsenic affected areas proper maintenance schedule with infrastructure support must be
framed in addition to upgradation of these plants.

Epidemiological Study to Assess Effect of Air Pollutants (RSPM and Other Carcinogens) on
Human Health in Delhi

An epidemiological study sponsored by CPCB for 3 year duration is being carried out in Delhi by
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), Kolkata to assess the effect of air pollutants, especially
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) and other Carcinogens, on Human Health. The
objectives of the study are:

    •    To prepare a database on air pollution related respiratory symptoms among the residents of
         Delhi.
    •    To assess the degree of lung function impairment in persons chronically exposed to city's air.
    •    To explore the underlying mechanism of air pollution related pulmonary dysfunction at the
         cellular and subcellular level.
The scope of work involves health assessment including evaluation of respiratory symptoms through
questionnaire survey and clinical examination, assessment of lung function, assessment of cellular lung
response to air pollution, assessment of systemic effects of air pollution, assessment of hematological
profile, changes in liver and kidney function, assessment of genotoxic effects and correlation between
health effects and air quality.

Study on Effects of Ambient Air Quality on Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function of
Children in Delhi

The study is being carried out in Delhi on Health effects of air pollution on Children by the Chittaranjan
National Cancer Institute (CNCI), Kolkata. The objectives of the study are:

    •    Assessment of the respiratory health status of school children chronically exposed to ambient
         air pollution of Delhi and
    •    Establishment of a database relating to pollution related respiratory problems among children
         of the city.

Prevalence, duration and severity of respiratory symptoms will be determined from questionnaire
responses and actual tests on various physiological parameters like lung function tests etc. Health
camps were held in winter, monsoon and summer seasons at various schools in various parts of Delhi
covering North, South, East, West and Central Delhi.
                                    Highlight




ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION / CASE STUDIES
Status of Sewage Treatment in the Country

Disposal of domestic sewage from cities and towns is the biggest source of pollution of water bodies in India. There
are 211 STPs in 112 of the 414 Class I cities and 31 STPs in 22 of the 489 Class II towns. Besides, 27 STPs are in
26 other smaller towns. In all there are 269 STPs, including 231 operational and 38 under construction. There
remain 302 Class I cities and 467 Class II towns having no sewage treatment facilities. All Class I cities and Class II
towns together generate an estimated 29129 MLD sewage (as per population in 2001 census). Against this,
installed sewage treatment capacity is only 6190 MLD. There remains a gap of 22939 MLD between sewage
generation and installed capacity. In percentage this gap is 78.7 %. Another 1742.6 MLD capacity is under planning
or construction stage. If this is also added to existing capacity, even then there is a gap of 21196 MLD (equal to 72.7
%) in sewage treatment capacity.

Central Pollution Control Board studied performance of 115 STPs operating throughout the country. It was observed
that 45 STPs were operating at sub optimal efficiency, largely due to improper operation and maintenance.

Sewage generation and treatment in Class I cities and Class II towns (2001 population basis)

City category &         Number      Sewage         Installed        Capacity gap   Sewage          Total      Planned
population              of cities   generation,    sewage           in cities      generation in   capacity   treatment
                                    MLD            treatment        having STPs,   cities having   gap,       capacity,
                                                   capacity,        MLD (A)        no STPs,        MLD        MLD
                                                   MLD                             MLD (B)
                                                                                                   (A+B)
Class I cities having                              4472
more than 10 lac        39          13503                           6135           2896            9031       1549
population                                         (In 29 cities)
Class I cities having                              485
5 to 10 lac population 32           3836                            1293           2058            3351       123
                                                   (In 13 cities)
Class I cities having                              768
2 to 5 lac population   119         4807                            804            3235            4039       4
                                                   (In 34 cities)
Class I cities having                              322
1 to 2 lac population   224         4018                            373            3323            3696       32.5
                                                   (In 36 cities)


All the above Class I               26164          6047(23.1%)                                     20117      1708.5
cities together         414                                         8605 (32.9%) 11512 (44%)
                                                                                                   (76.9%)    (6.5%)
                                   (100%)          (In 112 cities)


Class II towns having                              200 (>143*)
0.5 to 1 lac                       2965
population                                                                                        2822       34.1
                      489                          (4.8%)            Nil          2822 (95.2%)
                                                                                                  (95.2%)    (1.15%)
                                   (100%)
                                                   (In 22 towns)


All Class I cities and                                                            14334           22939      1742.6
                         893       29129 (100%) 6190 (21.3%) 8605 (29.5%)
Class II towns                                                                    (49.2%)         (78.7%)    (6.0%)

*Estimated sewage of the cities having STPs

Treatment of domestic sewage and subsequent utilization of treated sewage for irrigation can prevent pollution of
water bodies, reduce the demand for fresh water in irrigation sector and result in huge savings in terms of nutritional
value of sewage in irrigation. State governments are required to take immediate action for treatment and utilization
of treated sewage. A status report on sewage treatment in India and performance of installed STPs has been
finalized and published.

Sewage generation and treatment in Class I cities and Class II towns (2001 population basis)
Performance Status of Sewage Treatment Plants in Delhi




Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) carried out surveillance of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Delhi to study
the utilization of sewage treatment capacity and their performance during 2003, 2004 and 2005. Delhi. There are 30
sewage treatment plants (STPs) located at 17 locations in Delhi. Out of thirty STPs, three STPs were not in
operation during 2003, 5 were not in operation in 2004,and 4 were not in operation in 2005. The total treatment
capacity of the 30 STPs was observed as 2330 mld. The actual treatment of sewage during 2003 was found only
1478 mld (63%), in 2004 it was 1432 mld (61%) and in 2005 it was 1810 mld (78%). Most of the STPs (23 Nos) are
based on activated sludge process except 7 STPs work on either extended aeration (2) or high rate bio-filters
(3)/Trickling filters (1) and Oxidation ponds (1). Performance of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the last three
years i.e. 2003, 2004 and 2005 is presented below.

Summary of Performance of STPs in Delhi

                                                           Actual      % Reduction
Sl.    No. of STPs in Year of           Total Design       Flow,
No.    Operation      Monitoring        Capacity (mld)                 Faecal        Total
                                                                                                  TSS      BOD
                                                           (mld)       Coliform      Coliform

1.     27                2003           2230               1478        96            98           88       87
2.     26              2004             2230               1432         96            98             90         88
3.     27              2005             2230               1811         96            98             87         85




Performance Study of STPs in Central Zone

Performance study of STPs in MP and Rajasthan have been made and details of STPs are given in Table below:

Sewage Treatment Plants in MP and Rajasthan

                                                          Area          Constructed
Location             Treatment type            Capacity                                    Remarks
                                                          covered       under
STP Indore           UASB                      78         Indore city   NRCP               Operated with 50 % load
STP, Matamandir,
                                                          South T.T.
                     Trickling filter          4.5                   PHED                  Operated with 50 % load
                                                          Nagar
Bhopal
Berkheda,
                                                                                           Not in continuous
                     Oxidation ponds           4.5                      PHED
                                                                                           operation
Bhopal
                                                          Bairagarh,
STP, Gondarmau,      Anaerobic Followed
                                          2.36                          Bhoj Wet Land      Not stabilized
Bhopal               by Facultative Ponds
                                                          Kohefiza
STP, Badwai,
                     Anaerobic Followed                                                    Flow was diverted in to
                                          10                            Bhoj Wet Land
                     by Facultative Ponds                                                  nallah without treatment
Bhopal
STP, Kotra,
                     Anaerobic Followed                                                    Operated with full
                                          16.34           Kotra         Bhoj Wet Land
                     by Facultative Ponds                                                  capacity
Bhopal
STP, Mohali             Anaerobic Followed                                                     Operated with full
                                             25               Old Bhopal Bhoj Wet Land
Damkheda, Bhopal        by Facultative Ponds                                                   capacity
                                                              New
Shahapura, Bhopal       Oxidation ponds          NA                         Bhoj Wet Land      In Operation
                                                              Bhopal
                                                                                               Operated with full load,
STP Jalmahal,           Extended aeration                                   Installed by
                                                 27           Jaipur city                      and renovation work was
Jaipur                  treatment                                           PHED
                                                                                               under progress
Pratap Nagar,                                                 Jaipur
                        ASP                      62.5                       ADB                Under commissioning
Jaipur                                                        South

STP at Jalmahal in Jaipur:

The sewage treatment plant (27 MLD) was commissioned for the treatment of domestic, and industrial waste of
north zone of the city during 1979. The sewage treatment plant consists of screen, grit chambers, extended aeration
tanks, secondary clarifier, sludge recirculation, sludge thickener, aerobic sludge digesters and sludge drying beds.
Another STP of same capacity i.e. 27 MLD has been planned at Jasinghpur Khoh.

The BOD, TSS and COD of the final effluent were not conforming to the standards. The flow during the study was
3.5 MGD only and out of 46 aerators only 15 were found operating. The sewage treatment plant was in very bad
shape, wherein most of the pumps attached to pumping of sewage after screening, attached to aerators were not
working. Fifty percent of raw sewage was diverted without treatment to Jalmahal by closed pipelines, which flows by
gravity. The garbage like paper plastic, etc were not removed manually in screen chambers and the grit was also
not removed from grit chambers. There is no uniformity in operation of the unit leading to erroneous results after
each treatment units. The plant is operated very unsatisfactorly. The sludge generation from the plant is around 40
m3 /day and is sold to nearby farmers.

STP at South T.T Nagar, Bhopal :

The sewage treatment plant (capacity 1 MGD) was constructed during 1959 to cover the South T.T. Nagar of
Bhopal city .The treatment unit consists of Screen Chamber, grit chamber, clari-digestor, trickling filter, final clarifier
and sludge drying beds.

The sewerage system in Bhopal was laid in 1959, at present some of the pipelines are broken and sewage from
these areas flows into nearby panchsheel nullah. The BOD, TSS and COD of the final effluent were not conforming
to the standards. It was observed that the entire treatment unit is working as holding tank and there was no Bio-
mass in the trickling filter. The sewage treatment plant is not being operated properly.

STP at Kabitkhedi, Indore:

The sewage treatment plant (78 mld capacity) located at Kabit Khedi, Indore is being operated at 50% capacity only
basede on the study following are the recommendations.

    •   Untreated sewage should not be let out in to Khan River. 100% collection of sewage from Khan River
        should be accomplished.
    •   Concrete sewer lines should be constructed on Bhamori Nalla.
    •   Flow measuring devices should be installed at inlet & outlet of STPs to measure the flow.
    •   Uniform loading should be given to UASB reactor to prevent shock loads. Hydraulic loading should be given
        to reactor for 24 hrs not for 10-12 hours.
    •   Manual screen and grit chambers should be operated and grit / coarse material should be removed
        regularly. The collected grit / coarse material should be stored in a designated place.
    •   Separate holding tank should be constructed in between UASB reactor and aeration tank to convert
         anaerobic to aerobic condition to sustain bacteria in the aeration tank that may prevent foaming in aeration
         tank.
    •    The polishing ponds should be cleaned at least once in year for removing algae, floating materials and
         grass for improving the quality of effluent.
    •    Chlorine dose should be given for controlling coliforms in the effluent, which has been discharged into the
         khan river.

Performance studies of STPs in Gujarat & Maharashtra

There are about 11 sewage treatment plants located in various cities in Gujarat. CPCB has prepared a
questionnaire for the collection of information on Oxidation pond / STPs and circulated to 12 Nagrpalikas, 04
Municipal Corporations in Gujarat State and 04 Municipal Corporations in Maharashtra State. In addition, 04
oxidation ponds were monitored in Mahesana district in Gujarat State. In Maharashtra state, 03 STPs were
monitored in Nashik district. STPs located in Nashik are not meeting the prescribed standards with respect to
physico chemical parameters

Performance of STP in Nasik, Maharashtra

                    Location                   TDS    BOD      COD       TKN    SO4-2       Cl -
                    Undewadi STP, Nasik
                    Inlet                      407    319      1075      23     29.2        53
                    Outlet                     351    62       287       41     29.6        58
                    Morwadi STP, Nasik
                    Inlet                      253    140      618       20     19          44
                    Outlet                     339    33       155       39     18.3        49
                    Bhujbalnagar STP, Nasik
                    Inlet                      413    173      611       24     33.7        58
                    Outlet                     395    37       169       42     25.3        58
                    Tapovan STP, Nasik
                    Inlet                      420    88       405       29     29.5        53
                    Outlet                     404    14       48        20     26.4        49

Note: All the values are in mg/L

Performance Evaluation of STPs at Mathura and Agra

Under Yamuna action plan 6 STPs (3 each in Mathura & Agra) are functioning. Except Dhandhupura (UASB) all the
others are based on series of waste stabilization ponds. The Central Pollution Control Board monitored and
evaluated the performance of these STPs in terms of percentage reduction in the concentration of TSS and BOD of
the effluent. The STPs had not obtained the consent to operate nor were they complying with the discharge norms.
Apart from this there was also no sign of improvement with respect to:

    a.   Grit/ floating materials are found in the influent,
    b.   All the STPs are under designed except Dhandhupura,
    c.   The excess influent is directly discharged to the river,
    d.   Neither there is any facility existing for sludge management nor the treated water is being used for irrigation
         (except Dhandhupura) and
    e. None of the plant has trained personnel for the operation and maintenance, besides the non-availability of
       uninterrupted power supply.

Review of Pollution Status at Problem Areas in West Zone

Central Pollution Control Board assessed the pollution potential and implementation status of the action plan and
made quick assessment of the environmental pollution status in problem area. Status report was submitted to CPCB
HQ with findings & recommendations. The Problem Areas at Vapi, Ankleshwar and Alang Ship Breaking Yard were
reviewed to assess the implementation of time targeted Action Plans. The review of environmental management
status was taken up at Alang Ship Breaking Yard in view of the growing domestic and international concern about
the environmental effects of ship breaking operations. Some ships were also visited for the assessment and
verification of measures taken for the management of various hazardous waste (including asbestos, oils, etc.)
generated during ship breaking operations. The revised Action Plans were formulated to incorporate additional time-
bound Action points.

Review of Pollution Status at Problem Area - Durgapur

Central Pollution Control Board had identified 24 Problem Areas in the country. Durgapur in west Bengal is one of
the problem areas. The study was undertaken for Durgapur problem area to assess the problems existing in the
area. The typical small-scale industries of the area are mainly the Sponge Iron Units, related pollution problems
being the main environmental concern of the area. In order to assess current status of pollution due to the
increasing industrial activities, various point sources of industrial pollution were identified. Automobile exhaust as
mobile sources of pollution have been well recognised. There is a sharp increase in the number of vehicles, due to
rapid industrialization and subsequent urbanization. Besides, dust nuisance has also increased due to ever
increasing construction activities.

The Damodar river, Tamla nullah, ponds, groundwater and various industrial units were monitored and river water
quality was found within the stipulated limits in context to the general parameters and also for the heavy metals. The
Tamla nullah, which is the sink of all discharges was having the COD in the range of 40 - 80 mg/l; BOD 11 - 25 mg/l
and TSS 50 - 160 mg/l. Sediment of the river in the downstream of confluence of Tamla nullah was having
maximum iron content of about 21,000 mg/kg, zinc 45 mg/kg, copper 16 mg/kg, total chromium 28 mg/kg, nickel 17
mg/kg and lead as 5 mg/kg, whereas in Tamla nullah sediment having maximum iron content of about 22,000
mg/kg, zinc 121 mg/kg, copper 24 mg/kg, total chromium 18 mg/kg, nickel 14 mg/kg and lead as 33 mg/kg. The
pond sediments were also monitored and found contaminated with metals.

The ambient air quality was monitored at four places in Durgapur and the SPM was found in the range of 300 - 1025
µg/m3 . Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter in the range of 140 - 478 µg/m3 and oxides of nitrogen in the range
of 30 - 95 µg/m3 , where as Sulfur Dioxide was very low and sometimes below detection limits. The industrial
effluent discharges at monitored major industrial units were also seen well within the consent limits. The major
problems of Durgapur area are emissions from the sponge iron units and Thermal Power Plants.

Review of Pollution Status at Problem Areas Pali, Jodhpur, Korba, Ratlam-Nagda

To assess the status of pollution control and for the preparation of revised Action Plan of Korba area, CPCB officials
alongwith officials of Chattisgarh Environment Conservation Board visited major industrial units such as BALCO,
NTPC. The review of Action Plans for the Problem Areas of Pali, Jodhpur, Korba and Ratlam-Nagda of Central Zone
was also undertaken in a meeting in which officials of CPCB, MPPCB, RSPCB and CECB participated.

Inventory of Pollution of Nandasari and Tarapur Industrial Estates

The inventory of pollution control status in Red Category industries has been undertaken through questionnaire at
Nandasari & Ankeleswar in Gujarat and Tarapur & Taloja in Maharashtra
Nandesari Industrial Estate :

Energy conservation, Waste minimisation/ Pollution prevention are not adopted in the industrial estate. The high
COD effluent is diluted with fresh water to meet the inlet norms of CETP. It was observed that the industries are not
managing/handling the wastes such as storage drums, containers, bags and liners for hazardous wastes &
chemicals, in appropriate manner. Drums & containers are normally sold to the scrap vendors without
decontamination. Scrap vendors are storing, cutting, burning and reselling the drums & containers with no proper
hazardous waste management practices. Air Pollution Control Devices specifically in size reduction equipments
were also found inadequate or operating in unscientific manner. All the industries are sending their effluent to CETP
through tankers. The arrangement for filling the tankers outside the industry premises is also inadequate in most of
the industries. Consequently, spillage, spread of effluent on earthen surface and natural drain takes place at many
areas in the industrial estate.

Tarapur Industrial Estate:

Industries located in Tarapur have problems of hazardous waste management and wastewater management. The
effluent collection and treatment system of industrial estate is inadequate and acidic effluents were finding their way
in drains and common collection sumps. The industrial estate does not have common secured landfill site for
disposal of hazardous wastes. The transportation cost to Taloja waste management site is high, resulting into
inadequate hazardous waste management as well as illegal dumping in the estate.

State of Environment at Silvassa

The monitoring study has been undertaken at Silvassa to assess state of environment. The study included
monitoring of ambient air quality, noise pollution, groundwater, surface water and seawater quality monitoring. The
air quality monitoring status reveals that the air quality is being deteriorated in Silvassa due to industrialization and
urbanization. The groundwater also has impact due to discharge of industrial as well as domestic wastewater.

Ambient Air Quality in Silvassa

                         Monitoring Location                        TSPM       RSPM      NOx
                         Town Hall Building, Silvassa               231        147       17.9
                         Police station Piperia industrial area,    175        125       19.3
                         Silvassa
                         Pandya House, Jhanda Chauk                 365        318       14.4
                         Kelvani Naka                               221        53        22.8



Note: All values are in Microgram / m3 & SO2 is BDL at all location in Silvassa

Noise Levels in Silvassa

               Location Day                                         Night
                           L eq       L max     L min     L 90      L eq       L max     L min     L 90
               STN1        68.5       102.0     47.9      59.6      64.6       92.2      38.9      52.0
               STN2        70.6       101.0     40.6      60.8      64.7       87.7      40.5      50.9
               STN3        70.6       99.9      50.0      62.1      65.0       95.1      53.5      57.9
               STN4        68.7       101.8     45.2      60.1      67.1       96.0      49.5      55.2
               Silvassa     69.6     102.0    40.6         60.7         65.4   96.0     38.9       54.0

Noise Pollution Monitoring during Navaratri & Deepavali Festivals at Vadodara

Navratri Festival

The monitoring for ambient air quality and noise pollution has been undertaken by CPCB Zonal Office Vadodara at 7
prominent locations. The ambient air quality and noise levels were observed exceeding the prescribed limits
because of heavy vehicular movement and noise due to public audio systems used at Garba Venues.

Ambient Air Quality during Navaratri Festival

                       Monitoring Location           Date               SPM    RSPM      NOx
                       Karelibaugh                   03.10.2005         248    122       7.5
                       Fatehgang Circle              04.10.2005         173    76        14.4
                       Gotri road                    05.10.2005         394    111       14.0
                       Gotri road                    06.10.2005         456    150       35.2
                       Old Padra road                07.10.2005         367    116       30.0
                       Old Padra road                08.10.2005         170    90        13.8
                       CPCB Zonal Office             09.10.2005         200    73        12.0
                       Ward No-10, Subhanpura        10.10.2005         312    90        8.0
                       Ward No.10, Subhanpura        11.10.2005         306    94        4.4
                       Fatehgang Circle              12.10.2005         324    124       14.5

All values are in m g/m3

Noise Levels during Navratri Festival at Vadodara

                                                                               Sound level in dB
            Location                         Area Use             Duration
                                                                               L eq     L max        L min
                                                                  Day          69.9     93.8         48.0
            United Way, Old Padara Road Residential
                                                                  Night        70.4     102.4        40.1
                                                                  Day          73.4     101.9        52.9
            T.B.Hospital Gotri               Sensitive
                                                                  Night        68.1     98.2         43.4
                                                                  Day          67.0     91.8         47.1
            Samata                           Residential
                                                                  Night        69.6     97.2         37.1
                                                                  Day          74.3     101.6        54.2
            MS University                    Sensitive
                                                                  Night        76.0     105.4        41.6
                                                                  Day          72.1     99.5         54.2
            S.S.G.Hospital Raopura           Sensitive
                                                                  Night        69.6     94.6         35.9

            Mehsana Garba                    Commercial           Day          70.2     100.4        47.7
                                                            Night           75.0      105.6       38.5
                                                            Day             74.5      97.6        57.1
            Yugshakti Garba                 Residential
                                                            Night           73.9      100.1       39.9

Deepavali Festival

Monitoring was also undertaken to assess ambient air quality (3 locations) and Noise pollution (7 locations). The
ambient air quality has an impact due to heavy vehicular movement, while noise levels were high because of
bursting of crackers.

Ambient Air Quality during Deepavali Festival (2005)

                       Location       Duration            RSPM        TSPM     NOx     SO2
                                      31 st Oct to 1 st
                       CPCB Office                        187         306      16.5    BDL
                                      Nov
                                      1 st Nov to 2 nd
                       Fatehgunj                          287         491      7.5     BDL
                                      Nov
                       Gotri water    2 nd Nov to 3 rd
                                                          257         615      19.8    BDL
                       tank           Nov

Note: All values are in microgram/m3 , Sampling time Morning 10:00 AM to 10:00 AM.

Noise Levels during Deepavali Festival (2005) at Vadodara

                                                                              Sound level in dB
         Location                    Category                   Duration
                                                                              L eq      L max      L min
                                                                Day           71.7      93.0       58.7
         Old Padara Road             Residential
                                                                Night         68.2      88.7       51.9
                                                                Day           73.6      95.9       58.0
         T.B.Hospital Gotri          Sensitive
                                                                Night         68.7      94.2       52.5
                                                                Day           72.0      96.3       57.6
         Ellora Park                 Commercial / Residential
                                                                Night         67.1      93.0       48.5
                                                                Day           75.8      97.0       62.0
         MS University               Sensitive
                                                                Night         72.6      96.3       58.2
                                                                Day           68.5      87.7       56.3
         S.S.G.Hospital Raopura      Sensitive
                                                                Night         71.3      95.2       56.9
                                                                Day           76.6      97.0       56.7
         Mandavi Gate                Commercial
                                                                Night         76.0      99.8       60.6
                                                                Day           70.4      95.9       54.4
         Alkapuri                    Residential
                                                                Night         71.4      93.4       53.4

Sources of Pollution in Yamuna River upstream Wazirabad Barrage
These were several complaints regarding water quality degradation in the Yamuna river at Wazirabad water intake
point. Since the problem can affect large population of Delhi, which consume Yamuna water, it was considered
important to augment the situation on urgent basis since the stretch serve as raw water source to large population of
Delhi. To identify the polluting sources and to assess magnitude of pollution load contribution from different sources,
detailed survey of Yamuna River upstream of Delhi was undertaken.

It was observed that some polluting sources are discharging polluted effluent in drains joining the river or at some
places directly while others store their polluted effluent then suddenly release the stored effluents. The episodal
sources cause sudden degradation in the quality of water at water intake point in Delhi. The major contribution of
pollution load into the Yamuna River was observed on the right bank from Yamunanagar, Panipat and Sonepat.
Contributions of pollution from sources at left bank were less significant. The potential contributors of episodal
pollution are alcohol-manufacturing distilleries. An increase in BOD and ammonia in River Yamuna was observed
because of drain no. 2 outfall, which gradually recoveres by the time the river reaches Wazirabad. Water scarcity in
the river further aggravates this situation. The longitudinal profile of NH 3 -N indicated gradual decreasing pattern of
ammonical nitrogen during its travel between Hathnikund and Wazirabad, Delhi.

It has been recommended that two-pronged approach may be adopted to solve the problem- (i) Allowing a minimum
flow in Yamuna to provide some dilution to the discharges and (ii) Diverting sewage and industrial wastewater from
cities for irrigation/on-land application and prohibit discharges in fresh water leading to river Yamuna through
Maskhara, Dhanaura and Munak Escapes.

Wastewater Discharges into Water Bodies from Urban Areas of Delhi

Delhi is the biggest contributor of pollution in the river Yamuna. There are 22 major drains in the city but no flow was
observed in the Moat drain and Drain No. 12A and these two drains remained almost dry. Out of remaining 20
drains, 16 join River Yamuna, 3 join Agra Canal and 1 joins Gurgaon Canal. Central Pollution Control Board is
regularly monitoring these major drains on monthly basis. The discharge and pollution load in terms of Bio-chemical
oxygen demand transported by these drains is presented in the Table below. There has been a gradual reduction in
the pollution load contributed by these drains between years 2000 and 2004. However, the pollution load during the
year 2005 was about 15 % higher than the previous year. Out of 277 tonnes per day BOD load of the wastewater of
Delhi, Yamuna receives about 229 tonnes and the rest joins Agra and Gurgaon canals. Total discharge of all the
drains during the year was around 42.65 m3 /sec, which is 2.8% higher than the previous year. Najafgarh drain is
biggest drain amongst the 20 major drains, both in terms of flow (contributes 48% of the flow) and BOD load
(contributes 30% of the BOD load).

Flows and Pollution Loads of Drains joining River Yamuna and Canals in Delhi (Year 2005)

S.    Drains                                             Flow                         BOD Load
                                                         Average %                    Average           %
No.                                                      (m3 /sec) Contribution       (Tonnes/day)      Contribution
1.    Najafgarh Drain                                    20.43       47.90            82.10             29.63
2.    Magazine Road                                      0.06        0.14             1.74              0.63
3.    Sweepers Colony                                    0.13        0.30             1.77              0.64
4.    Khyber Pass                                        0.16        0.38             0.10              0.04
5.    Metcalf Drain                                      0.09        0.21             0.35              0.13
6.    ISBT Drain                                         0.39        0.91             3.93              1.42
7.    Tonga Stand Drain                                  0.05        0.12             0.95              0.34
8.    Civil Mill Drain                                   0.43        1.00             9.99              3.61
9.    Power House Drain                                  0.50        1.17             11.07             4.00
10.     Sen Nursing Home Drain                          1.30    3.05        18.85           6.80
11.     Drain No. 14                                    0.14    0.33        0.17            0.06
12.     Barapulla Drain                                 0.96    2.25        6.28            2.27
13.     Maharani Bagh                                   0.73    1.71        15.68           5.65
14.     Kalkaji Drain (Joins Agra Canal)                0.07    0.16        0.27            0.10
15.     Tuglakabad Drain                                0.31    0.73        2.39            1.58
16.     Shahdara Drain                                  7.44    17.44       69.81           0.86
17.     Drain Near LPG Bottling Plant                   0.57    1.35        3.40            25.20
18.     Drain Near Sarita Vihar Brg(Joins Agra Canal)   8.01    18.78       29.39           5.20
19.     Sarita Vihar Drain (Joins Agra Canal)           057     1.34        14.41           1.23
20.     Tehkhand Drain (Joins Gurgaon Canal)            0.31    0.73        4.38            10.61
Total                                                   42.65   100         277.03          100




Trends in Total BOD load of major drains joining Yamuna River at Delhi

Flows and Pollution Loads contribution of drains joining River Yamuna and Canals in Delhi ( 2005)
Wastewater Management in Textiles Units at Tirupur, Tamilnadu and Pollution of River Noyyal
The River Noyyal

The river Noyyal, a seasonal tributary to the river Cauvery, originates from Vellingiri hills in the Western Ghats and
flows due south through the districts of Coimbatore, Erode and Karur. It travels a distance of about 172km before
joining the river Cauvery near Karur town. Although the city of Coimbatore, a major town located on the River
Noyyal upstream of Tripur, has a sewage network according to the drainage pattern of the river Noyyal, but no water
or wastewater is released from the city into the river unless the lake, located within the city limit of Coimbatore,
overflows. Thus, the entire stretch of the river Noyyal remains dry until it receives the effluent at the downstream of
Tirupur town.

Industrial Scenario at Tirupur

A large number of bleaching and dyeing units have come in to operation in last one decade along the dry stretch of
river Noyyal-the rain shade area of Tirupur and Karur- primarily due to availability of raw materials, chemicals and
skilled labour. Tirupur, a town on the banks of river Noyyal is a taluk of Coimbatore district. It is having a population
of about 3 lakhs and is nesting approx. 729 units engaged in dyeing and/or bleaching operations in addition to
approx. 2000 weaving units in the area. A total of 281 small and medium industrial units are discharging into 8
CETPs having a total design capacity of 42.05 MLD (Fig-2 & 3) whereas the rests are having their individual effluent
treatment systems. Almost 75,000 m3 /day of effluents are discharged into the river Noyyal from Textile units in and
around Tirupur town.




Almost 16 km downstream of Tirupur, there exists an irrigation dam (Orathupalayam) to impound the flows of river
Noyyal for irrigation purpose. In principle, the discharges from this dam are released to Muthur Barrage and thence
to Athupalayam reservoir for irrigation purpose.

Tiruppur area has very high TDS in ground water (ranging between 358 and 13,630 mg/l) therefore, water demand
of the industries are largely met through tankers from nearby areas having relatively low TDS ground water. This
massive ground water extraction in the region is further elevating TDS levels in the ground water. The drains in the
Tiruppur area carries untreated sewage and partially treated industrial wastewaters. These wastewaters ultimately
reach Orathupalayam dam, from where water is utilized for irrigation use. The concentration of total dissolved solids
in the river and ground water is being reported to the order of 5000-7000 mg/l, almost ten times higher than the
drinking water standards.

Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)
A total of eight Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP(s) are in operation at Tirupur town with design capacities
ranging between 1.6 to 10 Mld which generally receive the waste water from medium and small scale industries.
Almost all the CETP(s) are operating at their design capacities. The transport of wastewater to the CETPs is through
the pipelines and no tankers are allowed to carry the wastewaters to CETPs. The CETPs have been designed on
physico-chemical treatment process. As such the treatment systems have not been designed to contain total
dissolved solids from the wastewaters. On the contrary, due to mixing of lime, ferrous sulphate, coagulant aids and
polyelectrolite etc., TDS levels increase in the effluents leaving the CETPs. Similarly Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD) in the raw effluent can not be treated to the desired BOD concentration for river disposal. Thus, CETPs are
providing only partial treatment and require additional units for treatment of TDS and BOD.

The analysis of results at the outlet of CETPs clearly indicate that as against permissible TDS level of 2100 mg/l, the
treated effluents carry total dissolved solids as high as 8000 mg/l and as such none of these CETPs comply with the
stipulations. Similarly Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is not being treated to the permissible level of 30 mg/l for
river disposal. Thus, CETPs are providing only partial treatment and require additional units for treatment of TDS
and BOD.

It is observed that a large fraction of the TDS comprises of common salt (NaCl) and as high to very high levels of
chlorides have also been observed in the effluents. Relatively the sulphates were observed on lower side indicating
that a large number of units are using NaCl whereas only fewer units use Na2SO4.

Individual ETPs

As enforced by TNPCB large and medium industrial Units have to upgrade their treatment system to attain zero
discharge. The scheme essentially warrants the need for segregation of wash water from dye bath water for
maximising the efficiencies of the R.O. and Nano Systems. This, further demands the need for handling and
management of rejects generated through installation of multi effect evaporator systems (MSES).

The existing ETPs of two industries, where R.O./Nano systems does not exist, were monitored and found grossly
violating the norms in terms of TDS and BOD both. Similar scenario must be existing in all such Units that have
adopted only physico-chemical treatment and are discharging into the river Noyyal without exercising any control on
TDS levels through R.O./Nano systems and as such have not been able to attain zero discharge.

Reverse Osmosis cum Nano Filtration Systems

Few large and medium Units have adopted Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) and/or nano filtration systems to recover
almost 85-90% of treated water with low hardness and low TDS. This treated water is much superior in quality when
compared with tanker water quality in the area. The rejects 10-15% by volume usually carries TDS ranging between
20,000-40,000 mg/l are evaporated in a multiple stage evaporator system (MSES). The Nano filtration system is
capable of recovering 50% of NaCl which is available for recycling in the dye house and shall reduce the NaCl input
to that extent.

It is observed that two stage R.O. systems in addition to TDS, is capable of reducing hardness to a significantly
lower levels and as such low hardness water is very much required by the textile units. Such water shall also help in
reducing the use of chemicals towards softening of raw water.

Almost 50 to 70 % recovery of sodium chloride (common salt) through nano filtration and the reuse of the same in
the dye house is certainly helpful in reducing the common salt requirement to that extent. As such nano filtration
system towards the recovery of common salt (rejecting colour from the dye bath) from units using sodium chloride
appears to be techno economically viable solution for reducing TDS levels in the waste waters to a significant
extent.

As per the information supplied by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) almost 42 units have been
identified for the installation of R.O.-cum evaporation systems. The units having flow 600 kld and above are
identified as large (12 Nos.) and those having flows ranging 300-600 kld are identified as medium (30 Nos.). In the
spree of attaining zero discharge a total of 20 such units have either installed the systems or they are in the process
of installing the same while other units are providing only physico-chemical treatment and discharging the partially
treated wastewaters into the drains leading to the River Noyyal. A total of 493 units filed affidavit to the hon'ble High
Court indicating that they have deposited 25% cost of the Reverse Osmosis (RO) system and as such have been
allowed to restart the operations. Others, which have not filed affidavits, remain closed. The industries, which have
already attained zero discharge, were not affected by the closure Orders issued by the Hon'ble High Court.

The Central Pollution Control Board studied selected industries in the Tiruppur area, which implemented zero-
discharge scheme, for the purpose of assessment of the feasibility of systems in-use. These units are using the
reverse osmosis (RO) for the recovery of water, nano-filtration (NF) for the recovery of monovalent ions and Multiple
Effect Evaporator (MEE) systems for evaporation of rejects from RO and/or NF. The Multiple effect evaporator
(MEE) rejects contains mainly salts and requires proper storage and safe disposal. Different combinations of these
are adopted in various textile units, as follow:

       •   Dye bath containing NaCl to nano-filtration and rejects to multiple effect evaporator; wash waters to physico-
           chemical treatment followed by RO and RO rejects to MEE

       •   Dye bath containing Na 2 SO4 to multiple effect evaporator; wash waters to physico-chemical treatment
           followed by RO and RO rejects to MEE

       •   Combined effluent to RO directly followed by NF and rejects to solar evaporation ponds/enhanced natural
           evaporation. In this case, permeate requires degasifier.

Main findings and recommendations

The Central Pollution Control Board studied the area and prepared a detailed report which included following main
findings and recommendations:

   i.      Surface water quality of river Noyyal at Orathupalayam dam, Muthur barrage and Athupalayam reservoirs is
           beyond the acceptance level for the best designated use, i.e, irrigation. All the industrial Units including
           CETPs are responsible towards this deteriorated water quality in the region. The situation has been
           aggravated over a period of last 6-7 years due to the fact that the issue of TDS was ignored and the
           industries were allowed to continue production and release high TDS effluents into the river. Government of
           Tamil Nadu (TNPCB) as a nodal agency shall prepare a time bound action plan.
  ii.      Many new units are being set up beyond 5.0 km of the embankment of river Noyyal in accordance to the
           order issued by the government of Tamil Nadu. This phenomenon, if continues, shall only result in shifting
           the problem and issue of high concentration of TDS from water to soil. No new units shall be allowed
           without R.O. and/or N.F. systems followed by forced evaporator like multi effect evaporator.
  iii.     The industrial units shall be asked to install R.O. cum Nano filtration system and compulsorily recycle the
           permeate and NaCl and/or Na 2 SO 4 in the dye bath house. Those who cannot afford evaporator system
           shall transfer the rejects to a common evaporator facility for further recovery of salts and condensate water.
 iv.       All the common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) shall necessarily install R.O./Nano systems and make
           adequate arrangements to transfer the permeate back to the member units. The evaporator systems shall
           also directly receive R.O. rejects from the individual units on charge basis. The economic feasibility about
           the total number and sizes of the units shall have to be worked out at the time of preparing Detailed Project
           Reports (DPR).
  v.       Those units who are neither discharging their effluents into the CETP(s), nor having their own R.O./Nano
           systems in place shall have to either close down or shift operations within the reach of CETP(s).
 vi.       It is also recommended that all the CETP(s) and other individual units jointly shall establish a TSDF site for
           safe disposal of the hazardous sludge accumulated in their premises. This activity shall be taken up at the
           earliest possible without waiting for the TSDF site as proposed by Govt. of Tamil Nadu.
 vii.      All the on-going programmes towards cleaning (dredging) of Orathupalyam reservoir bed as directed by
           Hon'ble High Court and other strategies adopted by Govt. of Tamil Nadu in this regard shall continue with
           time bound targets towards execution of schemes.
viii.   The areas like ‘Thangam koil', ‘Kodumandal', Karaipudur, Kengeyampalayam, Anjur village and
        Athupalayam village where ground water quality is severely deteriorated, some scheme towards
        remediation shall be planned and executed for a fast recovery of ground water quality. The scheme shall
        also explore the feasibility of ground water recharging through low TDS waters.
 ix.    A similar action plan for Karur shall also be kept in pipe line for its timely implementation as a preventive
        strategy.

Investigation on Soil & Water Contamination Near Mining Fields in Tinsukia District, Assam

Mining causes degredation of environment through land degradation, large-scale denudation of foest cover
depletion of biodiversity, pollution of air, water, soil and degradation of agricultural land. "Makum coal field" located
in the Tinsukia district of Assam is one of the oldest coalfield of India with history of mining activities since 1882. To
assess the pollution dispersion patterns, emerging technology of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information
System (GIS) integration have been found useful for environmental Management and land use & land cover pattern
analysis. The mining managers and Pollution Control Authorities should have exposure to utilize these technologies
for Environment Management. With these objectives, a project was undertaken in collaboration with Dept. of Mining
Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur, at Makum Coal field areas of Tinsukia District Assam between April 2003 to April 2005.

Water soil and sediment samples were collected during June 2004 and February 2005 in and around Makum field at
12 locations and analysed for water quality parameters such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, iron, chloride, sulphide,
phenol, COD, oil & grease, TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and relevant soil parameters.

It was observed that pH, turbidity, iron, phenol, RDS, total hardness, magnesium and calcium were exceeding the
desirable limit of safe drinking water (IS: 10500:1991) in 75% of samples. High pH value indicated the high
concentration of metals specifically near effluent nalla. Therefore, soil samples & sediment samples were also
collected and analysed for heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni, which have been found in high
concentration particularly near the effluent nalla. The mining activities have direct influence for spread of
contamination. The location of coal stockyards and railway siding have contributed as route of release of pollutants
to the neighbouring areas. These analysis results are integrated with the layout map prepared from remotely sensed
data on GIS platform.

Assimilative Capacity of River Narmada at Hoshangabad

Narmada is the seventh largest river in India. It is an inter-state river having total length of 1312 km of which 1079
km in Madhya Pradesh, 35 km along the common border of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, 39 km along
Maharashtra and Gujarat and 166 km in Gujarat. The total basin area is approximately 99330 sqkm, out of which
85859 lie in Madhya Pradesh, 1538 in Maharashtra and 11933 in Gujarat. The river originates at the Amarkantak
Plateau of Maikal range of at about 1057 meter above Mean Sea Level (MSL) and major part flows through narrow
elongated trough running east to west with slight inclination towards the south, the river drains into the Arabian Sea
at the Gulf of Khambat near Bharuch in Gujarat.

Urbanization has been going on at slow pace in this basin mainly because the river passes through hilly terrain,
therefore it is inaccessible at most places. The major urbanization centers are Jabalpur and Khandwa in Madhya
Pradesh and Bharuch in Gujarat State. The industrial development in the basin is lower as compared to other river
basins. The industrialized districts of the Narmada basin are Dhar, Jabalpur and Bharuch consisting of clusters of
pharmaceuticals, pesticides, dyes, distilleries, leather and fertilizer units. Paper mills at Hoshangabad are also
contributing industrial pollution.

River Narmada at Hoshangabad comprise enormous quantity of flow, when compared with the wastewater joining
from the sewage drains from the city and the industrial nullah from Security Paper Mills and is the major factor for
dilution. The river water have pollution imopact at Sethani ghat by the city drain and the public taking bath at Sethani
Ghat and Mangalawara Ghat may be affected therefore it has been recommended that the drain may be diverted
through closed conduit to downstream side of these ghats and diffused in the middle of the river so that the sewage
gets diluted and its impact on other activities remains insignificant.
Evaluation of the Powai Lake Conservation Project, Mumbai

The Powai Lake is an artificial lake formed by constructing a masonry dam between two hillocks across the Powai
basin in the year 1891. The Powai Lake is located in the heart of the suburban area of Mumbai and surrounded by
Vihar Lake, hills, Powai Park, L&T, IIT and residential complexes. The watershed area of the Powai Lake is 661
hectares. The lake is bestowed with varying rich flora and fauna. Under the National Lake Conservation Plan
(NLCP), the Powai Lake was identified for the revival and improvement during 1995 by the Ministry of Environment
and Forests, Govt. of India. The project was executed between 19 April 2002 and 19 th April 2003. The conservation
works mainly included bio-Remediation for cleaning the water, de-weeding to remove the hyacinth, de-silting to
remove the bottom sludge, fencing to restrict the unwanted entries, blocking of 4 major storm water drains to stop
the entries of sewage water into the lake.

CPCB Zonal Office – Vadodara inspected Powai Lake Mumbai to assess the conservation work. The project is
sponsored by the Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India. Water quality monitoring was undertaken
at various locations in Powai Lake for analysis of physico chemical and microbiological parameters to assess the
status.

Pollution Problems in Mithi River, Mumbai

The Mithi River is a 17 km long stretch originated from the hillocks near the Aarey Colony and Vihar lake areas of
Mumbai, which flows from northeast to west direction and meets the Arabian Sea near Mahim Creek. Flow in the
river, which is mainly due to the over flow of water from the dams of the Powai and Vihar lakes, can be observed
mainly during monsoon season only. The river passes through the areas of Powai, Kurla, Chandivili, Bale bazaar,
Kalina Air Port, Sakinaka, Safed Pool, Santa Cruz air strip, Old air port, Khalina CST Road, Vakola, Dharvi, Bandra
Kurla Complex, Mahim and enters the Arabian Sea near Mahim through Mahim creek. The river serves as a
combined sewer for these areas carrying the sewage and storm water to the Arabian Sea. The river is observed to
be narrow (about 10 m wide) in the initial stretch. However, near the Bandra Kurla Complex area the river is much
wider. A survey on Mithi River was undertaken jointly by Central Pollution Control Board and Maharashtra Pollution
Control Board, Mumbai as per the direction of Hon'ble Court to assess the various activities undergoing on the
banks of Mithi river, which is ultimately contributing the pollution load in the river and also to suggest preventive
measures to be adopted to revive the river from this precarious situation. The river passes through congested
residential colonies including hutments that let out the raw sewage into the river and also dispose the domestic
garbage turning the riverbed filled with sludge and garbage. The cattle sheds located in Bali Bazar, Jarimari,
Andheri Kurla road etc also contributing the pollution load in the river. There are many unauthorized industries like
oil refineries, Barrel Cleaners, Scrap dealers etc. located on the road from Lal Bahadur Shastri Marg (LBS Marg) to
Santacruz air port and about 3000 small scale units which are dumping their effluent and the oily waste in the river.
In Mahim bay area, where the river meets the Arabian Sea is reportedly identified as "Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary"
where flocks of migratory birds arrive for nesting and make the area their habitat. This area is bestowed with
mangroves and considered ecologically fragile. The tidal influence of the Arabian Sea on the river is up to Mahim
and Kurla areas only.

The Mithi river receives domestic wastewater from areas like Sakinaka to Kurla, Chunabhatti, Mahim, nearby
hutments through various nallahs, estimated approximately 5 MLD. The river also receives pollution from the illegal
activities of the oil /grease processors, drum washings, cleanings etc. in the form of oily waste and effluent from
Kurla to Mahim area. It is suggested that the revival of the Mithi River may be undertaken in phased manner as
below:

    •   Initial action tneeded is the removal of sludge/sediment accumulated in the river by way of de-silting or
        dredging and also widening of river bed for free flow of the water.

    •   Immediate removal of all illegal industries and waste oil recycling units from the banks of the river.
        Necessary steps to be taken to discourage the illegal encroachment of the river bed for any purpose and the
        strict action may be initiated for non compliance.
    •   There should be proper collection, treatment and disposal of sewage from the catchment areas and sewage
        should not enter into the Mithi river to maintain the aesthetic condition of the river.

    •   The local Government should ensure the proper collection, treatment and disposal of solid/hazardous/Bio
        Medical waste.

    •   Relocation of the cattle sheds located along the Mithi river banks.

    •   The local Authority may under take the construction of the walls for the bank protection, encouraging the
        mangrove vegetation and preventing the unauthorized occupation of the land under CRZ.

    •   Time bound Action Plan needs to be developed by involving various Government, Institutes and Non
        Government organisations.

Status Report on Pollution in Mini River, Nandesari, Gujarat

Mini River is a minor river carrying mainly rainwater during monsoon season and meets river Mahi, which is a major
source of drinking as well as irrigation water. It is observed that industries located on the riverbanks discharge
untreated effluent into the Mini river which finally joins Mahi River. There are illegal discharges of untreated effluent
from some of the industries. There are inadequate checks on industrial estate to ensure disposal of effluent by
industries in CETP without bypassing it. A proper water balance for all the industries has not been carried out and
hence untreated effluent is finding its way into the natural drains and polluting the river Mini and river Mahi.

Environmental Problems of Aravali Hills at Chittorgarh and Udaipur Districts

Ministry of Environment & Forests vide its notification, the 7 th May 1992 has restricted certain activities in specified
area of Aravalli Range, which are causing environmental degradation in the region. During the earlier study two
districts (Gurgaon and Alwar) have already been covered. Further studies at another two districts viz. Chittorgarh
and Udaipur of Rajasthan falls in the Aravalli Hills region have been undertaken. Draft report has been prepared and
presentation made before the representatives from State Board, mining sector and various associations. Central
Mine Planning & Design Institute, Ranchi has been requested to incorporate the issues/amendments discussed in
the meeting.

Status of Coal Mines of SECL in Chhattisgarh State

South Eastern Coalfields Limited is the largest coal producing public sector undertaking in the country. The coal
deposits of SECL spread in five districts i.e., Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja and Korea in Chhattisgarh and Shahdol
district in Madhya Pradesh. The total geological coal reserve is 44.838 billion tonnes spreading in an area of 956.41
sq.km. The study has been undertaken to assess the mining and related activities at the coalfields.

Mercury Release into Environment by Caustic Soda Industries

The caustic soda industry at Nagda, Amlai and Kota were visited to assess the initiative taken by the industries for
controlling mercury release into the environment. Isotope studies indicated that mercury consumption per tonne of
caustic soda has been reduced gradually during past few years. However, substantial amount of mercury is still
unaccounted. Industries have initiated regular monitoring of air, water and solid waste inorder to quantify mercury
release from each stream. The comparative quantity of unaccounted mercury has been depicted below.

Year-wise Comparison of Unaccounted Losses of Mercury


Year     Mercury consumed in gm/tonne of caustic soda produced
                                            M/s Hukumchand Jute Mills,          M/s Shri Ram Vinyle & chemicals,
         M/s Grasim Industries, Nagda
                                            Amlai                               Kota
         Hg                  Unaccounted    Hg                Unaccounted       Hg                Unaccounted
         consumption         losses         consumption       losses            consumption       losses
2002     60.00               52.86          94.00             NA                160.00            113.551
2003     52.58               15.8264        82.31             10.049            58.3              3.237
2004     47.27               27.392         52.45             1.3505            46.1              0.05
2005     38.96               2.4170         48.87             4.2955            Converted to membrane cell process

Inventorization and Assessment of Pollution in Industrial Town Dewas

Dewas is one of the industrialized towns in M.P. Total 40% of the land area has been delineated for the industrial
activities. Various kinds of industries such as bank-note printing, steel rolling mills, engineering units for gear and
tools making, textiles, leather, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, chemicals, solvent extraction plants etc. are operating in
industrial area at Dewas. Total 84729 MTA of coal, 30630 KLA of diesel, 7278 KLA furnace oil, 1.2 KLA kerosene,
2735 KLA of LDO and 15.15 MTA of wood were being used as fuel for various industrial processes in the industrial
area. The Central Pollution Control Board has undertaken study during which it has been observed that the
organic/inorganic water pollutants carried away by various nullahs i.e. Dewas nullah, Nag Dhamman nullah and
Kalisindh river into the river Kshipra. Total pollution loads being contributed by various industrial
activities/urbanization into the river Kshipra in terms of BOD, COD, TSS are 1691 kg/day, 4766 kg/day, 5482 kg/day,
respectively. Addition of these pollutants into the river Kshipra is limited to 8 to 9 months in a year because some of
these drains get dried up in the beginning of summer season . Pollution load joining river Kshipra through various
drains is presented below.

The air pollution load due to vehicles in the city/industrial area was quantified. Particulate matter, SO2 , NO x ,
Hydrocarbons, and CO emissions from the vehicles was 135 MT/day, 102 MT/day, 1130 MT/day, 2701 MT/day and
5779 MT/day respectively. It was observed that most of the three wheelers were using adulterated fuel, which emit
high concentrations of particulate matter, NOx, and hydrocarbons.

Ground water monitoring at Dewas and nearby area

Location              pH        Cond. COD Cl        SO4    Ca.          Mg.            Total      PO 4 NH 3 F
                                                                        Hardness
                                (µS)                       Hardness                    Hardness           -N
M/s Bhaskar
Industries, Maxi      7.09      2150   16    250 569       200          930            1130       0.04    0.05   0.11
Road Dewas
M/s Birawal Village
                    7.25        1107   08    180 540       124          48             172        0.01    0.04   0.21
Maxi Road Dewas
Radhagung STI
                      7.65      1892   12    474 135       104          92             196        0.03    0.07   0.22
road
Moti Banglo
                      7.31      1962   12    316 215       260          164            424        0.05    0.03   0.35
Chouraha,Dewas
Civil line S.Kumar
                      7.35      1240   08    238 150       344          128            472        0.04    BDL    0.41
guest house
Collector office,
                      7.11      2200   08    348 235       264          188            452        0.02    0.08   0.54
near Hanuman
Mandir
Bada bazar near
                        7.02      3120     16    640 202       680           792       1472        0.03       0.10   0.61
temple
M/s Versha
Enterprises, Ujjain     6.55      2980     12    718 225       360           810       1170        0.01       0.03   0.31
Road
Uma Kant colony
                        6.73      1919     12    320 201       828           622       1450        0.0        BDL    0.10
near Rly station
Birakhadi village
near M/s Premier        7.09      2570     16    622 270       492           500       992         0.0        BDL    0.26
protein Industries
M/s Ranbaxy
Industries,             6.89      4280     24    310 221       532           1393      1925        0.20       0.30   0.35
Barlochar Side
M/s Vippy
                        7.06      1588     16            227   248           136       384         0.02       0.10   0.56
Industries



All values are in mg/l except pH and conductivity. The mercury was observed as Below Detection Limit.

Pollution Load in various drains traversing Dewas and meeting River Kshipra.

Sl.      Location                 Cross-        Average Flow         TSS load enter   COD load           BOD load
No.                               sectional                          in to river      enter in to        enter in to
                                  area          Velocity (m
                                                            3        through nullah   river through      river through
                                                         /sec.)      (kg/day)         nullah (kg/day)    nullah (kg/day)
                                  (sq.mtr)      (m/sec.)
         BNP Nullah near
                                  0.127         0.081      0.01031   183              125                37
         Awaas nagar
         BNP Nullah B/C to
         Kalisindh river          0.1889        0.0381     0.719     2609 *           1491*              559*
         (Billawal Vill.) (DR2)
         Nullah at Nanda
         nagar Mandkichak         3.65          0.762      2.7813    6008             12496              3845
         village(DR4)
         Nullah at Roopakhedi
                              1.797             0.194      0.3486    2168*            2048*              663*
         B/C to Kshipra(DR5)
         Nagdhamman nullah
                                  0.30          0.33       0.99      2309             4106               1283
         near Railway bridge
         Nagdhamman nullah
         near Gadhi Piplya        0.88          0.40       0.355     705 *            1227*              429*
         village



* Values are considered for calculation of pollution load because these are the point located before confluence to
river Kshipra
Ground Water Quality around CETPs and Land Fill Sites in Gujarat & Maharashtra

Central Pollution Control Board monitored ground water quality in Ankeleswar, Nandesari and Vapi in Gujarat and
Tarapur in Maharashtra to assess the contamination of ground water due to presence of Land Fill Sites and CETPs.
The monitoring results show that TDS, Conductivity, Total Hardness, and COD exceeded the prescribed standards
at some places.

Ground Water Quality around Ankleshwar Secured Landfill Site

 Location                        pH    Conductivity   COD          T. Hardness Ca ++   Mg ++      NH3-N     TKN
 B W, ETP, Amalakhadi            7.6    3500          7.2          596          155    51         1.4       1.7
 B W, GAIL compound              8.1   4700           10.4         597          106    81         0.56      3.1
 B W, Pungam village             7.7    990           10.4         479          69     74         0.84      3.1
 B W, Bhanta Shankarpur          7.3   2900           8.0          796          176    87         1.12      3.9
 H P, Kosumbi village            7.4    1350          BDL          265          82     88         1.12      2.0
 H P, Jitali village             7.2   1640           BDL          408          129    21         0.84      2.0
 B W, Roshan society             7.3   2600           3.2          530          155    35         0.56      1.7
 B W, Dinesh mill colony         7.6   2000           4.0          372          120    17         0.84      2.0
 B W, Surangpur                  8.3   1300           7.2          138          49     3.8        0.84      1.1
 B W, Andala village             7.5    2600          12           556          122    61         0.84      1.4
 B W, Dadhalpur village          7.6   2400           19           347          120    11         1.12      2.2



Note: Except pH and Conductivity, all other results are in mg/L. Conductivity is in Micromhos/cm ; *BDL-Below
detectable limit

Ground Water Quality in Tarapur Industrial Estate (Maharashtra)

                                                                                 SO           NO
                                       Total    Calcium Magnesium     Total
Location               pH TDS COD                                 TKN            4 - Cl - K + 3 - Iron
                                       Hardness Hardness hardness     Alkalinity
                                                                                 2            N
Bore well Tata
steel Ltd. cold        7.3 1039 5.1    715      364          351          1.1   220         84   335 0.54 2.1 0.68
rolling mill
Open well of
Sh.Lala                7.8 846   11    533      186          347          1.7   228         109 252 3.5    7.6 0.22
Vajpayee
Bore well at
M/S Precize            7.5 651   08    396      154          242          0.6   297         44   170 1.0   1.8 0.16
alloys,G-20/2
Hand pump
near            7.3 962          20    659      291          368          1.1   332         88   243 0.76 1.7 0.49
nallah,Dodipada
Bore well at           7.2 655   24    461      267          194          1.1   293         77   117 0.42 6.6 0.71
Chandrika
Nagar

Note: Except pH, all other results are in mg/L; *BDL-Below detectable limit

Ground Water Quality in Vapi Industrial Estate (Gujrat)

                                                   Total    Ca       Mg                                      NO SO
Location                       pH    TDS COD                                  Alkalinity              Cl -
                                                   Hardness Hardness Hardness                                3 -N 4
Hand pump at Sameer
                               7.7   795 4.8       198          109            89        286          125 1.52 42
apprt.Chand colony, Vapi
Borewell-2 at TSDF,Vapi        7.4   364 25        138          99             39        118          15     0.26 93
Hand pump at temple near
                               7.4   511 6.4       229          89             140       392          32     0.11 4.4
river Kolak,Bhatar
Bore well at Mr,Desai
                               7.0   709 6.4       532          303            229       388          131 1.73 56
house,Vapi township ,Vapi
Bore well at Chanakya
                               7.3   514 7.2       460          254            206       330          122 0.53 40
apart, Vapi township ,Vapi
Bore well at Seth
                        8.0          376 4.8       151          83             68        170          21     0.59 7.2
GNDHVidhyalaya,Bhagvada
Hand pump at Kanchan
                               7.3   990 3.2       124          89             35        510          98     0.31 91
Nagar Chhiri,Vapi
Open well near
                          7.3        290 8.0       184          144            40        210          5.8    BDL 8.7
Patelwadi,Mohangaon ,Vapi
Bore well near Tirupati
                               7.6   520 8.8       291          184            107       232          48     0.48 66
tower,Vapi

Note: Except pH, all other results are in mg/L; * BDL-Below detectable limit

Monitoring of Aquaculture Ponds located in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Aquaculture has become an integral part of national fisheries and economy, almost 59% of the shrimp export is
contributed from aquaculture. India is placed fifth among the major aquaculture shrimp (prawn) producers in the
world, contributing about 8.59% of the total world production (1999). At present the total area under coastal
aquaculture is around 1,52,080 hectares. The shrimp farming have both positive and negative implications on the
environment and social sector. On one hand it has been converting unproductive or marginally productive land into
productive land and creating employment in rural coastal areas. On the contrary, the unplanned and irregular growth
of coastal aquaculture has created environmental, technical and social issues. A large number of farms have come
up in coastal areas by converting agricultural land, saltpans and wetlands, including ecologically sensitive areas into
aqua farms. The effluents discharged during harvesting and pond cleaning have much pollution potential since the
effluent contains high organic and nutrient loads.

An extensive study is being carried out for assessment of the pollution potential from aquaculture farms and
monitoring of 68 ponds from 15 shrimp farms located in Gujarat and Maharashtra has been completed. The study
reveals that the effluent discharged from the aquaculture ponds carry a good amount of organic as well as nutrient
load to the receiving water bodies. The effluent discharged during harvesting indicated BOD 78 mg/l, Total
Phosphorous 1.14 mg/l, Total Nitrogen 14.6 mg/l and Total Suspended Solids 368 mg/l in effluent.
Pollution Potential from Coastal Aquaculture in West Bengal

The Central Pollution Control Board has initiated the study of harvest water discharged form the coastal aquafarms,
especially the traditional aquafarms in West Bengal and Orissa. With the advent of scientific farming, the traditional
farmers have also resorted to selective stocking with improvement in production levels. 15 such coastal aquaculture
farms from North 24 Parganas and Midnapore districts in West Bengal were studied. The characteristic of
wastewater (discharge water) has been found as below:

Characteristics of Effluent from Improved Traditional Aquafarms Harvest in West Bengal


         No. of ponds     Parameters (Ranges) in mg/l except pH
         monitored        pH      TSS        BOD       COD        NO 2 -N     NO 3 -N    Total Phosphorus
                          7.40 - 52.80 -     5.00 -    95.00 -    0.03 -      0.63 -
         15                                                                              0.19 to 0.38
                          8.10   434.00      8.00      137.00     0.25        2.50

Environmental Aspects of Fish Processing Industries in Orissa

Studies of effluent generated by fish processing industries located at Bhubaneswar, Puri and Paradeep in the state
of Orissa were conducted. It was observed that most of the industries have installed effluent treatment plants,
however, many were found non-operational. Even the operational ETPs were not achieving the prescribed
standards. As the effluent is having high nutrient contents, it can be better utilised for irrigation after proper
treatment, rather than discharging it to the drains, rivers, creeks, coastal waters, other water bodies etc. The solid
waste generated during processing may be collected and used for composting as well as for fishmeal preparation.

Inspection of Port Trust of India and ICD depot– Southern Zone

Inspections were carried out at Chennai, Tuticorin Port Trust and ICD Depot at Bangalore as per Directions issued
by the Hon'ble Supreme Court. The details of consignments cleared by such authorities during last two years was
verified in addition to the sample analysis reports which should have been a decision making tool towards clearing
such consignments. The gaps observed in the system were highlighted and based on the recommendations made
by all the Zonal Offices, a meeting for the Port and Customs authorities at the National level was organized at Delhi.
All the Port and Customs authorities were intimated about the necessary do's and don'ts to overcome the
shortcomings noticed till date.

Review of environmental management at Alang Ship Breaking Yard

A full status review of environmental management was taken up at Alang Ship Breaking yard in view of the growing
domestic and international concern about the environmental effects of ship breaking operations. Apart from this,
some Ships have been visited for the assessment and verification of measures taken for the management of various
hazardous waste (including asbestos, oils, etc.) generated during ship breaking operations. The status of ambient
air /water quality, as monitored during the year at the Problem areas – Vapi & Ankleshwar, were discussed among
the senior officials of CPCB and concerned SPCBs. The existing Action Plans, prepared by CPCB long back, were
found complied with. However, the Plans were reviewed critically in the present context and the revised Action Plans
were formulated to incorporate some more time-bound Action points

Management of Silt at BSL Project of Bhakhra Beas Management Board (BBMB)

A Committee under the Chairmanship of Sh. Paritosh C. Tyagi, former Chairman, CPCB and members from IIT,
Roorkee, NIH, CWC, MoEF, etc. was constituted to suggest the measures for management of silt at BSL Project of
BBMB. The Committee recommended that interim measure of discharging of silt through Suketi Khad to River Beas
should be continued for another 3 to 5 years and problems, if any, arising should be addressed to make this interim
measure as a long-term measure. The trial run during the monsoon period has been successful, as neither problem
of silting was observed nor any complaint regarding deterioration of water quality in river Beas was received. BBMB
should also continue monitoring of water quality in the Suketi Khad as well as in the River Beas alongwith recording
of bed profile of Suketi Khad. Following Action Plan for management of silt was suggested:

A. Minimization of Silt

    •   To minimize generation of silt in the catchment of river Beas upstream of Pandoh Dam, Catchment Area
        Treatment (CAT) Plan should be got prepared by the State Govt. The concerned stakeholders like BBMB,
        HPSEB, NHPC, etc. should share the cost as per the area of the catchment under their projects.
    •   To minimize entry of silt-load in the Balancing Reservoir through PBT, BBMB should resort to at least two
        flushing operations at Pandoh Dam in the monsoon season every year.
    •   BBMB should optimize the operation of Silt Ejector at Baggi to minimize further silt load entry into the
        Balancing Reservoir.

B. Dredging & Disposal of Silt

    •   BBMB should restrict the dredging operation in Balancing Reservoir and disposal of silt through Suketi Khad
        only during monsoon season. In the month of September, dredging should only be resorted to if the
        flow/discharge in Suketi Khad is more than 250 cusecs. However, BBMB can supplement the shortfall of
        this mandatory flow of 250 cusecs during September month from Balancing Reservoir by pumping /
        siphoning to utilize the full month period for dredging operations.
    •   During non-monsoon period, BBMB may dredge & dispose the finer silt through Sundernagar Satluj
        Tunnel/Dehar Power House i.e. their own water conductor system to river Satluj provided the suspended
        solids in river water of Satluj are higher than in the water carrying silt through Dehar Power House.

C. Monitoring Requirement

BBMB shall strictly monitor flow discharge and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at following locations for 3 to 5 years
to have realistic/actual observed data of Suketi Khad & River Beas for analyzing and recommending long-term
option of silt disposal.

a. Flow Measurement

i. At Dadour Site on Suketi Khad - Daily continuous flow measurement

    1. All other sites of Suketi & Kansa - Once in a day

Khad and river Beas (upstream & downstream)

b. TSS Measurement at all locations - Once in a day

c. Chemical Analysis of Water at all locations - Twice a month

d. L-Section of Suketi Khad & X-Sections at each identified location - Two Times

- First in May (Pre-monsoon)

- Second in October (Post-Monsoon)

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water of Yamuna and Major Drains in Delhi Region

Samples from three locations of river Yamuna and six major drains in Delhi region were collected, processed and
analyzed for 16 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS using SIM mode of data acquisition.
Analysis results have shown that PAHs in drain samples and River Yamuna at Nizamuddin have similar profiles.
However, PAHs in the river at Palla, a point upstream of drains, have different profiles compared to drains. PAHs in
the river at Mazawali, a point downstream of drains, have mixed profile influenced by the compounds carried down
from upstream Delhi and additions by the drains.

To assess the levels of PAHs in drinking water supply in Delhi, second phase of study has been initiated with
sample collection for PAHs at water intake points and treated water at various potable water treatment plants in
Delhi.

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Analysis in Extracts of Particulate Matter

Toluene extracts of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM)
samples collected on glass fibre filter papers from various locations in Delhi were analyzed for 18 Polynuclear
Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS using SIM mode of data acquisition to assess the trend of PAH's
contamination in ambient air at Delhi.

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) Analysis in Extracts of Waste Oil samples

The oil samples (crude oil, used / waste oil and transformer oil) collected from various Petroleum Refineries and
Port Trusts collected by Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWMD) in association with the Zonal Offices of
CPCB were analyzed for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclor mixtures to assess the contamination level in
order to ensure safe disposal of oil waste. The samples analyzed have not depicted PCBs contamination as Aroclor
(Detection Limit 5 ppm as Aroclor).

Aerosol Characteristics during Diwali in Kolkata

Air pollution has been the focus of recent research to determine which chemical constituents of ambient air may
pose a significant health risk to the human being. The studies on aerosol characteristics with reference to Diwali,
when firecrackers are burnt extensively covering city, urban and rural areas are not reported in details. Central
Pollution Control Board Zonal Office - Kolkata conducted a study to assess the concentration of RSPM, SO2 , NO 2 ,
metals and PAH in ambient air in Kolkata (metro city), Asansol (urban) and Moutorh (village) in West Bengal to
assess the impact of bursting crackers on the environment. The results revealed the prevalence of most poly-
aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and several ions in ambient air during Diwali.

Geoaccumulation and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Pesticides on Soil and Crop Vegetation During
Wastewater Irrigation

The sewage generation from urban areas has been constantly increasing, while the wastewater treatment capacity
is not increasing at the same pace. As the fresh water is getting limited, as well as because of easy availability of
sewage without any expenditure, the sewage is being increasingly utilized for irrigation of vegetation, crops etc.
Land application of untreated sewage results in direct addition of heavy metals and pesticides in soil and crop
vegetation. In addition to metals and pesticides, other pollutants such as sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, fluorides,
sodium, potassium etc. are also added to the soil and these pollutants may be deposited in vegetables tissues.

To study the geo-accumulation and bioaccumulation impacts on irrigated soil and crop vegetation in Delhi due to
land application of wastewater, several rounds of sampling and analysis of vegetable tissue grown using wastewater
and vegetable tissue grown using tube well water, as control, were conducted to determine the corresponding levels
of trace metals and pesticides in sewage irrigated vegetable.

Size Reduction Equipment & Emission Control Aspects In Nandesari Industrial Estate

The study has been undertaken to understand the nuances of the Size Reduction Equipment, its control equipment
and the effect in polluting the surroundings by various industries. There are some basic issues, which need to be
addressed.




    •   The industry loses a great deal of material into the atmosphere and polluting the surroundings.

    •   The industry ends up paying higher electricity bill by not providing properly designed emission control
        system. The driving motor gets overloaded due to the pressure being built up as no sufficient vent is
        provided. There is also a probability of the material getting choked leading to frequent breakdowns.

Water Quality Assesment of Raw Water and Treated Water at Water Treatment Plants in Delhi

Surface and sub-surface water are utilized as raw water sources for supply of drinking water after conventional
treatment in NCT – Delhi. The treatment of raw water is undertaken at five major water treatment plants (WTPs)
namely Chandrawal I & II, Wazirabad, Haiderpur, Bhagirathi, Nangloi and Okhla. These treatment plants are
operated and managed by Delhi Jal Board.

Central Pollution Control Board has been undertaking monitoring of raw water and treated water at these plants.
The biological assessment by using benthic macro-invertebrates as bio indicators are also being undertaken at raw
water intake points at Wazirabad, Haiderpur and Bhagirathi Water Treatment Plants. The physico-chemical,
bacteriological, pesticide and trace metal residue analysis have been undertaken at raw water intake and treated
water. The water quality status at these water treatment plants has been continuously monitored during the year
2005 at various stages of treatment, from raw water intake point to storage reservoirs.
                                 Highlight




INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL
Performance Evaluation of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)

Central Pollution Control Board studied performance of 78 CETPs operating throughout the country. It
is observed that of the total 78 CETPs studied, only 20 complied with the prescribed limits for general
parameters pH, BOD, COD and TSS but 15 of these were not able to comply with the prescribed limit
for TDS. Thus, only 5 (i.e. 6.4%) CETPs were complying all general parameters including TDS. In
general, the performance of CETPs has been found very unsatisfactory, largely because of poor
operation and maintenance. Therefore, the State Pollution Control Boards have been advised to
conduct regular monitoring of CETPs, persuade the operating agencies for proper operation and
maintenance and initiate actions against negligent agencies & willful defaulters.

High TDS in treated effluent is observed a widespread problem as, in all, 69 (i.e. 88.5%) out of the 78
CETPs did not complied with TDS standards. Reduction in release of TDS contributing chemicals from
problem industries by adopting cleaner production technologies and recovery and recycling of
chemicals from the waste streams is the most important action required to tackle this problem. State
Boards may consider prescribing location specific regulations for the control of TDS at the industry
level.

Operational performance of CETPs

                          CETPs complying pH, BOD,
                  Nos. of COD, TSS and TDS         CETPs complying pH, BOD, COD and
State             CETPs standards                  TSS but not complying TDS standard
                  studied
                          Number CETP              Number CETP
Andhra
                  2         0          -                   0          -
Pradesh
                                                                      Wazirpur, Mangolpuri, Jhilmil,
                                       Mayapuri, GTK,
Delhi             10        3                              6          SMA, Nangloi, Okhla Industrial
                                       Badli
                                                                      Area
Gujrat            15        0          -                   2          Ankleshwar, Sachin (0.5MLD)
Haryana           1         1*         Kundli-I            0          -
Karnataka         2         0          -                   1          Pai & Pai
                                                                      Thane-Belapur, Ambernath,
Maharashtra       9         0          -                   3
                                                                      Patalganga
Madhya
                  1         0          -                   0          -
Pradesh
Punjab            1         1          Phillore            0          -
Rajasthan          5        0           -                   1             Jodhpur **
                                                                          Thiruvai Karur***, TALCO Ambur
Tamilnadu          29       0           -                   2
                                                                          Thuthipet
Uttar Pradesh      3        0           -                   0             -
                                                            15 (19.2
Total              78       5 (6.4 %)   -
                                                            %)

*TDS not determined but likely to be within limits;
**CETP was under trial; TDS not determined but chloride exceeded;***TSS not determined




Operationalisation and Performance Evaluation of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)
in Delhi

There are 28 recognised industrial estates in Delhi. In order to mitigate the environmental hazards due
to discharge of untreated effluents, the Hon'ble Supreme Court directed Delhi Govt. to install common
effluent treatment plants (CETPs). The Delhi Government entrusted the work to Delhi Pollution Control
Committee (DPCC) who contracted with National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
(NEERI) in 1996 for the design of CETPs for the industrial estates. NEERI proposed 15 CETPs, their
designs and locations, some of them receiving wastewater from more than one industrial estate.
Construction of 10 CETPs as below has been completed. However, there had been an inordinate delay
in the construction of the CETPs, the collection system and the operationalisation of the plants. Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) surveyed and monitored the CETPs in Delhi during July-November
2004 with following objectives:

     •   To assess the wastewater generated in each industrial area,
     •   To assess the status of the collection system and to evaluate the present performance of the
         CETPs
     •   To assist in the operationalisation of the plants.

Location and capacity of CETPs in Delhi

No       Name of CETP      Industrial estates served            Date of        Design         Flow
                                                             completion    capacity, MLD     sheet
1      Wazirpur           Wazirpur Industrial Area           23.01.03      24                A
                          Mangolpuri Industrial Area,
2      Mangolpuri                                            28.11.01      2.4               B
                          phase I & II
                          Mayapuri Industrial Area, phase
3      Mayapuri                                           03.03.03         12                A
                          I & II
4      Lawrence Road      Lawrence road Industrial Area      30.09.04      12                A
                          Jhilmil & Friends colony
5      Jhilmil                                               22.08.04      16.8              A
                          Industrial Area
6      Badli              Badli Industrial Area              31.03.03      12                A
7      Okhla              Okhla Industrial Area              30.04.03      24                A
8      GTK Road           GTK Road Industrial Area           01.12.02      6                 A
                          Rajasthan Udyognagar, SMA &
9      SMA                                                   30.05.03      12                A
                          SSI Industrial Areas
                          DSIDC, Nangloi & Udyognagar
10     Nangloi                                               30.05.03      12                A
                          Industrial areas

A - screen, grit chamber, equalisation tank, flash mixer, tube settler, sand filter,
activated carbon column, sludge thickener and rotary vacuum filter.
B - same as A but primary sedimentation, extended aeration tank and secondary sedimentation in
place of flash mixer and tube settler.

Incomplete and inadequate collection system was observed as major hurdle in operationalisation of the
CETPs. The reason for less flow reaching the CETP sites included silted or choked collection system,
untapped industrial discharges and incomplete components of the conveyance system.

Consequent to the observations at CETPs of Delhi, Central Pollution Control Board convened meetings
of all concerned departments and representatives of each CETP society to discuss the finding of the
study. Consequent to these studies and the continuous review of the matter by CPCB and the
Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA), four CETPs were handed over to the concerned
CETP societies during year 2005.

Performance of CETPs in Delhi at Full Design Load

A comprehensive performance evaluation of ten CETPs installed in Delhi was undertaken between
June 27 to July 6, 2005 and August 25 to 28, 2005 to assess their capability for effective treatment at
full capacity. NEERI undertook study to optimise the chemical doses before operation for performance
evaluation and stage-wise performance of treatment was determined.

The CETPs based on physico-chemical treatment were studied at the full design surface loading rates
of tube settlers, DMF and ACF beds but for 9 hours only. The Mangolpuri CETP, which employs
biological process, was evaluated at half the design flow, which is the present flow. The plant is being
operated at this flow on a continuous basis. Samples were collected at four points i.e. after
equalization, tube settler, DMF and ACF. The composite samples of effluent after equalization and final
treated effluent, prepared on equal volume basis, were analysed for various parameters such as pH,
BOD, COD, TSS and TDS.

GT Karnal Road, Mayapuri, Badli and Okhla CETPs were found meeting the notified standards.
Mangolpuri, SMA, Jhilmil, Nangaloi and Wazirpur CETPs were not found complying in terms of TDS.
Lawrence Road CETP was not complying in terms of BOD and SS. Lawrence Road CETPs was not
able to meet the standards in terms of BOD due to high level of organic matter in the influent.

Performance Study of CETPs in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

CETPs at Balotra, Jasol and Jodhpur :

Performance studies of CETPs at Balotra, Jasol and Jodhpur have indicated following effluent
characteristics:

                                       CETP Outlets
              S.No. Parameter                                               Standards*
                                       Jodhpur     Balotra      Jasol
              01     pH                7.42        7.66         8.00        5.5 – 9.0
              02     TSS               54          472          68          100
              03     TDS               6,230       27,400       30,472      2100
              04     COD               85          336          328         250
              05     BOD               18          40           90          30
              06     O&G               11          34           30          10
                     Ammonical
              07                       0.73        0.53         7.34        50
                     nitrogen
              08     Fluorides         1.97        1.99         1.95        2.0
              09     Chlorides         1,330       17,195       16,500      1000
              10     Sulphates         2,769       3,499        3,116       1000
              11     Mercury           BDL         BDL          0.001       0.01
              12     Lead              0.19        NT           NT          0.1
              13     Cadmium           NT          NT           NT          1.0
              14     Total Chromium 0.11           NT           NT          2.0
              15     Copper            0.14        NT           NT          3.0
              16     Zinc              0.02        0.01         0.02        5.0
              17     Nickel            1.04        NT           NT          3.0
              18     Iron              4.85        0.63         0.33        ---
              19     Cyanide           BDL         BDL          BDL         0.2
              20     Phenols           0.11        BDL          0.06        1.0

* Standards notified under EP Act for CETPs discharging into inland water bodies. All values are in
mg/l except pH.


CETP Bhiwadi, Rajasthan :

RIICO has constructed combined effluent treatment plant of 6 MLD capacity and comprising of oil &
grease traps, flow measuring device, aeration tank, clarifier, sludge thickener, filter press for
dewatering of sludge and treated effluent tank. The CETP has been commissioned and operated by
private operators and receiving around 30% of industrial waste and 70% of domestic waste. Most of
the industries have provided effluent treatment facilities and discharging partially treated effluent to the
CETP. Performance study was conducted and the observations are as below:

    •   The total flow for 24 hours during the study period was around 7.13 MLD. The flow was less
        during night hours indicating lesser domestic activities.
    •   The RSPCB has not renewed the consents, as RIICO has not made any proper disposal
        arrangements like HRTS, which earlier was one of the consent conditions.
    •   The treated effluent from the CETP is disposed in the nullah, which finally joins River Sabi near
        Dharukhera in Haryana State and is utilized by farmers.
    •   RIICO authorities are not operating DG sets for the operation of effluent treatment during
        power failures. The DG sets are used only to pump the effluent to nullah near Metilla village,
        which finally joins River Sabi in Haryana State .
    •   The filter presses are not operated continuously. The sludge generated is removed manually
        and stored in LDPE bags. Proper storage and disposal arrangements are not made by the
        authorities.

Performance studies of CETPs in Gujarat & Maharashtra

There are 18 CETPs in Gujarat and 12 CETPs in Maharashtra , located in various industrial estates.
The monitoring has been conducted for CETPs at Vapi, Ankeleswar and Nandesari in Gujarat and
CETP at Tarapur in Maharashtra . CETPs' effluent characteristics were not complying with the
standards, however, CETP at Ankleshwar was able to comply because of heavy dilution (in preparation
of treatment-chemical solutions).

Performance of CETPs in Gujrat and Maharshtra

              Location                       BOD       COD       TDS        TKN       SO4 -2
              CETP, Vapi
              Inlet to CETP                  1713      5465      12005      120       3499
              Outlet of CETP                 262       1386      9340       339       2692
              CETP, Ankleshwar
              Equalisation Tank              940       5715      33069      971       --
              Primary Clarifier Outlet       1072      4715      20438      --        --
              Secondary Clarifier Outlet     320       1679      21442      --        --
              Outlet of Tube Settler         267       1536      11392      --        --
              Final Outlet                   16        150       2663       40        --
              CETP, Nandesari
              Equalisation Tank              237       1346      12600      4660      4262
              Outlet of Clarifier-I          142       881       9610       --        --
              Outlet of Clarifier-II         144       767       8546       --        --
              Outlet of sand Filter          18        147       3745       615       1556
              Final Outlet                   38        196       4047       849       2656
              CETP, Tarapur
              Outlet of Equalisation Tank 6040        12142      27112     11923     6969
              Outlet of Clarifier           5367      13015      28166     12179     7236
              Outlet of Aerated Lagoon      4167      9205       17690     11179     5949
              Outlet of Clarifier-I         3286      8571       17093     11846     5585
              Outlet of Clarifier-II        208       635        2171      885       563
              Final Outlet                  17        317        2003      923       505

Note: All values are in mg/L.

National Task Force for the Implementation of Environmental Standards in Integrated Steel
Plants

Manufacturing of Iron and Steel involves a large number of processing steps which consume 4-5 tonne
of input materials and 10-25 m3 of water for every one tonne of steel produced. Besides the generation
of air pollution, 5-20 m3 of wastewater and 2 to 3 tonne of solid waste is generated for production of
one tonne of steel.

Central Pollution Control Board has constituted a National Task Force (NTF), for the implementation of
notified environmental standards, and to evolve a time bound program for the same. Representatives
from steel industry were also nominated as members of the NTF besides representatives from Ministry
of Steel, Ministry of Environment & Forests, CPCB and concerned State Boards. Meetings of the
National Task Force on Steel Industry have been held periodically to discuss the implementation of
Environmental Standards in Steel industry specifically the implementation of standards in coke oven
plants. The following major achievements have been made in the field of environmental management
and pollution control in the Integrated Iron & Steel Industries:

    •   About 98% stacks are complying with emission standards.
    •   Ambient Air Quality is within the statutory norms. Discharge effluent quality for the plants / units
        are generally within norm, except cyanide in the BOD plant.
    •   62.5% of the solid waste generated in steel plants are being utilized either through recycling /
        reuse or commercial disposal.
    •   Tree plantation has been carried out in and around the Steel Plants with a target of a tree for
        every one tonne production of Steel per annum. Massive forestation in and around the steel
        plant can be seen now.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Integrated Iron &
Steel Industries

Industrial development is an important constituent in our pursuits for economic growth, employment
generation and betterment in the quality of life. On the other hand, industrial activities, without proper
precautionary measures for environmental protection are liable to cause pollution and associated
problems. Hence, it is necessary that regulatory norms are complied for prevention and control of
pollution. The adoption of clean technologies and improvement in management practices, commitment
and voluntary initiatives of industry for responsible care of the environment are also important to
sustain responsibilities of industrial sector towards environment for pollution control.

With this in view, industry-specific interaction meeting was organized at Kolkata to formulate the
Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Integrated Iron & Steel
Industries. A series of interaction with the industry have been made and the CREP has been finalized
which has been agreed by Steel sector. In the CREP the issues have been identified and action points
along with time targets have been finalized for implementation by the steel sector.
Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Aluminium
Industry

National Task Force for Pollution Control in Aluminium industry constituted by MoEF includes
implementation of recommendations of Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental
Protection (CREP). The meetings of the National Task Force for aluminium industry have been held
from time to time. The major decisions taken for control of pollution from aluminium industry are:

    •   National Task Force agreed that maximum capacity that can be permitted at one location can
        be fixed as 3,50,000 tonnes per annum to avoid damage to the environment.
    •   Forage fluoride is the best indicator for assessing the damage from the aluminium plant. The
        Orissa State Pollution Control Board shall undertake a damage assessment study in Talcher
        region.
    •   Forage fluoride Measurement Method was finalized for using uniform method of measurement
        of forage.
    •   The consumption of fluoride per tonne of aluminium is very high. This is to be brought down to
        the global level by taking effective measures as practiced internationally.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Thermal Power
Plants

There are 83 coal based thermal power plants of which 5 plants are closed. 56 thermal power plants
comply with emission standards & 22 plants are yet to comply with the emission standards. 63 thermal
power plants comply with effluent standards and 15 plants are yet to comply with the effluent
standards.

Task Force (TF) for implementation of recommendations of the Charter on Corporate Responsbility for
Environment Protection in thermal power plants was constituted. TF reviewed the status of non
compliant power plants and decided that these plants shall prepare an action plan for
installation/augmention of pollution control systems in time bound manner as per recommendation of
CREP.

Use of Beneficiated/ Blended Coal :

The Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India has promulgated two Gazette Notification-(GSR
560(E) dated September 19, 1997 and 378(E) June 30, 1998) on use of beneficiated/blended coal
containing ash not more than 34 percent( an.av.) w.e.f. June 2001(extended to June 2002 vide
notification no GSR 407 (E) dated May 31 st , 2001) in the following power plants:

    •   Power plants located beyond 1000 kms. from pit head;
    •   Power plants located in critically polluted areas, urban areas and in ecologically sensitive
        areas.

The power plants using FBC (CFBC, PFBC & AFBC) and IGCC combustion technologies are
exempted to use beneficiated coal irrespective of their locations

Requirements of Beneficiated/ Blended coal :

The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has estimated the requirement of beneficiated/ blended coal for
39 existing and proposed thermal power plants as 85.46 million tonnes per annum. Out of which, the
Coal India Ltd. would be able to meet the requirement of 68.48 million tonnes per annum coal from
(from existing washeries and blending of domestic coals). The remaining quantity could be met by
blending imported and domestic coal at coastal thermal power plants and changing the linkages
suitably. Beneficiated/blended coal having ash content 34% or less was used by 29 thermal power
plants during 2004-05. These plant utilised 17.2 million tonnes of washed / blended coal and 3.6 million
tonnes imported coal for meeting the requirement of 34 % ash content in coal.

Non-Coking Coal Washeries :

During the year 2004-05, CIL and SCCL supplied 258 million tonnes of coal to thermal power plants in
the country. Presently, total capacity of non-coking coal washing in the country is 70.35 million tones
per annum. Of which Coal India has capacity of 20.2 million tonnes per annum with seven operating
washeries and private operators have capacity of 50.15 million tonnes per annum.

Washeries in operation in the country

Sl. Washery & Operator           Capacity Location        Consumer
No.                              (MMTA)
     Coal India Limited (CIL)
1    Dugda-I,CIL                 1.00       Jharkhand     TPS
2    Lodna,CIL                   0.48       -do-          TPS
3    Madhuban,CIL                2.50       -do-          TPS
4    Gidi,CIL                    2.50       -do-          TPS
5    Piparwar,CIL                6.50       -do-          TPS
6    Kargali,CIL                 2.72       -do-          TPS
7    Bina,CIL                    4.50       UP            TPS
     Sub Total                   20.20
     Private Sector
8    Dipka                       5.0        Chattisgarh   RSEB,GEB,PSEB,KPCL,MSEB,Cement,etc.
 9   Gevra                       6.0        -do-          -do-
10   Chandrapur                  2.0        Maharashtra MSEB, KPCL
11   Adilabad                    2.0        AP            KPCL
12   Talcher                     3.0        Orissa        Sponge Iron
13   Wani, Kartikay              2.0        Maharashtra TPS
14   Korba, ST-CLI Coal          5.0        Chattisgarh   BSES, GEB, Cement
     washeries ltd.
15   Ramagundam                  2.5        AP            KPCL, Cement
16   Sasti                       2.5        Maharashtra RPTS, KPCL
17   Wani                        2.5        Maharashtra MSEB
18   Umrer                       0.75       -do-          Cement
19   Bhandara                    0.75       -do-          Steel
20   Parasia                     0.75       -do-          Cement
21   Bilaspur,.                  1.2        Chattisgarh   Sponge Iron
22   Ghugus,.                    4.0        Maharashtra MSEB
23    Talcher, Global coal        2.0        Orissa         Sponge Iron
      Mining (P) Ltd.
24    Wani                        3.0        Maharashtra MSEB
25    Chandrapur,                 1.0        Maharashtra Industries
26    Raigarh, Jindal             2.5        Orissa         Steel
27    Wani, Indo Unique Flame 0.5            Maharashtra Sponge Iron
      Ltd.
28    Chhattishgarh Power &       1.2        Chattisgarh    Power & Cement
      Coal Beneficiation Ltd.
      Sub Total                   50.15
      TOTAL                       70.35
      Proposed or under
      expansion
      Kalinga, ST-CLI Coal
1     Washeries Ltd.              11.0       Orissa         APGENCO
      NK area (CCL), Monnet
      Danniels Coal washeries
2     ltd.                    3.5            Jharkhand      PSEB
      Dipka, Aryan Coal
3.    Benefications Pvt. Ltd.     5 to 7     Chattisgarh    TPS & Cement

Utilization of flyash

There are 108 thermal power plants including 78 operational coal based power plants. During 2004-05,
258 million tonnes of coal and 21.5 million tonnes of lignite were consumed by these power plants.
About 110 million tonnes of ash was generated, of which 37 percent was utilised. Out of 78 thermal
power plants of utilities, 35 could met the target as per action plan and 45 plants could not meet the
target because of their location, non availability of dry storage facility and lack of specifications with
SPWDs, Highway authority and other related agencies.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Chlor-Alkali and
Fertilizer Sectors

Follow-up action continued through Task Forces for implementation of action points under CREP for
chlor-alkali and fertilizer sector industries. Industries under both the sectors complied most of the action
points, except for same chlor-alkali units regarding total release of mercury at 2.0 gm/tonne of product
and mercury consumption at 50 gm/tonne of product. Regarding action plan for conversion of mercury
cell to membrane cell process, industries have agreed to switchover to membrane cell technology.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Pulp & Paper
Industries

CREP for pulp & paper industries was formulated with the major thrust to control the pollution at source
by implementing cleaner technologies i.e RDH pulping/ continuous pulping, chlorine di-oxide bleaching.
Oxygen de-lignification etc. Water conservation and solid waste management were also considered.
The achievements of time targeted action points are as under:

Large pulp & paper industries :
Large Pulp & paper industries are generally implementing CREP action points as per schedule and
complying with the targets fixed.

    •   Present AOX level from these category of industries ranges between 1.0-1.6 Kg/tonne of paper
        (Standards 1.5 Kg/tonne of paper)
    •   Present discharge level between 130-160 cum/tonne of paper (limit-140 cum/tonne of paper) ;
    •   10 mills have lime kiln. Rest have committed to install as per schedule and submitted the
        action plan (by March 31, 2007) :
    •   One mill installed odour control system. Rests of the plants are working on installation of the
        system within the proposed time framework (by March 31, 2007).

Small Pulp & Paper industries (Agro-based) :

Major problem in the small-scale agro-based paper mill is related to discharge of highly polluting
stream of black liquor without recovery of chemicals. Its discharge contributes to high level of BOD,
COD and colour to the water bodies. Therefore major thrust has been given to this category of pulp &
paper industries. Industries have to utilize black liquor by installation of Chemical Recovery Plant or
have to shift to waste paper for compliance of standards.

A number of agro-based paper mills are installing chemical recovery plant (CRP) while other units have
opted to shift to waste paper. SPCBs/PCCs have been directed to allow only those agro-based paper
industries to operate on agro-based raw material which have placed order for CRP or other viable
option for utilization of black liquor.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection for Distilleries

CREP for distilleries was formulated to achieve zero discharge of spent wash for distilleries into surface
water by December 31, 2005. Action plan from 231 distilleries have been received and same was
scrutinized to verify their treatment facilities to achieve zero discharge into surface water. It was found
that out of 231 distilleries, 82 distilleries are having full fledged facilities to achieve zero discharge, 14
distilleries are having treatment facilities to utilize 75% of their generated spent wash and 15 distilleries
are having treatment facilities to utilise 50% of their generated spent wash.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection for Sugar mills

CREP for sugar mills was formulated to reduce wastewater generation @ 100 litre / ton of cane
crushed and to comply with standards for particulate matter emission to < 150 mg/ Nm3. Action plan
from 81 sugar mills have been received, 21 sugar mills are achieving wastewater generation @ <100
litre /tonne, 33 sugar mills are complying with standards for particulate matter emission to < 150
mg/NNm3.

Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for Cement and
Asbestos based Industries

The Task Forces for implementation of the CREP recommendations for cement industry and asbestos
based industries have been constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri Paritosh C. Tyagi Ex
Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board. The meetings of the Task Force were convened and
various issues were discussed.

Corporate Responsibility For Environmental Protection In Tannery Sector

The Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) for tennries sector
enlisted various action point to be complied by tanneries. The achievements under various action
points are as below.

Chrome Recovery

    •   Tamil Nadu: All chrome tanning units either collectively or individually recover chrome and use
        the recovered chrome either in their own units or sell it to chemical industries manufacturing
        basic chromium sulphate.

    •   Kolkata ( West Bengal ): 109 units joined together for establishing three modules of Common
        Chrome Recovery Plants (CCRPs) of 120 m3 /day each in the Calcutta Leather Complex with
        the financial support from MoEF. Two modules have already been constructed. Besides the
        above, four mobile CRPs (each of 10 m3 / day capacity) and two fixed CRPs (each of capacity
        2.5 m3 /shift of 8 hours) are also available in the complex. The remaining units have been
        proposing to provide individual CRPs.

    •   Kanpur (UP): Out of 189 chrome tanneries, CRPs have been established at 106 units. The
        remaining 83 small tanneries doing chrome-tanning process have been included under
        "Common Chrome Recovery Plant" (CCRP) project. A feasibility report was prepared for the
        installation of CCRP of 70 KLD capacity, at Jajmau, Kanpur . NRCD has agreed to share 70%
        of the total cost (105.27 lakh). Kanpur Nagar Nigam and 83 tanneries' (<50h/d) group shall
        share 15% each. The first installment of Rs 25 lakh for the establishment of CCRP has been
        released while Kanpur Nagar Nigam has collected Rs 12.39 lakh from the participating
        tanneries. The site development and the foundation works have been started.

    •   Unnao (U.P.) : All the 7 chrome tanneries are having individual chrome recovery systems. In
        the new Complex at Banthar (Distt Unnao), it is mandatory for chrome tanneries to provide
        chrome recovery units before commissioning.

    •   Jalandhar ( Punjab ): All the 39 chrome tanneries have established CRPs on individual basis.

Reduction of Water Consumption in Tannery Units

Most of the large and medium tanneries have installed water meters. All the units in Tamilnadu and
almost 60 % units in the country have installed wastewater flow meters. In view of expensive flow
meters, the tanneries may start with the installation of V-notch as the simplest device to measure flow.
Water consumption has already been achieved below the prescribed level in most of the units in Tamil
Nadu. All the member tanneries of Unnao CETP are currently consuming water at the rate of 30 m3
/tonne. In other places such as Jalandhar, Kanpur the water consumption will be reduced and brought
to the prescribed level through water conservation methods.

Compliance of Standards

    •   Deployment of qualified and well-trained staff for O & M of the ETPs/CETPs: All the
        Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) in Tamil Nadu have engaged qualified staff and
        they have been trained by organizations like CLRI, UNIDO, Pollution Control Boards (PCBs).
        In addition, large tanning units have provided trained staff.
    •   Installation of automatic monitoring instruments by CETPs/large tanneries: About 6 out
        of 18 CETPs have installed automatic monitoring instruments for selected parameters. A few
        others CETPs have also initiated installation of such facilities while the remaining appear to be
        initially reluctant to install because of the high cost of these automatic instruments.
    •   Replacement of open anaerobic lagoons with cleaner technology: Action has been
        initiated to convert anaerobic lagoons by concerned CETP management. The first project at
        Dindigual has been initiated for the anaerobic lagoons as UASB, with the financial support from
        MoEF as full-scale R&D project.

Management of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

The tanneries located at Tamil Nadu, U.P. and Jalandhar adopted various measures for manual/
mechanical desalting of raw hides/ skins. The zero liquid discharge (ZLD) mode of functioning, in the
tanneries located in Tamilnadu, demands the implementation of membrane-based technologies and
safe disposal of reject streams from membrane stacks. 18 units have either already installed or are in
the process of installing reverse osmosis systems for the management of TDS.

Solid Waste Management

Shavings/trimmings is utilized for manufacturing leather board. Fleshings are utilized for manufacturing
glue. A demonstration plant has been established for utilizing sludge for bio-energy generation in
Melvisharam.

Use of Boron bearing compounds to be dispensed

Most of the tanneries are not using boron salts, except a few units. Central Leather Research Institute
advised suitable alternative for boron salts.

Action Against Industries under the Environment Surveillance Squad (ESS)

Distilleries:

14 distilleries have been issued notices for the proposed directions under section 5 of The Environment
(Protection) Act 1986, 10 distilleries have been issued direction under section 5 to restrict their capacity
equivalent to treatment facility available with the distilleries. One distillery was closed since it was
grossly violating the prescribed standards. Direction to State Boards were issued under section
18(1)(b) of the water Act 1974 to initiate action against three defaulter distilleries for taking action.

Pulp & Paper:

Notices for the proposed directions under Section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 were
issued to eleven pulp & paper industries.

Industries inspection under Environment Surveillance Squad (ESS)

Central Zone

15 numbers of industries were visited under ESS programme while 7 units were visited jointly with the
officials of MoEF for verification of the compliance of post-project environmental management
conditions prescribed under Environmental Clearance issued by MoEF. During the visit, the source
emissions, ambient air quality and wastewater monitoring have been undertaken.

West Zone

25 numbers of industries were visited under ESS programme while 4 units were visited jointly with the
officials of MoEF for verification of the compliance of post-project environmental management
conditions prescribed under Environmental Clearance issued by MoEF. The implementation of action
points of charters under CREP program for various categories of industries like Caustic-soda,
Distilleries, Pesticides, Dyestuff, Bulk Drug, etc. were also studied. Caustic-soda units were visited for
the status of pollution control and mercury management.
Activities in Compliance of Supreme Court Directions
As per the Directives of Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, dated October 14, 2003 in the matter of Writ
Petition No. (C) of 657 of 1995, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is required to prepare and
comply with the following directives:

    i.   Preparation & Issuance of Check list and Ensuring its Compliance;
   ii.   Preparation of Guidelines on Hazardous Waste Incinerators;
  iii.   Preparation of Guidelines for Proper Functioning & Up keep of Disposal Sites;
 iv.     Preparation of Guidelines for Transportation of Hazardous Waste;
   v.    National Policy Document on Management of Hazardous Waste;
 vi.     Random Checks on Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generation submitted by the SPCBs/PCCs;
 vii.    Random Checks on Inventory on Hazardous Waste Dump sites submitted by the
         SPCBs/PCCs and Evaluation of the Rehabilitation Plans of Dump Sites;
viii.    Preparation of Comprehensive Report on Inventory of HW Generation and HW Dump Sites
         and Rehabilitation Plans of Dump Sites;
 ix.     To do R & D Work on Phasing out of Dirty Technologies
  x.     Co-ordination with Ministry of Environment & Forests w.r.to preparation and finalization of the
         draft Amendment to Hazardous Waste (M & H) Amendment Rules.

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in compliance of aforesaid directives, finalized and
published the following guidelines:

   i.    Uniform Testing Procedures to be followed by the Labs.
  ii.    Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerators.
 iii.    Guidelines for Transportation of Hazardous Waste.
 iv.     Pre-requisites for Issuing Authorization by the SPCBs/PCCs.
  v.     Guidelines for Proper Functioning and Upkeep of Disposal Sites.

As per the Order of Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, dated October 14, 2003 in Writ Petition (C) No.
657 of 1995, the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) either itself or through Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB) or any other agency is required to draft a policy document on hazardous waste
management, keeping in view recommendations of High Power Committee (HPC). CPCB co-ordinated
with the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), in preparation of ‘National Policy Document on
Management of Hazardous Waste' and revision of Schedule 3 (list of wastes applicable for import &
export for reprocessing, Schedule 4 (list of wastes, the reprocessing of which need registration from
Central Pollution Control Board) and Schedule 8 (list of wastes prohibited for import and export of
hazardous wastes) of the Hazardous Waste ( Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 as amended in
2003. The final draft of ‘National Policy Document on Management of Hazardous Waste' and proposed
draft amendments to Schedule 3, Schedule 4 and Schedule 8 of the Hazardous Waste (Management &
Handling) Rules has already been forwarded to MoEF for consideration.

Strategy for Interstate Movement and Disposal of Hazardous Waste and its Disposal in
Common Facilities
In the Draft National Policy on Management of Hazardous Waste, it has been suggested that inter-
state movement of hazardous waste will be required when

   i.   landfillable waste generated by a State/UT is less than 20,000 tonne per annum and or
  ii.   when incinerable wastes generated in a State/UT is less than 3,000 tonnes per annum.

Though, the above policies were finalized and incorporated in the draft national policy document, after
considering the views of SPCBs/PCCs and keeping in view that some progress have been made in
setting up of common facilities including in relatively small hazardous waste generating States such as
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh & Kerala etc., as well as the reluctance of the State Governments to accept
hazardous waste from other States, it was felt necessary to review the draft ‘National Policy on
Management of Hazardous Waste' particularly in respect of interstate movement of hazardous waste
and disposal of hazardous waste in common hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal
facilities (TSDF). In this regard, a strategy was proposed, which was discussed in 52 nd Conference of
Chairpersons and Member Secretaries of State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control
Committees, held at Mumbai during January 05, 2006. Further, outcome of these discussions was also
presented next day in the 13 th meeting of Supreme Court Monitoring Committee, held on January 06,
2006. After deliberations, following recommendations were made for taking further necessary action by
the SPCBs/PCCs:

    •   All States /UTs should ensure setting up common facilities for land filling of hazardous waste,
        latest by June 2006.
    •   States/UTs which propose to utilize Common HW landfill facilities set up/ being set up in
        neighboring States, should finalize formal agreements by above date.
    •   States/UTs generating incinerable wastes exceeding 5000 TPA, should ensure setting up of
        common facility for incineration by December 2006.
    •   States/UTs proposing to utilize common incineration facilities available in neighboring States
        should finalize formal agreements by December 2006.
    •   To request Chairman, SCMC to write to all the State Governments / UTs Administration
        enclosing details of subsidy and assistance already provided by some of the State
        Governments with the suggestion to provide assistance/ incentives for setting up of common
        facilities
    •   Hon'ble Supreme Court may be appraised by SCMC accordingly.

The decisions taken in the afore said conference have been communicated to all the Chief Secretaries
of State Governments and the Union Territory Administration by the Chairman, Supreme Court
Monitoring Committee as well as to all the SPCBs/PCCs for necessary action.

Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generation as per Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling)
Amendment Rules, 2003

As per the directives of the Hon'ble Supreme Court, all SPCBs/PCCs are required to carryout inventory
in the light of the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rules as amended in 2003.
In order to carryout inventory on hazardous waste generating industries by the SPCBs/PCCs as per
the directives of the Hon'ble Supreme Court, the CPCB have prepared guidelines and circulated to all
the SPCBs/PCCs. Also, to have uniformity in submission of the inventory reports, Central Board
prepared a format and circulated to all the SPCBs/PCCs. So far, 22 SPCBs viz., Andhra Pradesh,
Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Uttar
Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal and 03 UTs

viz., Chandigarh, Daman, Diu Dadra & Nagar Haveli, and Pondicherry have completed the inventory
and submitted the reports to CPCB. The States (04Nos) Viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram,
Sikkim and UTs (02 Nos) viz.,
Lakshdweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands reported that there is no ahzardous waste generating units
in the respective States or UTs. The States viz., Tripura, Delhi, J & K are yet to submit the inventory to
CPCB covering the industry-wise hazardous waste generation in the light of the Hazardous Waste (M
& H) Amendment Rules, 2003.

The information on hazardous waste generating units and the quantity of hazardous waste generation
as reported by the SPCBs/PCCs are shown below.

State-wise hazardous waste generating units and quantity of hazardous waste

Sl.                             As per HWM Rules, 1989            As per HWM Rules, 2003
        Name of the State/
        UT                      No. of
No.                                           Quantity in TPA No. of Units           Quantityin TPA
                                Units
1.      Andhra Pradesh          501           1,11,098            1,532              5,07,046
2.      Assam                   18            1,66,008            23                 4,000
3.      Bihar                   42            26,578              31                 3,182
4.      Chandigarh              47            3,05                271                8,425
5.      Delhi                   403           1,000               1,777              17,000
6.      Goa                     25            8,742               49                 9,932
7.      Gujarat                 2,984         4,30,030            6,052              12,07,000
8.      Haryana                 309           31,046              889                14,972
9.      Himachal Pradesh        116           2,159               575                9,361
10.     Karnataka               454           1,03,243            1,589              92,013
11.     Kerala                  133           1,54,722            423                83,530
12.     Maharashtra             3,953         20,07,846           4,355              14,07,480
13.     Madhya Pradesh          183           1,98,669            818                1,82,590
14.     Orissa                  163           3,41,144            257                74,918
15.     J&K                     57            1,221               272                <10,000
16.     Pondicherry             15            8,893               66                 30,320
17.     Punjab                  700           22,709              1,448              15,769
18.     Rajasthan               344           1,54, 325           512                1,83,737
19.     Tamilnadu               1,100         4,01,073            2,177              1,81, 624
20.     Uttar Pradesh           1,036         1,45,786            1,703              82,391
21.     West Bengal             440           1,29,826            566                2,36,449
22      Chattisgarh             -             -                   149                40,216
23      Mizoram                 -             -                   Nil                Nil
24      Meghalaya               -             -                   39                 37, 412
25      Nagaland                -             -                                      448
26      Daman, Diu, D & NH      -             -                   598                30,862
27      Jharkhand               -             -                   169                Not given
28      Uttaranchal            -             -                 39                 7,514
29      Manipur                -             -                 Nil                Nil
30      Tripura                -             -                 187                Nil
31      Lakshadweep            -             -                 Nil                Nil
32      Arunachal Pradesh      -             -                 Nil                Nil
33      Andaman & Nicobar      -             -                 Nil                Nil
34      Sikkim                 -             -                 Nil                Nil

Note: The data is only based on the preliminary inventory carried out by the SPCBs/PCCs. Hence, the
figures may vary.

Zonal Offices of CPCB have carried out random checks, as per the directives of Hon'ble Supreme
Court. Random checks have been completed in 18 No. of States viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar
Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,
Meghalaya, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal and 03 UTs

viz., Chandigarh, Daman, Diu Dadra & Nagar Haveli, and Pondicherry. The random checks in other
States/UTs viz., Goa, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu are under progress.

The observations of the Central Board made on the inventory submitted by the States/UTs were
discussed in 52 nd Conference of the Chairpersons and Member Secretaries of State Pollution Control
Boards and Pollution Control Committees held at Mumbai on January 05,2006. Further, the
observations of CPCB as well as the random check reports were communicated to the Concerned
SPCBs/PCCs for updation of the inventory by the concerned SPCB/PCC. In the afore said conference
it was decided that all the SPCBs/PCCs will take necessary action for rectification of the inventory in
the light of the guidelines & as per prescribed format circulated by CPCB and keeping in view the
observations of CPCB sent to the concerned SPCBs. It was suggested to SPCBs/PCCs to submit the
updated inventory to CPCB, by March 31, 2006.

Inventory of Hazardous Waste Dumpsites and Preparation of Rehabilitation Plans

As per Hon'ble Supreme Court Directives, SPCBs/PCCs are also required to carryout inventory on
hazardpis waste dumpsites and are required to make assessment with regard to the extent of soil or
ground water contamination in & around identified dump sites and also to prepare and submit the
rehabilitation plans.

As per the information provided by SPCBs/PCCs, 17 States viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi,
Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, J & K, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Jharkhand,
Uttaranchal, Manipur, Tripura, Sikkim & Chattisgarh and 05 UTs Viz., Andaman & Nicobar Islands,
Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Daman, Diu & DNH and Lakshadweep have indicated that there are no
hazardous waste dump sites in their States/ UTs. The hazardous waste dumpsites, as reported by 12
States are as follow:

Hazardous Waste Dump sites identified/reported by the SPCBs/PCCs

                      S.No    Name of State              No. of Dump Sites
                                                         40 (In Hyderabad
                      01.     Andhra Pradesh
                                                         region)
                    02.      Assam                      05
                    03.      Gujarat                    07
                    04.      Karnataka                  02
                    05.      Maharashtra                10 (In MIDC Area)
                    06.      Madhya Pradesh             04
                    07       Orissa                     21(In 07 Districts)
                    08.      Punjab                     14
                    09.      Rajasthan                  01
                    10.      Tamilnadu                  02
                    11.      Uttar Pradesh              11
                    12.      West Bengal                08
                             Total                      125

Steps Taken by Pollution Control Boards regarding Hazardous Waste Dumpsites

The various steps taken by SPCB are summarized below:

   •   Most of the States are in the process of making preliminary assessment with regard to the
       extent of soil or ground water contamination in and around the identified hazardous waste
       dump sites. The States viz., Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Orissa have
       already made efforts with regard to assessment of dump sites.
   •   The State of Maharashtra has outsourced the work on identification and quantification of the
       hazardous waste dumpsites (outside MIDC area) to National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA),
       Hyderabad, using satellite imageries. The study is restricted to Thane district and is under
       progress.
   •   In the State of Gujarat, 15 identified dump sites have been reported to be cleaned up at an
       approximate cost of 14.3 Million Rupees .
   •   In the case of M/s. Hema Chemical Industries, Vadodara, the State Board has completed
       assessment through M/s. National Productivity Council, New Delhi.
   •   The State of Orissa and West Bengal have completed the preliminary assessment in and
       around the identified dumpsites in the respective States by engaging M/s. National Productivity
       Council, New Delhi.
   •   Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board have carried out the assessment of contaminated sites at
       Ranipet and Kodaikanal. However, the remediation plans proposed by the TNPCB to SCMC is
       under review. In case of Rajasthan, the remediation programme at Bichchri, Udaipur as per the
       directives of the Hon'ble Supreme Court is yet to commence.
   •   The State Board of Punjab constituted an expert committee so as to review the progress made
       by their consultant. Assessment of dumpsite in Punjab is under progress. The State of
       Karnataka have taken up the assistance of GTZ-HAWA for carrying out the assessment of HW
       dump site at Bommasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore. Assessment study is under progress.
   •   Other State Pollution Control Boards expressed difficulty in making the assessment of the HW
       dumpsites. In view of the difficulties expressed by the SPCBs/PCCs and in order to upgrade
       the technical capabilities of the State Board officials, training programmes have already been
       conducted as well as proposed to be conducted in the financial year 2006-07 for the officials
       responsible for assessment and preparation of rehabilitation plans in the SPCBs/PCCs.

Steps taken by CPCB
   i.   Organized two days workshop at New Delhi in association with GTZ-ASEM, during August 11-
        12, 2005 wherein GTZ experts shared their experience with regard to German regulations
        concerning hazardous waste dump sites, assessment of dumpsites and their remediation.
        Officials from State and Central Pollution Control Boards, CPCB and Ministry of Environment &
        Forests attended the workshop. German guidelines for assessment and remediation of
        dumpsites/contaminated sites and European legislations concerning dumpsites/contaminated
        sites were circulated to the participants.
  ii.   In order to strengthen the technical capabilities of SPCBs/PCCs, in first phase, a training
        programme for Environmental Engineer/Senior Scientific Officer level officers on "Assessment
        of dump sites and preparation of rehabilitation plans" has been organized during March 06-10,
        2006 at Bangalore and wherein the officials of State Pollution Control Boards made
        presentations on the assessment so far made and feed back from the experts from GTZ-ASEM
        were made available so as to take further necessary by the SPCBs. Second phase of the
        training programme is proposed to be organized in Germany, in April/May 2006.
 iii.   Issues regarding the status on identification of dump sites, their assessment and preparation of
        rehabilitation plans and the projects on management of hazardous wastes proposed to be
        taken up under World Bank assistance including the component on remediation of
        contaminated sites and further course of action to be taken were also discussed in 52 nd
        Conference of the Chairpersons and Member Secretaries of State Pollution Control Boards
        and Pollution Control Committees held at Mumbai on January 05,2006.

In the afore said conference, the SPCBs/PCCs have been advised to complete assessment of dump
sites and also to prioritize for the purpose of remediation and for consideration under World Bank
Assistance Programme, by September 2006 and also to draw up the plans with financial estimates for
immediate measures that may be required to stop further environmental damage as well as preparation
of full scale rehabilitation plans with detailed estimation of cost of remediation and to send the reports
to CPCB, by December 2006.

The decisions taken in the aforesaid conference were communicated to the SPCBs/PCCs for taking
necessary action.

Industry Sector Wise Guidance Documents for Hazardous Waste Management

Study for the preparation of guidance document for hazardous waste management was taken up
through Orissa State Pollution Control Board for industrial sectors such as iron & steel, aluminium,
sodium dichromate & galvanising process. The objective of the study is the "Identification of hazardous
waste streams, its characterization and recovery & recycling options". The study for aluminium &
sodium dichromate manufacturing sectors has been completed & the report is under finalisation. The
study pertaining to other sectors (Iron & steel and Galvanising) is under progress.

Separately, study for preparation of guidance document for Pesticide Sector was taken-up and
completed through M/s. NCL, Pune which covers 12 pesticide products. The study is further continued
for additional 12 products such as DDT, Dichlorovos, Phorate, Phosphamidon, Quinalphos, Lindane,
Methyl parathion, Mancozeb, 2-4 D, Isoproturon under insecticides, fungicides, herbicides &
weedicides group of pesticides, for identification of hazardous waste streams, its characterization and
recovery/recycling options. The study is under progress.

Identification of Hazardous Waste Streams in Paint Sector, their Characterisation and Waste
Minimisation Options

The project has been taken up by the Central Board, to identify various hazardous waste streams, their
characterisation and to recommend waste minimization options in paint industry. The National
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) has been engaged to accomplish the project.
Inspection of Isolated Dump Sites

Detailed investigation of quantification / identification and disposal of hazardous waste from isolated
dump sites in Madhya Pradesh have been undertaken in collaboration with Madhya Pradesh Pollution
Control Board.

Physical Verification of Oil / Non-ferrous Metal Re-processors

West Zone

The small-scale units (75 nos.) were visited for physical verification of environment management
facilities provided for reprocessing of waste /used oils and metal scraps. Some of these units were
recommended to further improve the pollution control & solid/hazardous waste management systems
before registering them as ‘Actual User' for reprocessing such wastes.

Central Zone

Total 20 nos. of small-scale units were visited for physical verification of environment management
facilities provided for reprocessing of waste /used oils and metal scraps.
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
Performance Eevaluation of Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities

The Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules notified in July 1998 under the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986, make mandatory for all healthcare facilities irrespective of their size to treat bio-
medical waste generated by them. In order to comply with the provisions of the Rules, some of the
healthcare facilities have installed their own treatment facilities and others are availing services of
Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTF). CBWTF are widely accepted by
healthcare facilities and are increasing in number continuously because of various advantages such as
reduced capital investment and treatment cost, easy implementation by the regulatory bodies etc.

There are 126 CBWTF, including 13 under installation, in the country as on March 2005 as compared
to 85 the previous year. In order to help CBWTF operators in complying various provisions of the Bio-
medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules and other minimum requirements such as efficient
treatment equipment, required infrastructure, proper transportation system, proper recording system,
environmentally sound method of disposal of treated bio-medical waste etc., Central pollution Control
Board has prepared "Guidelines on Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities" and the same have been
circulated to all SPCBs/PCCs and also displayed on website for dissemination. Further, to assess the
compliance and working of existing CBWTF, CPCB has initiated a study through Zonal Offices of
CPCB to evaluate the performance of all CBWTF in our country.. Upon completion of the study,
findings of the study would help deciding action/policies required to be initiated for further improving
operation of CBWTF.

Bio-medical Waste Management in North Zone

Common biomedical waste treatment facilities (CBMWTF) have been set up in various cities for
treatment of Bio-medical waste generated in various hospitals, nursing homes, medical establishments
etc. In North Zone mostly private operators have established 28 CBMWTF. The state wise breakup is
as below:

Uttar Pradesh : 14 (3 presently not operational, 1 under installation)

Punjab : 4

Harayana : 7

Himachal Pradesh : 2

Jammu &Kashmir : 1

Out of these, 8 common facilities were inspected by Zonal Office-Lucknow during the year 2005-06.
Common facility specific observations of the facilities inspected by ZO Lucknow are given below
Common facility specific observations of the facilities inspected by ZO Lucknow

Name of the facility    Equipments Pollution Medical     City                     Waste     ETP
                                   Control Establishment covered                  treatment Installed
                                   System Linked / Beds                           Capacity
                                             covered
                        Incinerator
                                                                    Moradabad
Envirad Medicare Pvt.
                        Autoclave      Yes        34/440                          200Kg/hr    Yes
Ltd., Bareilly
                                                                    ,Barielly
                        Shredder
Ferro Build Hard        Incinerator
(India) Pvt. Ltd.,                     Yes        125/4500          Allahabad     60Kg/hr     Yes
Allahabad               Shredder
                      Incinerator                                   Barielly
Synergy Waste
management Pvt. Ltd., Autoclave        Yes        22/200            Shajahanpur 60Kg/hr       Yes
Bareilly
                      Shredder                                      Pilibhit
Balrampur Hospital ,
                        Incinerator    No         19/1887           Lucknow       75Kg/hr.    No
Golaganj, Lucknow
Common incinerator of
Lucknow Nagar         Incinerator      No         240/3600          Lucknow       75 Kg/Hr    No
Nigam,Lucknow
                        Incinerator
Medical Pollution
                                                                    Kanpur,
Control Committee,      Hydroclave     Yes        149/3808                        350kg/hr    Yes
                                                                    Unnao
Kanpur
                        Shredder
M/s WillWorld           Incinerator
Environmental                          Yes        43/900            Kanpur        170Kg/hr    No
Inc.Bithoor-Kanpur      Autoclave
                        Incinerator                                 Noida,
M/s Sembramky                                                       Ghaziabad,
Environmental
                        Autoclave      Yes        180/2659                        200kh/hr    Yes
Management, Pvt.Ltd,
Ghaziabad                                                           Hapur,
                        Shredder                                    Meerut


General Observations:

   •   In almost all-common facilities un- segregated/partially segregated waste is received for
       treatment and disposal.
   •   In many facilities arrangement of power back up is not available.
   •   Only in two facilities conveyer feeding of waste and auto recording of operational condition is in
       practice.
   •   Operation and maintenance of incinerators is not proper in most of the cases resulting in
       emission not meeting the prescribed norms of incinerator monitored.
   •   In some cases the monitoring platform and porthole for stack are not proper for monitoring.
    •   In most of the facilities inspected ash disposal practices need improvements.
    •   Record keeping of waste is not as per guidelines in almost all facilities.
    •   ETP though installed yet they are not operated properly.

Performance of Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities in Central Zone

In central zone, eighteen CBWTFs have been established. Out of eighteen, thirteen are operating in
Madhya Pradesh, three in Rajasthan and two in Chhattisgarh (as on March, 2006). CBWTFs are
having incinerator with other supporting facilities like autoclave, shredder, chemical treatment, deep
burial etc. The details of CBWTF visited in Central Zone, the water generation and gas emission
characteristics are presented in Tables below.

Details of CBWTF visited during 2005-2006 at central zone

Name of      Facility         Investment    Area        Disposal     Capacity    Nos. of        Nos. of
the Facility started          in the        used for Method          of          health         beds
                              facility in   operation Adopted        incinerator care           covered
                              lakh          of facility                          facility       by
                                                                                 associated     CBWTF


M/s Bhopal    June, 2000      65            300 m 2     Incineration 30x3 kg/hr   09            350
Memorial
Hospital &
Research
Centre,
Bhopal
M/s Bhopal    January,2003 50               15000       Incineration 50 kg/hr     266           3418
                                            Sqft
Incinerator
Ltd, Bhopal
M/s Elite     May, 2003       17            1.8 acre    Incineration 15 kg/hr     52            1280
Engineers,
Jabalpur
M/a Hoswin 01.01.2002         52            22,000      Incineration 100 kg/hr    289           6000
Incinerator                                 sqft
Pvt. Ltd.,
Indore
M/s.Sales  Information        17            4000 sqft   Incineration 100 kg/hr    82            698
Promoters  not provided
C/o. NSCB,
Medical
College,
Jabalpur
M/s.Sales     June,2002       17            5000 sqft   Incineration 100 kg/hr    344           1658
Promoters
C/o. G.R.
Medical
College,
Gwalior
M/s           15.01.2002      113.655       1 acre      Incineration 250 kg/hr    493           --
Instrumedix
(I) Pvt. Ltd,
Jaipur
M/s E-Tech      June 2003         76            10,000        Incineration 75 kg/hr    156           2480
Project Pvt.                                    Sqft
Ltd, Bhilai

Characterization of wastewater generated from the CBWTF for prescribed parameters

Facility               Source      pH     TSS O &        COD BOD Status of  Remarks
                       of                     G                  compliance
                       sample
M/s Bhopal        Outlet of 7.01          18     3       40      16     Compliance Treated water re-used
Memorial Hospital STP/ETP                                                          in the premises
& Research
Center, Bhopal
(M.P.)
M/s Bhopal             Inlet of    6.98   166    19      709     176    Compliance Waste water sent to
Incinerator Ltd.,      CETP                                                        CETP
Bhopal (M.P.)
M/s Elite              Outlet of 8.07     42     6       107     24     Compliance Treated water reused
Engineers,             ETP                                                         in the gardening
Jabalpur (M.P.)
M/s Hoswin             Outlet of 7.11     58     5       188     37     Compliance 100% water re-
incinerator Pvt.       ETP                                              except BOD circulation
Ltd., Indore
(M.P.)
M/s.Sales         Scrubber 6.4            112    12      235     92     Compliance    No ETP is attached to
Promoters C/o.    O/L                                                   Except        CBWTF & untreated
NSCB, Medical                                                           TSS, BOD      wastewater discharged
College, Jabalpur                                                       & O&G         into drain
(M.P)
M/s.Sales              Floor       --     --    --       --      --     --            No defined drained
Promoters C/o.         washing                                                        system made for
G.R. Medical                                                                          discharge of
College, Gwalior                                                                      wastewater
(M.P)
M/s Instromedix        Outlet of 8.39     82     7       201     46     Compliance Treated water reused
(I) Pvt. Ltd.,         ETP                                              except BOD in the gardening
Jaipur (Raj.)
M/s E-Tech             Outlet of 7.48     290    13      294     66     Non           Treated water
Project pvt. Ltd.,     ETP                                              compliance    discharge in to drain
Bhilai (CG)

Monitoring of flue gas emission from different incinerator installed at CBWTFs

Facility            Date of    A.P.C. devices         PM       HCl     NOx SO2    Combustion Status of
                    monitoring                                                    efficiency compliance
                                                 mg/ Mg mg/ mg/ (CE) (%)
                                                 Nm3 Nm3 Nm3 Nm3
M/s BMHRC,      16/03/06     Dilution chamber    162   18     204   24    92             Compliance
Bhopal                                                                                   except PM
                                                                                         and CE
M/s Bhopal      05/01/06     Cyclone, Venturi 172      43     224   97    53             Compliance
Incinerator                  scrubber, droplet                                           except PM
Ltd., Bhopal                 separator & stack                                           and CE
(M.P.)
M/s Elite       28/03/06     Cyclone, Venturi    173   18     227   33    46             Compliance
Engineers,                   scrubber, droplet                                           Except PM
Jabalpur                     separator &stack                                            and CE
(M.P.)
M/s Hoswin      06/10/05     Venturi scrubber,   124   30     269   48    Monitoring     Compliance
IncineratorPvt.              droplet separator                            not done
Ltd., Indore                 & stack
(M.P.)
M/s.Sales       Monitoring   Venturi scrubber,   MND MND MND MND Monitoring              Stack
Promoters       not done     droplet separator                   not done                emission
C/o. NSCB,                   &stack                                                      not
Medical                                                                                  monitored
College,                                                                                 due to
Jabalpur                                                                                 inadequate
(M.P)                                                                                    facility
M/s.Sales     23/01/06       Multi-cyclone &     241   25     286   19    19             Compliance
Promoters                                                                                except PM
C/o. G.R.                    Stack                                                       and CE
Medical
College,
Gwalior (M.P)
M/s             27/02/06     Venturi scrubber,   143   32     355   44    90             Compliance
Instromedix (I)              droplet separator                                           except CE
Pvt. Ltd.,                   tanks and stack
Jaipur (Raj.)
M/s E-tech      20/03/06     Cyclone, Venturi    168   19     388   17    75             Compliance
Project Pvt.                 scrubber,                                                   except PM
Ltd., Bhilai                 separator-ID fan                                            and CE
(CG)                         stack

MND: Monitoring not done

Monitoring of Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities in South Zone

The Common Biomedical Waste Incinerators Stack and ETP(s) were monitored in the states of Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. In addition sixteen hospitals were also inspected in
Kerala under this project. The results obtained in concern with flue gas analysis are tabulated below.

Stack Monitoring Results of Common Bio-Medical Waste operated in Southern States
                                                                       NO
                                                         O2     CO             SO2        HC
                                                                       X                         Particulate
Name of Common Bio-Medical Wastes facilitators
                                                                                                 mg/NM 3
                                                         %      PPM            PPM PPM
                                                                       PPM
1. M/s. Medicare Incin. Private ltd,No.2950, Mahakavi
Kuvempu Road, 2nd Stage Rajaji nagar, Bangalore -        17     1.4    58      3          29     178
10
2. M/s. Maridi Eco Industries P Ltd, 71, 8th cross !st
                                                         17     179    44      50         154    102
main SR nagar Bangalore
3. M/s. Shree Consultants, No.724, !st floor SVM
                                                         9      16004 59       2202 374          2731
complex Ramanuja road Mysore - 4
4. M/s. Medicare Incin pvt Ltd, No.47-B, karnad
                                                         15     118    59      10         22     111
Industriel Area, Mulky, Mangalore
5. M/s Shushrutha Bio Medical waste Management
Society, 4th Cross, Achutha rao layout, Shimoga-         11     9119   19      951        9468   74
577201.
6. M/s Sushanth Environment Tech p ltd, No.56/IA.                                                Not
                                                         10     9311   63      2345 10871
Voddinahalli village, BadaRoad, Davangere                                                        Monitored
7. M/s Ken Bio Links P Ltd, Kandipeddu, Vellore
                                                         11     998    58      100        94     237
District
8. M/s. GJ Multi clave, Thenmelpakkam- Kanchipuram
                                                   16           2      40      3          66     131
dist
9. M/s. Tamil Nadu waste management co Ltd,
                                                         17     17     49      6          48     251
Chennakuppam, Kanchipuram dist
10. M/S IMAGE Incinerator Unit, Kanjicode, Palakkad,
                                                         17     32     32      2                 101
Kerala.

Performance of Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBMWTFs) in West Zone

CPCB has carried out the performance evaluation of 06 out of 12 in Maharashtra and 03 out of 19
CBMWTFs in Gujarat.

Performance of Bio – Medical Incinerators in Maharashtra and Gujarat

                                                         SO2           NO X         HCL          PM
                                           Stack
S.No    Location
                                           attached to
                                                         mg/Nm3 )      (PPM)        (mg/m3 )     Mg/Nm3
        M/s. Bio Clean Systems (I) Pvt.
1.                                      Incinerator      2.73          13.1         16.8         102
        Ltd. BMWTF, Ahmednagar
        M/s. Water Grace Products
2.                                         Incinerator   BDL           17.1         9.2          137
        BMWTF, Nashik
3.      M/s. Daas BMWTF, Kolhapur          Incinerator   107.4         28.5         90.2         500
        M/s. S. S. Enterprises BMWTF
4.                                   Incinerator         4.0           22.4         --           50
        Ichalkaranji
5.      M/s. Sangli-Miraj Kupwad           Incinerator   1.6           2.42         211          --
         Municipal Corporation , Sangli
         M/s. Bio Clean Systems (I) Pvt.
6.                                       Incinerator       4.2          25.2      --           561
         Ltd. BMWTF, Solapur
         M/s. Quantum Environment          Incinerator
7.       Engineers, Vadodara                               --           15.02     32.8         86
                                           (30 m)
         M/s. BMW Management               Incinerator
8.       Committee IMA, Bhavnagar                          --           51.51     18.36        131
                                           (30 m)
         M/s. Samvedana BMW                Incinerator
9.       Incinerator, Halol.                               --           9.8       56.6         133
                                           (30 m)

Bio-medical Waste Management in Agra

The Agra city generates about 2 MT of biomedical waste daily. The Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control
Board has identified 214 units in Agra, which have also obtained consent / authorization, however
gross violation in the segregation of waste at the source is the main aspect of BMW management. The
common biomedical waste treatment plants at Agra were visited because of gross violation of norms in
the operation of plant.

The common biomedical waste management facility at Mathura was also inspected and observed the
non-compliance of the norms, with respect to (a) inadequate space (b) inadequate infrastructure to
comply with the guidelines (c) sharing of the premises with another industrial unit (d) carrying out
agricultural activities in the premises (e) without any security arrangement (f) non-operation of ETP etc.
The closure of the units has been recommended to UP Pollution Control Board.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid Waste Management in Metro cities and State Capitals

CPCB sponsored a project to NEERI on "Assessment of Status of Municipal Solid Wastes
Management in Metro Cities and State Capitals" with a view to establishing database on National level
for selected 59 cities. The selected cities include 35 metro cities and 24 State capitals. Objective of the
study was to assess the compliance status of 59 cities with Municipal Solid Wastes (Management &
Handling) Rules, 2000 and initiatives taken for improving solid waste management practices.

It has been observed that initiatives for collection of waste from house-to-house and waste segregation
has been undertaken in only 7 cities, privatization of transportation of waste has been done in 11 cities
and waste processing facilities have been set up in 15 cities. Ten waste processing facilities are based
on composting; one of these composting facilities has provision for energy recovery also, four are
based on vermi-composting, and one facility employs pelletisation and energy recovery technology.
None of the cities is having proper sanitary landfill site and uncontrolled dumping of MSW has been
observed in all but one cities. Leachate collection is practiced in only two cities and gas collection in
only one city.

In many cities, bio-medical waste (BMW) is getting mixed with MSW. Slaughterhouse waste is not
managed properly and is dumped at landfill site along with MSW in all except 12 cities, which have
made separate arrangements for collection of such wastes.

Studies have revealed that waste generation rate varies from 0.12 to 0.60 kg per capita per day.
Analysis of physical composition indicates total compostable matter in the waste is in the range of 40-
60 percent while recyclable fraction was observed between 10 and 25 per cent. The moisture content in
the MSW was observed to vary from 30 to 60 per cent while the C:N ratio was observed to be in the
range of 20-40.

Based on the study, suggestive guidelines for management of MSW are indicated and each local body
will have to prepare detailed project report estimating requirement of tools and equipment and fund
estimates.

Municipal solid waste generation rates in 59 cities

S. Name of City           Population         Area       Waste           Waste Generation Factor
No                        (2001 census)      (Sq.       Quantity        (kg/c/day)
                                             km)        (TPD)
1    Kavaratti            10,119             4          3               0.30
2    Gangtok              29,354             15         13              0.44
3    Itanagar             35,022             22         12              0.34
4    Daman                35,770             7          15              0.42
5   Silvassa        50,463      17    16    0.32
6   Panjim          59,066      69    32    0.54
7   Kohima          77,030      30    13    0.17
8   Port Blair      99,984      18    76    0.76
9   Shillong        1,32,867    10    45    0.34
10 Simla            1,42,555    20    39    0.27
11 Agartala         1,89,998    63    77    0.40
12 Gandhinagar      1,95,985    57    44    0.22
13 Dhanbad          1,99,258    24    77    0.39
14 Pondicherry      2,20,865    19    130   0.59
15 Imphal           2,21,492    34    43    0.19
16 Aizwal           2,28,280    117   57    0.25
17 Jammu            3,69,959    102   215   0.58
18 Dehradun         4,26,674    67    131   0.31
19 Asansol          4,75,439    127   207   0.44
20 Kochi            5,95,575    98    400   0.67
21 Raipur           6,05,747    56    184   0.30
22 Bhubaneswar      6,48,032    135   234   0.36
23 Tiruvanantapuram 7,44,983    142   171   0.23
24 Chandigarh       8,08,515    114   326   0.40
25 Guwahati         8,09,895    218   166   0.20
26 Ranchi           8,47,093    224   208   0.25
27 Vijaywada        8,51,282    58    374   0.44
28 Srinagar         8,98,440    341   428   0.48
29 Madurai          9,28,868    52    275   0.30
30 Coimbatore       9,30,882    107   530   0.57
31 Jabalpur         9,32,484    134   216   0.23
32 Amritsar         9,66,862    77    438   0.45
33 Rajkot           9,67,476    105   207   0.21
34 Allahabad        9,75,393    71    509   0.52
35 Vishakhapatnam   9.82,904    110   584   0.59
36 Faridabad        10,55,938   216   448   0.42
37 Meerut           10,68,772   142   490   0.46
38 Nashik           10,77,236   269   200   0.19
39 Varanasi         10,91,918   80    425   0.39
40 Jamshedpur       11,04,713   64    338   0.31
41 Agra                12,75,135         140       654             0.51
42 Vadodara            13,06,227         240       357             0.27
43 Patna               13,66,444         107       511             0.37
44 Ludhiana            13,98,467         159       735             0.53
45 Bhopal              14,37,354         286       574             0.40
46 Indore              14,74,968         130       557             0.38
47 Nagpur              20,52,066         218       504             0.25
48 Lucknow             21,85,927         310       475             0.22
49 Jaipur              23,22,575         518       904             0.39
50 Surat               24,33,835         112       1000            0.41
51 Pune                25,38,473         244       1175            0.46
52 Kanpur              25,51,337         267       1100            0.43
53 Ahmedabad           35,20,085         191       1302            0.37
54 Hyderabad           38,43,585         169       2187            0.57
55 Banglore            43,01,326         226       1669            0.39
56 Chennai             43,43,645         174       3036            0.62
57 Kolkata             45,72,876         187       2653            0.58
58 Delhi               1,03,06,452       1483      5922            0.57
59 Greater Mumbai      1,19,78,450       437       5320            0.45

Municipal Solid Waste characterisation in 59 cities

S.   Name of City        Compostables          Recyclables C/N            HCV*        Moisture
No                       (%)                   (%)         Ratio          (Kcal/Kg)   (%)
1    Kavarati            46.01                 27.20       18.04          2242        25
2    Gangtok             46.52                 16.48       25.61          1234        44
3    Itanagar            52.02                 20.57       17.68          3414        50
4    Daman               29.60                 22.02       22.34          2588        53
5    Silvassa            71.67                 13.97       35.24          1281        42
6    Panjim              61.75                 17.44       23.77          2211        47
7    Kohima              57.48                 22.67       30.87          2844        65
8    Port Blair          48.25                 27.66       35.88          1474        63
9    Shillong            62.54                 17.27       28.86          2736        63
10   Simla               43.02                 36.64       23.76          2572        60
11   Agartala            58.57                 13.68       30.02          2427        60
12   Gandhinagar         34.30                 13.20       36.05          698         24
13   Dhanbad             46.93                 16.16       18.22          591         50
14   Pondicherry       49.96   24.29   36.86    1846   54
15   Imphal            60.00   18.51   22.34    3766   40
16   Aizwal            54.24   20.97   27.45    3766   43
17   Jammu             51.51   21.08   26.79    1782   40
18   Dehradun          51.37   19.58   25.90    2445   60
19   Asansol           50.33   14.21   14.08    1156   54
20   Kochi             57.34   19.36   18.22    591    50
21   Raipur            51.40   16.31   223.50   1273   29
22   Bhubaneswar       49.81   12.69   20.57    742    59
23   Tiruvananthapuram 72.96   14.36   35.19    2378   60
24   Chandigarh        57.18   10.91   20.52    1408   64
25   Guwahati          53.69   23.28   17.71    1519   61
26   Ranchi            51.49   9.86    20.23    1060   49
27   Vijaywada         59.43   17.40   33.90    1910   46
28   Srinagar          6177    17.76   22.46    1264   61
29   Madurai           55.32   17.25   32.69    1813   46
30   Coimbatore        50.06   15.52   45.83    2381   54
31   Jabalpur          58.07   16.61   28.22    2051   35
32   Amritsar          65.02   13.94   30.69    1836   61
33   Rajkot            41.50   11.20   52.56    687    17
34   Allahabad         35.49   19.22   19.00    1180   18
35   Visakhapatnam     45.96   24.20   41.70    1602   53
36   Faridabad         42.06   23.31   18.58    1319   34
37   Meerut            54.54   10.96   19.24    1089   32
38   Nasik             39.52   25.11   37.20    2762   62
39   Varanasi          45.18   17.23   19.40    804    44
40   Jamshedpur        43.36   15.69   19.69    1009   48
41   Agra              46.38   15.79   21.56    520    28
42   Vadodara          47.43   14.50   40.34    1781   25
43   Patna             51.96   12.57   18.62    819    36
44   Ludhiana          49.80   19.32   52.17    2559   65
45   Bhopal            52.44   22.33   21.58    1421   43
46   Indore            48.97   12.57   29.30    1437   31
47   Nagpur            47.41   15.53   26.37    2632   41
48   Lucknow           47.41   15.53   21.41    1557   60
49   Jaipur            45.50   12.10   43.29    834    21
50     Surat                56.87                 11.21           42.16       990            51
51     Pune                 62.44                 16.66           35.54       2531           63
52     Kanpur               47.52                 11.93           27.64       1571           46
53     Ahemdabad            40.81                 11.65           29.64       1180           32
54     Hyderabad            54.20                 21.60           25.90       1969           46
55     Bangalore            51.84                 22.43           35.12       2386           55
56     Chennai              41.34                 16.34           29.25       2594           47
57     Kolkata              50.56                 11.48           31.81       1201           46
58     Delhi                54.42                 15.52           34.87       1802           49
59     Gr.Mumbai            62.44                 16.66           39.04       1786           54

Characterization of Compost Quality and its Application in Agriculture

India has a good potential for the production and use of MSW based compost and sewage sludge
generated in various metros and municipalities. However, few studies have been conducted on its safe
and economic disposal and its application on agricultural land in different cropping system.

A project taken up by Central Pollution Control Board with IARI attempts to cover the safe and
beneficial use of MSW compost and sewage sludge in agriculture vis a vis its environmental impacts
based on extensive experimentations and a review of the scientific literature. Under the project,
detailed studies on characterization of compost quality and its application on agricultural crops. Seven
compost plants were studied for characterization of compost quality. Studies indicated that average
concentration of heavy metals in the raw waste that was fed to the various compost plants was in the
range of 47 to 185 mg per kg in respect of lead, 36 to 63 mg/kg for nickel and 1.5 to 6.5 mg/kg for
cadmium. The level of mercury in raw waste was between 0.01 and 0.23 mg/kg. Heavy metals in the
finished compost were ranging as follows; Pb; 108-203 mg/kg; Ni- 8-80 mg/kg; Cd-3.8-12.4 mg/kg and
mg – 0.01-0.31 mg/kg.

It has been observed that the growth attributes of wheat/ maize and vegetable crops viz., plant height,
number of cobs/tillers/m2, dry matter production and leaf area index, were increased due to supply of
nitrogen through combination of different doses of urea with compost/ sewage sludge.

Demonstration Projects for solid waste management

CPCB and MoEF have instituted a scheme for setting up of demonstration project for solid waste
management in accordance with MSW Rule. Objective of the scheme is to demonstrate total
implementation of MSW Rule. The scheme is on cost sharing basis where concerned local body is
required to contribute 50% of the total cost of the project. Initially, the scheme is confined for one town
in each State/UT. The following project have been taken up or planned.

S.No       State                             Town                              Status
1          West Bengal                       North Dum-Dum                     Under Implementation

                                             New Barrakpore
2          UT Chandigarh                     Chandigarh                       Under Implementation
3          Tamil Nadu                        Udumalpet                         Under Implementation
4    Kerala              Kozhikode                        Under Implementation
5    Himachal Pradesh    Mandi                            Under Implementation
6    Andhra Pradesh      Suryapet                         Under Implementation
7    Nagaland            Kohima                           Under Implementation
8    Maharashtra         Jalna                            Under Implementation
9    Arunachal Pradesh   Itanagar                         Under Implementation
10   Sikkim              South West District              Under Implementation
11   Tripura             Agartala                         Under Implementation
12   Gujarat             Clusters of munici-palities in   Planned
                         Ahemdabad
NOISE POLLUTION AND CONTROL
Ambient Noise Monitoring in Delhi

The ambient noise monitoring was conducted at eight locations in Delhi during September-October,
2005. The objective of this study was to assess traffic noise exposure on residents living adjacent to
major roads in Delhi .

Ambient Noise levels in Delhi

                                                                    Noise Levels
S.
       Monitoring Site                  Date         Time           L eq        L 10         L 90
No.
                                                                    dB(A)       dB(A)        dB(A)
                                        5.9.2005     Night time     66.9        70.1         55.5
       Bhagirathi Water Treatmetn
1
       Plant Gokulpuri
                                        6.9.2005     Day time       67.1        69.8         61.3
                                        7.9.2005     Night time     62.7        65.5         55.9
       Tarang Apartment, IP
2
       Extension
                                        8.9.2005     Day time       62.2        64.5         57.9
       Narauji Nagar                    19.9.2005    Night time     63.2        66.6         55.1
3.
       F- Block                         20.9.2005    Day time       64.4        66.2         60.1
                                        21.9.2005    Night time     69.1        71.2         64.0
       CSIR Apartment, Ashram
4.
       Chowk
                                        22.9.2005    Day time       69.0        71.0         65.4
       DOERA,                           26.9.200     Night time     68.3        70.2         62.3
5.
       Shankar Vihar                    27.9.2005    Day time       66.2        68.4         62.3
                                        28.9.2005    Night time     69.4        73.0         58.9
6.     Shalimar Bagh
                                        29.9.2005    Day time       70.1        73.0         63.5
                                        05.10.2005 Night time       63.0        66.5         52.6
7.     Paschim Vihar
                                        6.10.2005    Day time       67.1        69.4         60.9

Note: Night time -10:00PM - 06:00 AM, Day time - 06:00 AM - 10:00 PM
*Ambient Noise Standards for Residential area: Day Time: 55 dB(A) Night Time : 45 dB(A)
The ambient noise standards prescribed in the Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000,
specify the ambient noise standard for residential area for day time (06:00 A.M to 10:00 P.M) and night
time (10:00 P.M to 06:00 A.M) as 55 dB(A) and 45 dB(A) respectively. The monitoring results indicated
that the ambient noise levels for both day time as well as night time at all eight locations are much
higher than the prescribed standards.

Ambient Noise Monitoring at Proposed Commonwealth Games Village near Akshardham
Temple

On the request of Delhi Development Authority (DDA), the Central Pollution Control Board conducted
noise monitoring to assess noise levels at the proposed site for Commonwealth Games-2010 near
Akshardham Temple during 20.10.2005 to 23.10.2005. The proposed site is situated on the east of
River Yamuna between National Highway (NH) 24 and the Railway Track behind Akshardham Temple
.

The noise parameters recorded were L eq , L 10 , L 50 and L 90 for 16 hrs (day time – 6:00 a.m. to
10:00 p.m.) and for 8 hrs (night time – 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.) for all the six locations. Day time Sound
Levels at locations 1 & 3 only conformed to the day time ambient noise standard of 55 dBA, whereas
day time sound levels at other locations marginally exceeded the day time ambient noise standards.
Night time sound levels at all the locations exceeded the night time ambient noise standard of 45 dBA.
DDA was recommended to look into the possibility of providing Sound Barriers and taking other
administrative steps to reduce noise pollution.

Ambient Noise Levels at the Proposed Site for the Commonwealth Games – 2010

                         Day Time* Noise          Night Time** Noise
S.     Date of           Level in dB(A)           Level in dB(A)            Remarks
No.    monitoring
                         L eq    L 10     L 90    L eq     L 10    L 90
                                                                            Night -time noise levels are
1.     20 to 21 Oct 05 52.4      55.4     45.3    53.5     55.5    49.2     much more due to heavy
                                                                            traffic
                                                                            Night -time noise level are
2.     20 to 21 Oct 05 55.6      58.7     49.0    56.3     58.5    51.9     much more due to heavy
                                                                            traffic
3.     21 to 22 Oct 05 52.5      53.5     44.2    51.0     53.1    47.5     -
4.     21 to 22 Oct 05 55.8      57.8     47.9    53.2     54.6    49.1     -
                                                                            The data do not represent
                                                                            traffic noise due to Sunday.
5.     22 to 23 Oct 05 59.2      60.1     50.9    56.6     69.3    59.1
                                                                            Some local noise was also
                                                                            present.
6.     22 to 23 Oct 05 56.7      58.3     45.3    54.7     55.2    46.0

Note: Ambient Noise standards in terms of L eq for residential area is 55 dB(A) for Day Time and 45
dB(A) for Night Time.
*Day Time : 06:00 A.M to 10:00 P.M **Night Time: 10:00 P.M to 06:00 A.M

Ambient Noise Leveles in Major Cities in Chhatisgarh, MP and Rajasthan

Ambient noise levels were monitored in Bhopal, Indore. Ajmer, Jodhpur, Udaipur, and Gwalior . The
noise Levels were monitored at 18-20 Locations in each city covering Residential, Commercial,
Industrial areas and Silence zones for Day and Night time . The high noise generating areas were
identified based on the human exposure in each category.

Vehicular movements were the major source of noise in residential, commercial and silence zones. In
industrial area, vehicles have also contributed some noise in addition to the industrial activities.

Ambient Noise Levels during Kalipuja/Diwali Festival 2005 at Kolkata

The bursting of firecrackers and Kalipuja celebrations are the major source of noise pollution during
festival time. Ambient noise measurements were made at 27 locations across residential, commercial,
industrial and silence zones in Kolkata city. Monitoring was conducted for two days representing the
normal day prior to Kalipuja/Diwali festival and during the day of festival. Measurements were taken for
5-15 min. at same location 2-3 times during day time between 06:00 hrs to 22:00 hrs and once during
night time between 00:00 hrs to 04:00 hrs. The salient observations are:

    •   Noise levels were found increased. Average increase in equivalent sound levels during Diwali
        was found 9dB (A) in day time and 10dB (A) in night time.

    •   In residential areas, average increase in ambient noise levels above the prescribed limit of 55
        dB (A) was 7 dB (A) prior to puja while during puja the increase was 13 dB (A) .

    •   The residential areas namely Beliaghata, Kakurgachi, Cossipur, Jodhpur Park, Naktala,
        Behala, Lake Town and Deshpriya Park have recorded significant increase in noise levels on
        Puja day. However, the increase was insignificant in other residential areas viz. Park Circus,
        Mainktala and Kidderpur.

    •   The noise level a day prior to festival indicates that atleast 8 residential areas in the city (out of
        18) were meeting the daytime ambient noise limits. However, during festival day, none of the
        residential areas in the city were found to be complying with daytime limits.

    •   There was no significant increase in daytime sound levels at sensitive areas such as SSKM
        and Command Hospitals. However, there was marginal increase in nighttime. Here the
        average nighttime sound levels prior to Diwali were above the permissible limit by 11 dB (A)
        but on Diwali day the exceedance was 16 dB (A) .

Noise Level Testing of Fire-Crackers

Central Pollution Control Board in association with Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board collected
firecracker samples from 17 fireworks industries. Testing of these five cracker samples was undertaken
at National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore for compliance of noise levels with the standards.
Results reveal that only 37 samples out of the 76 samples complied with the noise limits.

Firecracker samples were also collected from 52 fireworks units located at Sivakasi by Tamil Nadu
Pollution Control Board and got tested by Tamil Nadu Fireworks Association. Results indicated that
138 out of the 241 samples complied with the noise limits.

Fire cracker samples from Delhi market were also procured and noise level testings were carried out at
National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. Results indicated that 17 out of the 20 samples complied with
the noise limits.

Meeting of National Committee on Noise Pollution Control

The 13 th Meeting of the National Committee on Noise Pollution Control was held on 4 th Oct, 2005 to
discuss the following issues:

        Exemption from noise limits to the diesel generator sets used with submersible pumps for
        irrigation purpose.
        Noise Monitoring of diesel generator sets – representation from Delhi Pollution Control
        Committee
        Order of Hon'ble High Court of Delhi related to noise limits for diesel generator sets
        Order of Hon'ble Supreme Court on Noise Pollution
        Proposed Amendments on Noise Regulations
        Airport Noise Monitoring

Airport Noise Monitoring Procedure

The National Committee on Noise Pollution Control has been in the process for formulating suitable
legislation in the country on aircraft/airport noise. As a first step, a ‘ Draft Airport Noise Monitoring
Procedure ' has been prepared, considering the prevalent noise monitoring procedure practised
internationally and also the results of the detailed noise monitoring conducted in and around IGI
International Airport. The document specifies the suitable requirements and procedures for airport
authorities to undertake ambient noise monitoring around airports.

Directions Issued to Diesel Genset Manufacturing Units under Section 5 of The Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986.

The Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India notified revised noise limits for diesel generator
sets (upto 1000 kVA) vide GSR 371 (E), dated May 17, 2002 (and its amendments). The noise limits
became effective from 1.1.2005. Based on the inspections at diesel genset manufacturing units in
January – February, 2005, directions to seven genset manufacturers have been issued to install
acoustic enclosure on all open gensets (upto 1000 kVA) manufactured and sold after 1.1.2005 at the
customers site, or replace the gensets with compliant gensets within six months at their own cost.
Based on the replies submitted by the genset manufacturers closure directions were issued to two
genset manufacturers under Section 5 of The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Diesel Engine Emission Compliance

7 th Meeting of the Standing Committee on Emissions from RIC Engines for Off-Road Applications was
held on 20 th June 2005 to discuss the preparedness of compliance with emission limits applicable
from 1.7.2005, for diesel engine manufacturers (upto 19 kW) for genset application and other issues.
Meeting on Emission from Diesel Engines (>800 kW) for Genset/Power Plant Applications was held on
3.6.2005 to assess the preparedness of the industry for compliance with next stage emission limits
effective from 1.7.2005.
UPGRADATIONS IN CPCB LABORATORIES

Establishment of National Reference Laboratory for Analysis of Trace Organics and Persistent
Organic Pollutants (POPs)

The Persistent Organic Pollutants are of concern globally for their high persistence in the environment
and ability to transport through various pathways. These pollutants do not disintegrate easily causing
various serious short-term and life-long health affects. The Persistent Organic Pollutants identified for
priority action globally under Stockholm Convention include Pesticides - Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin,
Chlordane, Heptachlor, DDT, Toxaphene, Mirex, HCB; Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs);
Polychlorinated dibenzo - para - dioxin (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated dibenzo-furan (PCDFs). There
exists legal framework in the country dealing with POPs under The Hazardous Waste (Management &
Handling) Rules. However, there is a need for upgradation and strengthening of monitoring facilities for
POPs.

The CPCB Laboratories are regularly strengthened in terms of instruments/equipment, expertise, and
technical capabilities to undertake the national task of environmental assessment and pollution control
in the country. Various national and international bilateral programme are providing much needed
support for this endeavor. The development of trace organic laboratory for the analysis of trace
organics and POPs is one such activity for capacity building and strengthening that is being undertaken
in collaboration with Indo-German Bilateral Programme GTZ-ASEM. This National Reference
Laboratory is being established with following objectives:

    •   Trace Level Organics Analysis including POPs in various matrices

    •   Development of relevant Laboratory Infrastructure

    •   Training to Personnel of CPCB & SPCBs/PCCs

    •   Providing Services and Establishing Co-operation and Co-ordination among stakeholders

Technical specifications for analytical instruments, ancillary equipments and infrastructural support
have already been finalized. Procurement of instruments/equipments is in the final stage. Layout plans
of laboratory, air handling system, air cleaning system and air conditioning have been finalized. Civil
works for restructuring of the allocated space, installation of air handling system, air cleaning system
and air conditioning are being undertaken.

Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Polychlorinated-Dibenzo-para-Dioxins (PCDDs) and
Polychlorinated-Dibenzo-Furans (PCDFs)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are
environmental contaminants usually present in diverse environmental matrices.

75 PCDDs and 135 PCDFs congeners have been reported till date among which 7 PCDDs and 10
PCDFs are internationally identified having considerable toxicity. Concentrations of these ultra-trace
compounds in environmental matrices may vary from sub-ppt (parts per trillion) and may reach upto
ppm (parts per million) level. There exists no laboratory in the country, which is having exhaustive
facilities for analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs in environmental matrices. Therefore, the project is
undertaken with following major objectives:

    •   Development of infrastructure facilities for measurement of Dioxin / Furan.
    •   Development/validation of standard methodology for sample extraction, cleanup and analysis
        of identified Dioxin/Furan species in temperate environmental conditions.

The Central Pollution Control Board collated information on Dioxin and Furan and their environmental
status and published in `PARIVESH' Newsletter "Dioxin (PCDD) and Furan (PCDF) – Persistent
Organic Pollutants". Mr. Bernd Schilling, a dioxin expert from ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH,
Hamburg, Germany engaged under the GTZ-ASEM Programme visited CPCB Laboratories between
14 th to 21 st January, 2005 to provide inputs in development of infrastructure facilities for
measurement of Hazardous Organic Compounds, Dioxin and Furan. The visiting expert made a
presentation on dioxin analysis discussing various monitoring and analysis requirements.

Procurement of Equipments for CPCB Laboratories under Japanese Debt Relief Grant
Assistance Project

The Central Pollution Control Board has been allocated an amount of Rs.4.84 crores under Japanese
Debt Relief Grant Assistance for procurement of various equipments by Department of Economic
Affairs. CPCB has undertaken MOU with NTPC Consultancy Wing, Noida for various procurement
procedures through International Bidding.

The Technical Committee was constituted at CPCB for finalization of Technical specifications of
equipment to be procured. The finalized technical specifications have been included in Bid Documents.
Notification inviting tender has been published in various newspapers for procurement of 11 packages
of equipments. The bidders have submitted their bids in two stages – Technical bid and Financial Bid.
The Technical bid process was completed in March, 2005 and the financial bids of technical qualifying
bidders were opened and Letter of Award placed to successful bidders. The procurement of
instruments is in progress.

Development and Standardization of Methodology for Analysis of Trihalomethanes (THMs) in
Environmental Samples

Trihalomethanes (THMs) occur in drinking water principally as a product of reaction of chlorine with
naturally occurring organic material and bromide that may also be present. Occurrence of natural
organic matter such as humic acid and fulvic acid in water are mainly responsible for the formation of
disinfection byproducts (DBPs). With respect to drinking water contamination, four members of THMs
viz. chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are important. World
Health Organisation (WHO) has already enacted the health related guidelines values in drinking water
in 1993. In order to standardise measurement methodology and regularly monitor the presence of
these compounds in drinking water, the infrastructure facilities have been developed at CPCB
Laboratories. The raw and finished water samples were collected from various water treatment plants
at Delhi and being analyzed for Trihalomethane levels.

Standardization of Methodology for Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Procedure for sampling, extraction, cleanup (removal of co-extracted interfering compounds) and GC-
MS operating conditions have been optimized for analysis of 28 selected congeners of polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) in surface water, wastewater, sludge and soil samples. The developed methodology
is being used for analysis of water and sludge samples from River Yamuna.

Training of Laboratory Managers in Laboratory Management and Quality

The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India, in collaboration with the
Environment Canada, is implementing the Canada-India Institutional Strengthening Project funded by
the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). The project is designed for strengthening the
institutional capacity to address environmental issues of national priorities & global concern and to
promote sound development. Under this project the Central Pollution Control Board organized two
workshops at Delhi and Hyderabad on 24-25 th January 2005 and 27-28 th January 2005. The
workshops focused on laboratory management, quality control principles and practices. These
workshops were attended by Laboratory Managers from Central Pollution Control Board, various State
Pollution Control Boards and Customs Laboratories. The team of three Canadian Expert provided
seminar presentations during the workshops and had consultation with laboratory managers and
scientist on Laboratory Management, Quality Control concepts and shared Canadian lab management
practices.




Stack Monitoring Training and Validation at Delhi

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funded Canada-India Institutional Strengthening
Project is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India,
in collaboration with the Environment Canada.

As part of this initiative, LEHDER Environmental Services was retained by Environment Canada to
conduct training and auditing for the Central Pollution Control Board in New Delhi, India from March 14
to 18, 2005. An expert has been deputed to provide training to Indian scientists in collecting stack
samples adopting internationally recognized methods. Classroom lectures were carried out at the
CPCB Headquarters, Delhi. On-site stack monitoring was performed at the Rajghat Thermal Power
Station located at I.P. Estate, Ring Road in New Delhi. The major objectives of training programme
were as below:
    •   Review and discuss requirement for sampling of other pollutants such as Mercury, Metals,
        Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC's) and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC).
    •   Evaluation of Stack Sampling method and techniques used presently in India during field
        testing programme at local power station.
    •   Assess utility of Stack sampling equipment for test parameters of interest and whether the
        equipment meets the criteria for effective stack monitoring.
    •   Identify additional training requirement at Canada or India.

The training programme was attended by technical officials from CPCB and various State Pollution
Control Boards.

Performance of CPCB Zonal Laboratory, Kolkata

Central Pollution Control Board Zonal laboratory, Kolkata was accredited by NABL in June 2004. The
laboratory is equipped with sophisticated instruments like AAS, GC, IC, AOX Analyser,
Spectrofluorometer and Autotitrator. Besides, facilities are available for sampling of ambient air, stack
emission, water, soil, sediment, biological matter etc. Quality assurance programme is well maintained.
Performance of proficiency test conducted by CPCB, ITRC were satisfactory. In addition to
measurement of general parameters, metals and pesticides in water, air and sediment and
polyaromatic hydrocarbon and ions in ambient air and stack emissions are regularly measured and
reported. The laboratory instruments are regularly calibrated with standards traceable to NIST. Based
on the data on calibration and analytical results, measurement of uncertainty in chemical testing is
being regularly done and highly appreciated by NABL assessors from time to time.

Guidelines for Evaluation and Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under The
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

The environmental laboratories play a very important role for an effective pollution control programme
to be effective as it provides qualitative as well as quantitative data for good decision making purpose.
In order to provide infrastructural support for environmental pollution control activities, the
environmental laboratories should have comprehensive analytical and infrastructure facilities, expertise
for all groups of parameters including water, air, noise, hazardous waste, soil, sludge etc. Keeping this
in view, an earlier published document for the evaluation and recognition of environmental laboratories
has been updated and revised under Laboratory Analytical Technique Series: LATS/9/2005-06
(Revised & Updated version). The revised "Guidelines for evaluation and recognition of environmental
laboratories" was approved for its implementation in 135 th Board Meeting held on 28.11.2005.

Environment Laboratories Approved for Recognition by Central Pollution Control Board under
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi had been delegated powers by Government of India vide
Gazette Notification No. S.O. 145 (E) dated February 21, 1991 for recognizing environmental
laboratories of Govt/ Semi-Govt organizations/ Public Sector Undertakings & Educational Institutions to
carry out the functions entrusted to the Environmental laboratories under Section 12 (1) (b) & 13 of
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. In exercise of powers conferred, Central Pollution Control Board
approved new recognitions / renewed recognition granted to eight environmental laboratories during
the period January to December, 2005.
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA BANK
Environmental Data Bank

Central Pollution Control Board in association with SPCBs/PCCs has been working for creation of
Environmental Data Bank (EDB). In the first phase, online entry of air and water quality data was
initiated with respect to 215 air quality and 513 water quality monitoring stations covering 23 states.
These data are being made available to the public through CPCB's website.

Training for On-line Data Entry under Environment Data Bank

Technical support and training was provided to the officials of Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gujarat
Environmental Management Institute, Pollution Control Committee of Daman-Diu & Dadra Nagar
Haveli and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. On-line entry of data generated under NAMP, NWMP
stations have been started and being streamlined for regularization. Regular follow-ups with concerned
State Boards and Committees were also made.

Up-gradation of Website

CPCB's website has been shifted to NIC server for the purpose of security, better connectivity and
alongwith upgradation & updation of website have been undertaken. The information including air &
water quality, newsletters, registration of recyclers/ reprocessors, annual report, etc. were regularly
updated at the website. The project on improving CPCB's website particularly with regard to its
presentation, making it more user-friendly, restructuring its contents, etc. has been initiated.

On-Line Data Transmission from Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Stations of Delhi

In order to provide the data to public on real time basis, a project for "Networking of Continuous
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations of Delhi" has been initiated and it is likely to be completed by
April 2006. In this network four air quality monitoring stations (3 Stationary+1 mobile van) that are being
operated to monitor parameters such as SO 2 , NO x , CO, RSPM, SPM, BTX, Ozone will be
connected. The three fixed stations are at Bahadurshah Zafar Marg (Traffic Junction), Delhi College of
Engineering (Sensitive Area), Sirifort (Residential Area) and the Mobile Van is being operated at
various places to monitor the air quality of Delhi.

On-Line Access to Emission Data from Oil Refineries & Thermal Power Plants

The oil refineries & thermal power plants have on-line air analyzers for continuous monitoring of
emissions from major sources. Analyzers continuously generate real-time data which has to be made
available on-line to the pollution control authorities and public. On-line Data Transfer would eliminate
the time lag and be of considerable use to regulatory authorities.

It was therefore considered to establish a system for transmission of real-time data for emissions of SO
2 and NO x to CPCB Head Quarters from on-line monitors. To begin with, data from on-line monitors
located at Pragati Power Corporation Limited, New Delhi" are being transferred on-line. Subsequently,
based on this demonstration project, the system could be replicated in mega power plants and other
major industrial sectors.
ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING AND MASS AWARENESS
   •   Environmental Training Unit (ETU) organized 23 knowledge and skill development courses in
       following fields for the personnel engaged in prevention, control, abatement of environmental
       pollution and protection of natural resources:
   •   Environmental Planning and Management
   •   Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
   •   Hazardous Substances /Solid Waste/Bio-Medical Waste Management
   •   Environmental Laboratory Management, Analysis and Quality Systems
   •   Pollution Control (Waste Management, Clean Technologies)
   •   Environmental Policy, Law, Education and Economics
   •   Environmental Information
   •   Environmental Health

Four hundred personnel from Pollution Control Boards, Environment Departments & Ministries,
Municipalities, Industries, Town Planning & Urban Development Departments, Public Health
Departments, Health Departments & Hospitals, Environmental Consultancies and NGOs etc. benefited
from the training programmes.

   •   An intensive Coaching Course on Municipal Solid Waste Management of three week duration
       was organized during January 10-29, 2005 with support of InWent, Germany and German
       Technical Cooperation (GTZ) at TERI Retreat, Gurgaon.
   •   ETU also facilitated training of CPCB's personnel in training programmes organized by external
       agencies in specialized areas of Administration, Human Resources, Procurement Procedures,
       Accounts matters, Green Building Construction, Environmental Laws Awareness &
       Enforcement etc.
   •   Two orientation cum training programmes were organized by ETU for newly recruited
       AEEs/Scientist ‘B' and JRFs of CPCB.
   •   ETU facilitated training of personnel from CPCB, SPCBs and Municipalities in following
       overseas training programmes:
           • Water Management in Germany
           • Environmental Law in Indonesia
           • Urban Sustainability Management in Indian Cities in Germany
           • Strengthening Capacites to Implement the GHS in South Africa
           • Exposure under the CII-CIDA Environment Management Project (Phase-II) in Canada
           • Green Productivity for SME in Nepal
           • Based on the results of training needs assessment of Pollution Control Boards a
               "Training Strategy & Concept Paper" was prepared for development and
               implementation of expanded HRD Programme. Total 97 courses were identified for
               human resource development of pollution control boards in five fields (Environmental
               Planning and Management, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,
               Environmental Laboratory Management, Analysis and Quality Systems, Hazardous
               Substances/Solid/Bio Medical Waste Management and Inter personal Skills). Fifty-
               eight highest priority courses were identified in five fields.
           •   Standardisation and publication of HRD training material available with CPCB taken up
               for 12 courses with support of InWent, Germany was completed. Nine standardized
               reports were brought out during 2005. The material is ready for final revision and
               printing under CPCB Publication Series "Environmental Training Series" as
               "Proceedings: Training for Environment".
           •   Network for coordination among CPCB, SPCBs and training institutes is operational
               and formalized under HRD ET-net for nominations and sharing of other training related
               information. Training coordinators were identified at various SPCBs.

Fifth National Level Training Programme for Pollution Control Officials on "Hazard Identification
and Risk Assessment due to isolated Storages"

Central Pollution Control Board organised training programme on Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment in association with Disaster Management Institute (DMI), Bhopal for the officials of
regulatory authorities with following objectives:

   •   To highlight the technical, managerial and legal issues involved in Hazard Identification and
       Risk Assessment
   •   To help participant to understand various techniques of Hazard Identification and Risk
       Assessment
   •   Simulation of release/ fire/ explosion scenarios through advanced computer modelling

Five national level training programmes were organised for officials of regulatory authorities and
industries.

Workshop and Training programmes on Municipal Solid Waste Management and Bio-Medical
waste Management




The workshops on Management of Solid waste management and Bio-Medical waste management
were organized to discuss the issues related to management of these waste. It was agreed in the
deliberations that these waste are to be segregated at source to reduce the quantity of waste as well
as reduction in the cost of treatment. The Indian Medical Association and Nursing Home Association
agreed to associate with common facility being established at Agra.

Training for School Teachers
The CPCB East Zonal Office has organised training programme ‘Environment & Pollution Control'
during July 2005 at Diamond Harbour in West Bengal and during August 2005 at Jamshedpur,
Jharkhand in association with Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board.

Mass Awareness Activities

In collaboration with Agra Development Authority, Agra Nagar Nigam, Nagrik Parishad (Local NGO),
Hotel Mughal Sheraton and schools, the Central Pollution Control Board, Agra office organized a public
awareness program on the occasion of World Environment Day on June 5 th 2005. The Divisional
Commissioner, Agra, inaugurated the function. Poster, banners, charts were displayed to educate the
residents of Agra regarding solid waste management and segregation at source, effect of air pollution
on human health and the activities of Central Pollution Control Board in Taj Trapezium Zone area.
NGOs Activities/Workshops/Conferences

   •   A 3 days training programme was organized by Central Pollution Control Board Zonal Office-
       Lucknow during 22 nd to 24 th February, 2005 at Shimla for the NGOs located in Northern
       States.
   •   Two Regional Interaction Meetings with NGOs located in different States were organized for
       coordination of the activities and promotion of the public participation/awareness in the
       pollution control programmes in the country.
          i.    At Guwahati for North-Eastern NGOs through Assam State Pollution Control Board on
                March 30, 2005
         ii.    At Ahmedabad for NGOs located in the Western Region through Gujarat State
                Pollution Control Board on Nov. 16 th , 2005

   •   Two day Workshop on ‘Assesment of Dump Sites and Preparation of Rehabilitation Plans' at
       India International Centre, New Delhi during August 11-12, 2005
   •   "Municipalika"- 4 th International Exibition at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
           BOARD MEETINGS AND NATIONAL CONFERENCES
Five meetings of the Central Board were held during the year 2005 as detailed below:

                 S. No.        Meeting No.             Date                 Place
                    1.           132 nd          January 04, 2005           Delhi
                    2.            133 rd         March 24, 2005             Delhi
                    3.            134 th         June 30, 2005              Delhi
                    4.            135 th         September        28,       Delhi
                                                 2005
                    5.            136 th         December,        23,       Delhi
                                                 2005

The Board granted approval to the following proposals and standards during the year:

    •   National Emission Standards for Pesticide manufacturing industry.
    •   Policy Paper for Framing the Future Policies on Clean Coal Technologies to be adopted by
        Coal based Thermal Power Plant.
    •   Standards for the Refractory Industry.
    •   Emission Standards and Stack Height Regulation for Brick Kilns.
    •   Emission Standards for Sulphuric Acid Plant.
    •   Proposal for Networking of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station in identified 10
        cities namely Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad,
        Vadodara, Kochi and Vishakhapatnam
    •   Effluent and Emission standards for petroleum oil refineries.
    •   Proposal to initiate monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs).
    •   Recommendations of the report "Survey of Yamuna River and its Polluting Sources between
        Delhi-Okhla Barrage and Agra- Old Water Works
    •   Proposal to be sent to MoEF for ensuring of Environmentally Sound Recycling of Hazardous
        Wastes by SPCBs/PCCs
    •   Proposed National Emission Standards for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerator
    •   Proposal for Utilisation of plastic waste in road construction
    •   Proposal for characterisation of PM 10 to PM 2.5 at traffic intersection in Kolkata and
        assessment of their impact on human health.

National Conference       of    Chairman     &     Member     Secretaries     of    Pollution   Control
Boards/Committees

51 st Conference of Chairmen & Member Secretaries of CPCB/SPCBs/PCCs was organized during
February 14-15, 2005 at New Delhi. More than 100 participants from 29 State/UTs, MoEF and CPCB
attended the Conference. The major issues discussed during the conference are as follows:

   •   Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) in and around industrial areas / critically
       polluted areas
   •   Networking of continuous ambient air quality monitoring stations in identified cities namely
       Mumbai, Kolkatta, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Kochi and
       Vishakhapatnam
   •   Continuous air quality monitoring management involving private participation under the two
       proposed options of 1) Build Own & Operate (BOO) contract; and 2) Operation and
       Maintenance (O&M) contract
   •   Air Pollution Source Apportionment Studies
   •   Monitoring of micropollutants in water samples collected from NWMP locations
   •   Water quality monitoring at Interstate Borders
   •   Polluted river stretches : not covered by NRCD for action plan to control of water pollution
   •   Environmental Data Bank (EDB)
   •   Development / review of emission and effluent standards
   •   Emission standards for Hazardous Waste Incineration Systems (Common and Individual)
   •   Follow-Up Action on Hazardous Waste Management – Implementation of Hon'ble Supreme
       Court Order
   •   Guidance document for Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) for hazardous waste
       recycling industries
   •   Co-Incineration of High Calorific Value Hazardous Waste in Cement Kiln
   •   Surveillance of Sewage Treatment Plants
   •   Common Effluent Treatment Plants–Status & action points for improvements in functioning of
       Common Effluent Treatment Plants.
   •   Spatial Planning Unit
   •   Eco-city unit
CPCB PUBLICATIONS DURING 2005
   1. Status of Sewage Treatment in India (CUPS/57/2004-05)
   2. Enzymatic Removal of Phenols from Raw Drinking Water by using Peroxide Enzymes
       (IMPACTS/13/2004-05)
   3. National Ambient Air Quality Status-2003 (NAAQMS/26/2004-05)
   4. Environmental Status of Silk Screen printing at Serampore, West Bengal (PROBES/100/2004-
       05)
   5. Bio-Monitiring of Wetlands in Kashmir Valley (ADSORBS/40/2005-06)
   6. Identification of Hazardous Waste Streams, their Charcterisation & Management Options in
       Bulk drug & Pharmaceutical Sectors (HAZWAMS/29/2005-06)
   7. Status of Water Quality in India 2002-2003 (MINARS/23/2004-05)
   8. Pollution Potential from Coastal Aquaculture (COPOCS/31/2005-06)
   9. Fish processing waste disposal Practices and Options (COPOCS/32/2005-06)
   10. Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste Incineration (HAZWAMS/30/2005-06)
   11. Guidelines for Evaluation and Recognition of Environmental Laboratories (Revised updated
       version) (LATS/9/2005-06)
   12. Environmental Regulations on Engines for Generator Set Application and Generator Sets
       (PCLS/7/2005-06)
   13. System & Procedure for Compliance with Noise Limits for Diesel Generator Sets upto 1000
       KW (PCLS/8/2005-06)
   14. System & Procedure for Compliance to Emission Limits for New Diesel Engines (upto 800 KW)
       for Generator Application (PCLS/9/2005-06)
   15. Management of Hazardous Waste – Pre-requisites for Issuing Authorization by SPCBs/PCCs
       (HAZWAMS/31/2005-06)
   16. Management of Hazardous Waste - Guidelines for Proper Functioning and Upkeep of Disposal
       Sites (HAZWAMS/32/2005-06)
   17. Management of Hazardous Waste - Guidelines for Transportation of Hazardous Wastes
       (HAZWAMS/33/2005-06)
   18. Indicative Operational Guidelines on Construction of Polymer – Bitumin Roads
       (PROBES/101/2004-05)

Other Publications

   •   Annual Action Plan 2005-06
   •   Annual Report 2003-04
   •   Indicative Operational Guidelines on Construction of Polymer – Bitumin Roads
       (PROBES/101/2004-05)

CPCB ‘Parivesh' Newsletters

   •   Sewage Pollution
   •   Bio-Monitoring of Wetlands in India
   •   Dioxin (PCDD) and Furan (PCDF)
   •   Bio-mapping of Rivers- A Case Study of Assam State
   •   Bio-mapping of Rivers- A Case Study of Meghalaya State
   •   Highlights 2004

Hindi Publications

   •   Uplubdhiyan (Highlights) 2004

				
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